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Sample records for accumulating elastic strain

  1. Evaluation Of Elastic Strain Accumulation In The Southern Indian Peninsula By GPS-Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanababu, R.; Ec, M.; Tummala, C.

    2004-12-01

    The computed elastic strain accumulation in the southern Indian peninsula from the GPS derived velocity fields of the global network of GPS stations, in and around the Indian plate which includes Maitri, Indian Antarctic Station, show a significant departure from rigid plate behaviour in a manner consistent with the mapped intra plate stress field, observations of deformations and seismicity in the region. Our results of intraplate strain accumulation within Antarctica Plate covering three sites MAIT, CAS1 and DAV1 are 1.8x10-9yr-1, 1.6x10-9yr-1 and 1.1x10-9yr-1, respectively. Similarly, the estimates of interplate strain accumulation between Antarctica and other plates Somalia (SEY1), Africa (HARO), Australia (YAR1), and diffuse plate boundary between India and Australia (COCO) are found to be 1.1x10-9yr-1, 1.0x10-10yr-1, 1.27x10-8yr-1 and 1.18x10-8yr-1, respectively. These estimates are in good agreement with the earlier studies on estimation of global strain rate. The combined GPS and seismic analysis confirm the emergence of diffuse plate boundary between India and Australia and relates to the late Miocene Himalayan uplift. The calculated stress field in the West of the Indian Peninsula has a roughly N-S directed tensional and E-W oriented compressional character and the velocity vectors of all other sites throw a significant insight into the plausible causes of the strain accumulation processes in the Indian Ocean and the northward movement of Indian plate.

  2. Internal elastic strains in an IF steel following changes in strain path

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.V.; Bate, P.S.

    1996-08-01

    Residual elastic strains present in an IF steel following rolling and subsequent tensile deformation have been evaluated using X-ray diffraction. It was possible to decompose diffraction profiles into two symmetrical components notionally corresponding to dislocation walls and cell interiors and so estimate the volume fractions and mean elastic strains associated with these components of the microstructure following different deformation modes. The residual long range elastic strains were very small following rolling, but they were much greater following subsequent tensile elongation to macroscopic yield. The mean strains could only account for about one-third of the strain induced anisotropy of flow stress. It is concluded that insufficient dislocations accumulate at cell walls at macroscopic yield following a path change to give homogeneous loading of the dislocation walls, and that this effect can account for the difference between the macroscopic mechanical behavior and predictions from the X-ray strain measurements.

  3. Dislocation Modeling and Comparison With GPS Data to Assess Possible Elastic Strain Accumulation in the Central Lesser Antilles: New Constraints From the NSF REU Site in Dominica Between 2001 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staisch, L.; Styron, R. H.; James, S.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C. L.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Murphy, R.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Caribbean, North and South American plates are converging at a rate of 2 cm/yr in the central region of the Lesser Antilles arc. Here we report high-precision GPS data in concert with forward modeling of a simplified subduction zone geometry to assess strain accumulation for the Lesser Antilles trench. We are able to constrain both vertical and horizontal surface deformation from campaign and continuous GPS observations from 28 geodetic benchmarks located in Guadeloupe, Dominica and Aves Island. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASIS II using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Surface displacements for each site were estimated over 2-7 years. CAR-fixed velocities are projected onto a 500 kilometer transect from the LA trench to Aves Island and compared to calculated displacements for 88 different subduction models. Finite dislocations within an elastic half-space with variable parameters such as angle of the subducting slab, the downdip extent of the locked zone, and percentage of plate interface locking were investigated. Other parameters, such as trench length and slip remained constant. Using a chi-squared, best-fit statistical criterion, the GPS data constrain the subduction interface to a 75 kilometer downdip extent, a 10° dip angle, and near 50% locking. This implies that the subduction zone offshore Dominica is in an interseismic state, thus accumulating strain and causing small westward and upward displacement of the Lesser Antilles relative to the stable Caribbean interior.

  4. Models for elastic shells with incompatible strains

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Marta; Mahadevan, L.; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of thin lamina, such as leaves, flowers, feathers, wings, etc., are driven by the differential strain induced by the relative growth. The growth takes place through variations in the Riemannian metric given on the thin sheet as a function of location in the central plane and also across its thickness. The shape is then a consequence of elastic energy minimization on the frustrated geometrical object. Here, we provide a rigorous derivation of the asymptotic theories for shapes of residually strained thin lamina with non-trivial curvatures, i.e. growing elastic shells in both the weakly and strongly curved regimes, generalizing earlier results for the growth of nominally flat plates. The different theories are distinguished by the scaling of the mid-surface curvature relative to the inverse thickness and growth strain, and also allow us to generalize the classical Föppl–von Kármán energy to theories of prestrained shallow shells. PMID:24808750

  5. Strain accumulation along the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark H.; Lisowski, Michael

    2000-11-01

    We combine triangulation, trilateration, and GPS observations to determine horizontal strain rates along the Cascadia subduction zone from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Shear-strain rates are significantly greater than zero (95% confidence) in all forearc regions (26-167 nanoradians/yr), and are not significant in the arc and backarc regions. The deformation is primarily uniaxial contraction nearly parallel to Juan de Fuca-North America plate convergence (N55°-80°E). The strain rates are consistent with an elastic dislocation model for interseismic slip with a shallow 100-km wide locked zone and a deeper 75-km transition zone along the entire megathrust, except along the central Oregon coast where relatively lower strain rates are consistent with 30-40 km wide locked and transition zones.

  6. Episodic strain accumulation in southern california.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W

    1976-11-12

    Reexamination of horizontal geodetic data in the region of recently discovered aseismic uplift has demonstrated that equally unusual horizontal crustal deformation accompanied the development of the uplift. During this time interval compressive strains were oriented roughly normal to the San Andreas fault, suggesting that the uplift produced little shear strain accumulation across this fault. On the other hand, the orientation of the anomalous shear straining is consistent with strain accumulation across northdipping range-front thrusts like the San Fernando fault. Accordingly, the horizontal and vertical crustal deformation disclosed by geodetic observation is interpreted as a short epoch of rapid strain accumulation on these frontal faults. If this interpretation is correct, thrust-type earthquakes will eventually release the accumulated strains, but the geodetic data examined here cannot be used to estimate when these events might occur. However, observation of an unusual sequence of tilts prior to 1971 on a level line lying to the north of the magnitude 6.4 San Fernando earthquake offers some promise for precursor monitoring. The data are adequately explained by a simple model of up-dip aseismic slip propagation toward the 1971 epicentral region. These observations and the simple model that accounts for them suggest a conceptually straightforward monitoring scheme to search for similar uplift and tilt precursors within the uplifted region. Such premonitory effects could be detected by a combination of frequenlty repeated short (30 to 70 km in length) level line measurements, precise gravity traverses, and continuously recording gravimeters sited to the north of the active frontal thrust faults. Once identified, such precursors could be closely followed in space and time, and might then provide effective warnings of impending potentially destructive earth-quakes. PMID:17832524

  7. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  8. Rolling motion of an elastic cylinder induced by elastic strain gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Chen, Shaohua

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiment shows that an elastic strain gradient field can be utilized to transport spherical particles on a stretchable substrate by rolling, inspired by which a generalized plane-strain Johnson-Kendall-Roberts model is developed in this paper in order to verify possible rolling of an elastic cylinder adhering on an elastic substrate subject to a strain gradient. With the help of contact mechanics, closed form solutions of interface tractions, stress intensity factors, and corresponding energy release rates in the plane-strain contact model are obtained, based on which a possible rolling motion of an elastic cylinder induced by strain gradients is found and the criterion for the initiation of rolling is established. The theoretical prediction is consistent well with the existing experimental observation. The result should be helpful for understanding biological transport mechanisms through muscle contractions and the design of transport systems with strain gradient.

  9. Application Of Elastic Perfectly Plastic Cyclic Analysis To Assessment Of Creep Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A cyclic elastic-perfectly plastic analysis method is proposed which provides a conservative estimate to cyclic creep strain accumulation within the ratchet boundary. The method is to check for ratcheting based on an elastic-perfectly material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined by temperature, time and stress to give 1% creep strain. It does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. This simplified method could be used as a rapid screening calculation, with full time-dependent creep analysis used if necessary.

  10. Ismetpasa and Destek regions; Creeping or accumulating strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavasoglu, Hakan; Alkan, M. Nurullah; Aladogan, Kayhan; Ozulu, I. Murat; Ilci, Veli; Sahin, Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Tiryakioglu, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the most destructive fault system all over the world. In the last century, many devastating seismic event happened on it and its shear zone (NAFZ). Especially, after the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes, the earth science studies increase to save human life. To better understand the mechanism of the active fault system, tectonic stress and strain are important phenomena. According to elastic rebound theory, the locked active faults release the accumulated strain abruptly in four periods; interseismic, preseismic, coseismic and postseismic. In the literature, this phase is called the earthquake cycle. On the other hand, there is another scenario (aseismic deformation or creep) to release the strain without any remarkable seismic event. For the creep procedure, the important subject is threshold of the aseismic slip rate. If it is equal or larger than long-term slip rate, the destructive earthquakes will not occur along the fault which has aseismic slip rate. On the contrary, if the creep motion is lower than long-term slip rate along the fault, the fault has potential to produce moderate-to-large size earthquakes. In this study, the regions, Ismetpasa and Destek, have been studied to determine the aseismic deformation using GPS data. The first and second GPS campaigns have been evaluated with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Preliminary results of the project (slip-rate along the NAF in this region and aseismic deformation) will be presented.

  11. Evidence for residual elastic strain in deformed natural quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura,Nobumichi; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2009-01-30

    Residual elastic strain in naturally deformed, quartz-containing rocks can be measured quantitatively in a petrographic thin section with high spatial resolution using Laue microdiffraction with white synchrotron x-rays. The measurements with a resolution of one micrometer allow the quantitative determination of the deviatoric strain tensor as a function of position within the crystal investigated. The observed equivalent strain values of 800-1200 microstrains represent a lower bound of the actual preserved residual strain in the rock, since the stress component perpendicular to the cut sample surface plane is released. The measured equivalent strain translates into an equivalent stress in the order of {approx} 50 MPa.

  12. Approaching the ideal elastic strain limit in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongti; Tersoff, Jerry; Xu, Shang; Chen, Huixin; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tu, King-Ning; Li, Ju; Lu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Achieving high elasticity for silicon (Si) nanowires, one of the most important and versatile building blocks in nanoelectronics, would enable their application in flexible electronics and bio-nano interfaces. We show that vapor-liquid-solid-grown single-crystalline Si nanowires with diameters of ~100 nm can be repeatedly stretched above 10% elastic strain at room temperature, approaching the theoretical elastic limit of silicon (17 to 20%). A few samples even reached ~16% tensile strain, with estimated fracture stress up to ~20 GPa. The deformations were fully reversible and hysteresis-free under loading-unloading tests with varied strain rates, and the failures still occurred in brittle fracture, with no visible sign of plasticity. The ability to achieve this "deep ultra-strength" for Si nanowires can be attributed mainly to their pristine, defect-scarce, nanosized single-crystalline structure and atomically smooth surfaces. This result indicates that semiconductor nanowires could have ultra-large elasticity with tunable band structures for promising "elastic strain engineering" applications. PMID:27540586

  13. Approaching the ideal elastic strain limit in silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongti; Tersoff, Jerry; Xu, Shang; Chen, Huixin; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tu, King-Ning; Li, Ju; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high elasticity for silicon (Si) nanowires, one of the most important and versatile building blocks in nanoelectronics, would enable their application in flexible electronics and bio-nano interfaces. We show that vapor-liquid-solid–grown single-crystalline Si nanowires with diameters of ~100 nm can be repeatedly stretched above 10% elastic strain at room temperature, approaching the theoretical elastic limit of silicon (17 to 20%). A few samples even reached ~16% tensile strain, with estimated fracture stress up to ~20 GPa. The deformations were fully reversible and hysteresis-free under loading-unloading tests with varied strain rates, and the failures still occurred in brittle fracture, with no visible sign of plasticity. The ability to achieve this “deep ultra-strength” for Si nanowires can be attributed mainly to their pristine, defect-scarce, nanosized single-crystalline structure and atomically smooth surfaces. This result indicates that semiconductor nanowires could have ultra-large elasticity with tunable band structures for promising “elastic strain engineering” applications. PMID:27540586

  14. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  15. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques—low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)—are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool. PMID:21680780

  16. Retaining large and adjustable elastic strains of kilogram-scale Nb nanowires [Better Superconductor by Elastic Strain Engineering: Kilogram-scale Free-Standing Niobium Metal Composite with Large Retained Elastic Strains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E.; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Crystals held at ultrahigh elastic strains and stresses may exhibit exceptional physical and chemical properties. Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultra-large elastic strains of 4-7%. However, retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires is challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ~5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires in a composite material. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the composite is unloaded to a free-standing condition. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires significantly increase their superconducting transitionmore » temperature and critical magnetic fields, corroborating ab initio calculations based on BCS theory. This free-standing nanocomposite design paradigm opens new avenues for retaining ultra-large elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale.« less

  17. Controlling surface reactions with nanopatterned surface elastic strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhisheng; Potapenko, Denis V; Osgood, Richard M

    2015-01-27

    The application of elastic lattice strain is a promising approach for tuning material properties, but the attainment of a systematic approach for introducing a high level of strain in materials so as to study its effects has been a major challenge. Here we create an array of intense locally varying strain fields on a TiO2 (110) surface by introducing highly pressurized argon nanoclusters at 6-20 monolayers under the surface. By combining scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and the continuum mechanics model, we show that strain causes the surface bridge-bonded oxygen vacancies (BBOv), which are typically present on this surface, to be absent from the strained area and generates defect-free regions. In addition, we find that the adsorption energy of hydrogen binding to oxygen (BBO) is significantly altered by local lattice strain. In particular, the adsorption energy of hydrogen on BBO rows is reduced by ∼ 35 meV when the local crystal lattice is compressed by ∼ 1.3%. Our results provide direct evidence of the influence of strain on atomic-scale surface chemical properties, and such effects may help guide future research in catalysis materials design. PMID:25494489

  18. Tunable thermoelectric transport in nanomeshes via elastic strain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Piccione, Brian; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2015-03-16

    Recent experimental explorations of silicon nanomeshes have shown that the unique metastructures exhibit reduced thermal conductivity while preserving bulk electrical conductivity via feature sizes between relevant phonon and electron mean free paths, aiding in the continued promise that nanometer-scale engineering may further enhance thermoelectric behavior. Here, we introduce a strategy for tuning thermoelectric transport phenomena in semiconductor nanomeshes via heterogeneous elastic strain engineering, using silicon as a model material for demonstration of the concept. By combining analytical models for electron mobility in uniformly stressed silicon with finite element analysis of strained silicon nanomeshes in a lumped physical model, we show that the nonuniform and multiaxial strain fields defined by the nanomesh geometry give rise to spatially varying band shifts and warping, which in aggregate accelerate electron transport along directions of applied stress. This allows for global electrical conductivity and Seebeck enhancements beyond those of homogenous samples under equivalent far-field stresses, ultimately increasing thermoelectric power factor nearly 50% over unstrained samples. The proposed concept and structures—generic to a wide class of materials with large dynamic ranges of elastic strain in nanoscale volumes—may enable a new pathway for active and tunable control of transport properties relevant to waste heat scavenging and thermal management.

  19. Tunable thermoelectric transport in nanomeshes via elastic strain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccione, Brian; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2015-03-01

    Recent experimental explorations of silicon nanomeshes have shown that the unique metastructures exhibit reduced thermal conductivity while preserving bulk electrical conductivity via feature sizes between relevant phonon and electron mean free paths, aiding in the continued promise that nanometer-scale engineering may further enhance thermoelectric behavior. Here, we introduce a strategy for tuning thermoelectric transport phenomena in semiconductor nanomeshes via heterogeneous elastic strain engineering, using silicon as a model material for demonstration of the concept. By combining analytical models for electron mobility in uniformly stressed silicon with finite element analysis of strained silicon nanomeshes in a lumped physical model, we show that the nonuniform and multiaxial strain fields defined by the nanomesh geometry give rise to spatially varying band shifts and warping, which in aggregate accelerate electron transport along directions of applied stress. This allows for global electrical conductivity and Seebeck enhancements beyond those of homogenous samples under equivalent far-field stresses, ultimately increasing thermoelectric power factor nearly 50% over unstrained samples. The proposed concept and structures—generic to a wide class of materials with large dynamic ranges of elastic strain in nanoscale volumes—may enable a new pathway for active and tunable control of transport properties relevant to waste heat scavenging and thermal management.

  20. Retaining Large and Adjustable Elastic Strains of Kilogram-Scale Nb Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultralarge elastic strains of 4-7%. However, achieving and retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires are challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ∼ 5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a metallic matrix deforming by detwinning. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the external load was fully removed, and adjustable in magnitude by processing control. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires can increase their superconducting transition temperature and critical magnetic field, in comparison with the unstrained original material. This study opens new avenues for retaining large and tunable elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale. PMID:26745016

  1. Exploration of Local Strain Accumulation in Nickel-based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Jennifer Lynn Walley

    Deformation in polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys is a complex process dependent on the interaction of dislocations with both the intra-granular γ'' particles and the grain boundaries. An extensive body of work exists on understanding the interaction between dislocations and the γ'' particles, but understanding the interaction between dislocations and grain boundaries has been historically hindered by the experimental techniques. In this work a full field strain mapping technique was developed and utilized to explore surface strain accumulation at grain boundaries of René 104 samples with different microstructures. The full field strain mapping technique utilized Correlated Solutions VIC-2D software for digital image correlation to measure strain accumulation from secondary electron images taken during constant load tests at elevated temperature. This technique indicated that the two different microstructures of René 104, one with microscopically flat grain boundaries and the other with serrated grain boundaries, accumulate strain by different methods. Analysis of discrete offsets in grid lines placed prior to deformation indicate that grain boundary sliding (GBS) is an active deformation mechanism at these temperature and strain rate regimes, and that the development of serrated high angle grain boundaries can decrease the activity of this mechanism by 30%. Slip transmission parameters, which mathematically assess the ease of slip transmission across a grain boundary, were calculated based on grain boundary misorientation and grain boundary trace. These parameters proved unsuccessful at predicting strain localization sites in these materials, indicating that slip transmission is not the only factor dictating strain localization sites. AAA Full field strain maps were used to site-specifically extract grain boundaries of interest to study dislocation interaction and sub-surface grain boundary neighborhood. Representative from each of four types of

  2. Strain accumulation and rotation in the Eastern California Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Gan, Weijun; Svarc, J. L.

    2001-10-01

    Although the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) (strike ˜N25°W) does not quite coincide with a small circle drawn about the Pacific-North America pole of rotation, trilateration and GPS measurements demonstrate that the motion within the zone corresponds to right-lateral simple shear across a vertical plane (strike N33°W±5°) roughly parallel to the tangent to that local small circle (strike ˜N40°W). If the simple shear is released by slip on faults subparallel to the shear zone, the accumulated rotation is also released, leaving no secular rotation. South of the Garlock fault the principal faults (e.g., Calico-Blackwater fault) strike ˜N40°W, close enough to the strike of the vertical plane across which maximum right-lateral shear accumulates to almost wholly accommodate that accumulation of both strain and rotation by right-lateral slip. North of the Garlock fault dip slip as well as strike slip on the principal faults (strike ˜N20°W) is required to accommodate the simple shear accumulation. In both cases the accumulated rotation is released with the shear strain. The Garlock fault, which transects the ECSZ, is not offset by north-northwest striking faults nor, despite geological evidence for long-term left-lateral slip, does it appear at the present time to be accumulating left-lateral simple shear strain across the fault due to slip at depth. Rather the motion is explained by right-lateral simple shear across the orthogonal ECSZ. Left-lateral slip on the Garlock fault will release the shear strain accumulating there but would augment the accumulating rotation, resulting in a secular clockwise rotation rate ˜80 nrad yr-1 (4.6° Myr-1).

  3. Strain accumulation and rotation in the Eastern California Shear Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Gan, Weijun; Svarc, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Although the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) (strike ???N25??W) does not quite coincide with a small circle drawn about the Pacific-North America pole of rotation, trilateration and GPS measurements demonstrate that the motion within the zone corresponds to right-lateral simple shear across a vertical plane (strike N33??W??5??) roughly parallel to the tangent to that local small circle (strike ???N40??W). If the simple shear is released by slip on faults subparallel to the shear zone, the accumulated rotation is also released, leaving no secular rotation. South of the Garlock fault the principal faults (e.g., Calico-Blackwater fault) strike ???N40??W, close enough to the strike of the vertical plane across which maximum right-lateral shear accumulates to almost wholly accommodate that accumulation of both strain and rotation by right-lateral slip. North of the Garlock fault dip slip as well as strike slip on the principal faults (strike ???N20??W) is required to accommodate the simple shear accumulation. In both cases the accumulated rotation is released with the shear strain. The Garlock fault, which transects the ECSZ, is not offset by north-northwest striking faults nor, despite geological evidence for long-term left-lateral slip, does it appear at the present time to be accumulating left-lateral simple shear strain across the fault due to slip at depth. Rather the motion is explained by right-lateral simple shear across the orthogonal ECSZ. Left-lateral slip on the Garlock fault will release the shear strain accumulating there but would augment the accumulating rotation, resulting in a secular clockwise rotation rate ???80 nrad yr-1 (4.6?? Myr-1).

  4. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  5. Strain accumulation along the Laguna Salada fault, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Lisowski, M.; King, N. E.; Gross, W. K.

    1994-09-01

    Strain accumulation observed over the 1978-1991 interval in a 30 x 100 km aperture trilateration network spanning the Laguna Salada fault is described by the principal strain rates 0.101 +/- 0.012 microstrain/yr N80 deg E +/- 2 deg and -0.021 +/- 0.012 microstrain/yr N 10 deg W +/- 2 deg, extension reckoned coseismic effects of the nearby 1979 Imperial Valley (M = 6.5), 1980 Vistoria (Baja California) (M = 6.4), 1987 Superstition Hills (M = 6.5), and 1987 Elmore Ranch (M = 5.9) earthquakes. The observed strain rates indicate extension at a rate of about 0.08 microstrain/yr perpendicular to the trend (N 35 deg W) of the Salton trough as well as a right-lateral tensor shear strain rate 0.05 microstrain/yr across it. The extension perpendicular to the trough is observed neither farther north near the Salton Sea nor farther south across the Gulf of California. However, Holocene slip on the Laguna Salada fault, about equal parts right-lateral and normal slip, is consistent with the observed strain accumulation. A simple dislocation model intended to explain the observed strain accumulation as a product of slip at depth on the Laguna Salada Fault would require that the fault be listric.

  6. Phase field modelling of strain induced crystal growth in an elastic matrix.

    PubMed

    Laghmach, Rabia; Candau, Nicolas; Chazeau, Laurent; Munch, Etienne; Biben, Thierry

    2015-06-28

    When a crystal phase grows in an amorphous matrix, such as a crystallisable elastomer, containing cross-links and/or entanglements, these "topological constraints" need to be pushed away from the crystal phase to allow further crystallization. The accumulation of these topological constraints in the vicinity of the crystal interface may store elastic energy and affect the phase transition. To evaluate the consequences of such mechanism, we introduce a phase field model based on the Flory theory of entropic elasticity. We show that the growth process is indeed sensibly affected, in particular, an exponential increase of the surface energy with the displacement of the interface is induced. This explains the formation of stable nano-crystallites as it is observed in the Strain Induced Crystallization (SIC) of natural rubber. Although simple, the model developed here is able to account for many interesting features of SIC, for instance, the crystallite shapes and their sizes which depend on the applied deformation. PMID:26133455

  7. Phase field modelling of strain induced crystal growth in an elastic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghmach, Rabia; Candau, Nicolas; Chazeau, Laurent; Munch, Etienne; Biben, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    When a crystal phase grows in an amorphous matrix, such as a crystallisable elastomer, containing cross-links and/or entanglements, these "topological constraints" need to be pushed away from the crystal phase to allow further crystallization. The accumulation of these topological constraints in the vicinity of the crystal interface may store elastic energy and affect the phase transition. To evaluate the consequences of such mechanism, we introduce a phase field model based on the Flory theory of entropic elasticity. We show that the growth process is indeed sensibly affected, in particular, an exponential increase of the surface energy with the displacement of the interface is induced. This explains the formation of stable nano-crystallites as it is observed in the Strain Induced Crystallization (SIC) of natural rubber. Although simple, the model developed here is able to account for many interesting features of SIC, for instance, the crystallite shapes and their sizes which depend on the applied deformation.

  8. Dynamically strained ferroelastics: Statistical behavior in elastic and plastic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X.; Lookman, T.; Zhao, Z.; Saxena, A.; Sun, J.; Salje, E. K. H.

    2013-03-01

    The dynamic evolution in ferroelastic crystals under external shear is explored by computer simulation of a two-dimensional model. The characteristic geometrical patterns obtained during shear deformation include dynamic tweed in the elastic regime as well as interpenetrating needle domains in the plastic regime. As a result, the statistics of jerk energy differ in the elastic and plastic regimes. In the elastic regime the distributions of jerk energy are sensitive to temperature and initial configurations. However, in the plastic regime the jerk distributions are rather robust and do not depend much on the details of the configurations, although the geometrical pattern formed after yield is strongly influenced by the elastic constants of the materials and the configurations we used. Specifically, for all geometrical configurations we studied, the energy distribution of jerks shows a power-law noise pattern P(E)˜E-(γ-1)(γ-1=1.3-2) at low temperatures and a Vogel-Fulcher distribution P(E) ˜ exp-(E/E0) at high temperatures. More complex behavior occurs at the crossover between these two regimes where our simulated jerk distributions are very well described by a generalized Poisson distributions P(E)˜E-(γ-1) exp-(E/E0)n with n = 0.4-0.5 and γ-1 ≈ 0 (Kohlrausch law). The geometrical mechanisms for the evolution of the ferroelastic microstructure under strain deformation remain similar in all thermal regimes, whereas their thermodynamic behavior differs dramatically: on heating, from power-law statistics via the Kohlrausch law to a Vogel-Fulcher law. There is hence no simple way to predict the local evolution of the twin microstructure from just the observed statistical behavior of a ferroelastic crystal. It is shown that the Poisson distribution is a convenient way to describe the crossover behavior contained in all the experimental data without recourse to specific scaling functions or temperature-dependent cutoff lengths.

  9. Dependence of the elastic strain coefficient of copper on the pre-treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntze, Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    The effect of various pre-treatments on the elastic strain coefficient (alpha) (defined as the reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity E) (Epsilon) and on the mechanical hysteresis of copper has been investigated. Variables comprising the pre-treatments were pre-straining by stretching in a tensile testing machine and by drawing through a die, aging at room and elevated temperatures and annealing. The variation of the elastic strain coefficient with test stress was also investigated.

  10. Determining Recoverable and Irrecoverable Contributions to Accumulated Strain in a NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy During Thermomechanical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, J. A.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Bigelow, G.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S., II

    2011-01-01

    When Ni(29.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30 shape memory alloy is thermally cycled under stress, significant strain can accumulate due to elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and plasticity. The strain due to remnant martensite can be recovered by further thermal cycling under 0 MPa until the original transformation-induced volume change and martensite coefficient of thermal expansion are obtained. Using this technique, it was determined that the 8.15% total accumulated strain after cycling under 200 MPa consisted of 0.38%, 3.97% and 3.87% for elasticity, remnant oriented martensite and creep/plasticity, respectively.

  11. The Influence of Elastic Strain on Catalytic Activity in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Maark, Tuhina Adit; Khorshidi, Alireza; Sethuraman, Vijay A; Peterson, Andrew A; Guduru, Pradeep R

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the role of elastic strain in modifying catalytic reaction rates is crucial for catalyst design, but experimentally, this effect is often coupled with a ligand effect. To isolate the strain effect, we have investigated the influence of externally applied elastic strain on the catalytic activity of metal films in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We show that elastic strain tunes the catalytic activity in a controlled and predictable way. Both theory and experiment show strain controls reactivity in a controlled manner consistent with the qualitative predictions of the HER volcano plot and the d-band theory: Ni and Pt's activities were accelerated by compression, while Cu's activity was accelerated by tension. By isolating the elastic strain effect from the ligand effect, this study provides a greater insight into the role of elastic strain in controlling electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27079940

  12. Biaxial load effects on the crack border elastic strain energy and strain energy rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Subramonian, N.; Liebowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the singular solution (first term of a series representation) is investigated for the crack tip stress and displacement field in an infinite sheet with a flat line crack with biaxial loads applied to the outer boundaries. It is shown that if one retains the second contribution to the series approximations for stress and displacement in the calculation of the local elastic strain energy density and elastic strain energy rate in the crack border region, both these quantities have significant biaxial load dependency. The value of the J-integral does not depend on the presence of the second term of the series expansion for stress and displacement. Thus J(I) is insensitive to the presence of loads applied parallel to the plane of the crack.

  13. Hysteretic nonlinear elasticity of Berea sandstone at low-vibrational strain revealed by dynamic acousto-elastic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, G.; RivièRe, J.; Le Bas, P.-Y.; Johnson, P. A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Through changes in wave speed of ultrasonic pulses traversing the sample, we measure variations in the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of dry Berea sandstone as a function of the applied low-frequency (LF) axial <span class="hlt">strain</span> (varied from 10-7 to 10-5). The approach, termed dynamic acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, is the dynamic analog of static acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> where the wave speed is measured as a function of the applied static load. Dynamic acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> uses low-frequency vibrational loading of smaller <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitude, typically below 10-4, and it includes inertial effects. At <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitudes around 10-6, compression and tension produce a material softening of the material. In contrast, a quasi-static compression inducing a <span class="hlt">strain</span> between 10-4 and 10-3 leads to a material stiffening. At 10-5 <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitude, elaborate hysteretic signatures of modulus <span class="hlt">strain</span> are observed. The measurements provide the first direct experimental evidence of hysteretic nonlinear (wave amplitude dependent) <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in a sandstone at low dynamic <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053624"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> crack tip fields in soft incompressible <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Venkat R; Hui, Chung Yuen; Long, Rong</p> <p>2008-12-16</p> <p>A finite element model (FEM) is used to study the behavior of the large deformation field near the tip of a crack in a soft incompressible plane stress fracture specimen loaded in mode I. Results are obtained for the case of a neo-Hookean solid (ideal rubber) and a hyperelastic solid with exponentially hardening behavior. In contrast to the predictions of linear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fracture mechanics (LEFM), the near tip stress fields are dominated by the opening stress which shows a 1/R singularity for the neo-Hookean material and a -1/(R ln R) singularity for the exponential hardening solid. We found very similar qualitative behavior in the near tip stress fields despite the very large difference in <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening behavior of the two material models. Our result shows that the near tip opening stress is controlled by the far field energy release rate for large applied loads. PMID:19053624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAMTP..56..667B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAMTP..56..667B"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of the antiplane <span class="hlt">strain</span> of a nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bondar', B. D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The dynamic antiplane <span class="hlt">strain</span> of an incompressible cylindrical body is studied in a nonlinear formulation in actual variables. A representation of the velocity and acceleration through the displacement is obtained. The problem of the body deformation with account for geometrical and physical nonlinearities is reduced to an initial boundary-value problem for the displacement. The displacement found is used to determine the pressure and stresses. For a body with a quadratic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> potential, plane waves and self-similar motion are studied. The linear potential is used to investigate the deformation of a hollow elliptical cylinder for which analytical expressions for displacement and stresses are found and the external load is determined. It is shown that, due to the degeneration of the inner cavity of the body to a plane section, the load on the section remains limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S33C..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S33C..08A"><span id="translatedtitle">ETS Related Uplift and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in Northern Cascadia from Tidal Records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alba, S. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Livelybrooks, D.; Schmidt, D. A.; Krogstad, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> suggests that ETS events are, on average, approximately releasing <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> between ETS events, i.e. that ETS is consistent with <span class="hlt">elastic</span> rebound. While the current uncertainties are too large to determine exactly how much of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> between events is released during ETS, long term (~70 yr) leveling and tidal records suggest that up to 25% of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> between ETS events is not released by ETS events. Our interseismic (ETS) uplift rates strongly support the hypothesis that ETS is caused by the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and release of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> on a deep patch of fault on the subduction interface. The fact that ETS is generated by <span class="hlt">strain</span> generated across the subduction interface and that some fraction of this <span class="hlt">strain</span> does not appear to be released by ETS events allows the possibility that future subduction zone earthquakes will release this <span class="hlt">strain</span> by rupturing deeper than expected from models that only consider <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> from the updip locked portion of the interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058877','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058877"><span id="translatedtitle">Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K. C.; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong <span class="hlt">strain</span>-hardening capability and large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit and high strength under tension. These unique <span class="hlt">elastic</span> mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19′ phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:24931632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004578','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004578"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and surface deformation along the San Andreas, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Victor C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this project remains to be the achievement of a better understanding of the regional and local deformation and crustal <span class="hlt">straining</span> processes in western North America, particularly the effect of the San Andreas and nearby faults on the spatial and temporal crustal deformation behavior. Construction of theoretical models based on the mechanics of coupled <span class="hlt">elastic</span> plate/viscoelastic foundation and large scale crack mechanics provide a rational basis for the interpretation of seismic and aseismic anomalies and expedite efforts in forecasting the stability of plate boundary deformations. In the present period, special focus is placed on the 3-D effect of irregular fault locked patches on the ground measured deformation fields. Specifically, use is made of a newly developed 3-D boundary element program to analyze the fault slip and vertical ground motion in the Parkfield area on the San Andreas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950013071','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950013071"><span id="translatedtitle">Near tip stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields for short <span class="hlt">elastic</span> cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Soediono, A. H.; Kardomateas, G. A.; Carlson, R. L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Recent experimental fatigue crack growth studies have concluded an apparent anomalous behavior of short cracks. To investigate the reasons for this unexpected behavior, the present paper focuses on identifying the crack length circumstances under which the requirements for a single parameter (K(sub I) or delta K(sub I) if cyclic loading is considered) characterization are violated. Furthermore, an additional quantity, the T stress, as introduced by Rice, and the related biaxiality ratio, B, are calculated for several crack lengths and two configurations, the single-edge-cracked and the centrally-cracked specimen. It is postulated that a two-parameter characterization by K and T (or B) is needed for the adequate description of the stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> field around a short crack. To further verify the validity of this postulate, the influence of the third term of the Williams series on the stress, <span class="hlt">strain</span> and displacement fields around the crack tip and in particular on the B parameter is also examined. It is found that the biaxiality ratio would be more negative if the third term effects are included in both geometries. The study is conducted using the finite element method with linearly <span class="hlt">elastic</span> material and isoparametric elements and axial (mode I) loading. Moreover, it is clearly shown that it is not proper to postulate the crack size limits for 'short crack' behavior as a normalized ratio with the specimen width, a/w; it should instead be stated as an absolute, or normalized with respect to a small characteristic dimension such as the grain size. Finally, implications regarding the prediction of cyclic (fatigue) growth of short cracks are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013701','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013701"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomistic modeling of diffusional phasetransformations with <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mason, D R; Rudd, R E; Sutton, A P</p> <p>2003-10-31</p> <p>Phase transformations in 2xxx series aluminium alloys (Al-Cu-Mg) are investigated with an off-lattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulation incorporating the effects of <span class="hlt">strain</span> around misfitting atoms and vacancies. Atomic interactions are modelled by Finnis-Sinclair potentials constructed for these simulations. Vacancy diffusion is modelled by comparing the energies of trial states, where the system is partially relaxed for each trial state. No special requirements are made about the description of atomic interactions, making our approach suitable for more fundamentally based models such as tight binding if sufficient computational resources are available. Only a limited precision is required for the energy of each trial state, determined by the value of kBT. Since the change in the relaxation displacement field caused by a vacancy hop decays as 1/r{sup 3} , it is sufficient to determine the next move by relaxing only those atoms in a sphere of finite radius centred on the moving vacancy. However, once the next move has been selected, the entire system is relaxed. Simulations of the early stages of phase separation in Al-Cu with <span class="hlt">elastic</span> relaxation show an enhanced rate of clustering compared to those performed on the same system with a rigid lattice.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22257086','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22257086"><span id="translatedtitle">On the origin of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit of bulk metallic glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ding, J. Ma, E.; Cheng, Y. Q.</p> <p>2014-01-06</p> <p>All bulk metallic glasses exhibit a large and almost universal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit. Here, we show that the magnitude of the yield <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the glass state can be quantitatively derived from a characteristic property of the flow state typical in running shear bands (the root cause of yielding). The <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the shear flow is mostly plastic, but associated with it there is an effective <span class="hlt">elastic</span> atomic <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The latter is almost identical for very different model systems in our molecular dynamics simulations, such that the corresponding yield <span class="hlt">strain</span> is universal at any given homologous temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/216289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/216289"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of thermal residual stresses on the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> phase-<span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shi, N.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>The development of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lattice phase <span class="hlt">strains</span> in a 15 vol. pct TiC particulate reinforced 2219-T6 Al composite was modeled as a function of tensile uniaxial loading by finite element method (FEM). In the relationship of applied stress vs. <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lattice phase <span class="hlt">strain</span>, the slopes vary with the applied load even before the macroscopic yielding. The slopes for the phase-<span class="hlt">strain</span> perpendicular to loading follow nonmonotonic changes with loading, while, in the direction parallel to loading, the slopes change monotonically with the applied load. In this investigation, we have demonstrated via FEM that thermal residual stresses from thermal expansion mismatch between phases affect initiation of matrix plasticity. And the differences in the matrix plasticity initiation influence the internal stress distribution. The changes in the slope are dictated by the internal stress transfer between phases. FEM models with and without thermal history show significant differences in the response of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> component, a mechanics equivalent of the lattice <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Agreement with experiment can only be obtained by including the thermal history. From a simple elasto-plastic spring model we are able to demonstrate that, with matrix plasticity propagating as predicted by FEM, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> component responds similarly to the more rigorous numerical predictions, suggesting that the morphology of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> evolution is dictated by the development of matrix plasticity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.204..780J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.204..780J"><span id="translatedtitle">Dramatic effect of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> on thermal softening and <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization during lithospheric shortening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaquet, Yoann; Duretz, Thibault; Schmalholz, Stefan M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We present two-dimensional numerical simulations for shortening a viscoelastoplastic lithosphere to quantify the impact of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> on <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization due to thermal softening. The model conserves energy and mechanical work is converted into heat or stored as <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy. For a shear modulus G = 1010 Pa, a prominent lithospheric shear zone forms and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy release increases the localization intensity (<span class="hlt">strain</span> rate amplification). For G = 5 × 1010 Pa shear zones still form but deformation is less localized. For G = 1012 Pa, the lithosphere behaves effectively viscoplastic and no shear zones form during homogeneous thickening. Maximal shearing-related increase of surface heat flux is 15-25 mW m-2 and of temperature at lower crustal depth is ˜150 °C, whereby these peak values are transient (0.1-1 My). <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> and related energy release can significantly contribute to <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization and plate-like behaviour of the lithosphere required for plate tectonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..68..161P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..68..161P"><span id="translatedtitle">Singularity-free dislocation dynamics with <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Po, Giacomo; Lazar, Markus; Seif, Dariush; Ghoniem, Nasr</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The singular nature of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fields produced by dislocations presents conceptual challenges and computational difficulties in the implementation of discrete dislocation-based models of plasticity. In the context of classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, attempts to regularize the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fields of discrete dislocations encounter intrinsic difficulties. On the other hand, in gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, the issue of singularity can be removed at the outset and smooth <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fields of dislocations are available. In this work we consider theoretical and numerical aspects of the non-singular theory of discrete dislocation loops in gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of Helmholtz type, with interest in its applications to three dimensional dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. The gradient solution is developed and compared to its singular and non-singular counterparts in classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> using the unified framework of eigenstrain theory. The fundamental equations of curved dislocation theory are given as non-singular line integrals suitable for numerical implementation using fast one-dimensional quadrature. These include expressions for the interaction energy between two dislocation loops and the line integral form of the generalized solid angle associated with dislocations having a spread core. The single characteristic length scale of Helmholtz <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is determined from independent molecular statics (MS) calculations. The gradient solution is implemented numerically within our variational formulation of DD, with several examples illustrating the viability of the non-singular solution. The displacement field around a dislocation loop is shown to be smooth, and the loop self-energy non-divergent, as expected from atomic configurations of crystalline materials. The loop nucleation energy barrier and its dependence on the applied shear stress are computed and shown to be in good agreement with atomistic calculations. DD simulations of Lome-Cottrell junctions in Al show that the strength of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1177388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1177388"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Plastic Contact Model with <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuhr, Bryan; Brake, Matthew Robert; Lechman, Jeremy B.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The following details the implementation of an analytical <span class="hlt">elastic</span> plastic contact model with <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> loading followed by a period of mixed <span class="hlt">elastic</span> plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR13A2246R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR13A2246R"><span id="translatedtitle">On the influence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> : experimental results for Berea sandstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riviere, J. V.; Candela, T.; Scuderi, M.; Marone, C.; Guyer, R. A.; Johnson, P. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> nonlinear effects are pervasive in the Earth, including during strong ground motion, tidal forcing and earthquake slip processes. We study <span class="hlt">elastic</span> nonlinear effects in the laboratory with the goal of developing new methods to probe <span class="hlt">elastic</span> changes in the Earth, and to characterize and understand their origins. Here we report on nonlinear, frequency dispersion effects by applying a method termed dynamic acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> (DAE), analogous to quasi-static acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. DAE allows one to obtain the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. We perform DAE on samples of Berea sandstone subject to 0.5 MPa uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions with oscillating loads at frequencies from 0.001 to 10 Hz and amplitudes of a few 100 kPa. We compare results to DAE measurements made in the kHz range. We observe that the average decrease in modulus due to nonlinear material softening increases with frequency, suggesting a frequency and/or a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate dependence. Previous quasi-static measurements (Claytor et al., GRL 2009) show that stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> nonlinear hysteretic behavior disappears when the experiment is performed at a very low <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate, implying that a rate dependent nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> model would be useful (Gusev et al., PRB 2004). Our results also suggest that when <span class="hlt">elastic</span> nonlinear Earth processes are studied, stress forcing frequency is an important consideration, and may lead to unexpected behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.439..109K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.439..109K"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> near the ETS zone along Cascadia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krogstad, Randy D.; Schmidt, David A.; Weldon, Ray J.; Burgette, Reed J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Current national seismic hazard models for Cascadia use the zone of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) to denote the lower boundary of the seismogenic zone. Recent numerical models have suggested that an appreciable amount of long-term <span class="hlt">strain</span> may <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> at the depth of ETS and questions this assumption. We use uplift rates from leveling campaigns spanning approximately 50-70 yrs in Washington and Oregon to investigate the amount of potential long-term locking near the ETS zone. We evaluate the potential for deeper locking in Cascadia by exploring a range of locking parameters along the subduction zone, including the ETS zone. Of the four east-west leveling profiles studied, three show a reduction in the misfit when secondary locking near the ETS zone is included; however the reduction in misfit values is only statistically significant for one profile. This would suggest that models including a small amount of secondary locking are broadly indistinguishable from models without any secondary locking. If secondary locking is considered, the leveling data allow for locking up to ∼20% of the plate rate near the updip edge of the ETS zone. These results are consistent with, but less resolved, by GPS observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RMRE...46..315P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RMRE...46..315P"><span id="translatedtitle">Is there Link between the Type of the Volumetric <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Curve and <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Constants, Porosity, Stress and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Characteristics ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palchik, V.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The stress [crack damage stress ( σ cd) and uniaxial compressive strength ( σ c)] and <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics [maximum total volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> ( ɛ cd), axial failure <span class="hlt">strain</span> ( ɛ af)], porosity ( n) and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants [<span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( ν)] and their ratios were coordinated with the existence of two different types (type 1 and type 2) of volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve. Type 1 volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve has a reversal point and, therefore, σ cd is less than the uniaxial compressive strength ( σ c). Type 2 has no reversal point, and the bulk volume of rock decreases until its failure occurs (i.e., σ cd = σ c). It is confirmed that the ratio between the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus ( E) and the parameter λ = n/ ɛ cd strongly affects the crack damage stress ( σ cd) for both type 1 and type 2 volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curves. It is revealed that heterogeneous carbonate rock samples exhibit different types of the volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve even within the same rock formation, and the range of σ cd/ σ c = 0.54-1 for carbonate rocks is wider than the range (0.71 < σ cd/ σ c < 0.84) obtained by other researchers for granites, sandstones and quartzite. It is established that there is no connection between the type of the volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve and values of n, E, σ cd, ν, E/(1 - 2 ν), M R = E/ σ c and E/ λ. On the other hand, the type of volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve is connected with the values of λ and the ratio between the axial failure <span class="hlt">strain</span> ( ɛ af) and the maximum total volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> ( ɛ cd). It is argued that in case of small ɛ af/ ɛ cd-small λ, volumetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve follows the type 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CompM..56.1039W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CompM..56.1039W"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">strain</span>-morphed nonlocal meshfree method for the regularized particle simulation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-damage induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, C. T.; Wu, Youcai; Koishi, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this work, a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-morphed nonlocal meshfree method is developed to overcome the computational challenges for the simulation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-damage induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization problem when the spatial domain integration is performed based on the background cells and Gaussian quadrature rule. The new method is established by introducing the decomposed <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields from a meshfree <span class="hlt">strain</span> smoothing to the penalized variational formulation. While the stabilization <span class="hlt">strain</span> field circumvents the onerous zero-energy modes inherent in the direct nodal integration scheme, the regularization <span class="hlt">strain</span> field aims to avoid the pathological localization of deformation in Galerkin meshfree solution using the weak-discontinuity approach. A <span class="hlt">strain</span> morphing algorithm is introduced to couple the locality and non-locality of the decomposed <span class="hlt">strain</span> approximations such that the continuity condition in the coupled <span class="hlt">strain</span> field is met under the Galerkin meshfree framework using the direct nodal integration scheme. Three numerical benchmarks are examined to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method for the regularization of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-damage induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/855365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/855365"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of polyploid <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Candida scottii in <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of riboflavin in the medium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imshenetsky, A A; Kondratieva, T F</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Polyploid <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Candida scottii show a higher spontaneous and UV-induced variability in <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of riboflavin in the medium than the original haploid <span class="hlt">strain</span>. UV irradiation affects the formation of variants and induces those which <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> more riboflavin than any of the most productive variants resulting from spontaneous variability. In the polyploid <span class="hlt">strains</span> the frequency of plus-variants increases. Therefore, polyploid <span class="hlt">strains</span> of C. scottii are advantageous for selection processes. PMID:855365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10119747','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10119747"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the average lattice phase-<span class="hlt">strain</span> and global <span class="hlt">elastic</span> macro-<span class="hlt">strain</span> in Al/TiC composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shi, N.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Allison, J.E.</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>The development of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lattice phase <span class="hlt">strains</span> and global <span class="hlt">elastic</span> macro-<span class="hlt">strain</span> in a 15 vol% TiC particle reinforced 2219-T6 Al composite was modeled by finite element method (FEM) as a function of tensile uniaxial loading. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements at a spallation neutron source. Results from the measurements and modeling indicate that the lattice phase-<span class="hlt">strains</span> go through a ``zigzag`` increase with the applied load in the direction perpendicular to the load, while the changes of slope in the parallel direction are monotonic. FEM results further showed that it is essential to consider the effect of thermal residual stresses (TRS) in understanding this anomalous behavior. It was demonstrated that, due to TRS, the site of matrix plastic flow initiation changed. On the other hand, the changes of slope of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> global macrostrain is solely determined by the phase-stress partition in the composite. An analytical calculation showed that both experimental and numerical slope changes during <span class="hlt">elastic</span> global <span class="hlt">strain</span> response under loading could be accurately reproduced by accounting for the changes of phase-stress ratio between the matrix and the matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663574','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663574"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> acceptance criterion for structures subject to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Solonick, W.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-based <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> limits established are based on a fraction of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve of the material. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local, or concentrated. The application of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815192"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Plastic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>W.R. Solonick</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-based <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve of the material. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957816"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> relaxation in axial Si/Ge whisker heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hanke, M.; Eisenschmidt, C.; Werner, P.; Zakharov, N. D.; Syrowatka, F.; Heyroth, F.; Schaefer, P.; Konovalov, O.</p> <p>2007-04-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior of molecular beam epitaxy-grown SiGe/Si(111) nanowhiskers (NWs) has been studied by means of electron microscopy, x-ray scattering, and numerical linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory. Highly brilliant synchrotron radiation was applied to map the diffusely scattered intensity near the asymmetric (115) reciprocal lattice point. The larger lattice parameter with respect to the Si matrix causes a lateral lattice expansion within embedded Ge layers. This enables a clear separation of scattering due to NWs and laterally confined areas aside. Finite element calculations prove a lateral lattice compression in the Si matrix close to the NW apex above buried threefold and single Ge layer stacks. This suggests an incorporation probability, which additionally depends on the radial position within heteroepitaxial NWs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..74..175H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..74..175H"><span id="translatedtitle">A micromechanical damage and fracture model for polymers based on fractional <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heyden, S.; Li, B.; Weinberg, K.; Conti, S.; Ortiz, M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We formulate a simple one-parameter macroscopic model of distributed damage and fracture of polymers that is amenable to a straightforward and efficient numerical implementation. We show that the macroscopic model can be rigorously derived, in the sense of optimal scaling, from a micromechanical model of chain <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and failure regularized by means of fractional <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. In particular, we derive optimal scaling laws that supply a link between the single parameter of the macroscopic model, namely, the critical energy-release rate of the material, and micromechanical parameters pertaining to the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and strength of the polymer chains and to the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> regularization. We show how the critical energy-release rate of specific materials can be determined from test data. Finally, we demonstrate the scope and fidelity of the model by means of an example of application, namely, Taylor-impact experiments of polyurea 1000 rods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667184','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667184"><span id="translatedtitle">Revealing ultralarge and localized <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lattice <span class="hlt">strains</span> in Nb nanowires embedded in NiTi matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zang, Ketao; Mao, Shengcheng; Cai, Jixiang; Liu, Yinong; Li, Haixin; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lattice <span class="hlt">strains</span> of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice <span class="hlt">strains</span> when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties. PMID:26625854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880011358','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880011358"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of data on <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> adjacent to the San Andreas Fault with available models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turcotte, Donald L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical and numerical studies of deformation on strike slip faults were performed and the results applied to geodetic observations performed in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault in California. The initial efforts were devoted to an extensive series of finite element calculations of the deformation associated with cyclic displacements on a strike-slip fault. Measurements of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicate that the zone of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> extends only a few tens of kilometers away from the fault. There is a concern about the tendency to make geodetic observations along the line to the source. This technique has serious problems for strike slip faults since the vector velocity is also along the fault. Use of a series of stations lying perpendicular to the fault whose positions are measured relative to a reference station are suggested to correct the problem. The complexity of faulting adjacent to the San Andreas Fault indicated that the homogeneous <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and viscoelastic approach to deformation had serious limitations. These limitation led to the proposal of an approach that assumes a fault is composed of a distribution of asperities and barriers on all scales. Thus, an earthquake on a fault is treated as a failure of a fractal tree. Work continued on the development of a fractal based model for deformation in the western United States. In order to better understand the distribution of seismicity on the San Andreas Fault system a fractal analog was developed. The fractal concept also provides a means of testing whether clustering in time or space is a scale-invariant process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27212139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27212139"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>: jammed solids at finite shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> and rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boschan, Julia; Vågberg, Daniel; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P</p> <p>2016-06-28</p> <p>The shear response of soft solids can be modeled with linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, provided the forcing is slow and weak. Both of these approximations must break down when the material loses rigidity, such as in foams and emulsions at their (un)jamming point - suggesting that the window of linear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response near jamming is exceedingly narrow. Yet precisely when and how this breakdown occurs remains unclear. To answer these questions, we perform computer simulations of stress relaxation and shear start-up tests in athermal soft sphere packings, the canonical model for jamming. By systematically varying the <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitude, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, distance to jamming, and system size, we identify characteristic <span class="hlt">strain</span> and time scales that quantify how and when the window of linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> closes, and relate these scales to changes in the microscopic contact network. PMID:27212139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..78..298L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..78..298L"><span id="translatedtitle">A higher-order nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory and its applications in wave propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In recent years there have been many papers that considered the effects of material length scales in the study of mechanics of solids at micro- and/or nano-scales. There are a number of approaches and, among them, one set of papers deals with Eringen's differential nonlocal model and another deals with the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theories. The modified couple stress theory, which also accounts for a material length scale, is a form of a <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory. The large body of literature that has come into existence in the last several years has created significant confusion among researchers about the length scales that these various theories contain. The present paper has the objective of establishing the fact that the length scales present in nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory describe two entirely different physical characteristics of materials and structures at nanoscale. By using two principle kernel functions, the paper further presents a theory with application examples which relates the classical nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory and it results in a higher-order nonlocal <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory. In this theory, a higher-order nonlocal <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> system which considers higher-order stress gradients and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient nonlocality is proposed. It is based on the nonlocal effects of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field and first gradient <span class="hlt">strain</span> field. This theory intends to generalize the classical nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory by introducing a higher-order <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor with nonlocality into the stored energy function. The theory is distinctive because the classical nonlocal stress theory does not include nonlocality of higher-order stresses while the common <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory only considers local higher-order <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradients without nonlocal effects in a global sense. By establishing the constitutive relation within the thermodynamic framework, the governing equations of equilibrium and all boundary conditions are derived via the variational</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TePhL..42..121G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TePhL..42..121G"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli via parameters of bulk <span class="hlt">strain</span> solitons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garbuzov, F. E.; Samsonov, A. M.; Semenov, A. A.; Shvartz, A. G.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A method is proposed aimed for determination of the third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli (Murnaghan moduli) based on the estimation of measured parameters of bulk <span class="hlt">strain</span> solitons in the three main waveguide configurations, a rod, a plate, and a shell. Formulas connecting the third-order moduli of the waveguide material and the parameters of a solitary <span class="hlt">strain</span> wave (amplitude, velocity, full width at half-maximum) are derived. If the soliton parameters measured in three waveguide types manufactured from the same material are available, determination of the third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli is reduced to the solution of a system of three algebraic equations with a nondegenerate matrix.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25585402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25585402"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical phase-tracking-based <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimation for ultrasound <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuan, Lili; Pedersen, Peder C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimator for quasi-static elastography is presented, based on tracking of the analytical signal phase as a function of the external force. Two implementations are introduced: zero-phase search with moving window (SMW) and zero-phase band tracking using connected component labeling (CCL). Low analytical signal amplitude caused by local destructive interference is associated with large error in the phase trajectories, and amplitude thresholding can thus be used to terminate the phase tracking along a particular path. Interpolation is then applied to estimate displacement in the eliminated path. The paper describes first a mathematical analysis based on 1-D multi-scatter modeling, followed by a statistical study of the displacement and <span class="hlt">strain</span> error. Simulation and experiment with an inhomogeneous phantom indicate that SMW and CCL are capable of reliably estimating tissue displacement and <span class="hlt">strain</span> over a larger range of deformation than standard timedomain cross-correlation (SCC). Results also show that SMW is roughly 40 times faster than SCC with comparable or even better accuracy. CCL is slower than SMW, but more noise robust. Simulation assessment at compression level 3% and 6% with SNR 20 dB demonstrates average <span class="hlt">strain</span> error for SMW and CCL of 10%, whereas SCC achieves 18%. PMID:25585402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51g6702J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51g6702J"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Constant <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gradients of <span class="hlt">Elastically</span> Bent Crystal Using X-ray Mirage Fringes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jongsukswat, Sukswat; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Hirano, Kenji; Ju, Dongying; Negishi, Riichirou; Shimojo, Masayuki; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Two experimental approaches are studied to determine a parameter of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient in an <span class="hlt">elastically</span> bent crystal. In one approach, the parameter is determined by measuring the third peak of the X-ray mirage interference fringes and in the other, by measuring the region where no mirage diffraction beam reaches on the lateral surface of the crystal. Using the X-rays from synchrotron radiation, the mirage fringes have been observed in the 220 reflection of the Si crystal whose <span class="hlt">strain</span> is controlled in cantilever bending. These two approaches both give accurate values of the parameter of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient, showing good agreement with the values calculated using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> theory. In addition, the residual <span class="hlt">strain</span> due to gravity is observed by measuring mirage fringes when the bending force becomes zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.119....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.119....1A"><span id="translatedtitle">Bending analysis of embedded carbon nanotubes resting on an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation using <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akgöz, Bekir; Civalek, Ömer</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this study, static bending response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium is investigated on the basis of higher-order shear deformation microbeam models in conjunction with modified <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory. The governing differential equations and related boundary conditions are obtained by implementing a variational principle. The interactions between SWCNTs and surrounding <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium are simulated by Winkler <span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation model. The Navier-type solution is utilized to obtain an analytical solution for the bending problem of the simply supported embedded SWCNTs under uniform and sinusoidal loads. The influences of material length scale parameter-to-diameter ratio, slenderness ratio, loading type, shear correction factor and Winkler modulus on deflections of the embedded SWCNTs are discussed in detail. The present results illustrate that the bending behavior of SWCNTs is dependent on the small-size, stiffness of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation and also effects of shear deformation, especially for smaller slenderness ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3226R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3226R"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency, pressure, and <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in Berea Sandstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivière, Jacques; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Fortin, Jérôme; Schubnel, Alexandre; Marone, Chris; Johnson, Paul A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static (f→0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2-3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1f appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. These findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response to microstructural features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030692','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030692"><span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation pileup as a representation of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> on a strike-slip fault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Savage, J.C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The conventional model of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> on a vertical transform fault is a discrete screw dislocation in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> half-space with the Burgers vector of the dislocation increasing at the rate of relative plate motion. It would be more realistic to replace that discrete dislocation by a dislocation distribution, presumably a pileup in which the individual dislocations are in equilibrium. The length of the pileup depends upon the applied stress and the amount of slip that has occurred at depth. I argue here that the dislocation pileup (the transition on the fault from no slip to slip at the full plate rate) occupies a substantial portion of the lithosphere thickness. A discrete dislocation at an adjustable depth can reproduce the surface deformation profile predicted by a pileup so closely that it will be difficult to distinguish between the two models. The locking depth (dislocation depth) of that discrete dislocation approximation is substantially (???30%) larger than that (depth to top of the pileup) in the pileup model. Thus, in inverting surface deformation data using the discrete dislocation model, the locking depth in the model should not be interpreted as the true locking depth. Although dislocation pileup models should provide a good explanation of the surface deformation near the fault trace, that explanation may not be adequate at greater distances from the fault trace because approximating the expected horizontally distributed deformation at subcrustal depths by uniform slip concentrated on the fault is not justified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27140623"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-enhanced stress relaxation impacts nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in collagen gels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nam, Sungmin; Hu, Kenneth H; Butte, Manish J; Chaudhuri, Ovijit</p> <p>2016-05-17</p> <p>The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex assembly of structural proteins that provides physical support and biochemical signaling to cells in tissues. The mechanical properties of the ECM have been found to play a key role in regulating cell behaviors such as differentiation and malignancy. Gels formed from ECM protein biopolymers such as collagen or fibrin are commonly used for 3D cell culture models of tissue. One of the most striking features of these gels is that they exhibit nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, undergoing <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening. However, these gels are also viscoelastic and exhibit stress relaxation, with the resistance of the gel to a deformation relaxing over time. Recent studies have suggested that cells sense and respond to both nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and viscoelasticity of ECM, yet little is known about the connection between nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and viscoelasticity. Here, we report that, as <span class="hlt">strain</span> is increased, not only do biopolymer gels stiffen but they also exhibit faster stress relaxation, reducing the timescale over which <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy is dissipated. This effect is not universal to all biological gels and is mediated through weak cross-links. Mechanistically, computational modeling and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that <span class="hlt">strain</span>-enhanced stress relaxation of collagen gels arises from force-dependent unbinding of weak bonds between collagen fibers. The broader effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-enhanced stress relaxation is to rapidly diminish <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening over time. These results reveal the interplay between nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and viscoelasticity in collagen gels, and highlight the complexity of the ECM mechanics that are likely sensed through cellular mechanotransduction. PMID:27140623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19879246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19879246"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> fiber assembly is disrupted by excessive <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of chondroitin sulfate in the human dermal fibrotic disease, keloid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikeda, Mika; Naitoh, Motoko; Kubota, Hiroshi; Ishiko, Toshihiro; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Yamawaki, Satoko; Kurokawa, Masato; Utani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Shigehiko</p> <p>2009-12-25</p> <p>Keloid is a fibrotic disease characterized by abnormal <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of extracellular matrix in the dermis. The keloid matrix contains excess collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but lacks <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fiber. However, the roles of these matrix components in the pathogenesis of keloid are largely unknown. Here, we show that elastin and DANCE (also known as fibulin-5), a protein required for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fiber formation, are not deposited in the extracellular matrix of keloids, due to excess <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of chondoitin sulfate (CS), although the expression of elastin and DANCE is not affected. Amount of CS <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in the keloid legion was 6.9-fold higher than in normal skin. Fibrillin-1, a scaffold protein for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fiber assembly, was abnormally distributed in the keloid matrix. Addition of purified CS to keloid fibroblast culture resulted in abnormal deposition of fibrillin-1, concomitant with significantly decreased <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of elastin and DANCE in the extracellular matrix. We propose that CS plays a crucial role in the development of keloid lesions through inhibition of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fiber assembly. PMID:19879246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G23B0912T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G23B0912T"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and how <span class="hlt">strain</span> is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how <span class="hlt">strain</span> is <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..SHK.D4005C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..SHK.D4005C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Gates, Sean; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. We will show how <span class="hlt">elastic</span> precursor shock waves depend on <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while <span class="hlt">elastic</span> amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARA34002C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARA34002C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph; Gates, Sean</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. We will show how <span class="hlt">elastic</span> precursor shock waves depend on <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while <span class="hlt">elastic</span> amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16686414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16686414"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotelemetric passive sensor injected within tendon for <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pichorim, Sérgio Francisco; Abatti, Paulo José</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>A passive and injectable (using hypodermic needle) biotelemetric sensor for measurements of tendon length changes has been developed. From these measurements tendon <span class="hlt">strain</span> and Young's modulus of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> can be derived. The sensor (about 2.1 x 29 mm) is a LC circuit fixed in tendon by metallic anchors (barbs), where the value of the resonance frequency is modulated by displacement of a mobile ferrite core. The sensor was injected into digital extensor tendon of pig, allowing the determination of its stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve and, consequently, of Young's modulus of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the tendon. Practical results, such as sensitivity of 18.199 kHz/mm (correlation coefficient of 0.9891) for <span class="hlt">strains</span> up to 5.17%, mechanical hysteresis of 6.5%, and Young's modulus of 0.9146 GPa for a pig tendon (post mortem), are presented and discussed. PMID:16686414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JNuM..465..358M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JNuM..465..358M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> in Zircaloy-4 at low homologous temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsunaga, Tetsuya; Satoh, Yuhki; Abe, Hiroaki</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Time-dependent <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in Zircaloy-4 was evaluated at 294 K, i.e., homologous temperature (T/Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature) of 0.14, to ascertain the mechanical response in fuel cladding material, even at the time of storage. Although diffusion processes are suppressed, considerable <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was observed at less than 0.2% offset stress. Transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction analyses were used to investigate the dominant microstructural mechanism. Results showed that the heterogeneous dislocation structure generated <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, where straightly aligned dislocation arrays on the prismatic plane move freely and few deformation twins were formed in the grain interior. Furthermore, few dislocation tangles were observed because the slip systems were limited to one. Therefore, Zircaloy-4 shows weak work-hardening at the low homologous temperature because of the fewer interactions among dislocations, leading to unexpected <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> under constant load conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..465..358M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..465..358M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> in Zircaloy-4 at low homologous temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsunaga, Tetsuya; Satoh, Yuhki; Abe, Hiroaki</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Time-dependent <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in Zircaloy-4 was evaluated at 294 K, i.e., homologous temperature (T/Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature) of 0.14, to ascertain the mechanical response in fuel cladding material, even at the time of storage. Although diffusion processes are suppressed, considerable <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was observed at less than 0.2% offset stress. Transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction analyses were used to investigate the dominant microstructural mechanism. Results showed that the heterogeneous dislocation structure generated <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, where straightly aligned dislocation arrays on the prismatic plane move freely and few deformation twins were formed in the grain interior. Furthermore, few dislocation tangles were observed because the slip systems were limited to one. Therefore, Zircaloy-4 shows weak work-hardening at the low homologous temperature because of the fewer interactions among dislocations, leading to unexpected <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> under constant load conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113298"><span id="translatedtitle">Cement lines and interlamellar areas in compact bone as <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplifiers - contributors to <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, fracture toughness and mechanotransduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nobakhti, Sabah; Limbert, Georges; Thurner, Philipp J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Bone is multi-scale hierarchical composite material making the prediction of fragility, as well as pinning it to a certain cause, complicated. For proper mechanical simulation and reflection of bone properties in models, microscopic structural features of bone tissue need to be included. This study sets out to gain a mechanistic insight into the role of various microstructural features of bone tissue in particular cement lines and interlamellar areas. Further the hypothesis that compliant interlamellar areas and cement lines within osteonal bone act as <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplifiers was explored. To this end, a series of experimentally-based micromechanical finite element models of bovine osteonal bone were developed. Different levels of detail for the bone microstructure were considered and combined with the results of physical three-point bending tests and an analytical composite model of a single osteon. The objective was to examine local and global effects of interface structures. The geometrical and microstructural characteristics of the bone samples were derived from microscopy imaging. Parametric finite element studies were conducted to determine optimal values of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus of interstitial bone and interlamellar areas. The average isotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus of interfaces suggested in this study is 88.5MPa. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that interfaces are areas of <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> in bone and are likely to act as potential paths for crack propagation. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplification capability of interface structures in the order of 10 predicted by the models suggests a new explanation for the levels of <span class="hlt">strain</span> required in bone homoeostasis for maintenance and adaptation. PMID:24113298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27402932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27402932"><span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and elastocaloric effect caused by lattice softening in an iron-palladium alloy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Xiao, Fei; Fukuda, Takashi</p> <p>2016-08-13</p> <p>A Fe-31.2Pd (at.%) alloy exhibits a weak first-order martensitic transformation from a cubic structure to a tetragonal structure near 230 K. This transformation is associated with significant softening of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constant C'. Because of the softening, the alloy shows a large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> of more than 6% in the [001] direction. In addition, the alloy has a critical point and shows a high elastocaloric effect in a wide temperature range for both the parent and the martensite phases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280602"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> at interfaces in InAs/AlSb multilayer structures for quantum cascade lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nicolai, J.; Gatel, Ch.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Ponchet, A.; Teissier, R.; Baranov, A. N.; Magen, C.</p> <p>2014-01-20</p> <p>InAs/AlSb multilayers similar to those used in quantum cascade lasers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) InAs substrates. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Thin interfacial regions with lattice distortions significantly different from the <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the AlSb layers themselves are revealed from the geometrical phase analysis. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> profiles are qualitatively compared to the chemical contrast of high angle annular dark field images obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> and chemical profiles are correlated with the growth sequences used to form the interfaces. Tensile <span class="hlt">strained</span> AlAs-like interfaces tend to form predominantly due to the high thermal stability of AlAs. Strongly asymmetric interfaces, AlAs-rich and (Al, In)Sb, respectively, can also be achieved by using appropriate growth sequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1195249','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1195249"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced uptake and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of norfloxacin in resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tanaka, M; Fukuda, H; Hirai, K; Hosaka, M; Matsumoto, T; Kumazawa, J</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE--To investigate the alteration of cell permeability toward fluoroquinolones in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is a major quinolone-resistance mechanism along with the alteration of DNA gyrase in gram-negative bacteria. The prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant N gonorrhoeae <span class="hlt">strains</span> is rapidly increasing in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS--The uptake and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of norfloxacin by gonococcal cells, including six clinical and five World Health Organization (WHO) reference <span class="hlt">strains</span>, were measured. Of the six clinical <span class="hlt">strains</span>, two were highly resistant to norfloxacin (MIC 8.0 and 4.0 micrograms/ml), two were moderately resistant (MIC 1.0 and 0.5 microgram/ml), and two were sensitive (MIC 0.063 and 0.004 microgram/ml). All five WHO reference <span class="hlt">strains</span> were sensitive to norfloxacin (MIC < or = 0.001 to 0.063 microgram/ml). RESULTS--Mean initial norfloxacin uptake in the four resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> (104 ng/mg of dry cells) was significantly lower than that in the seven sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> (158 ng/mg of dry cells) (p < 0.05). The mean uptake after 20 minutes was also significantly lower in the four resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> (130 ng/mg of dry cells) than in the seven sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> (194 ng/mg of dry cells) (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in mean norfloxacin <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> after 20 minutes between the four resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> (26 ng/mg of dry cells) and the seven sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> (36 ng/mg of dry cells). The <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of norfloxacin after 20 minutes was almost zero in two of the four resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span>, while the remaining two <span class="hlt">strains</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> norfloxacin as well as the sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span>. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that alteration of bacterial cell permeability is a quinolone-resistance mechanism in N gonorrhoeae isolated in Japan, and that this bacteria may exhibit other mechanisms such as alteration of DNA gyrase. PMID:7959709</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870006224','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870006224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and surface deformation along the San Andreas, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Victor C.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Stressing and rupture of a locked zone adjacent to a creeping fault segment was studied with special reference to strength heterogeneity depthwise and along-strike. The resulting precursory temporal and spatial variations of surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate profiles were compared to geodetic measurements on the San Andreas fault in central California. Crustal deformation in great California earthquake cycles was also studied with special reference to the temporal decay of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate observed since the 1957 and 1906 great earthquakes, and comtemporary surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and velocity profiles at several locations along the San Andreas. The effect of viscoelastic response in the deep aseismic shear zone on the surface deformation behavior was examined. Work was begun on a fundamental reformulation of the crustal deformation problem focusing on the crustal deformation process affected by deep aseismic slip as the slip zone progresses toward an instability and as deep seismic slip continues postseismically, the 3-D nature of the problem due to geometry and material heterogeneity, and the time-dependent source coming from the lithosphere/astenospheric coupling process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957782','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957782"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect-induced incompatability of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span>: dislocations within the Landau theory of martensitic phase transformations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Groger, Roman1; Lockman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In dislocation-free martensites the components of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by <span class="hlt">elastic</span> relaxation. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (<span class="hlt">elastic</span>) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SMaS...22h4004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SMaS...22h4004K"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogenized mechanical properties of auxetic composite materials in finite-<span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kochmann, Dennis M.; Venturini, Gabriela N.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Careful microstructural design can result in materials with counterintuitive effective (macroscale) mechanical properties such as a negative Poisson’s ratio, commonly referred to as auxetic behavior. One specific approach to achieving auxetic behavior is to <span class="hlt">elastically</span> connect structural elements with rotational degrees of freedom to result in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> structures that unfold under uniaxial loading in specific directions, thereby giving rise to bi- or triaxial expansion, i.e. auxetic behavior (transverse expansion under uniaxial extension). This concept has been applied successfully to <span class="hlt">elastically</span> coupled two-dimensional rigid rotational elements (such as rotating rectangles and triangles) which exhibit a negative effective in-plane Poisson’s ratio under uniaxial (ex)tension. Here, we adopt this fundamental design principle but take it to the next level by achieving auxetic behavior in finitely <span class="hlt">strained</span> composites made of stiff inclusions in a hyperelastic matrix, and we study the resulting <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties under in-plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> by numerical homogenization. Our results highlight the emergence of auxetic behavior based on geometric arrangement and properties of the base material and demonstrate a path towards simple inclusion-matrix composites with auxetic behavior.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1156935','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1156935"><span id="translatedtitle">A 3D Orthotropic <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Rate Dependent <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Damage Material Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>English, Shawn Allen</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A three dimensional orthotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic <span class="hlt">strain</span> criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27093600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27093600"><span id="translatedtitle">Local, atomic-level <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements of metallic glass thin films by electron diffraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebner, C; Sarkar, R; Rajagopalan, J; Rentenberger, C</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A novel technique is used to measure the atomic-level <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor of amorphous materials by tracking geometric changes of the first diffuse ring of selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAD). An automatic procedure, which includes locating the centre and fitting an ellipse to the diffuse ring with sub-pixel precision is developed for extracting the 2-dimensional <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor from the SAD patterns. Using this technique, atomic-level principal <span class="hlt">strains</span> from micrometre-sized regions of freestanding amorphous Ti0.45Al0.55 thin films were measured during in-situ TEM tensile deformation. The thin films were deformed using MEMS based testing stages that allow simultaneous measurement of the macroscopic stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The calculated atomic-level principal <span class="hlt">strains</span> show a linear dependence on the applied stress, and good correspondence with the measured macroscopic <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The calculated Poisson's ratio of 0.23 is reasonable for brittle metallic glasses. The technique yields a <span class="hlt">strain</span> accuracy of about 1×10(-4) and shows the potential to obtain localized <span class="hlt">strain</span> profiles/maps of amorphous thin film samples. PMID:27093600</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93x5107S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93x5107S"><span id="translatedtitle">Unified ab initio formulation of flexoelectricity and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stengel, Massimiliano</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The theory of flexoelectricity and that of nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> are closely related, and are often considered together when modeling <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient effects in solids. Here I show, based on a first-principles lattice-dynamical analysis, that their relationship is much more intimate than previously thought, and their consistent simultaneous treatment is crucial for obtaining correct physical answers. In particular, I identify a gauge invariance in the theory, whereby the energies associated to <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and flexoelectrically induced electric fields are individually reference dependent, and only when summed up they yield a well-defined result. To illustrate this, I construct a minimal thermodynamic functional incorporating <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient effects, and establish a formal link between the continuum description and ab initio phonon dispersion curves to calculate the relevant tensor quantities. As a practical demonstration, I apply such a formalism to bulk SrTiO3, where I find an unusually strong contribution of nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, mediated by the interaction between the ferroelectric soft mode and the transverse acoustic branches. These results have important implications towards the construction of well-defined thermodynamic theories where flexoelectricity and ferroelectricity coexist. More generally, they open exciting new avenues for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale concepts in the first-principles simulation of crystalline insulators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024658','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024658"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and rotation in western Nevada, 1993-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Svarc, J.L.; Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Ramelli, A.R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The positions of 44 GPS monuments in an array extending from the Sierra Nevada at the latitude of Reno to near Austin, Nevada, have been measured several times in the 1993-2000 interval. The western half of the array spans the Walker Lane belt, whereas the eastern half spans the central Nevada seismic zone (CNSZ). The principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates in the Walker Lane belt are 29.6 ?? 5.3 nstrain yr-1 N88.4??E ?? 5.4?? and -12.8 ?? 6.0 nanostrain yr-1 N01.6??W ?? 5.4??, extension reckoned positive, and the clockwise (as seen from above the Earth) rotation rate about a vertical axis is 13.6 ?? 4.0 nrad yr-1. The quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. The motion in the Walker Lane belt can then be represented by a zone striking N35??W subject to 16.8 ?? 4.9 nstrain yr-1 extension perpendicular to it and 19.5 ?? 4.0 nstrain yr-1 right-lateral, simple shear across it. The N35??W strike of the zone is the same as the direction of the local tangent to the small circle drawn about the Pacific-North America pole of rotation. The principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates for the CNSZ are 46.2 ?? 11.0 nstrain yr-1 N49.9??W ?? 6.0?? and -13.6 ?? 6.1 nstrain yr-1 N40.1??E ?? 6.0??, and the clockwise rotation rate about a vertical axis is 20.3 ?? 6.3 nrad yr-1. The motion across the CNSZ can then be represented by a zone striking N12??E subject to 32.6 ?? 11.0 nstrain yr-1 extension perpendicular to it and 25.1 ?? 6.3 nstrain yr-1 right-lateral, simple shear across it. The N12??E strike of the zone is similar to the strikes of the faults (Rainbow Mountain, Fairview Peak, and Dixie Valley) within it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024657','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024657"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and rotation in western Oregon and southwestern Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Svarc, J.L.; Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Murray, M.H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Velocities of 75 geodetic monuments in western Oregon and southwestern Washington extending from the coast to more than 300 km inland have been determined from GPS surveys over the interval 1992-2000. The average standard deviation in each of the horizontal velocity components is ??? 1 mm yr-1. The observed velocity field is approximated by a combination of rigid rotation (Euler vector relative to interior North America: 43. 40??N ?? 0.14??, 119.33??W ?? 0.28??, and 0.822 ?? 0.057?? Myr-1 clockwise; quoted uncertainties are standard deviations), uniform regional <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate (??EE = -7.4 ?? 1.8, ??EN = -3.4 ?? 1.0, and ??NN = -5.0 ?? 0.8 nstrain yr-1, extension reckoned positive), and a dislocation model representing subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America. Subduction south of 44.5??N was represented by a 40-km-wide locked thrust and subduction north of 44.5??N by a 75-km-wide locked thrust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890007998','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890007998"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Santa Barbara Channel, 1971-1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Shawn; King, Nancy; Agnew, Duncan; Hager, Bradford</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Geophysical evidence suggests a significant amount of north-south convergence occurs across the Santa Barbara Channel. Tectonic studies indicate a discrepancy between observed fault slip in California and the North American-Pacific plate motion. Newer plate motion models (NUVEL-1) yield a lower rate of convergence. Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1987, when combined with 1971 trilateration measurements, should be sufficient to resolve the present-day convergence rate. In early 1987. from January 3 to 7, GPS data were collected at 14 sites in California and at 5 additional stations throughout North America. The data can be used to estimate the rate of crustal deformation (convergence) ocurring across the Santa Barbara Channel. The GPS baselines were computed with the Bernese 2nd generation software. A comparison was made between baseline lengths obtained with the Burnese and MIT softwares. Baseline changes from 1971 to January, 1987 (GPS-Bernese) across the Santa Barbara Channel were computed. A uniform <span class="hlt">strain</span> model was calculated from the baseline changes. The present-day rate of convergence across the Santa Barbara Channel was determined to be 8 to 10 mm/yr. This conclusion is obtained from changes in the baseline length measured with a 1971 trilateration survey and a January, 1987, GPS survey. The rapid convergence rate, in addition to the history of large seismic events, suggests this region is a prime target for future geodetic and geophysical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CompM.tmp...66C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CompM.tmp...66C"><span id="translatedtitle">Explicit mixed <span class="hlt">strain</span>-displacement finite elements for compressible and quasi-incompressible <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and plasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cervera, M.; Lafontaine, N.; Rossi, R.; Chiumenti, M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents an explicit mixed finite element formulation to address compressible and quasi-incompressible problems in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and plasticity. This implies that the numerical solution only involves diagonal systems of equations. The formulation uses independent and equal interpolation of displacements and <span class="hlt">strains</span>, stabilized by variational subscales. A displacement sub-scale is introduced in order to stabilize the mean-stress field. Compared to the standard irreducible formulation, the proposed mixed formulation yields improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress fields. The paper investigates the effect of this enhancement on the accuracy in problems involving <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening and localization leading to failure, using low order finite elements with linear continuous <span class="hlt">strain</span> and displacement fields (P1P1 triangles in 2D and tetrahedra in 3D) in conjunction with associative frictional Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager plastic models. The performance of the <span class="hlt">strain</span>/displacement formulation under compressible and nearly incompressible deformation patterns is assessed and compared to analytical solutions for plane stress and plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> situations. Benchmark numerical examples show the capacity of the mixed formulation to predict correctly failure mechanisms with localized patterns of <span class="hlt">strain</span>, virtually free from any dependence of the mesh directional bias. No auxiliary crack tracking technique is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CompM..58..511C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CompM..58..511C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Explicit mixed <span class="hlt">strain</span>-displacement finite elements for compressible and quasi-incompressible <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and plasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cervera, M.; Lafontaine, N.; Rossi, R.; Chiumenti, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents an explicit mixed finite element formulation to address compressible and quasi-incompressible problems in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and plasticity. This implies that the numerical solution only involves diagonal systems of equations. The formulation uses independent and equal interpolation of displacements and <span class="hlt">strains</span>, stabilized by variational subscales. A displacement sub-scale is introduced in order to stabilize the mean-stress field. Compared to the standard irreducible formulation, the proposed mixed formulation yields improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress fields. The paper investigates the effect of this enhancement on the accuracy in problems involving <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening and localization leading to failure, using low order finite elements with linear continuous <span class="hlt">strain</span> and displacement fields ( P1 P1 triangles in 2D and tetrahedra in 3D) in conjunction with associative frictional Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager plastic models. The performance of the <span class="hlt">strain</span>/displacement formulation under compressible and nearly incompressible deformation patterns is assessed and compared to analytical solutions for plane stress and plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> situations. Benchmark numerical examples show the capacity of the mixed formulation to predict correctly failure mechanisms with localized patterns of <span class="hlt">strain</span>, virtually free from any dependence of the mesh directional bias. No auxiliary crack tracking technique is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25818950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25818950"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Ti-Nb-Zr alloys with high <span class="hlt">elastic</span> admissible <span class="hlt">strain</span> for temporary orthopedic devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozan, Sertan; Lin, Jixing; Li, Yuncang; Ipek, Rasim; Wen, Cuie</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A new series of beta Ti-Nb-Zr (TNZ) alloys with considerable plastic deformation ability during compression test, high <span class="hlt">elastic</span> admissible <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and excellent cytocompatibility have been developed for removable bone tissue implant applications. TNZ alloys with nominal compositions of Ti-34Nb-25Zr, Ti-30Nb-32Zr, Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr and Ti-24.8Nb-40.7Zr (wt.% hereafter) were fabricated using the cold-crucible levitation technique, and the effects of alloying element content on their microstructures, mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, compressive yield strength, Young's modulus, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy, toughness, and micro-hardness), and cytocompatibilities were investigated and compared. Microstructural examinations revealed that the TNZ alloys consisted of β phase. The alloy samples displayed excellent ductility with no cracking, or fracturing during compression tests. Their tensile strength, Young's modulus, elongation at rupture, and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> admissible <span class="hlt">strain</span> were measured in the ranges of 704-839 MPa, 62-65 GPa, 9.9-14.8% and 1.08-1.31%, respectively. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at rupture of the Ti-34Nb-25Zr alloy were measured as 839 ± 31.8 MPa, 62 ± 3.6 GPa, and 14.8 ± 1.6%, respectively; this alloy exhibited the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> admissible <span class="hlt">strain</span> of approximately 1.31%. Cytocompatibility tests indicated that the cell viability ratios (CVR) of the alloys are greater than those of the control group; thus the TNZ alloys possess excellent cytocompatibility. PMID:25818950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3536554','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3536554"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulated</span> Financial <span class="hlt">Strain</span> and Women’s Health Over Three Decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this research examines how <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> financial <span class="hlt">strain</span> affects women’s self-rated health in middle and later life. Method. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967–2003), we employ random-coefficient growth curve models to examine whether recurring financial <span class="hlt">strain</span> influences women’s health, above and beyond several measures of objective social status. Predicted probabilities of poor health were estimated by the frequency of financial <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Results. Financial <span class="hlt">strain</span> is associated with rapid declines in women’s health during middle and later life, especially for those women who reported recurrent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Changes in household income and household wealth were also associated with women’s health but did not eliminate the effects due to <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> financial <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Discussion. <span class="hlt">Accumulated</span> financial <span class="hlt">strain</span> has long-term effects on women’s health during middle and later life. The findings demonstrate the importance of measuring life course exposure to stressors in studies of health trajectories. PMID:22929397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G13B..07A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G13B..07A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in Metropolitan Los Angeles Distinguished from Oil and Water management using InSAR and GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Argus, D. F.; Agram, P. S.; Rollins, C.; Avouac, J. P.; Barbot, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Thesis.InSAR measurements from 1992 to 2012 are detecting deformation due to oil pumping and groundwater changes throughout metropolitan Los Angeles. This is allowing <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> build up on blind thrusts beneath the city to be accurately evaluated using GPS. Oil Fields.Pumping and repressurization of oil fields have generated substantial displacement in metropolitan Los Angeles, causing Beverly Hills, downtown, and Whittier to subside at 3-10 mm/yr and Santa Fe Springs and La Mirada to rise at 5-9 mm/yr. Aquifers.Displacements of the Santa Ana and San Gabriel Valley aquifers <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> in response to sustained changes in groundwater over periods of either drought or heavy precipitation. Santa Ana aquifer has subsided nearly 0.1 m in response to lowering of the groundwater level by about 25 m over the past 18 years. Anthropogenic Vs. Tectonic Motion.We are assessing horizontal motions due to changes groundwater using an empirical relationship established on the basis of seasonal oscillations of Santa Ana aquifer. Anthropogenic horizontal motion is estimated to be proportional to the directional gradient in vertical motion inferred with InSAR. We are finding this rough approximation to be quite useful for evaluating deviations of GPS positions from a constant velocity. We are also constructing Mogi models of volume change in oil fields to evaluate GPS deviations. Earthquake <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Buildup on Blind Thrust Faults.NNE contraction perpendicular to the big restraining bend in the San Andreas fault is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas in the San Gabriel Mountains, but instead 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> model of interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> fit to GPS data and incorporating a 1D approximation of the rheology of the Los Angeles basin indicates the deep segment of the Puente Hills (-upper Elysian Park) Thrust to be slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km. Please see also our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850029452&hterms=Factor+AF2&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFactor%2BAF2','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850029452&hterms=Factor+AF2&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFactor%2BAF2"><span id="translatedtitle">Strainrange partitioning - A total <span class="hlt">strain</span> range version. [for creep fatigue life prediction by summing inelastic and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range-life relations for two Ni base superalloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total <span class="hlt">strain</span> range. Inelastic and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range - life relations are summed to give total <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span>. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> range. The total <span class="hlt">strain</span> SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> range SRP approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1428389','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1428389"><span id="translatedtitle">PII-Regulated Arginine Synthesis Controls <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of Cyanophycin in Synechocystis sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> PCC 6803</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maheswaran, Mani; Ziegler, Karl; Lockau, Wolfgang; Hagemann, Martin; Forchhammer, Karl</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Cyanophycin (multi-l-arginyl-poly-l-aspartic acid) is a nitrogen storage polymer found in most cyanobacteria and some heterotrophic bacteria. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> PCC 6803 <span class="hlt">accumulates</span> cyanophycin following a transition from nitrogen-limited to nitrogen-excess conditions. Here we show that the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of cyanophycin depends on the activation of the key enzyme of arginine biosynthesis, N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase, by signal transduction protein PII. PMID:16547064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014766','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014766"><span id="translatedtitle">Absence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Shumagin seismic gap, Alaska, 1980-1987 ( USA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lisowski, M.; Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Gross, W.K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of the deformation of a trilateration network in the Shumagin seismic gap in the interval 1980-1987 failed to detect any significant <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> (observed extension rate in the direction of plate convergence 0.00 + or - 0.03 mu <span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr). Dislocation models of the subduction process and measurements at a comparable network at a known seismic subduction zone (Nankai Trough, Japan) suggest that a rate of the order of -0.2 mu <span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr should have been observed if the main thrust zone beneath the Shumagin Islands were locked. The simplest explanation of the observed absence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Shumagin seismic gap is that the main thrust zone beneath the Shumagin Islands is not presently locked. Other possible explanations depend upon very particular circumstances.-Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268248"><span id="translatedtitle">Fusarium proliferatum <span class="hlt">strains</span> change fumonisin biosynthesis and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> when exposed to host plant extracts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum <span class="hlt">strains</span> shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some <span class="hlt">strains</span> also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in mycelia of studied <span class="hlt">strains</span> and in the respective media. PMID:27268248</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012098','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012098"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Denali fault in the Delta River canyon, Alaska.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W.H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Deformation along the Denali fault in the Delta River canyon was determined from geodetic surveys in 1941/1942, 1970, 1975, and 1979. The data were best for the 1975-79 interval; in that period the average <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was essentially pure right lateral shear at a rate of 0.6+-0.1 murad/a (a is years) (engineering shear) across a vertical plane striking N87oE. The plane of maximum shear is rotated about 30o countercloskwise from the local strike of the Denali fault but closely coincides with the strike of a major linear segment of the fault that begins 50 km farther W. The deformation between 1941-42 and 1970 is consistent with a similar rate of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> if one removes the coseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> step contributed by the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The 1970-75 deformation is poorly defined owing to uncertainties in the 1970 survey, but the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> during that period is certainly much less than during the 1975-79 interval. The 1975-79 <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> is interpreted by means of a dislocation model which suggests that the Denali fault in the vicinity of the Delta River Canyon behaves as a leaky transform fault.-Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8985L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E8985L"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tunability in <span class="hlt">strained</span> BiFeO3 near an electrically induced phase transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Q.; Cao, Y.; Yu, P.; Vasudevan, R. K.; Laanait, N.; Tselev, A.; Xue, F.; Chen, L. Q.; Maksymovych, P.; Kalinin, S. V.; Balke, N.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> anomalies are signatures of phase transitions in condensed matters and have traditionally been studied using various techniques spanning from neutron scattering to static mechanical testing. Here, using band-excitation <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/piezoresponse spectroscopy, we probed sub-MHz <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dynamics of a tip bias-induced rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition of <span class="hlt">strained</span> (001)-BiFeO3 (rhombohedral) ferroelectric thin films from ~103 nm3 sample volumes. Near this transition, we observed that the Young's modulus intrinsically softens by over 30% coinciding with two- to three-fold enhancement of local piezoresponse. Coupled with phase-field modelling, we also addressed the influence of polarization switching and mesoscopic structural heterogeneities (for example, domain walls) on the kinetics of this phase transition, thereby providing fresh insights into the morphotropic phase boundary in ferroelectrics. Furthermore, the giant electrically tunable <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness and corresponding electromechanical properties observed here suggest potential applications of BiFeO3 in next-generation frequency-agile electroacoustic devices, based on the utilization of the soft modes underlying successive ferroelectric phase transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1296688-frequency-pressure-strain-dependence-nonlinear-elasticity-berea-sandstone','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1296688-frequency-pressure-strain-dependence-nonlinear-elasticity-berea-sandstone"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency, pressure and <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in Berea Sandstone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Riviere, Jacques; Johnson, Paul Allan; Marone, Chris; Pimienta, Lucas; Scuderi, Marco; Candela, Thibault; Shokouhi, Parisa; Schubnel, Alexandre; Fortin, Jerome</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p>Acoustoelasticity measurements in a sample of room dry Berea sandstone are conducted at various loading frequencies to explore the transition between the quasi-static ( f → 0) and dynamic (few kilohertz) nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response. We carry out these measurements at multiple confining pressures and perform a multivariate regression analysis to quantify the dependence of the harmonic content on <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitude, frequency, and pressure. The modulus softening (equivalent to the harmonic at 0f) increases by a factor 2–3 over 3 orders of magnitude increase in frequency. Harmonics at 2f, 4f, and 6f exhibit similar behaviors. In contrast, the harmonic at 1fmore » appears frequency independent. This result corroborates previous studies showing that the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of rocks can be described with a minimum of two physical mechanisms. This study provides quantitative data that describes the rate dependency of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Furthermore, these findings can be used to improve theories relating the macroscopic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response to microstructural features.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673877','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673877"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tunability in <span class="hlt">strained</span> BiFeO3 near an electrically induced phase transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Q; Cao, Y.; Yu, P.; Vasudevan, R. K.; Laanait, N.; Tselev, A.; Xue, F.; Chen, L. Q.; Maksymovych, P.; Kalinin, S. V.; Balke, N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> anomalies are signatures of phase transitions in condensed matters and have traditionally been studied using various techniques spanning from neutron scattering to static mechanical testing. Here, using band-excitation <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/piezoresponse spectroscopy, we probed sub-MHz <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dynamics of a tip bias-induced rhombohedral−tetragonal phase transition of <span class="hlt">strained</span> (001)-BiFeO3 (rhombohedral) ferroelectric thin films from ∼103 nm3 sample volumes. Near this transition, we observed that the Young's modulus intrinsically softens by over 30% coinciding with two- to three-fold enhancement of local piezoresponse. Coupled with phase-field modelling, we also addressed the influence of polarization switching and mesoscopic structural heterogeneities (for example, domain walls) on the kinetics of this phase transition, thereby providing fresh insights into the morphotropic phase boundary in ferroelectrics. Furthermore, the giant electrically tunable <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness and corresponding electromechanical properties observed here suggest potential applications of BiFeO3 in next-generation frequency-agile electroacoustic devices, based on the utilization of the soft modes underlying successive ferroelectric phase transitions. PMID:26597483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244194-giant-elastic-tunability-strained-bifeo3-near-electrically-induced-phase-transition','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244194-giant-elastic-tunability-strained-bifeo3-near-electrically-induced-phase-transition"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tunability in <span class="hlt">strained</span> BiFeO3 near an electrically induced phase transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Yu, Pu; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Tselev, Alexander; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long -Qing; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina; Li, Q.; Cao, Y.; et al</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> anomalies are signatures of phase transitions in condensed matters and have traditionally been studied using various techniques spanning from neutron scattering to static mechanical testing. Here, using band-excitation <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/piezoresponse spectroscopy, we probed sub-MHz <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dynamics of a tip bias-induced rhombohedral–tetragonal phase transition of <span class="hlt">strained</span> (001)-BiFeO3 (rhombohedral) ferroelectric thin films from ~103 nm3 sample volumes. Near this transition, we observed that the Young's modulus intrinsically softens by over 30% coinciding with 2-3 folds enhancement of local piezoresponse. Coupled with phase-field modeling, we also addressed the influence of polarization switching and mesoscopic structural heterogeneities (e.g., domain walls) on the kinetics ofmore » this phase transition, thereby providing fresh insights into the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in ferroelectrics. Moreover, the giant electrically tunable <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness and corresponding electromechanical properties observed here suggest potential applications of BiFeO3 in next-generation frequency-agile electroacoustic devices, based on utilization of the soft modes underlying successive ferroelectric phase transitions.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597483"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tunability in <span class="hlt">strained</span> BiFeO3 near an electrically induced phase transition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Q; Cao, Y; Yu, P; Vasudevan, R K; Laanait, N; Tselev, A; Xue, F; Chen, L Q; Maksymovych, P; Kalinin, S V; Balke, N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> anomalies are signatures of phase transitions in condensed matters and have traditionally been studied using various techniques spanning from neutron scattering to static mechanical testing. Here, using band-excitation <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/piezoresponse spectroscopy, we probed sub-MHz <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dynamics of a tip bias-induced rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition of <span class="hlt">strained</span> (001)-BiFeO3 (rhombohedral) ferroelectric thin films from ∼10(3) nm(3) sample volumes. Near this transition, we observed that the Young's modulus intrinsically softens by over 30% coinciding with two- to three-fold enhancement of local piezoresponse. Coupled with phase-field modelling, we also addressed the influence of polarization switching and mesoscopic structural heterogeneities (for example, domain walls) on the kinetics of this phase transition, thereby providing fresh insights into the morphotropic phase boundary in ferroelectrics. Furthermore, the giant electrically tunable <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness and corresponding electromechanical properties observed here suggest potential applications of BiFeO3 in next-generation frequency-agile electroacoustic devices, based on the utilization of the soft modes underlying successive ferroelectric phase transitions. PMID:26597483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011014','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011014"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodimeter measurements of slip and <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along the san andreas fault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey conducts repeated geodimeter surveys of trilateration networks in central California in order to study the processes of slip and <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along the San Andreas fault. The precision of distance measurement is described by a standard deviation ?? = (a2 + b2L2) 1 2 where a = 3mm, b = 2 ?? 10-7, and L is the line length. Within the precision of measurement, no anomalous <span class="hlt">strain</span> episodes preceding earthquakes or even <span class="hlt">strain</span> discontinuities at the time of earthquakes were detected from repeated measurements of lines near the epicenters of small (magnitude 4.5-5.1) earthquakes. Annual measurements of small (5-km aperture) <span class="hlt">strain</span> polygons near the San Andreas fault have not proved <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in a 3-year period. Repeated measurements of longer lines over periods of 8 to 14 years indicate changes that cannot be attributed to fault slip and must represent <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> at the level of a few parts in 107 per year. ?? 1974.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InvPr..32f5002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InvPr..32f5002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotropic realizability of a <span class="hlt">strain</span> field for the two‑dimensional incompressible <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Briane, M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In the paper we study the problem of the isotropic realizability in {{{R}}}2 of a regular <span class="hlt">strain</span> field e(U)=\\tfrac{1}{2}({DU}+{{DU}}T) for the incompressible <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> system, namely the existence of a positive shear modulus μ \\gt 0 solving the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> system in {{{R}}}2 with the prescribed field e(U). We show that if e(U) does not vanish at some point, then the isotropic realizability holds in the neighborhood of that point. The global realizability in {{{R}}}2 or in the torus is much more delicate, since it involves the global existence of a regular solution to a semilinear wave equation, the coefficients of which depend on the derivatives of U. Using this semilinear wave equation we prove a small perturbation result: if DU is periodic and close enough to its average value for the C 4‑norm, then the associated <span class="hlt">strain</span> field is isotropically realizable in a given disk centered at the origin. On the other hand, a counterexample shows that the global realizability in {{{R}}}2 may hold without the realizability in the torus, and it is discussed in connection with the associated semilinear wave equation. The case where the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field vanishes is illustrated by an example. The singular case of a rank-one laminate field is also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvE..94b3003M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvE..94b3003M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic description of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> or viscoelastic composite materials: Relative <span class="hlt">strains</span> as macroscopic variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, Andreas M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)<span class="hlt">elastic</span> substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)<span class="hlt">elastic</span> composite materials. For this purpose, additional <span class="hlt">strain</span> variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional <span class="hlt">strain</span> variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative <span class="hlt">strains</span>. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3569325','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3569325"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of the Nitrate- and Phosphate-<span class="hlt">Accumulating</span> Bacillus sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> MCC0008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DebRoy, Shreya; Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Thakur, Ashoke Ranjan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the nitrate- and phosphate-<span class="hlt">accumulating</span> Bacillus sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> MCC0008, isolated from a consortium enriched from municipal sewage in nitrate broth (HiMedia M439). The total size of the genome is 5,609,456 bp, with a G+C content of 35.1%. PMID:23409265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20634548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20634548"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor measurement using electron backscatter diffraction in the SEM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dingley, David J; Wilkinson, Angus J; Meaden, Graham; Karamched, Phani S</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The established electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique for obtaining crystallographic information in the SEM has been adapted to permit <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement. Basically, the displacement of crystallographic features in an EBSD pattern, such as zone axes, which result from <span class="hlt">strain</span> in a crystal, is determined by comparing those same features as they appear in a pattern from an unstrained region of the crystal. The comparison is made by cross-correlation of selected regions in the two patterns. Tests show that the sensitivity to displacement measurement is 1 part in 10 000, which translates to a <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity of 2 parts in 10 000. Eight components of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor are determined directly and the ninth is calculated using the fact that the free surface of the sample is traction-free. Examples discussed are taken from studies of a lenticular fracture in germanium, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution surrounding a carbide precipitate in a nickel base alloy and grain boundary studies in another nickel base alloy. PMID:20634548</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013380','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013380"><span id="translatedtitle">On local total <span class="hlt">strain</span> redistribution using a simplified cyclic inelastic analysis based on an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, S. Y.; Kaufman, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> redistribution corrections were developed for a simplified inelastic analysis procedure to economically calculate material cyclic response at the critical location of a structure for life prediction purposes. The method was based on the assumption that the plastic region in the structure is local and the total <span class="hlt">strain</span> history required for input can be defined from <span class="hlt">elastic</span> finite element analyses. Cyclic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior was represented by a bilinear kinematic hardening model. The simplified procedure has been found to predict stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> response with reasonable accuracy for thermally cycled problems but needs improvement for mechanically load cycled problems. This study derived and incorporated Neuber type corrections in the simplified procedure to account for local total <span class="hlt">strain</span> redistribution under cyclic mechanical loading. The corrected simplified method was exercised on a mechanically load cycled benchmark notched plate problem. Excellent agreement was found between the predicted material response and nonlinear finite element solutions for the problem. The simplified analysis computer program used 0.3 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5489817','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5489817"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of experiment and theory for <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> crack growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hermann, L; Rice, J R</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>Recent theoretical results on <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> crack growth, and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel in terms of the theoretical concepts are reviewed. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and <span class="hlt">strain</span> distributions at a quasi-statically advancing crack tip in an ideally-plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large scale yielding. Nevertheless, it suffices to derive a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth, prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197258"><span id="translatedtitle">Cones of localized shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> in incompressible <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> with prestress: Green's function and integral representations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Argani, L P; Bigoni, D; Capuani, D; Movchan, N V</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The infinite-body three-dimensional Green's function set (for incremental displacement and mean stress) is derived for the incremental deformation of a uniformly <span class="hlt">strained</span> incompressible, nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> body. Particular cases of the developed formulation are the Mooney-Rivlin <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and the J2-deformation theory of plasticity. These Green's functions are used to develop a boundary integral equation framework, by introducing an ad hoc potential, which paves the way for a boundary element formulation of three-dimensional problems of incremental <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Results are used to investigate the behaviour of a material deformed near the limit of ellipticity and to reveal patterns of shear failure. In fact, within the investigated three-dimensional framework, localized deformations emanating from a perturbation are shown to be organized in conical geometries rather than in planar bands, so that failure is predicted to develop through curved and thin surfaces of intense shearing, as can for instance be observed in the cup-cone rupture of ductile metal bars. PMID:25197258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcMSn..28...91N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcMSn..28...91N"><span id="translatedtitle">C 1 natural element method for <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and its application to microstructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nie, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Shen-Jie; Han, Ru-Jun; Xiao, Lin-Jing; Wang, Kai</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>C 1 natural element method ( C 1 NEM) is applied to <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, and size effects on microstructures are analyzed. The shape functions in C 1 NEM are built upon the natural neighbor interpolation (NNI), with interpolation realized to nodal function and nodal gradient values, so that the essential boundary conditions (EBCs) can be imposed directly in a Galerkin scheme for partial differential equations (PDEs). In the present paper, C 1 NEM for <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is constructed, and several typical examples which have analytical solutions are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the constructed method. In its application to microstructures, the size effects of bending stiffness and stress concentration factor (SCF) are studied for microspeciem and microgripper, respectively. It is observed that the size effects become rather strong when the width of spring for microgripper, the radius of circular perforation and the long axis of elliptical perforation for microspeciem come close to the material characteristic length scales. For the U-shaped notch, the size effects decline obviously with increasing notch radius, and decline mildly with increasing length of notch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JSV...276..615P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JSV...276..615P"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and viscoelastic plates in a gas flow taking into account shear <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potapov, V. D.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>It is well known that the internal friction in a material can have a considerable destabilizing effect on the stability of non-conservative systems. Apart from the Voigt model, the viscoelastic body model is sometimes utilized to describe material damping. This relates the stability problem for non-conservative <span class="hlt">elastic</span> systems with that for viscoelastic system. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is usually applied for solving the problems. In this case, the displacement functions are represented by series in terms of natural vibration modes ϕ i( x) of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> system. To provide a high degree of accuracy for the solution, one should involve a fairly large number of modes. For a viscoelastic plate, the number of terms to be kept in the expansion of the deflection can be substantially more. One should bear in mind, however, that as the number of modes preserved in the expansion increases, the influence of shear <span class="hlt">strains</span> and rotational inertia on the behavior of the solution becomes more pronounced. In view of this, it is important to study the stability of non-conservative viscoelastic systems with the shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> and rotational inertia being taken into account. In the present paper this problem is solved for a viscoelastic plate in a supersonic gas flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006PhyD..217..153S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006PhyD..217..153S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi phase field model for solid state transformation with <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinbach, I.; Apel, M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>A multi phase field model is presented for the investigation of the effect of transformation <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the transformation kinetics, morphology and thermodynamic stability in multi phase materials. The model conserves homogeneity of stress in the diffuse interface between <span class="hlt">elastically</span> inhomogeneous phases, in which respect it differs from previous models. The model is formulated consistently with the multi phase field model for diffusional and surface driven phase transitions [I. Steinbach, F. Pezzolla, B. Nestler, M. Seeßelberg, R. Prieler, G.J. Schmitz, J.L.L. Rezende, A phase field concept for multiphase systems, Physica D 94 (1996) 135-147; J. Tiaden, B. Nestler, H.J. Diepers, I. Steinbach, The multiphase-field model with an integrated concept for modeling solute diffusion, Physica D 115 (1998) 73-86; I. Steinbach, F. Pezzolla, A generalized field method for multiphase transformations using interface fields, Physica D 134 (1999) 385] and gives a consistent description of interfacial tension, multi phase thermodynamics and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stress balance in multiple junctions between an arbitrary number of grains and phases. Some aspects of the model are demonstrated with respect to numerical accuracy and the relation between transformation <span class="hlt">strain</span>, external stress and thermodynamic equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948345"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Relationship between Stress and <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> for Porous and Fractured Rock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Berryman, James G.</p> <p>2008-02-25</p> <p>Modeling the mechanical deformations of porous and fractured rocks requires a stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship. Experience with inherently heterogeneous earth materials suggests that different varieties of Hook's law should be applied within regions of the rock having significantly different stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior, e.g., such as solid phase and various void geometries. We apply this idea by dividing a rock body conceptually into two distinct parts. The natural <span class="hlt">strain</span> (volume change divided by rock volume at the current stress state), rather than the engineering <span class="hlt">strain</span> (volume change divided by the unstressed rock volume), should be used in Hooke's law for accurate modeling of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation of that part of the pore volume subject to a relatively large degree of relative deformation (i.e., cracks or fractures). This approach permits the derivation of constitutive relations between stress and a variety of mechanical and/or hydraulic rock properties. We show that the theoretical predictions of this method are generally consistent with empirical expressions (from field data) and also laboratory rock experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMag...96.1420L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMag...96.1420L"><span id="translatedtitle">Transformation-rate maxima during lath martensite formation: plastic vs. <span class="hlt">elastic</span> shape <span class="hlt">strain</span> accommodation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loewy, Sarah; Rheingans, Bastian; Mittemeijer, Eric J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Recently, a modulated formation behaviour of lath martensite in Fe-Ni(-based) alloys was observed, exhibiting a series of transformation-rate maxima. This peculiar transformation behaviour was explained on the basis of the hierarchical microstructure of lath martensite, minimising the net shape <span class="hlt">strain</span> associated with martensite formation, by a block-by-block formation of martensite packages occurring simultaneously in all packages. In the present work, the martensitic transformation upon slow cooling of two Fe-Ni alloys, containing 22 and 25 at.% of Ni, respectively, was investigated by high-resolution dilatometry with the aim of identifying the influence of alloy composition on the modulated transformation behaviour. The differences observed for the two alloys, a more rapid sequence of the transformation-rate maxima and a narrower temperature range in case of Fe-25 at.% Ni, can be explained consistently as a consequence of the lower transformation temperatures in Fe-25 at.% Ni, highlighting the role of temporary accommodation of the shape <span class="hlt">strain</span> during formation of the lath martensite microstructure: the depression of the transformation toward lower temperatures leads to a higher strength of the austenite, hence resulting in a more <span class="hlt">elastic</span> (less plastic) temporary accommodation of the shape <span class="hlt">strain</span> upon block formation and thereby in a more effective mutual compensation of the shape <span class="hlt">strain</span> by neighbouring blocks. A kinetic model on the basis of energy-change considerations is presented which is able to describe the observed modulated transformation behaviour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011NatNa...6..788L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011NatNa...6..788L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Skin-like pressure and <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors based on transparent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> films of carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipomi, Darren J.; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Hellstrom, Sondra L.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Fox, Courtney H.; Bao, Zhenan</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Transparent, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> conductors are essential components of electronic and optoelectronic devices that facilitate human interaction and biofeedback, such as interactive electronics, implantable medical devices and robotic systems with human-like sensing capabilities. The availability of conducting thin films with these properties could lead to the development of skin-like sensors that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), bend into hairpin turns, integrate with collapsible, stretchable and mechanically robust displays and solar cells, and also wrap around non-planar and biological surfaces such as skin and organs, without wrinkling. We report transparent, conducting spray-deposited films of single-walled carbon nanotubes that can be rendered stretchable by applying <span class="hlt">strain</span> along each axis, and then releasing this <span class="hlt">strain</span>. This process produces spring-like structures in the nanotubes that accommodate <span class="hlt">strains</span> of up to 150% and demonstrate conductivities as high as 2,200 S cm-1 in the stretched state. We also use the nanotube films as electrodes in arrays of transparent, stretchable capacitors, which behave as pressure and <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/665159','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/665159"><span id="translatedtitle">On the measurement of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in coatings formed on a wrinkled <span class="hlt">elastic</span> substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gong, X.Y.; Clarke, D.R.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Highly stressed coatings, such as those formed by oxidation can, on occasion, wrinkle. Such wrinkling has been suggested as a mode of deformation by which the overall <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy in a compressively stressed coating can be reduced. One of the consequences of wrinkling is that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the coating does not remain independent of position, but rather varies over the wavelength of the wrinkling. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> variation caused by sinusoidal wrinkling is calculated using finite-element methods and the effects on both photostimulated Cr{sup 3+} luminescence piezospectroscopy measurements and X-ray measurements calculated. Wrinkling is shown to decease the <span class="hlt">elastic-strain</span>-energy density in the coating. A direct measure of the decrease in the shift in the R2 Cr{sup 3+} luminescence line and the X-ray diffraction peaks. Wrinkling of a compressive coating also causes stresses to be created perpendicular to the coating-substrate interface, tensile at the crests in the wrinkles, and compressive stress at the troughs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24948642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24948642"><span id="translatedtitle">Tendon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1)). As running speed progressed from jogging to sprinting, the contribution of tendon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy to the positive work generated by the MTU increased from 53% to 74% for the soleus and from 62% to 75% for the gastrocnemius. This increase was facilitated by greater muscle activation and the relatively isometric behavior of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. Both of these characteristics enhanced tendon stretch and recoil, which contributed to the bulk of the change in MTU length. Our results suggest that as steady-state running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting, the human ankle plantar-flexors continue to prioritize the storage and recovery of tendon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy over muscle fiber work. PMID:24948642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393457','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393457"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Fungal Isolate, Penidiella sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> T9, <span class="hlt">Accumulates</span> the Rare Earth Element Dysprosium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horiike, Takumi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>With an aim to develop a highly efficient method for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) by using microorganisms, we attempted to isolate dysprosium (Dy)-<span class="hlt">accumulating</span> microorganisms that grow under acidic conditions from environmental samples containing high concentrations of heavy metals. One acidophilic <span class="hlt">strain</span>, T9, which was isolated from an abandoned mine, decreased the concentration of Dy in medium that contained 100 mg/liter Dy to 53 mg/liter Dy after 3 days of cultivation at pH 2.5. The Dy content in the cell pellet of the T9 <span class="hlt">strain</span> was 910 μg/mg of dry cells. The T9 <span class="hlt">strain</span> also <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> other REEs. Based on the results of 28S-D1/D2 rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization, we designated this fungal <span class="hlt">strain</span> Penidiella sp. T9. Bioaccumulation of Dy was observed on the cell surface of the T9 <span class="hlt">strain</span> by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results indicate that Penidiella sp. T9 has the potential to recover REEs such as Dy from mine drainage and industrial liquid waste under acidic conditions. PMID:25710372</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15474747"><span id="translatedtitle">In patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum a thicker and more <span class="hlt">elastic</span> carotid artery is associated with elastin fragmentation and proteoglycans <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kornet, Lilian; Bergen, Arthur A B; Hoeks, Arnold P G; Cleutjens, Jacques P; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Daemen, Mat J; van Soest, Simone; Reneman, Robert S</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Skin biopsies in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) show <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fiber fragmentation and calcium and proteoglycans <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. Assuming such changes to be present in the artery wall as well, we studied the influence of such alterations on function and structure of the human common carotid artery (CCA). Indeed, elastin fragmentation and increased calcium and proteoglycans content were present in the arteries of the two PXE patients examined. Internal diameter, distension and intima-media thickness (IMT) in the CCA of PXE patients (n = 19) and controls (n = 39) were determined by ultrasound (US). Pulse pressure was assessed in the brachial artery. The distensibility and compliance coefficients as well as the Young's modulus were calculated. Diameter and pulse pressure were not significantly different in PXE patients and controls. The distensibility and compliance coefficients were significantly greater in older PXE patients than in older controls. The distensibility coefficient decreased with age in both PXE patients and in controls. Unlike in controls, the compliance coefficient did not decrease and the Young's modulus barely increased with age in PXE patients. IMT was significantly greater at both younger and older ages and the Young's modulus was significantly smaller at older ages in PXE patients than in controls. The carotid artery is thicker and more <span class="hlt">elastic</span> in PXE patients than in control subjects; differences are most pronounced at older ages. These alterations might be explained by the elastin fragmentation and proteoglycans <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> as observed in these patients. PMID:15474747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CompM..57..277O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CompM..57..277O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A computational framework for polyconvex large <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> for geometrically exact beam theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortigosa, Rogelio; Gil, Antonio J.; Bonet, Javier; Hesch, Christian</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new computational framework is presented for the analysis of nonlinear beam finite elements subjected to large <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Specifically, the methodology recently introduced in Bonet et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 283:1061-1094, 2015) in the context of three dimensional polyconvex <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is extended to the geometrically exact beam model of Simo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 49:55-70, 1985), the starting point of so many other finite element beam type formulations. This new variational framework can be viewed as a continuum degenerate formulation which, moreover, is enhanced by three key novelties. First, in order to facilitate the implementation of the sophisticated polyconvex constitutive laws particularly associated with beams undergoing large <span class="hlt">strains</span>, a novel tensor cross product algebra by Bonet et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 283:1061-1094, 2015) is adopted, leading to an elegant and physically meaningful representation of an otherwise complex computational framework. Second, the paper shows how the novel algebra facilitates the re-expression of any invariant of the deformation gradient, its cofactor and its determinant in terms of the classical beam <span class="hlt">strain</span> measures. The latter being very useful whenever a classical beam implementation is preferred. This is particularised for the case of a Mooney-Rivlin model although the technique can be straightforwardly generalised to other more complex isotropic and anisotropic polyconvex models. Third, the connection between the two most accepted restrictions for the definition of constitutive models in three dimensional <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and beams is shown, bridging the gap between the continuum and its degenerate beam description. This is carried out via a novel insightful representation of the tangent operator.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5222562','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5222562"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of game-farm and wild-<span class="hlt">strain</span> mallard ducks in <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of methylmercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Heinz, G.H.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of mercury was compared in game-farm and wild-<span class="hlt">strain</span> mallard ducks fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury in the form of methylmercury dicyandiamide. There were no significant differences between the two <span class="hlt">strains</span> in levels of mercury that <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in blood, kidney, liver, breast muscle, brain, eggs, or ducklings. Mercury levels in blood were significantly correlated with levels in other tissues and eggs, as were levels in down feathers of ducklings with levels in carcasses of ducklings. The results indicate that game-farm mallards are probably suitable substitutes for wild mallards in toxicological work, that blood samples can be used to estimate levels of mercury in other tissues of adults, and that down feathers are predictive of mercury levels in duckling carcasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319376"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of tensile hysteresis and contact resistance on the performance of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-resistant <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-conductive webbing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen; Jhuang, Yan-Er</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To use e-textiles as a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-resistance sensor they need to be both <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and conductive. Three kinds of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-conductive webbings, including flat, tubular, and belt webbings, made of Lycra fiber and carbon coated polyamide fiber, were used in this study. The <span class="hlt">strain</span>-resistance properties of the webbings were evaluated in stretch-recovery tests and measured within 30% <span class="hlt">strain</span>. It was found that tensile hysteresis and contact resistance significantly influence the tensile <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and the resistance sensitivity of the webbings. The results showed that the webbing structure definitely contributes to the tensile hysteresis and contact resistance. The smaller the friction is among the yarns in the belt webbing, the smaller the tensile hysteresis loss. However the close proximity of the conductive yarns in flat and tubular webbings results in a lower contact resistance. PMID:22319376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274011','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274011"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Tensile Hysteresis and Contact Resistance on the Performance of <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Resistant <span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Conductive Webbing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen; Jhuang, Yan-Er</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To use e-textiles as a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-resistance sensor they need to be both <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and conductive. Three kinds of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-conductive webbings, including flat, tubular, and belt webbings, made of Lycra fiber and carbon coated polyamide fiber, were used in this study. The <span class="hlt">strain</span>-resistance properties of the webbings were evaluated in stretch-recovery tests and measured within 30% <span class="hlt">strain</span>. It was found that tensile hysteresis and contact resistance significantly influence the tensile <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and the resistance sensitivity of the webbings. The results showed that the webbing structure definitely contributes to the tensile hysteresis and contact resistance. The smaller the friction is among the yarns in the belt webbing, the smaller the tensile hysteresis loss. However the close proximity of the conductive yarns in flat and tubular webbings results in a lower contact resistance. PMID:22319376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..78...94G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMPSo..78...94G"><span id="translatedtitle">The stability of <span class="hlt">elastically</span> <span class="hlt">strained</span> nanorings and the formation of quantum dot molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gill, Simon P. A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Self-assembled nanorings have recently been identified in a number of heteroepitaxially <span class="hlt">strained</span> material systems. Under some circumstances these rings have been observed to break up into ring-shaped quantum dot molecules. A general non-linear model for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy of non-axisymmetric epitaxially <span class="hlt">strained</span> nanostructures beyond the small slope assumption is developed. This model is then used to investigate the stability of <span class="hlt">strained</span> nanorings evolving via surface diffusion subject to perturbations around their circumference. An expression for the fastest growing mode is determined and related to experimental observations. The model predicts a region of stability for rings below a critical radius, and also a region for larger rings which have a proportionally small thickness. The predictions of the model are shown to be consistent with the available results. For the heteroepitaxial InP on In0.5Ga0.5P system investigated by Jevasuwan et al. (2013), the nanorings are found to be stable below a certain critical size. This is in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. At larger sizes, the rings are unstable. The number of dots in the resulting quantum dot molecule is similar to the mode number for the fastest growing mode. Second order terms show that the number of dots is expected to reduce as the height of the ring increases in proportion to its thickness. The <span class="hlt">strained</span> In0.4Ga0.6As on GaAs nanorings of Hanke et al. (2007) are always stable and this is in accordance with the findings of the analysis. The Au nanorings of Ruffino et al. (2011) are stable as well, even as they expand during annealing. This observation is also shown to be consistent with the proposed model, which is expected to be useful in the design and tailoring of heteroepitaxial systems for the self-organisation of quantum dot molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798101"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. HG01, a Polyhydroxyalkanoate-<span class="hlt">Accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Isolated from Peru.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Nahat, Rafael Augusto Teodoro Pereira de Souza; Guzmán Moreno, César Wilber; Carreño Farfán, Carmen Rosa; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Halomonas sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> HG01, isolated from a salt mine in Peru, is a halophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacterium <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from different carbon sources. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this isolate, which was found to be 3,665,487 bp long, with a G+C content of 68%. PMID:26798101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4722268','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4722268"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. HG01, a Polyhydroxyalkanoate-<span class="hlt">Accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Isolated from Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Nahat, Rafael Augusto Teodoro Pereira de Souza; Guzmán Moreno, César Wilber; Carreño Farfán, Carmen Rosa; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Halomonas sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> HG01, isolated from a salt mine in Peru, is a halophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacterium <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from different carbon sources. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this isolate, which was found to be 3,665,487 bp long, with a G+C content of 68%. PMID:26798101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......482U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......482U"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> reduction of finite germanium(x) silicon(1-x)/silicon structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>U'Ren, Gregory David</p> <p></p> <p>The focus of this dissertation is a rigorous examination the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>, intrinsic behavior of stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> for epitaxial Si1-xGe x/Si (100) structures having finite dimensions. Existing models predict that the behavior is governed primarily by geometry, which can have a profound effect should the ratio of half-width to height (l/h) be less than 50. Two main aspects of existing theories were pressed: first, the role of geometry for a fixed Si1-xGex composition and therefore <span class="hlt">strain</span> (epsilon = 0.42%) and second, the role of misfit stress for a fixed l/b ratio of 0.5. Strict control of the fabrication process necessitated selective epitaxial growth via gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Though experimental combinations of various thickness (50, 100, 140, and 200 nm) and variable pitch (0.09-25 mum) a wide range of l/b values was obtained (0.5-500). As the selectively grown structures are arranged into a periodic array, where the period is repeated over a large distance (mm), in addition to dynamical diffraction, Fraunhoffer diffraction was also observed. These two complementary mechanisms of diffraction were used to determine the stress distribution within these structures. Ensemble with transmission electron microscopy, a qualitative assessment of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> reduction mechanisms--local curvature effects and tangential forces--was possible. The main conclusions of this dissertation are as follows: (A) An analytical reciprocal space construction was developed to facilitate the interpretation of experimental x-ray diffraction data. (B) As a corollary, arbitrary positioning and movement in reciprocal space are described, which in practice is applied to capturing scattered intensity parallel to the surface. (C) Facet growth in SiGe selective epitaxy was investigated. One key result is the persistence of a {113} facet with increasing thickness, as the {111} facet is anticipated. (D) In examining the role of geometry, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lattice distortions were only observed for l</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/319661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/319661"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple structures test for <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> acceptance criterion validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trimble, T.F.; Krech, G.R.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>A Simple Structures Test Program was performed where several cantilevered beam and fixed-end beam test specimens (fabricated from HY-80 steel) were subjected to a series of analytically predetermined rapidly applied transient dynamic input loads. The primary objective of the test program was to obtain dynamic nonlinear response for simple structures subjected to these load inputs. Data derived from these tests was subsequently used to correlate to analysis predictions to assess the capability to analytically predict <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic nonlinear material behavior in structures using typical time-dependent (transient) design methods and the ABAQUS finite element analysis code. The installation of a significant amount of instrumentation on these specimens and post-test measurements enabled the monitoring and recording of <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels, displacements, accelerations, and permanent set. An assessment of modeling parameters such as the element type and mesh refinement was made using these test results. In addition, currently available material models and the incremental time step procedure used in the transient analyses were evaluated. Comparison of test data to analysis results shows that displacements, accelerations, and peak <span class="hlt">strain</span> can be predicted with a reasonable level of accuracy using detailed solid models of the tested specimens. Permanent set is overpredicted by a factor of approximately two. However, the accuracy of the prediction of permanent set is being enhanced by updating material modeling in the ABAQUS code to account for effects of <span class="hlt">strain</span> reversal in oscillatory behavior of dynamically loaded specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CompM..57..339A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CompM..57..339A"><span id="translatedtitle">A staggered approach for the coupling of Cahn-Hilliard type diffusion and finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Areias, P.; Samaniego, E.; Rabczuk, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We develop an algorithm and computational implementation for simulation of problems that combine Cahn-Hilliard type diffusion with finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. We have in mind applications such as the electro-chemo-mechanics of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. We concentrate on basic computational aspects. A staggered algorithm is proposed for the coupled multi-field model. For the diffusion problem, the fourth order differential equation is replaced by a system of second order equations to deal with the issue of the regularity required for the approximation spaces. Low order finite elements are used for discretization in space of the involved fields (displacement, concentration, nonlocal concentration). Three (both 2D and 3D) extensively worked numerical examples show the capabilities of our approach for the representation of (i) phase separation, (ii) the effect of concentration in deformation and stress, (iii) the effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in concentration, and (iv) lithiation. We analyze convergence with respect to spatial and time discretization and found that very good results are achievable using both a staggered scheme and approximated <span class="hlt">strain</span> interpolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMag...96.1643G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMag...96.1643G"><span id="translatedtitle">Stored energy in metallic glasses due to <span class="hlt">strains</span> within the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greer, A. L.; Sun, Y. H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Room temperature loading of metallic glasses, at stresses below the macroscopic yield stress, raises their enthalpy and causes creep. Thermal cycling of metallic glasses between room temperature and 77 K also raises their enthalpy. In both cases, the enthalpy increases are comparable to those induced by heavy plastic deformation, but, as we show, the origins must be quite different. For plastic deformation, the enthalpy increase is a fraction (<10%) of the work done (WD) (and, in this sense, the behaviour is similar to that of conventional polycrystalline metals and alloys). In contrast, the room temperature creep and the thermal cycling involve small <span class="hlt">strains</span> well within the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit; in these cases, the enthalpy increase in the glass exceeds the WD, by as much as three orders of magnitude. We argue that the increased enthalpy can arise only from an endothermic disordering process drawing heat from the surroundings. We examine the mechanisms of this process. The increased enthalpy ('stored energy') is a measure of rejuvenation and appears as an exothermic heat of relaxation on heating the glass. The profile of this heat release (the 'relaxation spectrum') is analysed for several metallic glasses subjected to various treatments. Thus, the effects of the small-<span class="hlt">strain</span> processing (creep and thermal cycling) can be better understood, and we can explore the potential for improving properties, in particular the plasticity, of metallic glasses. Metallic glasses can exhibit a wide range of enthalpy at a given temperature, and small-<span class="hlt">strain</span> processing may assist in accessing this for practical purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/334207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/334207"><span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> at large plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> -- An approach to the theoretical strength of materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Embury, J.D. |; Han, K.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>The usual method of introducing engineers to the concept of dislocations and their role in plastic flow is to compare an estimate of the theoretical strength of solid (of order {micro}/30 where {micro} is the shear modulus) and the observed strength of either single crystals ({mu}/10{sup 4}) or practical engineering material such as structural steels where the yield stress in shear is of order {mu}/10{sup 3}. However, if one considers the problem in reverse, one can consider the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of dislocations as an important mechanism by which one can produce engineering materials in which the strength level approaches the theoretical strength. If one assumes that the flow stress can be expressed in terms of te mean free path between stored dislocations or as the square root of the global dislocation density, then one can see the influence of dislocation density in a diagrammatic form. It is clear that the strengthening by dislocation <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> due to large imposed plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> represents an important approach both to the development of new, potentially valuable, engineering materials and an important area of basic understanding in terms of the mechanical response of materials close to their theoretical strength. Thus, this article will survey some of the factors which influence dislocation <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> at large <span class="hlt">strains</span> and the consequences of such <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1132568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1132568"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy (i.e., <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25076127','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25076127"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered <span class="hlt">strain</span> of Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J</p> <p>2014-08-20</p> <p>Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 <span class="hlt">strain</span> with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE <span class="hlt">strain</span> and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion <span class="hlt">strains</span> revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered <span class="hlt">strain</span> was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE <span class="hlt">strain</span> versus the wild-type <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Beyond allowing <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE <span class="hlt">strain</span> expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates. PMID:25076127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1238736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1238736"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields in <span class="hlt">elastically</span> and plastically bent metallic glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Yuan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Ren, Yang; Ma, Dong; Gao, Yanfei F.; Bei, Hongbin</p> <p>2015-09-03</p> <p><i>In situ</i> high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was conducted on <span class="hlt">elastically</span> and plastically bent bulk metallic glass (BMG) thin plates, from which distinct local <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields were mapped spatially. These directly measured residual <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields can be nicely interpreted by our stress analysis, and also validate a previously proposed indirect residual-stress-measurement method by relating nanoindentation hardness to residual stresses. Local shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> variations on the cross sections of these thin plates were found in the plastically bent BMG, which however cannot be determined from the indirect indentation method. As a result, this study has important implications in designing and manipulating internal <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields in BMGs for the purpose of ductility enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1238736-direct-synchrotron-ray-measurements-local-strain-fields-elastically-plastically-bent-metallic-glasses','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1238736-direct-synchrotron-ray-measurements-local-strain-fields-elastically-plastically-bent-metallic-glasses"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields in <span class="hlt">elastically</span> and plastically bent metallic glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Wu, Yuan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Ren, Yang; Ma, Dong; Gao, Yanfei F.; Bei, Hongbin</p> <p>2015-09-03</p> <p>In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was conducted on <span class="hlt">elastically</span> and plastically bent bulk metallic glass (BMG) thin plates, from which distinct local <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields were mapped spatially. These directly measured residual <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields can be nicely interpreted by our stress analysis, and also validate a previously proposed indirect residual-stress-measurement method by relating nanoindentation hardness to residual stresses. Local shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> variations on the cross sections of these thin plates were found in the plastically bent BMG, which however cannot be determined from the indirect indentation method. As a result, this study has important implications in designing and manipulatingmore » internal <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields in BMGs for the purpose of ductility enhancement.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027513','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027513"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Coast Ranges at the latitude of San Francisco, 1994-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Savage, J.C.; Gan, Weijun; Prescott, W.H.; Svarc, J.L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A 66-monument geodetic array spanning the Coast Ranges near San Francisco has been surveyed more than eight times by GIPS between late 1993 and early 2001. The measured horizontal velocities of the monuments are well represented by uniform, right-lateral, simple shear parallel to N29??W. (The local strike of the San Andreas Fault is ???N34??W. The observed areal dilatation rate of 6.9 ?? 10.0 nstrain yr-1 (quoted uncertainty is one standard deviation and extension is reckoned positive) is not significantly different from zero, which implies that the observed <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> could be released by strike-slip faulting alone. Our results are consistent with the slip rates assigned by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [2003] to the principal faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley, and Greenville Faults) cutting across the GPS array. The vector sum of those slip rates is 39.8 ?? 2.6 mm yr-1 N29.8??W ?? 2.8??, whereas the motion across the GPS array (breadth 120 km) inferred from the uniform <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate approximation is 38.7 ?? 1.2 mm yr-1 N29.0?? ?? 0.9?? right-lateral shear and 0.4 ?? 0.9 mm yr-1 N61??E ?? 0.9?? extension. We interpret the near coincidence of these rates and the absence of significant <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of areal dilatation to imply that right-lateral slip on the principal faults can release the <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>; major <span class="hlt">strain</span> release on reverse faults subparallel to the San Andreas Fault within the Coast Ranges is not required. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20034181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20034181"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields in a ductile matrix surrounding an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nugent, E.E.; Calhoun, R.B.; Mortensen, A.</p> <p>2000-04-19</p> <p>A method for measuring stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> distributions within a ductile material deforming by dislocational slip is developed. The method exploits the transparency and room-temperature ductility of silver chloride, and combines the techniques of photoelasticity and marker tracking. This method is used to investigate the deformation of an elasto-plastic ductile matrix surrounding an isolated stiff fiber, the grain size of the material being slightly smaller than the fiber length. The data are compared to predictions of finite element calculations which take the matrix to be an isotropic elasto-plastic von Mises continuum. It is found that this model does not fully capture all of the features of the experimental data. Data suggest that the cause for observed discrepancies is the strong influence exerted by grain boundaries and grain orientation on the distribution of stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> within the matrix. A comparison is also made between the data and predictions of the Eshelby equivalent inclusion calculation, to show that a far higher level of discrepancy results than with the finite element calculations; this is caused by the fact that the Eshelby equivalent inclusion calculation is essentially <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and thus allows significant stress concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26496619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26496619"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-<span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> of Scheffersomyces stipitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Križanović, Stela; Butorac, Ana; Mrvčić, Jasna; Krpan, Maja; Cindrić, Mario; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Stanzer, Damir</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is an important molecule in the cellular metabolism of mammals. In this study, we examined several of the physiological characteristics of a SAM-<span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis (M12), including SAM production, ergosterol content, and ethanol tolerance. S. stipitis M12 <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> up to 52.48 mg SAM/g dry cell weight. Proteome analyses showed that the disruption of C-24 methylation in ergosterol biosynthesis, a step mediated by C-24 sterol methyltransferase (Erg6p), results in greater SAM <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> by S. stipitis M12 compared to the wild-type <span class="hlt">strain</span>. A comparative proteome-wide analysis identified 25 proteins that were differentially expressed by S. stipitis M12. These proteins are involved in ribosome biogenesis, translation, the stress response, ubiquitin-dependent catabolic processes, the cell cycle, ethanol tolerance, posttranslational modification, peroxisomal membrane stability, epigenetic regulation, the actin cytoskeleton and cell morphology, iron and copper homeostasis, cell signaling, and energy metabolism. PMID:26496619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768942','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768942"><span id="translatedtitle">Patulin <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> In Apples During Storage by Penicillium Expansum and Penicillium Griseofulvum <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Welke, Juliane Elisa; Hoeltz, Michele; Dottori, Horacio Alberto; Noll, Isa Beatriz</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these <span class="hlt">strains</span> to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. PMID:24031618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130167','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130167"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between selected bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span> and Arabidopsis halleri modulates shoot proteome and cadmium and zinc <span class="hlt">accumulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panigati, Monica; Furini, Antonella</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The effects of plant–microbe interactions between the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and eight bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span>, isolated from the rhizosphere of A. halleri plants grown in a cadmium- and zinc-contaminated site, were analysed for shoot metal <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, shoot proteome, and the transcription of genes involved in plant metal homeostasis and hyperaccumulation. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were lower in the shoots of plants cultivated in the presence of these metals plus the selected bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span> compared with plants grown solely with these metals or, as previously reported, with plants grown with these metals plus the autochthonous rhizosphere-derived microorganisms. The shoot proteome of plants cultivated in the presence of these selected bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span> plus metals, showed an increased abundance of photosynthesis- and abiotic stress-related proteins (e.g. subunits of the photosynthetic complexes, Rubisco, superoxide dismutase, and malate dehydrogenase) counteracted by a decreased amount of plant defence-related proteins (e.g. endochitinases, vegetative storage proteins, and β-glucosidase). The transcription of several homeostasis genes was modulated by the microbial communities and by Cd and Zn content in the shoot. Altogether these results highlight the importance of plant-microbe interactions in plant protein expression and metal <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and emphasize the possibility of exploiting microbial consortia for increasing or decreasing shoot metal content. PMID:21357773</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800021261','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800021261"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite-<span class="hlt">strain</span> large-deflection <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-viscoplastic finite-element transient response analysis of structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rodal, J. J. A.; Witmer, E. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A method of analysis for thin structures that incorporates finite <span class="hlt">strain</span>, <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic, <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening, time dependent material behavior implemented with respect to a fixed configuration and is consistently valid for finite <span class="hlt">strains</span> and finite rotations is developed. The theory is formulated systematically in a body fixed system of convected coordinates with materially embedded vectors that deform in common with continuum. Tensors are considered as linear vector functions and use is made of the dyadic representation. The kinematics of a deformable continuum is treated in detail, carefully defining precisely all quantities necessary for the analysis. The finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> theory developed gives much better predictions and agreement with experiment than does the traditional small <span class="hlt">strain</span> theory, and at practically no additional cost. This represents a very significant advance in the capability for the reliable prediction of nonlinear transient structural responses, including the reliable prediction of <span class="hlt">strains</span> large enough to produce ductile metal rupture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT.......212S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT.......212S"><span id="translatedtitle">High pressure and high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate behavior of cementitious materials: Experiments and <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/viscoplastic modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Martin Jeffrey</p> <p></p> <p> response as the quasistatic tests conducted at the same level of confinement. A decrease in <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate sensitivity with increasing confining pressure was observed. A new <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/viscoplastic model that captures compressibility and dilatancy, as well as <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate effects has been developed for concrete. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G14A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G14A..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> on Southern Basin and Range Province faults modulated by distant plate boundary earthquakes? Evidence from geodesy, seismic imaging, and paleoseismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, R. A.; Shirzaei, M.; Broermann, J.; Spinler, J. C.; Holland, A. A.; Pearthree, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>GPS in Arizona reveals a change in the pattern of crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in 2010 and based on viscoelastic modeling appears to be associated with the distant M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California, Mexico. GPS data collected between 1999 and 2009 near the Santa Rita normal fault in SE Arizona reveal a narrow zone of crustal deformation coincident with the fault trace, delineated by W-NW facing Pleistocene fault scarps of heights 1 to 7 m. The apparent deformation zone is also seen in a preliminary InSAR interferogram. Total motion across the zone inferred using an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> block model constrained by the pre-2010 GPS measurements is ~1 mm/yr in a sense consistent with normal fault motion. However, continuous GPS measurements throughout Arizona reveal pronounced changes in crustal velocity following the EMC earthquake, such that the relative motion across the Santa Rita fault post-2010 is negligible. Paleoseismic evidence indicates that mapped Santa Rita fault scarps were formed by two or more large magnitude (M6.7 to M7.6) surface rupturing normal-faulting earthquakes 60 to 100 kyrs ago. Seismic refraction and reflection data constrained by deep (~800 m) well log data provide evidence of progressive, possibly intermittent, displacement on the fault through time. The rate of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> observed geodetically prior to 2010, if constant over the past 60 to 100 kyrs, would imply an untenable minimum slip rate deficit of 60 to 100 m since the most recent earthquake. One explanation for the available geodetic, seismic, and paleoseismic evidence is that <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> is modulated by viscoelastic relaxation associated with frequent large magnitude earthquakes in the Salton Trough region, episodically inhibiting the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> required to generate large earthquakes on the Santa Rita and possibly other faults in the Southern Basin and Range. An important question is thus for how long the postseismic velocity changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125.1021W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125.1021W"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic stress <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in Bohai-Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic Zone based on 3D visco-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Ju; Weifeng, Sun; Xiaojing, Ma; Hui, Jiang</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Future earthquake potential in the Bohai-Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic Zone (BZSZ) in North China deserves close attention. Tectonic stress <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> state is an important indicator for earthquakes; therefore, this study aims to analyse the stress <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> state in the BZSZ via three-dimensional visco-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> numerical modelling. The results reveal that the maximum shear stress in the BZSZ increases gradually as the depth increases, and the stress range is wider in the lower layer. In the upper layer, the maximum shear stress is high in the Zhangjiakou area, whereas in the lower layer, relatively high values occur in the Penglai-Yantai area, which may be affected by the depth of the Moho surface. Besides, weak fault zones will be easily fractured when the maximum shear stress is not sufficiently high due to their low strengths, resulting in earthquakes. Therefore, based on the modelling results, the upper layer of the Zhangjiakou area and the lower layer of the Penglai-Yantai area in the BZSZ in North China are more likely to experience earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11A0478S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11A0478S"><span id="translatedtitle">Present-day Block Motions and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> on Active Faults in the Caribbean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> along intrablock faults with very low <span class="hlt">strain</span> (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731916"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrient removal and lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> properties of newly isolated microalgal <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Lin; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Han, Fei; Song, Mingming; Zhang, Shuo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In this work, four microalgae including Chlorella sp. SDEC-10, Chlorella ellipsoidea SDEC-11, Scenedesmus bijuga SDEC-12 and Scenedesmus quadricauda SEDC-13 isolated from a local lake have been investigated for the properties of growth, nutrient removal and lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in synthetic sewage. Their biomass ranged between 0.4 and 0.5g/L. The total phosphorus removal efficiency of four <span class="hlt">strains</span> was nearly 100%, but in the case of total nitrogen and ammonium the removal efficiency was relatively low. Their lipid content, ranging from 25.92% to 27.76% and corresponding to the lipid productivity 7.88-18.08mg/L/d, was higher than that obtained in BG-11. Palmitic acid and oleic acid were the predominant compositions found through fatty acids analysis. S. quadricauda SDEC-13 performed best both in nutrient removal and in lipid production among the four <span class="hlt">strains</span>. PMID:24731916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995162"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of nitrogen starvation on the dynamics of triacylglycerol <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in nine microalgae <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Breuer, Guido; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Draaisma, René B; Wijffels, René H</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Microalgae-derived lipids are an alternative to vegetable and fossil oils, but lipid content and quality vary among microalgae <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Selection of a suitable <span class="hlt">strain</span> for lipid production is therefore of paramount importance. Based on published results for 96 species, nine <span class="hlt">strains</span> were selected to study their biomass, total fatty acid, and triacylglycerol (TAG) production under nitrogen-sufficient and deficient cultivation conditions. Under nitrogen-deficient conditions, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella zofingiensis, Neochloris oleoabundans, and Scenedesmus obliquus, <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> more than 35% of their dry weight as TAGs. Palmitic and oleic acid were the major fatty acids produced. The main difference between these <span class="hlt">strains</span> was the amount of biomass that was produced (3.0-7.8-fold increase in dry weight) and the duration that the biomass productivity was retained (2-7 days) after nitrogen depletion. S. obliquus (UTEX 393) and C. zofingiensis (UTEX B32) showed the highest average TAG productivity (322 and 243 mg l(-1)day(-1)). PMID:22995162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034782&hterms=EDM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DEDM','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034782&hterms=EDM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DEDM"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Shumagin Islands: Results of initial GPS measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larson, Kristine M.; Lisowski, Michael</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Deformation in the Shumagin seismic gap has been monitored with repeated trilateration (EDM) in the 1980-1987 interval and with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the 1987-1991 interval. The geodetic network extends for 100-km across the Shumagin Islands to the Alaska Peninsula. Results from the GPS surveys are consistent with those previously reported for the EDM surveys: we failed to detect significant <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the N30 deg W direction of plate convergence. Using the method of simultaneous reduction for position and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates, we found the average rate of extension in the direction of plate convergence to be -25 +/- 25 nanostrain/yr (nstrain/yr) during the 1987-1991 interval of GPS surveys compared with -20 +/- 15 nstrain/yr during the 1981-1987 interval of complete EDM surveys. We found a marginally significant -26 +/- 12 nstrain/yr extension rate in the 1981-1991 interval covered by the combined EDM and GPS surveys. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> rates are higher, but not significantly so, in the part of the network closest to the trench. Spatial variation in the deformation is observed in the 1980-1991 average station velocities, where three of the four stations closest to the trench have an arcward velocity of a few mm/yr. The observed <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates are an order of magnitude lower than the -200 nstrain/yr rate predicted by dislocation models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JEMat..38..410Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JEMat..38..410Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the Drop Performance of Solder Joints by Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Energy from High-Speed Ball Pull Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>You, Taehoon; Kim, Yunsung; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jaehong; Jung, Byungwook; Moon, Jungtak; Choe, Heeman</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Despite being expensive and time consuming, board-level drop testing has been widely used to assess the drop or impact resistance of the solder joints in handheld microelectronic devices, such as cellphones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). In this study, a new test method, which is much simpler and quicker, is proposed. The method involves evaluating the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy and relating it to the impact resistance of the solder joint by considering the Young’s modulus of the bulk solder and the fracture stress of the solder joint during a ball pull test at high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. The results show that solder joints can be ranked in order of descending <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy as follows: Sn-37Pb, Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu, and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu. This order is consistent with the actual drop performances of the samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6385152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6385152"><span id="translatedtitle">Preferred orientation in carbon and boron nitride: Does a thermodynamic theory of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy get it right. [C; BN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCarty, K.F. )</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>We address whether the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>-energy theory (minimizing the Gibbs energy of a stressed crystal) of McKenzie and co-workers [D. R. McKenzie and M. M. M. Bilek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 16], 2733 (1998)] adequately explains the preferred orientation observed in carbon and BN films. In the formalism, the Gibbs energy of the cubic materials diamond and cubic boron includes the <span class="hlt">strain</span> that occurs when the phases form, through specific structural transformations, from graphitic precursors. This treatment violates the requirement of thermodynamics that the Gibbs energy be a path-independent, state function. If the cubic phases are treated using the same (path-independent) formalism applied to the graphitic materials, the crystallographic orientation of lowest Gibbs energy is not that observed experimentally. For graphitic (hexagonal) carbon and BN, an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> approach seems inappropriate because the compressive stresses in energetically deposited films are orders of magnitude higher than the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit of the materials. Furthermore, using the known <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of either ordered or disordered graphitic materials, the theory does not predict the orientation observed by experiment. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCM...27e5401B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCM...27e5401B"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of gradient <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tensors: stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependencies of electric field gradients in cubic and hexagonal systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brüsewitz, C.; Vetter, U.; Hofsäss, H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We present ab-initio calculations of the independent components of gradient <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tensors, so-called gradient <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants, which relate electric field gradient tensors to stress or <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensors. The constants of cubic and hexagonal metals, MAX phases, and zinc oxide were determined within the framework of density functional theory by using the augmented plane waves plus local orbitals method implemented in the WIEN2k code. Comparison with experimental gradient <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants and electric field gradients' stress dependencies suggest an accuracy of about 30% of the calculated constants, independent of the probe that detects the field gradient being self- or foreign-atom. Changes in the electric field gradient take place by <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced asymmetric occupations of the p and d states in the valence region for all investigated materials. Volume and structural dependencies of the electric field gradient can directly be determined from this fundamental approach and are, for hexagonal closed packed metals, consistent with vanishing electric field gradients around ideal close packing and volume dependencies larger than one. The concept of these calculations is applicable in any hyperfine interaction method and, thus, can be used to gain information about intrinsic <span class="hlt">strains</span> in systems where the experimental gradient <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants are inaccessible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11B0496D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11B0496D"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in the Western Part of Black Sea Region in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deniz, I.; Avsar, N. B.; Deniz, R.; Mekik, C.; Kutoglu, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Turkish National Horizontal Control Network (TNHCN) based on the European Datum 1950 (ED50) was used as the principal geodetic network until 2005 in Turkey. Since 2005, Turkish Large Scale Map and Map Information Production Regulation have required that that all the densification points have been produced within the same datum of Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network (TNFGN) put into practise in 2002 and based on International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Hence, the common points were produced in both European Datum 1950 (ED50), and TNFGN.It is known that the geological and geophysical information about the network area can be obtained by the evaluation of the coordinate and scale variations in a geodetic network. For one such evaluation, the coordinate variations and velocities of network points, and also the <span class="hlt">strains</span> are investigated. However, the principal problem in derivation of velocities arises from two different datums. In this context, the computation of velocities using the coordinate data of the ED50 and TNFGN is not accurate and reliable. Likewise, the analysis of <span class="hlt">strain</span> from the coordinate differences is not reliable. However, due to the fact that the scale of a geodetic network is independent from datum, the <span class="hlt">strains</span> can be derived from scale variations accurately and reliably.In this study, a test area limited 39.5°-42.0° northern latitudes and 31.0°-37.0° eastern longitudes was chosen. The benchmarks in this test area are composed of 30 geodetic control points derived with the aim of cadastral and engineering applications. We used data mining to investigate the common benchmarks in both reference systems for this area. Accordingly, the ED50 and TNFGN coordinates refer 1954 and 2005, respectively. Thus, it has been investigated the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of 51 years in this region. It should be also noted that since 1954, the earthquakes have not registered greater than magnitude 6.0 in the test area. It is a considerable situation for this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G13A0999A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.G13A0999A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip distribution, <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amelug, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of <span class="hlt">strain</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931336"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> by oleaginous and non-oleaginous yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> in nitrogen and phosphate limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolouchová, Irena; Maťátková, Olga; Sigler, Karel; Masák, Jan; Řezanka, Tomáš</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida sp.) and traditional biotechnological non-oleaginous ones characterized by high biomass yield (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as potential producers of biofuel-utilizable and nutritionally valuable lipids. The main objective was to increase lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> by increasing C/P ratio together with higher C/N ratio, while maintaining high biomass yield. The C/N ratio of 30 was found to lead to higher biomass content and the total lipid content increased significantly with higher C/P ratio. With higher ratios of both C/N and C/P, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in cell lipids increased while polyunsaturated FAs decreased. Oleaginous yeast species had a lower proportion of unsaturated FAs (approx. 80 %) than non-oleaginous <span class="hlt">strains</span> (approx. 90 %). At a C/N ratio of 30 and C/P ratio 1043, T. cutaneum produced a high amount of ω-6 unsaturated linoleic acid, the precursor of some prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, while Candida sp. and K. polysporus <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> a high content of palmitoleic acid. PMID:26931336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Geo....29..975P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Geo....29..975P"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and fault interaction in the Eastern California shear zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peltzer, Gilles; Crampé, Fréderic; Hensley, Scott; Rosen, Paul</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry reveals transient <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along the Blackwater Little Lake fault system within the Eastern California shear zone. The surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> map obtained by averaging eight years (1992 2000) of Earth Resource Satellite (ERS) radar data shows a 120-km-long, 20-km- wide zone of concentrated shear between the southern end of the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake surface break and the northern end of the 1992 Landers earthquake surface break. The observed shear zone is continuous through the Garlock fault, which does not show any evidence of left-lateral slip during the same time period. A dislocation model of the observed shear indicates right-lateral slip at 7 ± 3 mm/yr on a vertical fault below ˜5 km depth, a rate that is two to three times greater than the geologic rates estimated on northwest-trending faults in the eastern Mojave area. This transient slip rate and the absence of resolvable slip on the Garlock fault may be the manifestation of an oscillatory <span class="hlt">strain</span> pattern between interacting, conjugate fault systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.6307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.6307H"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of viscoelastic postseismic relaxation on estimates of interseismic crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> at Yucca Mountain, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Plag, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We estimate the long-term crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada from GPS velocities taking into account viscoelastic relaxation following recent earthquakes to remove bias associated with transient deformation. The YM data reveal postseismic relaxation in time series non-linearity and geographic variation of the transient signal. From the data we estimate best-fitting lower crust and upper mantle viscosities of 1019.5 Pa s and 1018.5 Pa s, respectively. Once the relaxation model predictions are subtracted from the data, the long-term shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rate is between 16.3 and 25.1 nanostrains/year (ns/yr) to 99% confidence, a range much larger than the formal uncertainties from GPS measurement. We conclude that 1) a Maxwell viscoelastic model cannot explain all the deformation observed at YM, 2) uncertainty in viscosities dominates uncertainty in YM <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates, and 3) the effects of large, recent earthquakes must be accounted for in seismic hazard studies using GPS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029432','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029432"><span id="translatedtitle">A physical model for <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the San Francisco Bay Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in tectonically active regions is generally a superposition of the effects of background tectonic loading, steady-state dislocation processes, such as creep, and transient deformation. In the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR), the most uncertain of these processes is transient deformation, which arises primarily in association with large earthquakes. As such, it depends upon the history of faulting and the rheology of the crust and mantle, which together determine the pattern of longer term (decade-scale) post-seismic response to earthquakes. We utilize a set of 102 GPS velocity vectors in the SFBR in order to characterize the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate field and construct a physical model of its present deformation. We first perform an inversion for the continuous velocity gradient field from the discrete GPS velocity field, from which both tensor <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and rotation rate may be extracted. The present <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate pattern is well described as a nearly uniform shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate oriented approximately N34??W (140 nanostrain yr-1) plus a N56??E uniaxial compression rate averaging 20 nanostrain yr-1 across the shear zone. We fit the velocity and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate fields to a model of time-dependent deformation within a 135-kin-wide, arcuate shear zone bounded by strong Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithosphere to the SW and NE, respectively. Driving forces are purely lateral, consisting of shear zone deformation imposed by the relative motions between the thick Pacific Plate and Sierra Nevada block lithospheres. Assuming a depth-dependent viscoelastic structure within the shear zone, we account for the effects of steady creep on faults and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, subject to constant velocity boundary conditions on the edges of the shear zone. Fault creep is realized by evaluating dislocations on the creeping portions of faults in the fluid limit of the viscoelastic model. A priori plate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhRvB..65j4104L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhRvB..65j4104L"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetry-general least-squares extraction of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> data for <span class="hlt">strained</span> materials from ab initio calculations of stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Page, Yvon; Saxe, Paul</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>A symmetry-general approach for the least-squares, therefore precise, extraction of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> coefficients for <span class="hlt">strained</span> materials is reported. It analyzes stresses calculated ab initio for properly selected <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The problem, its implementation, and its solution strategy all differ radically from a previous energy-<span class="hlt">strain</span> approach that we published last year, but the normal equations turn out to be amenable to the same constrainment scheme that makes both approaches symmetry general. The symmetry considerations governing the automated selection of appropriately <span class="hlt">strained</span> models and their Cartesian systems are detailed. The extension to materials under general stress is discussed and implemented. VASP was used for ab initio calculation of stresses. A comprehensive range of examples includes a triclinic material (kyanite) and simple materials with a range of symmetries at zero pressure, MgO under hydrostatic pressure, Ti4As3 under [001] uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and Si under [001] uniaxial stress. The MgO case agrees with recent experimental work including <span class="hlt">elastic</span> coefficients as well as their first and second derivatives. The curves of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> coefficients for Si show a gradual increase in the 33 compliance coefficient, leading to a collapse of the material at -11.7 GPa, compared with -12.0 GPa experimentally. Interpretation of results for Be using two approximations [local density (LDA), generalized gradient (GGA)], two approaches (stress <span class="hlt">strain</span> and energy <span class="hlt">strain</span>), two potential types (projector augmented wave and ultrasoft), and two quantum engines (VASP and ORESTES) expose the utmost importance of the cell data used for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> calculations and the lesser importance of the other factors. For stiffness at relaxed cell data, differences are shown to originate mostly in the considerable overestimation of the residual compressive stresses at x-ray cell data by LDA, resulting in a smaller relaxed cell, thus larger values for diagonal stiffness coefficients. The symmetry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15691943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15691943"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism of bismuth subsalicylate and intracellular <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of bismuth by Fusarium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> BI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dodge, Anthony G; Wackett, Lawrence P</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Enrichment cultures were conducted using bismuth subsalicylate as the sole source of carbon and activated sludge as the inoculum. A pure culture was obtained and identified as a Fusarium sp. based on spore morphology and partial sequences of 18S rRNA, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, and beta-tubulin genes. The isolate, named Fusarium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> BI, grew to equivalent densities when using salicylate or bismuth subsalicylate as carbon sources. Bismuth nitrate at concentrations of up to 200 muM did not limit growth of this organism on glucose. The concentration of soluble bismuth in suspensions of bismuth subsalicylate decreased during growth of Fusarium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> BI. Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed that the <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> bismuth was localized in phosphorus-rich granules distributed in the cytoplasm and vacuoles. Long-chain polyphosphates were extracted from fresh biomass grown on bismuth subsalicylate, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry showed that these fractions also contained high concentrations of bismuth. Enzyme activity assays of crude extracts of Fusarium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> BI showed that salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were induced during growth on salicylate, indicating that this organism degrades salicylate by conversion of salicylate to catechol, followed by ortho cleavage of the aromatic ring. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was not detected. Fusarium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> BI grew with several other aromatic acids as carbon sources: benzoate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, gentisate, d-mandelate, l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, phenylacetate, 3-hydroxyphenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and phenylpropionate. PMID:15691943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4645108','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4645108"><span id="translatedtitle">Full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensor measurements from individual dislocation cells in copper through-Si vias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levine, Lyle E.; Okoro, Chukwudi; Xu, Ruqing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nondestructive measurements of the full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensors from individual dislocation cells distributed along the full extent of a 50 µm-long polycrystalline copper via in Si is reported. Determining all of the components of these tensors from sub-micrometre regions within deformed metals presents considerable challenges. The primary issues are ensuring that different diffraction peaks originate from the same sample volume and that accurate determination is made of the peak positions from plastically deformed samples. For these measurements, three widely separated reflections were examined from selected, individual grains along the via. The lattice spacings and peak positions were measured for multiple dislocation cell interiors within each grain and the cell-interior peaks were sorted out using the measured included angles. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo uncertainty algorithm provided uncertainties for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor and stress tensor components. PMID:26594371</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1248965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1248965"><span id="translatedtitle">Full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensor measurements from individual dislocation cells in copper through-Si vias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levine, Lyle E.; Okoro, Chukwudi A.; Xu, Ruqing</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>We report non-destructive measurements of the full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensors from individual dislocation cells distributed along the full extent of a 50 mm-long polycrystalline copper via in Si is reported. Determining all of the components of these tensors from sub-micrometre regions within deformed metals presents considerable challenges. The primary issues are ensuring that different diffraction peaks originate from the same sample volume and that accurate determination is made of the peak positions from plastically deformed samples. For these measurements, three widely separated reflections were examined from selected, individual grains along the via. The lattice spacings and peak positions were measured for multiple dislocation cell interiors within each grain and the cell-interior peaks were sorted out using the measured included angles. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo uncertainty algorithm provided uncertainties for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor and stress tensor components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1248965-full-elastic-strain-stress-tensor-measurements-from-individual-dislocation-cells-copper-through-si-vias','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1248965-full-elastic-strain-stress-tensor-measurements-from-individual-dislocation-cells-copper-through-si-vias"><span id="translatedtitle">Full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensor measurements from individual dislocation cells in copper through-Si vias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Levine, Lyle E.; Okoro, Chukwudi A.; Xu, Ruqing</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>We report non-destructive measurements of the full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensors from individual dislocation cells distributed along the full extent of a 50 mm-long polycrystalline copper via in Si is reported. Determining all of the components of these tensors from sub-micrometre regions within deformed metals presents considerable challenges. The primary issues are ensuring that different diffraction peaks originate from the same sample volume and that accurate determination is made of the peak positions from plastically deformed samples. For these measurements, three widely separated reflections were examined from selected, individual grains along the via. The lattice spacings and peak positionsmore » were measured for multiple dislocation cell interiors within each grain and the cell-interior peaks were sorted out using the measured included angles. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo uncertainty algorithm provided uncertainties for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor and stress tensor components.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594371"><span id="translatedtitle">Full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensor measurements from individual dislocation cells in copper through-Si vias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levine, Lyle E; Okoro, Chukwudi; Xu, Ruqing</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Nondestructive measurements of the full <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensors from individual dislocation cells distributed along the full extent of a 50 µm-long polycrystalline copper via in Si is reported. Determining all of the components of these tensors from sub-micrometre regions within deformed metals presents considerable challenges. The primary issues are ensuring that different diffraction peaks originate from the same sample volume and that accurate determination is made of the peak positions from plastically deformed samples. For these measurements, three widely separated reflections were examined from selected, individual grains along the via. The lattice spacings and peak positions were measured for multiple dislocation cell interiors within each grain and the cell-interior peaks were sorted out using the measured included angles. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo uncertainty algorithm provided uncertainties for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor and stress tensor components. PMID:26594371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/947026','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/947026"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of the <span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Plastic Stress/<span class="hlt">Strain</span> Response for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.</p> <p>2009-01-26</p> <p>This paper proposes a model to predict the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using the anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed by Phelps and Tucker for LFTs. An incremental procedure using the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka model is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall <span class="hlt">strain</span> increment for an aligned fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the later is then obtained from the solution for the aligned fiber composite that is averaged over all possible fiber orientations using the orientation averaging method. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic and strength prediction model for LFTs was validated against the experimental stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> results obtained for long glass fiber/polypropylene specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22470146','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22470146"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> appearing in gallium arsenide as a result of doping with isovalent impurities of phosphorus and indium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pavlov, D. A.; Bidus, N. V.; Bobrov, A. I.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Volkova, E. I.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Malekhonova, N. V.; Sorokin, D. S.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>The distribution of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> in a system consisting of a quantum-dot layer and a buried GaAs{sub x}P{sub 1−x} layer is studied using geometric phase analysis. A hypothesis is offered concerning the possibility of controlling the process of the formation of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs matrix using a local isovalent phosphorus impurity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...66...53K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...66...53K"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the North Tabriz Fault (NW Iran) deduced from InSAR time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karimzadeh, Sadra; Cakir, Ziyadin; Osmanoğlu, Batuhan; Schmalzle, Gina; Miyajima, Masakatsu; Amiraslanzadeh, Reza; Djamour, Yahya</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We present the surface deformation along the North Tabriz Fault (NTF) deduced from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) technique. The NTF, a major right-lateral strike-slip fault within the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, is located 40-45 km southwest of the Mw 6.5 and Mw 6.3, August 11, 2012 earthquake sequence that caused heavy damage and more than 300 deaths in Ahar, NW Iran. InSAR time series analysis of 17 ENVISAT radar images acquired between 2004 and 2010 using combination of the permanent scatterers InSAR (PSI) and the small baseline InSAR (SBAS) approach reveals sub-centimeter interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the NTF and rapid subsidence in the Tabriz basin. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> dislocation modeling of the mean line-of-sight velocity field estimated from SBAS time series yields an average slip rate of 8.7 ± 2.5 mm/year with a locking depth of 15.8 ± 10.8 km. This rate is consistent with previous geodetic estimates based on recent Global Positioning System measurements, and suggests a recurrence interval of 250-300 years for major earthquakes of Mw 7.0-7.3 on the NTF, much shorter than those estimated from paleoseismic investigations (821 ± 176 years). This in turn implies a high seismic potential on the NTF taking into account the occurrence of the two last earthquakes on the NTF in 1721 and 1780. SAR time series analysis also reveals three regions of rapid subsidence with a maximum rate of 20 mm/year near the Tabriz thermal power plant in the Tabriz basin. Piezometric data from groundwater wells suggest that accelerated subsidence over the last several years may result from fluctuations in the ground water table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MMTA...35..563W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MMTA...35..563W"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and damage development during creep of prestrained 316 stainless steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilshire, B.; Willis, M.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The effects of prestraining at room temperature and at the creep temperature of 848 K, as well as the responses to stress reductions during creep, have been studied for 316 stainless steels varying in composition and initial microstructure. The results are analyzed by contrasting the strengthening effects achieved by introducing high dislocation densities prior to creep exposure with the deleterious effects, which can occur when prestraining causes premature void nucleation at grain boundaries. In addition, by recognizing the differing contributions made by the grain interiors and the grain boundary zones to the overall rates of creep <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, a consistent explanation is provided for the diverse creep behavior patterns reported for different metals and alloys after various prestraining treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25695632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25695632"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of a bioactive benzoisochromanequinone compound kalafungin by a wild type antitumor-medermycin-producing streptomycete <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lü, Jin; He, Qiang; Huang, Luyao; Cai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wenwen; He, Jing; Zhang, Lili; Li, Aiying</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Medermycin and kalafungin, two antibacterial and antitumor antibiotics isolated from different streptomycetes, share an identical polyketide skeleton core. The present study reported the discovery of kalafungin in a medermycin-producing streptomycete <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the first time. A mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> obtained through UV mutagenesis showed a 3-fold increase in the production of this antibiotic, compared to the wild type <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Heterologous expression experiments suggested that its production was severely controlled by the gene cluster for medermycin biosynthesis. In all, these findings suggested that kalafungin and medermycin could be <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> by the same streptomycete and share their biosynthetic pathway to some extent in this <span class="hlt">strain</span>. PMID:25695632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4335000','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4335000"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of a Bioactive Benzoisochromanequinone Compound Kalafungin by a Wild Type Antitumor-Medermycin-Producing Streptomycete <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lü, Jin; He, Qiang; Huang, Luyao; Cai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wenwen; He, Jing; Zhang, Lili; Li, Aiying</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Medermycin and kalafungin, two antibacterial and antitumor antibiotics isolated from different streptomycetes, share an identical polyketide skeleton core. The present study reported the discovery of kalafungin in a medermycin-producing streptomycete <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the first time. A mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> obtained through UV mutagenesis showed a 3-fold increase in the production of this antibiotic, compared to the wild type <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Heterologous expression experiments suggested that its production was severely controlled by the gene cluster for medermycin biosynthesis. In all, these findings suggested that kalafungin and medermycin could be <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> by the same streptomycete and share their biosynthetic pathway to some extent in this <span class="hlt">strain</span>. PMID:25695632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Geo....32..313O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Geo....32..313O"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-magnitude transient <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> on the Blackwater fault, Eastern California shear zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oskin, Michael; Iriondo, Alex</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>We investigate the Quaternary slip rate for the Blackwater fault, Eastern California shear zone, through mapping and geochronology of offset volcanic rocks. Basalt flows of the Black Mountains support the presence of faulting at 3.77 ± 0.11 Ma, 1.8 ± 0.1 km of subsequent slip, and a well-constrained long-term slip rate of 0.49 ± 0.04 mm/yr. Total slip diminishes northward, evidenced by a 0.3 1.8 km offset of a 7.23 ± 1.07 Ma dacite flow in the Black Hills and fault termination in the Lava Mountains, 5 km short of the Garlock fault. Slow long-term slip rate together with sparse evidence for Holocene rupture contradict predictions of rapid slip rate from tectonic geodesy. These results support the conclusion that as much as 95% of geodetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Blackwater fault, and thus from 1 to 6 mm/yr of geodetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measured across the Eastern California shear zone, is a transitory phenomenon. Discrepant geologic and geodetic results may indicate an increased near-term seismic hazard, but merit caution for interpretation of fault slip rates from geodesy alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16791192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16791192"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and the earthquake potential on the southern San Andreas fault system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fialko, Yuri</p> <p>2006-06-22</p> <p>The San Andreas fault in California is a mature continental transform fault that accommodates a significant fraction of motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The two most recent great earthquakes on this fault ruptured its northern and central sections in 1906 and 1857, respectively. The southern section of the fault, however, has not produced a great earthquake in historic times (for at least 250 years). Assuming the average slip rate of a few centimetres per year, typical of the rest of the San Andreas fault, the minimum amount of slip deficit accrued on the southern section is of the order of 7-10 metres, comparable to the maximum co-seismic offset ever documented on the fault. Here I present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation across the southern San Andreas fault system using a well-populated catalogue of space-borne synthetic aperture radar data. The data reveal a nearly equal partitioning of deformation between the southern San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, with a pronounced asymmetry in <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> with respect to the geologically mapped fault traces. The observed <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates confirm that the southern section of the San Andreas fault may be approaching the end of the interseismic phase of the earthquake cycle. PMID:16791192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4277324','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4277324"><span id="translatedtitle">SPONTANEOUS MUTATION <span class="hlt">ACCUMULATION</span> IN MULTIPLE <span class="hlt">STRAINS</span> OF THE GREEN ALGA, CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morgan, Andrew D; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D; Colegrave, Nick</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of mutational parameters, such as the average fitness effect of a new mutation and the rate at which new genetic variation for fitness is created by mutation, are important for the understanding of many biological processes. However, the causes of interspecific variation in mutational parameters and the extent to which they vary within species remain largely unknown. We maintained multiple <span class="hlt">strains</span> of the unicellular eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for approximately 1000 generations under relaxed selection by transferring a single cell every ∼10 generations. Mean fitness of the lines tended to decline with generations of mutation <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> whereas mutational variance increased. We did not find any evidence for differences among <span class="hlt">strains</span> in any of the mutational parameters estimated. The overall change in mean fitness per cell division and rate of input of mutational variance per cell division were more similar to values observed in multicellular organisms than to those in other single-celled microbes. However, after taking into account differences in genome size among species, estimates from multicellular organisms and microbes, including our new estimates from C. reinhardtii, become substantially more similar. Thus, we suggest that variation in genome size is an important determinant of interspecific variation in mutational parameters. PMID:24826801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.135e4902H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.135e4902H"><span id="translatedtitle">The molecular kink paradigm for rubber <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>: Numerical simulations of explicit polyisoprene networks at low to moderate tensile <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanson, David E.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Based on recent molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations of small isoprene molecules, we propose a new ansatz for rubber <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. We envision a network chain as a series of independent molecular kinks, each comprised of a small number of backbone units, and the <span class="hlt">strain</span> as being imposed along the contour of the chain. We treat chain extension in three distinct force regimes: (Ia) near zero <span class="hlt">strain</span>, where we assume that the chain is extended within a well defined tube, with all of the kinks participating simultaneously as entropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> springs, (II) when the chain becomes sensibly straight, giving rise to a purely enthalpic stretching force (until bond rupture occurs) and, (Ib) a linear entropic regime, between regimes Ia and II, in which a force limit is imposed by tube deformation. In this intermediate regime, the molecular kinks are assumed to be gradually straightened until the chain becomes a series of straight segments between entanglements. We assume that there exists a tube deformation tension limit that is inversely proportional to the chain path tortuosity. Here we report the results of numerical simulations of explicit three-dimensional, periodic, polyisoprene networks, using these extension-only force models. At low <span class="hlt">strain</span>, crosslink nodes are moved affinely, up to an arbitrary node force limit. Above this limit, non-affine motion of the nodes is allowed to relax unbalanced chain forces. Our simulation results are in good agreement with tensile stress vs. <span class="hlt">strain</span> experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109692"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> zero-crossing <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurement in assessment of renal allograft cortical hardness: a preliminary observation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Jing; Rubin, Jonathan M</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>To determine whether ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> zero-crossing <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurement can be used to discriminate moderate cortical fibrosis or inflammation in renal allografts, we prospectively assessed cortical hardness with quasi-static ultrasound elastography in 38 renal transplant patients who underwent kidney biopsy from January 2013 to June 2013. With the Banff score criteria for renal cortical fibrosis as gold standard, 38 subjects were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 18) with ≤25% cortical fibrosis and group 2 (n = 20) with >26% cortical fibrosis. We then divided this population again into group 3 (n = 20) with ≤ 25% inflammation and group 4 (n = 18) with >26% inflammation based on the Banff score for renal parenchyma inflammation. To estimate renal cortical hardness in both population divisions, we propose an ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> relative zero-crossing <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurement (ZC) method. In this technique, the relative return to baseline, that is zero <span class="hlt">strain</span>, of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the renal cortex is compared with that of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in reference soft tissue (between the abdominal wall and pelvic muscles). Using the ZC point on the reference <span class="hlt">strain</span> decompression slope as standard, we determined when cortical <span class="hlt">strain</span> crossed zero during decompression. ZC was negative when cortical <span class="hlt">strain</span> did not return or returned after the reference, whereas ZC was positive when cortical <span class="hlt">strain</span> returned ahead of the reference. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the significance of differences in ZC between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 3 and 4. The accuracy of ZC in determining moderate cortical fibrosis and moderate inflammation was examined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The intra-class correlation coefficient and analysis of variance were used to test inter-rater reliability and reproducibility. ZC had good inter-observer agreement (ICC = 0.912) and reproducibility (p = 0.979). ZCs were negative in 18 of 18 cases in group 1 and positive in 19 of 20 cases in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36c2002Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36c2002Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the structural, electronic and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of orthorhombic BiMnO3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Pei; Haibin, Wu</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants and electronic properties of orthorhombic BiMnO3 under uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> along the c-axis using the first-principles method. It is found that, beyond the range -0.025 < ɛ < 0.055, the predicted stiffness constants cij cannot demand the Born stability criteria and the compliance constant s44 shows abrupt changes, which accompany phase transition. In addition, the results for magnetism moments and polycrystalline properties are also reported. Additionally, under compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span>, a band gap transition from the indirect to the direct occurs within -0.019 < ɛ < -0.018. Furthermore, the response of the band gap of orthorhombic BiMnO3 to uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840055128&hterms=kinematic+hardening&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkinematic%2Bhardening','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840055128&hterms=kinematic+hardening&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dkinematic%2Bhardening"><span id="translatedtitle">On constitutive relations at finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> - Hypo-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and elasto-plasticity with isotropic or kinematic hardening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Atluri, S. N.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Nagtegaal and de Jong (1982) have studied stresses generated by simple finite shear in the case of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic and rigid-plastic materials which exhibit anisotropic hardening. They reported that the shear stress is oscillatory in time. It was found that the occurrence of such an 'anomaly' is not restricted to anisotropic plasticity. Similar behavior in finite shear may result even in the case of hypoelasticity and classical isotropic hardening plasticity theory. The present investigation is concerned with the central problem of 'generalizing' with respect to the finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> case, taking into account the constitutive relations of infinitesimal <span class="hlt">strain</span> theories of classical plasticity with isotropic or kinematic hardening. The problem of hypoelasticity is also considered. It is shown that current controversies surrounding the choice of stress rate in the finite-<span class="hlt">strain</span> generalizations of the constitutive relations and the anomalies surrounding kinematic hardening plasticity theory are easily resolvable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JEMat.tmp..394M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JEMat.tmp..394M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Band-Gap Modulation of GeCH3 Nanoribbons Under <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span>: A Density Functional Theory Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, ShengQian; Li, Feng; Jiang, ChunLing</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Using the density functional theory method, we researched the band-gap modulation of GeCH3 nanoribbons under uniaxial <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The results indicated that the band gap of GeCH3 nanoribbons could be tuned along two directions, namely, stretching or compressing ribbons when ɛ was changed from -10% to 10% in 6-zigzag, 10-zigzag, 13-armchair, and 17-armchair nanoribbons, respectively. The band gap greatly changed with <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In the case of tension, the amount of change in the band gap was bigger. But in the case of compression, the gradient was steeper. The band gap had a nearly linear relationship when ɛ ranges from 0% to 10%. We also investigated if the band gap is changed with widths. The results showed variation of the band gap did not rely on widths. Therefore, the GeCH3 nanoribbons had the greatest potential application in <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors and optical electronics at the nanoscale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093017','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093017"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of the <span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Plastic Stress/<span class="hlt">Strain</span> Response for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Ba N.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay H; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a model to predict the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using an anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed for LFTs. An incremental procedure using Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka assumption is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall <span class="hlt">strain</span> increment for an aligned-fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the latter is then obtained from the solution for the aligned-fiber composite by averaging over all fiber orientations. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The model is validated against the experimental stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> results obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244194','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244194"><span id="translatedtitle">Giant <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tunability in <span class="hlt">strained</span> BiFeO<sub>3</sub> near an electrically induced phase transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu, Pu; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Tselev, Alexander; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long -Qing; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina; Li, Q.; Cao, Y.; Laanait, N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> anomalies are signatures of phase transitions in condensed matters and have traditionally been studied using various techniques spanning from neutron scattering to static mechanical testing. Here, using band-excitation <span class="hlt">elastic</span>/piezoresponse spectroscopy, we probed sub-MHz <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dynamics of a tip bias-induced rhombohedral–tetragonal phase transition of <span class="hlt">strained</span> (001)-BiFeO<sub>3</sub> (rhombohedral) ferroelectric thin films from ~10<sup>3</sup> nm<sup>3</sup> sample volumes. Near this transition, we observed that the Young's modulus intrinsically softens by over 30% coinciding with 2-3 folds enhancement of local piezoresponse. Coupled with phase-field modeling, we also addressed the influence of polarization switching and mesoscopic structural heterogeneities (e.g., domain walls) on the kinetics of this phase transition, thereby providing fresh insights into the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in ferroelectrics. Moreover, the giant electrically tunable <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness and corresponding electromechanical properties observed here suggest potential applications of BiFeO<sub>3</sub> in next-generation frequency-agile electroacoustic devices, based on utilization of the soft modes underlying successive ferroelectric phase transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G43C..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G43C..01A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> and Release in the South Iceland Seismic Zone (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnadottir, T.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Geirsson, H.; Ofeigsson, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic ridge, straddling the plate boundary of the North-American and Eurasian plates. Several active volcanic zones and two main transforms accommodate the plate spreading across the island. In the South, the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) forms the active plate boundary between the Hengill triple junction in the west, and the Eastern Volcanic Zone. The SISZ translates the E-W left lateral shear at depth by faulting on numerous N-S oriented faults in the brittle crust forming the southern margin of the proposed Hreppar micro-plate in South Iceland. In June 2000 and May 2008, two sets of magnitude 6.5 and 6.0 main shocks struck the SISZ. Both earthquake episodes consisted of a pair of main shocks of similar size rupturing closely spaced faults, where static and dynamic stress changes generated by the first event triggered the second main shock further west. The June 2000 earthquakes occurred in the central part of the SISZ, and the May 2008 events in the western part, close to the Hengill triple junction. Since June 2000 annual GPS measurements have been conducted in a geodetic network in South Iceland and a number of continuous GPS stations have been installed. We report <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate variations in South Iceland derived from GPS observations during 2000 to 2013. In addition to plate motion, and post-seismic signals, the surface deformation is complicated by magma <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> under active volcanoes at the eastern border of the SISZ - Hekla, and Eyjafjallajökull - as well as subsidence and contraction in the Hengill area caused by fluid withdrawal for geothermal energy production. We also note an increase in <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates in the epicentral area of the May 2008 main shocks during 2004 to 2007. Previous studies have indicated that the seismic moment released in the June 2000 and May 2008 earthquakes is only half of the <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> stress since the last major earthquake sequence in 1896-1912. Thus, magnitude 6-7 events may be expected</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961284','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961284"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative Stress Is a Mediator for Increased Lipid <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in a Newly Isolated Dunaliella salina <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina <span class="hlt">strain</span> by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this <span class="hlt">strain</span> were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24651514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24651514"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina <span class="hlt">strain</span> by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this <span class="hlt">strain</span> were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....97.8865L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JGR....97.8865L"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Positioning System measurements of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006336','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006336"><span id="translatedtitle">GPS measurements of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 +/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 +/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920060788&hterms=Global+Positioning+System&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Global%2BPositioning%2529%2BSystem%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920060788&hterms=Global+Positioning+System&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Global%2BPositioning%2529%2BSystem%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Positioning System measurements of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750055656&hterms=rock+mechanics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drock%2Bmechanics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750055656&hterms=rock+mechanics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drock%2Bmechanics"><span id="translatedtitle">Rock <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties and near-surface structure at Taurus-Littrow. [<span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement of lunar basalt and breccia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Trice, R.; Warren, N.; Anderson, O. L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Linear <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements are presented for two lunar basalts, 14310,82 and 71055,15 and one breccia, 15498,23 to 5 kb hydrostatic pressure. Compressional and shear acoustic velocities to 5 kb are also presented for the basalts, 14310,82 and 71055,15. These <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties, along with geological, seismological and rock mechanics considerations are consistent with a model of the structure of the Taurus-Littrow valley as follows, a thin surface regolith overlying a fractured mixture of basalt flows and ejecta material which in turn overlies a coherent breccia of highland ejecta debris.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222193','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222193"><span id="translatedtitle">Approaches to accommodate noisy data in the direct solution of inverse problems in incompressible plane-<span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Albocher, U.; Barbone, P.E.; Richards, M.S.; Oberai, A.A.; Harari, I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We apply the adjoint weighted equation method (AWE) to the direct solution of inverse problems of incompressible plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. We show that based on untreated noisy displacements, the reconstruction of the shear modulus can be very poor. We link this poor performance to loss of coercivity of the weak form when treating problems with discontinuous coefficients. We demonstrate that by smoothing the displacements and appending a regularization term to the AWE formulation, a dramatic improvement in the reconstruction can be achieved. With these improvements, the advantages of the AWE method as a direct solution approach can be extended to a wider range of problems. PMID:25383085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850012086','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850012086"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">strain</span> redistribution corrections for a simplified inelastic analysis procedure based on an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> finite-element analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaufman, A.; Hwang, S. Y.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> redistribution corrections were developed for a simplified inelastic analysis procedure to economically calculate material cyclic response at the critical location of a structure for life prediction proposes. The method was based on the assumption that the plastic region in the structure is local and the total <span class="hlt">strain</span> history required for input can be defined from <span class="hlt">elastic</span> finite-element analyses. Cyclic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior was represented by a bilinear kinematic hardening model. The simplified procedure predicts stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> response with reasonable accuracy for thermally cycled problems but needs improvement for mechanically load-cycled problems. Neuber-type corrections were derived and incorporated in the simplified procedure to account for local total <span class="hlt">strain</span> redistribution under cyclic mechanical loading. The corrected simplified method was used on a mechanically load-cycled benchmark notched-plate problem. The predicted material response agrees well with the nonlinear finite-element solutions for the problem. The simplified analysis computer program was 0.3% of the central processor unit time required for a nonlinear finite-element analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031358"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Depth-dependent Dislocation Densities and <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strains</span> in an Indented Ni-based Superalloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barabash, O.M.; Santella, M.; Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Tischler, J.</p> <p>2011-12-14</p> <p>The indentation-induced <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic zone in an IN 740 Ni-based superalloy was studied by three-dimensional (3-D) x-ray microdiffraction and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Large lattice reorientations and the formation of geometrically necessary dislocations are observed in the area with a radius of {approx}75 {mu}m. A residual compression zone is found close to the indent edge. An <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic transition is observed at {approx}20 {mu}m from the indent edge. Depth dependent dislocation densities are determined at different distances from the indent edge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961664"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifelong Cyclic Mechanical <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Promotes Large <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Artery Stiffening: Increased Pulse Pressure and Old Age-Related Organ Failure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Thorin, Eric</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The arterial wall is under a huge mechanical constraint imposed by the cardiac cycle that is bound to generate damage with time. Each heartbeat indeed imposes a pulsatile pressure that generates a vascular stretch. Lifetime <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of pulsatile stretches will eventually induce fatigue of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> large arterial walls, such as aortic and carotid artery walls, promoting their stiffening that will gradually perturb the normal blood flow and local pressure within the organs, and lead to organ failure. The augmented pulse pressure induced by arterial stiffening favours left ventricular hypertrophy because of the repeated extra work against stiff high-pressure arteries, and tissue damage as a result of excessive pulsatile pressure transmitted into the microcirculation, especially in low resistance/high-flow organs such as the brain and kidneys. Vascular aging is therefore characterized by the stiffening of large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> arteries leading to a gradual increase in pulse pressure with age. In this review we focus on the effect of age-related stiffening of large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> arteries. We report the clinical evidence linking arterial stiffness and organ failure and discuss the molecular pathways that are activated by the increase of mechanical stress in the wall. We also discuss the possible interventions that could limit arterial stiffening with age, such as regular aerobic exercise training, and some pharmacological approaches. PMID:26961664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1002812','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1002812"><span id="translatedtitle">Indentation-induced localized deformation and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning in composites at submicron length scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barabash, R.I.; Bei, H.; Gao, Y.F.; Ice, G.E.</p> <p>2010-10-26</p> <p>Three-dimensional spatially resolved <span class="hlt">strains</span> were mapped in a model NiAl/Mo composite after nanoindentation. The depth-dependent <span class="hlt">strain</span> distributed in the two phases and partitioned across the composite interfaces is directly measured at submicron length scale using X-ray microdiffraction and compared with a detailed micromechanical stress analysis. It is shown that indentation-induced deformation in the composite material is distinct from deformation expected in a single-phase material. This difference arises in part from residual thermal <span class="hlt">strains</span> in both phases of the composite in the as-grown state. Interplay between residual thermal <span class="hlt">strains</span> and external mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> results in a complex distribution of dilatational <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the Mo fibers and NiAl matrix and is distinct in different locations within the indented area. Reversal of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> sign (e.g., alternating tensile/compressive/tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution) is observed in the NiAl matrix. Bending of the Mo fibers during indentation creates relatively large 1.5{sup o} misorientations between the different fibers and NiAl matrix. Compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> along the <0 0 1> direction reached -0.017 in the Mo fibers and -0.007 in the NiAl matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G31A0963H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G31A0963H"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR time-series constraints on inter-seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and creep distribution along North Anatolian and Chaman Faults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havazli, E.; Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In many aspects, the San Andreas and the North Anatolian fault zones show many similarities. They are similarly right-lateral, strike-slip faults, at the same time, are transforms. However, they vary in the maximum amount of lateral displacement and show different topographic features. The maximum offset is nearly 300 km along the San Andreas Fault whereas it is approximately 85-90 km along the North Anatolian Fault. In recent years, interseismic crustal velocities and <span class="hlt">strains</span> have been determined for North Anatolian Fault Zone through repeated measurements using the Global Positioning System and satellite radar interferometry. The Chaman Fault in Pakistan and Afghanistan is the only major fault along the western India-Eurasia plate boundary zone and probably accommodates the entire relative plate motion of 30-35 mm/yr. Recent GPS and InSAR studies on the Chaman fault yield slip rates of 18 × 1 mm/yr. The inconsistency in geologic, geodetic and seismic slip rates along the Chaman Fault need investigations to better understand the geodynamic responses of the Indo-Asia collision along its western boundary. We use InSAR time-series analysis using archived and new SAR imagery to constrain <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the North Anatolian Fault and Chaman Faults. We expect a relative accuracy of InSAR measurements better than 1 mm/yr over 100 km, made possible by recent advances in flattening residual, orbital error and atmospheric correction strategies [Fattahi & Amelung, 2013]. After validation of the technique in Southern San Andreas Fault, using GPS observations, we apply the same InSAR time-series approach to constrain <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the North Anatolian and Chaman Faults. We will use the InSAR data to establish the first-order fault properties of the Chaman and North Anatolian Faults (creep distribution, locking depth) using analytical two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> models along different transects across the faults. Our preliminary results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27046083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27046083"><span id="translatedtitle">Prion <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Differences in <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion <span class="hlt">Strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carroll, James A; Striebel, James F; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which <span class="hlt">accumulates</span> in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie <span class="hlt">strains</span> that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each <span class="hlt">strain</span> had a different pattern of cell specificity. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas <span class="hlt">strain</span> ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, <span class="hlt">strain</span> RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4821575','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4821575"><span id="translatedtitle">Prion <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Differences in <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carroll, James A.; Striebel, James F.; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E.; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which <span class="hlt">accumulates</span> in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie <span class="hlt">strains</span> that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each <span class="hlt">strain</span> had a different pattern of cell specificity. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas <span class="hlt">strain</span> ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, <span class="hlt">strain</span> RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070511"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface-Controlled Orientational Transitions in <span class="hlt">Elastically</span> <span class="hlt">Strained</span> Films of Liquid Crystal That Are Triggered by Vapors of Toluene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bedolla Pantoja, Marco A; Abbott, Nicholas L</p> <p>2016-05-25</p> <p>We report the fabrication of chemically patterned microwells that enable the rapid and facile preparation (by spin coating and patterned dewetting) of thin films of liquid crystals (LCs) that have precise thicknesses (0.7-30 μm), are supported on chemically defined substrates, and have free upper surfaces. We use these microwells to prepare <span class="hlt">elastically</span> <span class="hlt">strained</span> nematic LC films supported on silica glass, gold, or polystyrene substrates and thereby characterize the response of the <span class="hlt">strained</span> LC films to vapors of toluene. We report that low concentrations of toluene vapor (<500 ppm) can partition into the LC to lower the anchoring energy of the LC on these substrates, thus allowing the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy of the <span class="hlt">strained</span> LC film to drive the LC films through an orientational transition. The central role of the toluene-induced change in surface anchoring energy is supported by additional experiments in which the response of the nematic LC to changes in film thickness and substrate identity are quantified. A simple thermodynamic model captures these trends and yielded estimates of anchoring energies (8-22 μJ/m(2)). Significantly, the orientational transitions observed in these <span class="hlt">strained</span> LC thin films occur at concentrations of toluene vapor that are almost 1 order of magnitude below those which lead to bulk phase transitions, and they are not triggered by exposure to water vapor. Overall, these results hint at principles for the design of responsive LC-based materials that can be triggered by concentrations of aromatic, volatile organic compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:27070511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1146110-analytical-elastic-plastic-contact-model-strain-hardening-frictional-effects-normal-oblique-impacts','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1146110-analytical-elastic-plastic-contact-model-strain-hardening-frictional-effects-normal-oblique-impacts"><span id="translatedtitle">An analytical <span class="hlt">elastic</span> plastic contact model with <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening and frictional effects for normal and oblique impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Brake, M. R. W.</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Impact between metallic surfaces is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the design and analysis of mechanical systems. We found that to model this phenomenon, a new formulation for frictional elastic–plastic contact between two surfaces is developed. The formulation is developed to consider both frictional, oblique contact (of which normal, frictionless contact is a limiting case) and <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening effects. The constitutive model for normal contact is developed as two contiguous loading domains: the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> regime and a transitionary region in which the plastic response of the materials develops and the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response abates. For unloading, the constitutive model ismore » based on an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> process. Moreover, the normal contact model is assumed to only couple one-way with the frictional/tangential contact model, which results in the normal contact model being independent of the frictional effects. Frictional, tangential contact is modeled using a microslip model that is developed to consider the pressure distribution that develops from the elastic–plastic normal contact. This model is validated through comparisons with experimental results reported in the literature, and is demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than 10 other normal contact models and three other tangential contact models found in the literature.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1146110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1146110"><span id="translatedtitle">An analytical <span class="hlt">elastic</span> plastic contact model with <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening and frictional effects for normal and oblique impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brake, M. R. W.</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Impact between metallic surfaces is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the design and analysis of mechanical systems. We found that to model this phenomenon, a new formulation for frictional elastic–plastic contact between two surfaces is developed. The formulation is developed to consider both frictional, oblique contact (of which normal, frictionless contact is a limiting case) and <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening effects. The constitutive model for normal contact is developed as two contiguous loading domains: the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> regime and a transitionary region in which the plastic response of the materials develops and the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response abates. For unloading, the constitutive model is based on an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> process. Moreover, the normal contact model is assumed to only couple one-way with the frictional/tangential contact model, which results in the normal contact model being independent of the frictional effects. Frictional, tangential contact is modeled using a microslip model that is developed to consider the pressure distribution that develops from the elastic–plastic normal contact. This model is validated through comparisons with experimental results reported in the literature, and is demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than 10 other normal contact models and three other tangential contact models found in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CPL...658..130D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CPL...658..130D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on the photocatalytic TiO2 nanofilm: Utilizing the martensitic surface relief of FeNiCoTi alloy substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, Minshu; Wan, Qiong; Wang, Zhongqiang; Cui, Lishan</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The application of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> is a promising approach for tuning bandgap of semiconductors; however, the attainment of a simple method for introducing <span class="hlt">strain</span> has been a major challenge. Here, martensitic surface relief of FeNiCoTi substrate was utilized to tensilely <span class="hlt">strain</span> TiO2 nanofilm successfully. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects of photocatalysis were also investigated. It was showed that tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> reduced the bandgap of TiO2 nanofilm by 50 meV and contributed to a 33.8% faster photodegradation rate of methyl orange, also the photocurrent of the water oxidation reaction of <span class="hlt">strained</span> TiO2 was 1.4 times as high as that of unstrained nanofilm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.G22A..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.G22A..05W"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Ashkabad fault (NE Iran) from MERIS-corrected ASAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walters, R. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The right-lateral Ashkabad Fault separates deforming NE Iran from the stable Turkmenistan platform to the north, and also facilitates the north-westwards extrusion of the South Caspian block (along with the left-lateral Shahrud fault zone). The fault represents the northernmost boundary of significant deformation of the Arabia-Eurasia collision in NE Iran. The 1948 M 7.3 Ashkabad earthquake, which killed around 110,000 people and was the deadliest earthquake to hit Europe or the Middle East in the 20th Century, also possibly occurred on this fault. However, the slip rate and therefore the seismic hazard that the Ashkabad fault represents are not well known. GPS data in NE Iran are sparse, and there are no direct geological or quaternary rates for the main strand of the fault. We use Envisat ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2010 to measure interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the fault, and hence estimate the slip rate across it. Due to the proximity of this region to the Caspian Sea and the presence of highly variable weather systems, we use data from Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument, as well as modelled weather data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), to correct interferograms for differences in water vapour and atmospheric pressure. We mitigate the effects of remaining noise by summing the 13 corrected interferograms that cover the fault, effectively creating a 30 year interferogram with improved signal-to-noise ratio, and we empirically correct for orbital errors. Our measurements of rates of displacement are consistent with an interseismic model for the Ashkabad fault where deformation occurs at depth on a narrow shear zone below a layer in which the fault is locked. We invert the data to solve for best fitting model parameters, estimating both the slip rate and the depth to which the fault is locked. Our measurements show that the Ashkabad fault is <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> at a rate of 9 mm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G43B0937T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G43B0937T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> Estimated from Seafloor Crustal Deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tadokoro, K.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Kenji, Y.; Sakata, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Our research has developed an observation system for seafloor crustal deformation composed of the kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging techniques [Tadokoro et al., 2006; Ikuta et al., 2008]. We monitored crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough, Japan, where the Philippine Sea Plate subducts beneath the Amurian Plate. The convergence rate is predicted at 60 mm/y in the N59W direction by the Euler vector of REVEL [Sella et al., 2002]. We installed three monitoring sites (named KMN, KMS, and KME) on the seafloor at depths of about 1920-2030 m. The sites KMN and KMS are installed perpendicular to the trough axis with a spacing of 20 km; the site KME is 50 km from KMN and KMS in the direction parallel to the trough axis. The monitoring was started in 2004, 2005, and 2008 at KMS, KMN, and KME, respectively. The numbers of measurements are 16, 20, and 5 times at KMN, KMS, and KME, respectively. We obtained 3-7 years averaged horizontal site velocities within ITRF2000 adopting a robust estimation method with Tukey's biweight function to the time series of site position measured until the end of 2011. Substituting the synthetic rigid block motions of the Amurian Plate from the velocities within ITRF2000, we obtained the following site velocities with respect to the Amurian Plate [Tadokoro et al., 2012]: KMN 41±4 mm/y, N77±7W KMS 43±5 mm/y, N80±6W KME 42±5 mm/y, N80±7W In contrast, the on-land GPS horizontal velocities along the coast is 23-33 mm/y toward N74-80W. The present observational results show: (1) the velocity vectors are all the same length and direction, which indicates no internal deformation in this region; (2) the back-slip model predicts that the plate interface beneath the region is uniformly locked with coupling ratios of 60-80 %, indicating <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> that will be released during the anticipated mega-thrust Tonankai earthquake; and (3) the directions of site velocities differ from that of convergence vector by 20 degrees, which is affected by</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4052321','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4052321"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex Toxin Profile of French Mediterranean Ostreopsis cf. ovata <span class="hlt">Strains</span>, Seafood <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> and Ovatoxins Prepurification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brissard, Charline; Herrenknecht, Christine; Séchet, Véronique; Hervé, Fabienne; Pisapia, Francesco; Harcouet, Jocelyn; Lémée, Rodolphe; Chomérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ostreopsis cf. ovata produces palytoxin analogues including ovatoxins (OVTXs) and a putative palytoxin (p-PLTX), which can <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> in marine organisms and may possibly lead to food intoxication. However, purified ovatoxins are not widely available and their toxicities are still unknown. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the ecophysiology of Ostreopsis cf. ovata and its toxin production as well as to optimize the purification process for ovatoxin. During Ostreopsis blooms in 2011 and 2012 in Villefranche-sur-Mer (France, NW Mediterranean Sea), microalgae epiphytic cells and marine organisms were collected and analyzed both by LC-MS/MS and hemolysis assay. Results obtained with these two methods were comparable, suggesting ovatoxins have hemolytic properties. An average of 223 μg·kg−1 of palytoxin equivalent of whole flesh was found, thus exceeding the threshold of 30 μg·kg−1 in shellfish recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Ostreopsis cells showed the same toxin profile both in situ and in laboratory culture, with ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a) being the most abundant analogue (~50%), followed by OVTX-b (~15%), p-PLTX (12%), OVTX-d (8%), OVTX-c (5%) and OVTX-e (4%). Ostreopsis cf. ovata produced up to 2 g of biomass per L of culture, with a maximum concentration of 300 pg PLTX equivalent cell−1. Thus, an approximate amount of 10 mg of PLTX-group toxins may be produced with 10 L of this <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Toxin extracts obtained from collected biomass were purified using different techniques such as liquid-liquid partition or size exclusion. Among these methods, open-column chromatography with Sephadex LH20 phase yielded the best results with a cleanup efficiency of 93% and recovery of about 85%, representing an increase of toxin percentage by 13 fold. Hence, this purification step should be incorporated into future isolation exercises. PMID:24828292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026462','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026462"><span id="translatedtitle">A physical model for <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the San Francisco Bay region: Stress evolution since 1838</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pollitz, F.; Bakun, W.H.; Nyst, M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Understanding of the behavior of plate boundary zones has progressed to the point where reasonably comprehensive physical models can predict their evolution. The San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) is dominated by a few major faults whose behavior over about one earthquake cycle is fairly well understood. By combining the past history of large ruptures on SFBR faults with a recently proposed physical model of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the SFBR, we derive the evolution of regional stress from 1838 until the present. This effort depends on (1) an existing compilation of the source properties of historic and contemporary SFBR earthquakes based on documented shaking, geodetic data, and seismic data (Bakun, 1999) and (2) a few key parameters of a simple regional viscoelastic coupling model constrained by recent GPS data (Pollitz and Nyst, 2004). Although uncertainties abound in the location, magnitude, and fault geometries of historic ruptures and the physical model relies on gross simplifications, the resulting stress evolution model is sufficiently detailed to provide a useful window into the past stress history. In the framework of Coulomb failure stress, we find that virtually all M ??? 5.8 earthquakes prior to 1906 and M ??? 5.5 earthquakes after 1906 are consistent with stress triggering from previous earthquakes. These events systematically lie in zones of predicted stress concentration elevated 5-10 bars above the regional average. The SFBR is predicted to have emerged from the 1906 "shadow" in about 1980, consistent with the acceleration in regional seismicity at that time. The stress evolution model may be a reliable indicator of the most likely areas to experience M ??? 5.5 shocks in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004485','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004485"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> and plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement in high temperature environment using laser speckle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chiang, Fu-Pen</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Two laser speckle methods are described to measure <span class="hlt">strain</span> in high temperature environment and thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> caused by high temperature. Both are non-contact, non-destructive and remote sensing techniques that can be automated. The methods have different but overlapping ranges of application with one being more suitable for large plastic deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApSS..256.5210G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApSS..256.5210G"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> on the adsorption process in porous materials. Thermodynamics and experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grosman, A.; Ortega, C.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>If we disregard the shape of the boundary hysteresis loop, H1 for SBA-15, MCM-41 and KIT-6, H2 for p +-type porous silicon and porous glass, the hysteretic features inside the loop are qualitatively the same for all these systems and show that none of them are composed of independent pores whether the pores are interconnected or not. We hence believe that the physical parameter which couples the pores is not the interconnectivity but the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation of the porous matrix. The thermodynamic approach we develop includes the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy of the solid. We show that the variation of the surface free energy, which is proportional to the deformation of the porous matrix, is an important component of the total free energy. With porous silicon, we experimentally show that a stress external to the porous matrix exerted by the substrate on which it is supported significantly increases the total free energy and the adsorbed amount and decreases the condensation pressure compared to that of the same porous matrix detached from its substrate which is the relaxed state of the supported layer. This stress can be partly relaxed by making thicker porous layers due to the breaking of Si-Si bonds. This results in the shift of the isotherms towards that of the membrane. We propose a new interaction mechanism occurring through the pore wall <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation in which the external mechanical stress is imposed on a given pore by its neighbours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036615','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036615"><span id="translatedtitle">Oil <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: characterization, variability between common laboratory <span class="hlt">strains</span> and relationship with starch reserves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background When cultivated under stress conditions, many microalgae species <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> both starch and oil (triacylglycerols). The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has recently emerged as a model to test genetic engineering or cultivation strategies aiming at increasing lipid yields for biodiesel production. Blocking starch synthesis has been suggested as a way to boost oil <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. Here, we characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG) <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> process in Chlamydomonas and quantify TAGs in various wild-type and starchless <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Results In response to nitrogen deficiency, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produced TAGs enriched in palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids that <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in oil-bodies. Oil synthesis was maximal between 2 and 3 days following nitrogen depletion and reached a plateau around day 5. In the first 48 hours of oil deposition, a ~80% reduction in the major plastidial membrane lipids occurred. Upon nitrogen re-supply, mobilization of TAGs started after starch degradation but was completed within 24 hours. Comparison of oil content in five common laboratory <span class="hlt">strains</span> (CC124, CC125, cw15, CC1690 and 11-32A) revealed a high variability, from 2 μg TAG per million cell in CC124 to 11 μg in 11-32A. Quantification of TAGs on a cell basis in three mutants affected in starch synthesis (cw15sta1-2, cw15sta6 and cw15sta7-1) showed that blocking starch synthesis did not result in TAG over-<span class="hlt">accumulation</span> compared to their direct progenitor, the arginine auxotroph <span class="hlt">strain</span> 330. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between cellular oil and starch levels among the twenty wild-type, mutants and complemented <span class="hlt">strains</span> tested. By contrast, cellular oil content was found to increase steeply with salt concentration in the growth medium. At 100 mM NaCl, oil level similar to nitrogen depletion conditions could be reached in CC124 <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Conclusion A reference basis for future genetic studies of oil metabolism in Chlamydomonas is provided. Results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of astaxanthin by a new Haematococcus pluvialis <span class="hlt">strain</span> BM1 from the white sea coastal rocks (Russia).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Sidorov, Roman; Solovchenko, Alexei</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We report on a novel arctic <span class="hlt">strain</span> BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis <span class="hlt">strains</span> currently employed in microalgal biotechnology. PMID:25196836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145328','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145328"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of Astaxanthin by a New Haematococcus pluvialis <span class="hlt">Strain</span> BM1 from the White Sea Coastal Rocks (Russia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Sidorov, Roman; Solovchenko, Alexei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report on a novel arctic <span class="hlt">strain</span> BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis <span class="hlt">strains</span> currently employed in microalgal biotechnology. PMID:25196836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..86f1909T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..86f1909T"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct evidence for compressive <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> at ground surfaces of nanocomposite ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, B. K.; Wu, H. Z.; Roberts, S. G.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>High-resolution grazing incidence x-ray powder diffraction has been used to provide direct evidence for the existence of a uniform compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> close to the surface of ground alumina/SiC nanocomposites. No such <span class="hlt">strain</span> is found in ground surfaces of single-phase alumina or polished surfaces of nanocomposite. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the ground nanocomposite is found to be perpendicular to the grinding direction and disappears on annealing at 1250°C. Such a compressive stress provides a mechanism for enhancing the strength of the nanocomposite, by opposing any tensile loading tending to open surface flaws. The origin of the stresses probably lies in the enhanced grain boundary strength in the nanocomposite alumina-silicon carbide compared to alumina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136119','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136119"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Lacking Known Osmolyte <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> Mechanisms Reveals Contributions of Osmolytes and Transporters to Protection against Abiotic Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murdock, Lindsay; Burke, Tangi; Coumoundouros, Chelsea; Culham, Doreen E.; Deutch, Charles E.; Ellinger, James; Kerr, Craig H.; Plater, Samantha M.; To, Eric; Wright, Geordie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Osmolyte <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and release can protect cells from abiotic stresses. In Escherichia coli, known mechanisms mediate osmotic stress-induced <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of K+ glutamate, trehalose, or zwitterions like glycine betaine. Previous observations suggested that additional osmolyte <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> mechanisms (OAMs) exist and their impacts may be abiotic stress specific. Derivatives of the uropathogenic <span class="hlt">strain</span> CFT073 and the laboratory <span class="hlt">strain</span> MG1655 lacking known OAMs were created. CFT073 grew without osmoprotectants in minimal medium with up to 0.9 M NaCl. CFT073 and its OAM-deficient derivative grew equally well in high- and low-osmolality urine pools. Urine-grown bacteria did not <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> large amounts of known or novel osmolytes. Thus, CFT073 showed unusual osmotolerance and did not require osmolyte <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> to grow in urine. Yeast extract and brain heart infusion stimulated growth of the OAM-deficient MG1655 derivative at high salinity. Neither known nor putative osmoprotectants did so. Glutamate and glutamine <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> after growth with either organic mixture, and no novel osmolytes were detected. MG1655 derivatives retaining individual OAMs were created. Their abilities to mediate osmoprotection were compared at 15°C, 37°C without or with urea, and 42°C. Stress protection was not OAM specific, and variations in osmoprotectant effectiveness were similar under all conditions. Glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were the most effective. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was a weak osmoprotectant and a particularly effective urea protectant. The effectiveness of glycine betaine, TMAO, and proline as osmoprotectants correlated with their preferential exclusion from protein surfaces, not with their propensity to prevent protein denaturation. Thus, their effectiveness as stress protectants correlated with their ability to rehydrate the cytoplasm. PMID:24951793</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732735','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732735"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-rate Dependence of <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Modulus Reveals Silver Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caporizzo, Matthew Alexander; Roco, Charles M.; Ferrer, Maria Carme Coll; Grady, Martha E.; Parrish, Emmabeth; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell John</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Force-displacement measurements are taken at different rates with an atomic force microscope to assess the correlation between cell health and cell viscoelasticity in THP-1 cells that have been treated with a novel drug carrier. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis, VIVA, is employed to identify the relaxation time of the cells that are known to exhibit a frequency dependent stiffness. The VIVA agrees with a fluorescent viability assay. This indicates that dextran-lysozyme drug carriers are biocompatible and deliver concentrated toxic material (rhodamine or silver nanoparticles) to the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells. By modelling the frequency dependence of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus, the VIVA provides three metrics of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity: a low frequency modulus, a high frequency modulus and viscosity. The signature of cytotoxicity by rhodamine or silver exposure is a frequency independent twofold increase in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus and cytoplasmic viscosity, while the cytoskeletal relaxation time remains unchanged. This is consistent with the known toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles, where metabolic stress causes an increase in the rigidity of the cytoplasm. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis is presented as a straightforward method to promote the self-consistent comparison between cells. This is paramount to the development of early diagnosis and treatment of disease. PMID:26834855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.D4001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.D4001R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Young's modulus of 1018 steel and 6061-T6 aluminum measured from quasi-static to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> precursor <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rae, Philip; Trujillo, Carl; Gray, Rusty</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>It is commonly assumed in engineering and physics that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of metals is independent of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate, but is a weak function of temperature. An extensive literature search however has failed to find any citable reference in which the Young's modulus of any pedigreed metal was measured over a wide variety of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates. To rectify this, samples of pedigreed 1018 steel and 6061-T6 aluminum have been tested at <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates from 10-4 s-1 to 10^6 s-1. Low <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate data (10-4-10-2 s-1)was obtained from commercial bonded <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges. Intermediate rate data ( 10-4 s-1) was obtained from time of flight ultrasonic measurements. Shock rate data was obtained by examining the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> precursor using shock pins and PDV (photonic Doppler velocimetry). Correction for the adiabatic versus thermal nature of the disparate <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate regimes have been made. Additionally, the implications of the uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> nature of the shock <span class="hlt">elastic</span> precursor are examined with respect to comparison with uniaxial stress lower rate data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4534001','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4534001"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of oleaginous yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> able to <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> tested were able to <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=241980','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=241980"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of Amino Acids in Rhizobium sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> WR1001 in Response to Sodium Chloride Salinity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hua, Sui-Sheng T.; Tsai, Victor Y.; Lichens, Georgia M.; Noma, Amy T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Rhizobium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> WR1001, isolated from the Sonoran Desert by Eskew and Ting, was found to be able to grow in defined medium containing NaCl up to 500 mM, a concentration approaching that of sea water. Therefore, it is a valuable <span class="hlt">strain</span> for studying the biochemical basis of salt tolerance. Intracellular free glutamate was found to increase rapidly in response to osmotic stress by NaCl. It accounted for 88% of the amino acid pool when the bacterium was grown in 500 mM NaCl. The role of glutamate dehydrogenase in glutamate biosynthesis was examined in several Rhizobium <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Both NADH- and NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activities in various Rhizobium <span class="hlt">strains</span> were observed. The range of activity differed considerably depending on the particular <span class="hlt">strain</span>. KCl (500 mM) did not stimulate glutamate dehydrogenase activity, as reported in a number of bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span> by Measures. The low activity of glutamate dehydrogenase in Rhizobium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> WR1001 apparently cannot fulfill a biosynthetic function of glutamate formation in response to medium NaCl concentrations. PMID:16346049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9790E..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9790E..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast myocardial <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimation from 3D ultrasound through <span class="hlt">elastic</span> image registration with analytic regularization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chakraborty, Bidisha; Heyde, Brecht; Alessandrini, Martino; D'hooge, Jan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Image registration techniques using free-form deformation models have shown promising results for 3D myocardial <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimation from ultrasound. However, the use of this technique has mostly been limited to research institutes due to the high computational demand, which is primarily due to the computational load of the regularization term ensuring spatially smooth cardiac <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimates. Indeed, this term typically requires evaluating derivatives of the transformation field numerically in each voxel of the image during every iteration of the optimization process. In this paper, we replace this time-consuming step with a closed-form solution directly associated with the transformation field resulting in a speed up factor of ~10-60,000, for a typical 3D B-mode image of 2503 and 5003 voxels, depending upon the size and the parametrization of the transformation field. The performance of the numeric and the analytic solutions was contrasted by computing tracking and <span class="hlt">strain</span> accuracy on two realistic synthetic 3D cardiac ultrasound sequences, mimicking two ischemic motion patterns. Mean and standard deviation of the displacement errors over the cardiac cycle for the numeric and analytic solutions were 0.68+/-0.40 mm and 0.75+/-0.43 mm respectively. Correlations for the radial, longitudinal and circumferential <span class="hlt">strain</span> components at end-systole were 0.89, 0.83 and 0.95 versus 0.90, 0.88 and 0.92 for the numeric and analytic regularization respectively. The analytic solution matched the performance of the numeric solution as no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found when expressed in terms of bias or limits-of-agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930417"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffraction Profiles of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> Bent Single Crystals with Constant <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gradients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yan,H.; Kalenci, O.; Noyan, I.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This work presents a set of equations that can be used to predict the dynamical diffraction profile from a non-transparent single crystal with a constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient examined in Bragg reflection geometry with a spherical incident X-ray beam. In agreement with previous work, the present analysis predicts two peaks: a primary diffraction peak, which would have still been observed in the absence of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient and which exits the specimen surface at the intersection point of the incident beam with the sample surface, and a secondary (mirage) peak, caused by the deflection of the wavefield within the material, which exits the specimen surface further from this intersection point. The integrated intensity of the mirage peak increases with increasing <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient, while its separation from the primary reflection peak decreases. The directions of the rays forming the mirage peak are parallel to those forming the primary diffraction peak. However, their spatial displacement might cause (fictitious) angular shifts in diffractometers equipped with area detectors or slit optics. The analysis results are compared with experimental data from an Si single-crystal strip bent in cantilever configuration, and the implications of the mirage peak for Laue analysis and high-precision diffraction measurements are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSG....50...91Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSG....50...91Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and fluid-rock interaction in a naturally deformed diamictite, Willard thrust system, Utah (USA): Implications for crustal rheology and <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yonkee, W. Adolph; Czeck, Dyanna M.; Nachbor, Amelia C.; Barszewski, Christine; Pantone, Spenser; Balgord, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Kimberly R.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Structural and geochemical patterns of heterogeneously deformed diamictite in northern Utah (USA) record interrelations between <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, fluid-rock interaction, and softening processes across a major fault (Willard thrust). Different clast types in the diamictite have varying shape fabrics related to competence contrasts with estimated effective viscosity ratios relative to micaceous matrix of: ˜6 and 8 for large quartzite clasts respectively in the Willard hanging wall and footwall; ˜5 and 2 for less altered and more altered granitic clasts respectively in the hanging wall and footwall; and ˜1 for micaceous clasts that approximate matrix <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Within the footwall, matrix X-Z <span class="hlt">strain</span> ratios increase from ˜2 to 8 westward along a distinct deformation gradient. Microstructures record widespread mass transfer, alteration of feldspar to mica, and dislocation creep of quartz within matrix and clasts. Fluid influx along microcracks and mesoscopic vein networks increased westward and led to reaction softening and hydrolytic weakening, in conjunction with textural softening from alignment of muscovite aggregates. Consistent Si, Al, and Ti concentrations between matrix, granitic clasts, and protoliths indicate limited volume change. Mg gain and Na loss reflect alteration of feldspar to phengitic muscovite. Within the hanging wall, <span class="hlt">strain</span> is overall lower with matrix X-Z <span class="hlt">strain</span> ratios of ˜2 to 4. Microstructures record mass transfer and dislocation creep concentrated in the matrix. Greater Al and Ti concentrations and lower Si concentrations in matrix indicate volume loss by quartz dissolution. Na gain in granitic clasts reflects albitization. Large granitic clasts have less mica alteration and greater competence compared to smaller clasts. Differences in <span class="hlt">strain</span> and alteration patterns across the Willard thrust fault suggest overall downward (up-temperature) fluid flow in the hanging wall and upward (down-temperature) fluid flow in the footwall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/963866','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/963866"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of dislocation cell <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> variations on line profiles from deformed copper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levine, L. E.; Larson, B. C.; Tischler, J. Z.; Geantil, P.; Kassner, M. E.; Liu, W.; Stoudt, M. R.; NIST; ORNL; Univ. of Southern California</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Energy scanned, sub-micrometer X-ray beams were used to obtain diffraction line profiles from individual dislocation cells in copper single crystals deformed in compression. Sub-micrometer depth resolution was provided by translating a wire through the diffracted beams and using triangulation to determine the depths of the diffracting volumes. Connection to classic volume-averaged results was made by adding the line profiles from 52 spatially resolved dislocation cell measurements. The resulting sub profile is smooth and symmetric, in agreement with early assumptions; the mean <span class="hlt">strain</span> and full width half maximum are consistent with the average of the parameters extracted from the more exact individual dislocation cell measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.S12A..07C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.S12A..07C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Shear-wave Velocity Structure and Inter-Seismic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in the Up-Dip Region of the Cascadia Subduction Zone: Similarities to Tohoku?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Wei, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> the measured compliances in this frequency band using a genetic algorithm that solves for the S-wave velocity, P-wave velocity, and density in a layered structure. By including constraints on the Vp distribution from active-source studies, these parameters appear well constrained down to about 4 km depth from our dataset. There is a clear difference in observed compliance values between stations close to the deformation front (~10 km) and those further up the continental slope (~30-40 km) indicating a region of unconsolidated, high-porosity sediment similar to the off-Tohoku region. The low S-wave velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios in the up-dip region correspond to unconsolidated high-porosity sediments. We calculated the effect of this material property contrast on the inter-seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the up-dip region of the subduction zone using a finite element model and find that the sediments can increase the amount of inter-seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in the up-dip region by >100% relative to a homogenous <span class="hlt">elastic</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989816"><span id="translatedtitle">The young's modulus of 1018 steel and 67061-T6 aluminum measured from quasi-static to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> precursor <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rae, Philip J; Trujillo, Carl; Lovato, Manuel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The assumption that Young's modulus is <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate invariant is tested for 6061-T6 aluminium alloy and 1018 steel over 10 decades of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate. For the same billets of material, 3 quasi-static <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates are investigated with foil <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges at room temperature. The ultrasonic sound speeds are measured and used to calculate the moduli at approximately 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. Finally, ID plate impact is used to generate an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> pre-cursor in the alloys at a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate of approximately 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} from which the longitudinal sound speed may be obtained. It is found that indeed the Young's modulus is <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate independent within the experimental accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011574','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011574"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, with a two-color geodimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Langbein, J.O.; Linker, M.F.; McGarr, A.; Slater, L.E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two-color laser ranging measurements during a 15-month period over a geodetic network spanning the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, indicate that the crust expands and contracts aseismically in episodes as short as 2 weeks. Shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> parallel to the fault has <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> monotonically since November 1980, but at a variable rate. Improvements in measurement precision and temporal resolution over those of previous geodetic studies near Palmdale have resulted in the definition of a time history of crustal deformation that is much more complex than formerly realized. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802470"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the san andreas fault near palmdale, california, with a two-color geodimeter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langbein, J O; Linker, M F; McGarr, A; Slater, L E</p> <p>1982-12-17</p> <p>Two-color laser ranging measurements during a 15-month period over a geodetic network spanning the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, indicate that the crust expands and contracts aseismically in episodes as short as 2 weeks. Shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> parallel to the fault has <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> monotonically since November 1980, but at a variable rate. Improvements in measurement precision and temporal resolution over those of previous geodetic studies near Palmdale have resulted in the definition of a time history of crustal deformation that is much more complex than formerly realized. PMID:17802470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APLM....1b2106M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APLM....1b2106M"><span id="translatedtitle">Microlattices as architected thin films: Analysis of mechanical properties and high <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elastic</span> recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maloney, Kevin J.; Roper, Christopher S.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Ordered periodic microlattices with densities from 0.5 mg/cm3 to 500 mg/cm3 are fabricated by depositing various thin film materials (Au, Cu, Ni, SiO2, poly(C8H4F4)) onto sacrificial polymer lattice templates. Young's modulus and strength are measured in compression and the density scaling is determined. At low relative densities, recovery from compressive <span class="hlt">strains</span> of 50% and higher is observed, independent of lattice material. An analytical model is shown to accurately predict the transition between recoverable "pseudo-superelastic" and irrecoverable plastic deformation for all constituent materials. These materials are of interest for energy storage applications, deployable structures, and for acoustic, shock, and vibration damping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27521939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27521939"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection of microalgae for high CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> from ten Chlorella <span class="hlt">strains</span> using municipal wastewater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Xia; Zhou, Jiti; Liu, Guangfei; Gui, Bing</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>As significant differences in cellular physiology, metabolic potential and genetics occur among <span class="hlt">strains</span> with morphological similarity, the screening of appropriate microalgae species for effective CO2 fixation and biodiesel production is extremely critical. In this study, ten <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Chlorella were cultivated in municipal wastewater influent (MWI) and their tolerance for MWI, CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid productivity were assessed. The results showed that the biomass concentrations of four <span class="hlt">strains</span> (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella 64.01, Chlorella regularis var. minima and Chlorella sp.) were significantly higher than other <span class="hlt">strains</span>. When the cultivation systems were aerated with 10% CO2, Chlorella sp. showed the highest CO2 fixation efficiency (35.51%), while the highest lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> (58.48%) was observed with C. vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the cells of both Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris kept their normal morphologies after 15day batch culture. These findings indicated that Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris have fairly good tolerance for MWI, and moreover, Chlorella sp. was appropriate for CO2 fixation while C. vulgaris represented the highest potential for producing biodiesel. PMID:27521939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.G11A0776O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.G11A0776O"><span id="translatedtitle">Slip rate of the Calico fault: Implications for anomalous geodetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Eastern California shear zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oskin, M.; Perg, L.; Blumentritt, D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Iriondo, A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Recent earthquake activity and high geodetically derived fault-slip rates across the Eastern California shear zone motivate comparisons with long-term geologic deformation rates to test for transient <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. We report new geologic slip-rate results from a transect at 34.8° N across the central Mojave Desert where six dextral faults (Helendale, Lenwood, Camp Rock, Calico, Pisgah-Bullion, and Ludlow) accommodate all late Quaternary right-lateral displacement. High-resolution LIDAR topography data have been successfully acquired across all six faults as part of a project to measure a complete budget of long-term geologic fault slip rates. Field investigations of the northern Rodman Mountains conducted with the aid of the new topography data identified several surfaces dextrally offset by the Calico fault. A preliminary slip rate of 1.3±0.3 mm/yr is calculated from an 800± 200 m offset of alluvial fan deposits containing clasts of the ca. 600 ka Pipkin basalt flow. Cosmogenic surface exposure age dating of offset geomorphic surfaces and refined Ar/Ar dating of the basalt flow, in progress, will provide multiple constraints of this fault slip rate. The slip rate of the Calico fault is more than twice that of the Blackwater fault, located on strike with the Calico fault in the northwest Mojave Desert. This discrepancy supports that <span class="hlt">strain</span> is transferred away from the Calico fault and other adjacent northwest-striking dextral faults onto domino-style rotating blocks bounded by sinistral faults in the Fort Irwin region. A newly identified active thrust fault and fault-related fold bounding the northern Rodman mountains accommodates shortening east of the Calico fault that may be caused by space problems at the intersection of these conjugate fault systems. Overall, slip rate on the Calico fault, together with existing paleoseismic histories on adjacent faults, does not account for more than 5 mm/yr of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> across the Eastern California shear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=341061','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=341061"><span id="translatedtitle">DNAaseI-hypersensitive minichromosomes of SV40 possess an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> torsional <span class="hlt">strain</span> in DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luchnik, A N; Bakayev, V V; Yugai, A A; Zbarsky, I B; Georgiev, G P</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Previously, we have shown that DNA in a small fraction (2-5%) of SV40 minichromosomes was torsionally <span class="hlt">strained</span> and could be relaxed by treating minichromosomes with topoisomerase I. This fraction was enriched with endogeneous RNA polymerase II (Luchnik et al., 1982, EMBO J., 1, 1353). Here we show that one and the same fraction of SV40 minichromosomes is hypersensitive to DNAase I and is relaxable by topoisomerase I. Moreover, this fraction completely loses its hypersensitivity to DNAase I upon relaxation. The possibility that this fraction of minichromosomes can be represented by naked DNA is ruled out by the results of studying the kinetics of minichromosome digestion by DNAase I in comparison to digestion of pure SV40 DNA and by measuring the buoyant density of SV40 chromatin in equilibrium CsCl gradient. Our data obtained with SV40 minichromosomes may be relevant to the mechanism responsible for DNAase I hypersensitivity in the loops or domains of cellular chromatin. Images PMID:2987817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000CompM..25...66G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000CompM..25...66G"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear material parameter estimation for characterizing hyper <span class="hlt">elastic</span> large <span class="hlt">strain</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gendy, A. S.; Saleeb, A. F.</p> <p></p> <p>An automated, systematic, and computationally efficient methodology to estimate the material parameters for characterizing general nonlinear material models for large <span class="hlt">strain</span> analysis (e.g., hyperelastic and hyper foam materials) is presented. Such constitutive material models often require a large number of material constants to describe a host of physical phenomena and complicated deformation mechanisms. Extracting such material constants for a model from the volumes of data generated in the test laboratory is usually a very difficult, and frustrating. The integrated code COMPARE (that is an acronym of Constitutive Material PARameter Estimator) is being developed to enable the determination of an ``optimum'' set material parameters by minimizing the errors between the experimental test data and the predicted response. The key ingredients of COMPARE are listed as follows: (i) primal analysis tools (response functionals) for differential form of constitutive models; (ii) sensitivity analysis; (iii) optimization technique of an error/cost function; and (iv) graphical user interface. The code COMPARE casts the estimation of the material parameters as a minimum-error, weighted-multiobjective, optimization problem. Detailed derivations and results generated by applying the proposed technique to a comprehensive set of test data are given. These results have clearly demonstrated the great practical utility of the automated scheme developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013FrME....8..181M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013FrME....8..181M"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for creep life prediction of thin tube using <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density as a function of stress triaxiality under quasistatic loading employing <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-creep & <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic-creep deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahmood, Tahir; Kanapathipillai, Sangarapillai; Chowdhury, Mahiuddin</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>This paper demonstrates the application of a new multiaxial creep damage model developed by authors using stress traixiality to predict the failure time of a component made of 0.5%Cr-0.5%Mo-0.25%V low alloy steel. The model employs <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density and assumes that the uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density of a component can be easily calculated and can be converted to multi-axial <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density by multiplying it to a function of stress trixiality which is a ratio of mean stress to equivalent stress. For comparison, an <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-creep and <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic-creep finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to get multi-axial <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density of the component which is compared with the calculated <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density for both cases. The verification and application of the model are demonstrated by applying it to thin tube for which the experimental data are available. The predicted failure times by the model are compared with the experimental results. The results show that the proposed model is capable of predicting failure times of the component made of the above-mentioned material with an accuracy of 4.0%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.G11A0848N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.G11A0848N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> studies between India and Antarctica in the Southern Indian Peninsula with GPS/GNSS-Geodesy by geodetically tying the two continents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narayana Babu, R. N.; EC, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Two global networks (IND and ANT) have been chosen that geodetically connect the two continents to holistically understand the geodynamical and crustal deformation processes in the south of Indian peninsula between India and Antarctica,. Since the baseline length between HYDE, India and MAIT, Antarctica is more than 10,000 km, it is mandatory to form these two different networks to improve the accuracy of the baseline measurements by GPS and so the IGS Station at Diego Garcia (DGAR) is chosen as the common station between the two networks. 13 years of data from 1997 to 2010 were used. By these global networks' analyses, the stations HYDE and MAIT are geodetically tied through DGAR. Very long baselines have been estimated from HYDE and also from Kerguelen (KERG) to other chosen IGS stations in and around India and Antarctica. Our analysis and results using ANT network show an increase in the baseline lengths between Kerguelen in Antarctic plate and other stations such as SEY1, DGAR and COCO and shortening of baseline lengths between HYDE in Indian plate and all these above stations using IND network. The analysis using ANT network also shows lengthening of baselines from Kerguelen to the sites Yaragadee (YAR1) and Tidbinbilla (TID2) in Australian plate; and Seychelles (SEY1) in Male plate, COCO in the diffuse plate boundary between India and Australia and DGAR in Capricorn plate at the rates of 5.3cm/yr, 3.8cm/yr, 5.6mm/yr, 3.03 cm/yr and 5.5 cm/yr respectively. The high rate of movement of COCO Island in comparison to Seychelles could be the result of excessive <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> due to the Indo-Australia diffuse plate boundary forces acting upon this region. The estimated <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> shows an increasing trend of 1.27x 10-8 yr-1 in the south of Indian peninsula. Our results show the precision of approximately 3-4mm (North), 5-6 mm (East), and 10-12mm (vertical) for the estimation of site coordinates. These results provide new information on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.G21A0680E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.G21A0680E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic Tying of Antarctica and India With 10 Years of Continuous GPS Measurements for Geodynamical and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> Studies in the South of Indian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ec, M.; N, R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>To holistically understand the geodynamical and crustal deformation processes between India and Antarctica, two global networks (IND and ANT) have been chosen. The objective is to geodetically connect the two continents. The IGS Station at Diego Garcia (DGAR) is the common station between the two networks. 10 years of data from 1997 to 2007 were used. By these global networks' analyses, the stations HYDE in India and MAIT at Antarctica are geodetically tied through the station DGAR. Very long baselines have been estimated from HYDE and also from Kerguelen (KERG) to other chosen IGS stations in and around India and Antarctica. Our analysis and results using ANT network show an increase in the baseline lengths between Kerguelen in Antarctic plate and other stations such as SEY1, DGAR and COCO and shortening of baseline lengths between HYDE in Indian plate and all these above stations using IND network. The analysis using ANT network also shows lengthening of baselines from Kerguelen to the sites Yaragadee (YAR1) and Tidbinbilla (TID2) in Australian plate; and Seychelles (SEY1) in Male plate, COCO in the diffuse plate boundary between India and Australia and DGAR in Capricorn plate at the rates of 5.3cm/yr, 3.8cm/yr, 5.6mm/yr, 3.03 cm/yr and 5.5 cm/yr respectively. The high rate of movement of COCO Island in comparison to Seychelles could be the result of excessive <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> due to the Indo-Australia diffuse plate boundary forces acting upon this region. The estimated <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> shows an increasing trend of 1.27x 10-8 yr-1 in the south of Indian peninsula. Our results show the precision of approximately 3-4mm (North), 5-6 mm (East), and 10-12mm (vertical) for the estimation of site coordinates. These results provide new information on the direction and rate of Indian plate motion, the driving mechanisms of Indian plate and intraplate seismicity of the Indian Ocean on the whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JMPSo..94..336W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JMPSo..94..336W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A three dimensional field formulation, and isogeometric solutions to point and line defects using Toupin's theory of gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> at finite <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; Rudraraju, S.; Garikipati, K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We present a field formulation for defects that draws from the classical representation of the cores as force dipoles. We write these dipoles as singular distributions. Exploiting the key insight that the variational setting is the only appropriate one for the theory of distributions, we arrive at universally applicable weak forms for defects in nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Remarkably, the standard, Galerkin finite element method yields numerical solutions for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fields of defects that, when parameterized suitably, match very well with classical, linearized <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> solutions. The true potential of our approach, however, lies in its easy extension to generate solutions to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fields of defects in the regime of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, and even more notably for Toupin's theory of gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> at finite <span class="hlt">strains</span> (Toupin Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 11 (1962) 385). In computing these solutions we adopt recent numerical work on an isogeometric analytic framework that enabled the first three-dimensional solutions to general boundary value problems of Toupin's theory (Rudraraju et al. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 278 (2014) 705). We first present exhaustive solutions to point defects, edge and screw dislocations, and a study on the energetics of interacting dislocations. Then, to demonstrate the generality and potential of our treatment, we apply it to other complex dislocation configurations, including loops and low-angle grain boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1831681','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1831681"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of Cholesterol <span class="hlt">Accumulated</span> in High Curvature Regions: Implication to the Curvature <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Energy for Lipid Mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Wangchen; Yang, Lin; Huang, Huey W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Recent experiments suggested that cholesterol and other lipid components of high negative spontaneous curvature facilitate membrane fusion. This is taken as evidence supporting the stalk-pore model of membrane fusion in which the lipid bilayers go through intermediate structures of high curvature. How do the high-curvature lipid components lower the free energy of the curved structure? Do the high-curvature lipid components modify the average spontaneous curvature of the relevant monolayer, thereby facilitate its bending, or do the lipid components redistribute in the curved structure so as to lower the free energy? This question is fundamental to the curvature <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy for lipid mixtures. Here we investigate the lipid distribution in a monolayer of a binary lipid mixture before and after bending, or more precisely in the lamellar, hexagonal, and distorted hexagonal phases. The lipid mixture is composed of 2:1 ratio of brominated di18:0PC and cholesterol. Using a newly developed procedure for the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method, we are able to isolate the bromine distribution and reconstruct the electron density distribution of the lipid mixture in the three phases. We found that the lipid distribution is homogenous and uniform in the lamellar and hexagonal phases. But in the distorted hexagonal phase, the lipid monolayer has nonuniform curvature, and cholesterol almost entirely concentrates in the high curvature region. This finding demonstrates that the association energies between lipid molecules vary with the curvature of membrane. Thus, lipid components in a mixture may redistribute under conditions of nonuniform curvature, such as in the stalk structure. In such cases, the spontaneous curvature depends on the local lipid composition and the free energy minimum is determined by lipid distribution as well as curvature. PMID:17259270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1072213','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1072213"><span id="translatedtitle">RELEASE OF <span class="hlt">ELASTIC</span> <span class="hlt">STRAIN</span> ENERGY AS ACOUSTIC EMISSION DURING THE REVERSE THERMOELASTIC PHASE TRANSFORMATION IN Au-47.5 at.percent Cd ALLOY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baram, J.; Avissar, J.; Gefen, Y.; Rosen, M.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to present experimental evidence concerning the acoustic energy evolved during the heating and cooling phase changes in Au-47.5 at.% Cd polycrystals. The results are examined from the point of view of the stored <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy during the martensite formation, and the frictional work that is dissipated by the movement of martensite interfaces in either direction, upon heating and cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JAP...115n3902D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JAP...115n3902D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Static and reversible <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on magnetic order of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SrTiO3 superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, Sujit; Herklotz, Andreas; Jia Guo, Er; Dörr, Kathrin</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>[La0.7Ca0.3MnO3(2.6 nm)/SrTiO3(6.3 nm)]15 superlattices (SLs) have been simultaneously grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on different oxide substrates in an attempt to obtain different residual <span class="hlt">strain</span> states. The substrates are (100)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO), LaAlO3 (LAO), and piezoelectric 0.72Pb (Mg1.3 Nb2.3)3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-PT). The La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 layers show tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> of ɛ = 1% on LAO and stronger <span class="hlt">strain</span> on STO and PMN-PT (ɛ = 1.7%). The magnetization has been measured and is found to be quite different for the three SLs. Reversible biaxial compression of Δɛ=-0.1% using the PMN-PT substrate helps one to estimate which part of the differences in magnetic order among the samples is induced by <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The influence of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> is found to be substantial, but does not completely account for the different behavior of the samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25986928"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanoelectrochemical catalysis of the effect of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> on a platinum nanofilm for the ORR exerted by a shape memory alloy substrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Minshu; Cui, Lishan; Cao, Yi; Bard, Allen J</p> <p>2015-06-17</p> <p>Both the ligand effect and surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> can affect the electrocatalytic reactivity. In that matter exists a need to be fundamentally understood; however, there is no effective strategy to isolate the <span class="hlt">strain</span> effect in electrocatalytic systems. In this research we show how the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> in a platinum nanofilm varies the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction, a key barrier to the wide applications of fuel cells. NiTi shape memory alloy was selected as the substrate to <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineer the deposited Pt nanofilm in both compressively and tensilely <span class="hlt">strained</span> states by taking advantage of the two-way shape memory effect for the first time. We demonstrate that compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> weakens the Pt surface adsorption and hence improves the ORR activity, which reflects in a 52% enhancement of the kinetic rate constant and a 27 mV positive shift of the half-wave potential for the compressively <span class="hlt">strained</span> 5 nm Pt compared to the pristine Pt. Tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> has the opposite effect, which is in general agreement with the proposed d-band theory. PMID:25986928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11683230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11683230"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead solubilization and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> by two <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Pseudomonas obtained from a contaminated alfisol's effluent in southwestern Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ekundayo, E O; Killham, K</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Pseudomonas species (B2 and D5) selected from an array of lead solubilizing and <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> bacteria obtained from the effluent contaminated soil samples of a battery manufacturing factory were studied. Increase in pH between 4.0 and 6.0 favoured the growth of isolates: Peak log10 cfu mL(-1) values of 7.1, 7.5 and 8.5 were obtained at pH 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Cell bound lead concentrations for B2 (0.34 mg mL(-1)) and D5 (0.30 mg mL(-1)) obtained by direct contact with Pbs were greater than lead concentrations of 0.89 and 0.25 mg mL(-1) for B2 and D5, respectively, obtained in dialyzed cultures. These cell bound lead concentration in undialyzed cultures were also greater than lead concentrations of 0.03 and 0.07 mg mL(-1) for B2 and D5 in culture supernatants. Glucose addition did nor improve lead <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the isolates. Exploitation of such isolates for the biotreatment of lead laden effluent was conducted. PMID:11683230</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552248"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> image registration based on <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy minimization: application to prostate magnetic resonance imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Bao; Arola, Dwayne D; Roys, Steve; Gullapalli, Rao P</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in conjunction with an endorectal coil is currently the clinical standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer because of the increased sensitivity and specificity of this approach. However, imaging in this manner provides images and spectra of the prostate in the deformed state because of the insertion of the endorectal coil. Such deformation may lead to uncertainties in the localization of prostate cancer during therapy. We propose a novel 3-D <span class="hlt">elastic</span> registration procedure that is based on the minimization of a physically motivated <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy function that requires the identification of similar features (points, curves, or surfaces) in the source and target images. The Gauss-Seidel method was used in the numerical implementation of the registration algorithm. The registration procedure was validated on synthetic digital images, MR images from prostate phantom, and MR images obtained on patients. The registration error, assessed by averaging the displacement of a fiducial landmark in the target to its corresponding point in the registered image, was 0.2 ± 0.1 pixels on synthetic images. On the prostate phantom and patient data, the registration errors were 1.0 ± 0.6 pixels (0.6 ± 0.4 mm) and 1.8 ± 0.7 pixels (1.1 ± 0.4 mm), respectively. Registration also improved image similarity (normalized cross-correlation) from 0.72 ± 0.10 to 0.96 ± 0.03 on patient data. Registration results on digital images, phantom, and prostate data in vivo demonstrate that the registration procedure can be used to significantly improve both the accuracy of localized therapies such as brachytherapy or external beam therapy and can be valuable in the longitudinal follow-up of patients after therapy. PMID:20552248</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16487570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16487570"><span id="translatedtitle">Significance of Bacillus subtilis <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 as a bioinoculant for concurrent plant growth promotion and nickel <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in Brassica juncea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaidi, Sabina; Usmani, Saima; Singh, Braj Raj; Musarrat, Javed</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>In this study, a nickel (Ni)-tolerant Bacillus subtilis <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 was characterized based on the 16SrDNA homology and phylogenetic analysis. The role of this <span class="hlt">strain</span> ascertained in facilitating Ni <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Indian mustard plant (Brassica juncea [L]. Czern and Coss) var. Pusa Bold (DIR-50), to elucidate the potential of Ni phytoremediation in combination with metal-tolerant rhizobacteria. The data revealed that the plants exposed to NiCl2 (1750 mg kg(-1)) in soil bioaugmented with <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 have <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> 0.147% Ni vis-à-vis 0.094% <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in dry biomass of the plants grown in uninoculated soil. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 has also exhibited the capability of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) (55 microg ml(-1)), and solubilizing inorganic phosphate (90 microg ml(-1)) in specific culture media. The pot culture experiments clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of bioinoculant <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 with significant increase (p<0.05) in the plant growth attributes in untreated control soil. Furthermore, the protective effect of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 against Ni phytotoxicity was evident in plants grown in soil treated with NiCl2 in concentration range of 250-1750 mg kg(-1). Thus, it is suggested that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> SJ-101 owing to its intrinsic abilities of plant growth promotion, and attenuation of soil Ni by biosorption and bioaccumulation, could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoaccumulation of this toxic heavy metal from contaminated sites. PMID:16487570</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109d2902A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109d2902A"><span id="translatedtitle">Insight into magnetic, ferroelectric and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of <span class="hlt">strained</span> BiFeO3 thin films through Mössbauer spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agbelele, A.; Sando, D.; Infante, I. C.; Carrétéro, C.; Jouen, S.; Le Breton, J.-M.; Barthélémy, A.; Dkhil, B.; Bibes, M.; Juraszek, J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We have studied the magnetic order of highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> (001)-oriented BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films using 57Fe Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectrometry. From 90 K to 620 K the films exhibit a collinear antiferromagnetic structure, in contrast with the cycloidal structure observed in bulk BFO. Moreover, we find that both the planar magnetic anisotropy for compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> and out-of-plane anisotropy for tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> persist from 90 K up to the Néel temperature (TN), which itself shows only a weak <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence. An analysis of the line asymmetry of the paramagnetic doublet for temperatures above TN is used to reveal the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent rotation of the polarization direction, consistent with previous observations. Our results show that the lattice dynamics in BFO films are strongly <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent, offering avenues toward acoustic phonon devices. Finally, we use the versatility of Mössbauer spectroscopy technique to reveal various multi-property features including magnetic states, polarization direction and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694267','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4694267"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of correlation between <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of common carotid artery in patients with diabetic nephropathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zou, Chunpeng; Jiao, Yan; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Chao; Chen, Maohua; Hu, Chunhong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the common carotid artery (CCA) by ultrasonography and evaluate its clinical significance in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: A total of 68 DN patients and 54 healthy subjects were randomly recruited from the Ultrasound Department from April 2014 to March 2015. The maximum of circumferential <span class="hlt">strain</span> (CSmax), maximum of circumferential <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate (CSRmax), compliance coefficient (CC) and stiffness index (β) of the CCA were determined by ultrasonography in all the patients, and correlation analysis was performed. Results: The CC, CSmax and CSRmax in DN group were significantly lower than in healthy controls (P<0.05), but β was markedly higher than in control group (P<0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation of CSmax and CSRmax with CC and a negative correlation with β in both control group and DN group. Conclusion: There is significant correlation between <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> of the CCA. CSmax and CSRmax may be used to reflect the mechanical characteristics of CCA. PMID:26770367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMMR41A2339C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMMR41A2339C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Single Crystal <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> and Plastic Anisotropy on <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Heterogeneity: Comparison of Olivine to Other Common Minerals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cline, C. J., II; Burnley, P. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In order to extrapolate the rheological behavior of polycrystalline earth materials to conditions and timescales that are unachievable in a laboratory setting, some sort of model is required. Numerical models are particularly appealing for this task but for these models to provide a sound platform for extrapolation they must be based on a complete understanding of all deformation mechanics that are operating in the real material. In a simplified description these mechanics can be thought of as having three components 1) the individual grains, 2) the grain boundaries and 3) the macroscopic aggregate response, which can be thought of as the interaction of the other two components within the polycrystal. Traditionally, the aggregate response is thought to represent the summed or average behavior of all individual grains deforming under the influence of the macroscopic stress tensor but; recent work within our lab using finite element models (FEM) has shown that local stress fields within the aggregate are not representative of the macroscopic stress tensor and can vary in both direction and magnitude. These variations in the stress tensor produce a pattern similar to force chains that are observed in deformation experiments on granular materials; and appear to be a direct consequence of stress percolation which is controlled by the anisotropy of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and plastic strengths of the individual grains. To test this hypothesis we will conduct a suite of deformation experiments utilizing multiple monomineralic polycrystals that have a range of single crystal anisotropies. In order to infer the direction of stress acting on each grain and reconstruct the total modulation of stress direction throughout the sample, we have chosen materials that form microstructures that are sensitive to stress direction, such as deformation twins and kink bands. This experimental technique will allow for a direct comparison between the single crystal anisotropy of a material and the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......239B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......239B"><span id="translatedtitle">New Insights into <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> and Release in the Central and Northern Walker Lane, Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, California and Nevada, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bormann, Jayne M.</p> <p></p> <p>The Walker Lane is a 100 km-wide distributed zone of complex transtensional faulting that flanks the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada. Up to 25% of the total Pacific-North American relative right-lateral plate boundary deformation is accommodated east of the Sierra Nevada, primarily in the Walker Lane. The results of three studies in the Central and Northern Walker Lane offer new insights into how constantly <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> plate boundary shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> is released on faults in the Walker Lane and regional earthquake hazards. This research is based on the collection and analysis of new of geologic and geodetic datasets. Two studies are located in the Central Walker Lane, where plate boundary deformation is accommodated on northwest trending right-lateral faults, east-northeast trending left-lateral faults, and north trending normal faults. In this region, a prominent set of left-stepping, en-echelon, normal fault-bounded basins between Walker Lake and Lake Tahoe fill a gap in Walker Lane strike slip faults. Determining how these basins accommodate shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> is a primary goal of this research. Paleoseismic and neotectonic observations from the Wassuk Range fault zone in the Walker Lake basin record evidence for at least 3 Holocene surface rupturing earthquakes and Holocene/late Pleistocene vertical slip rates between 0.4-0.7 mm/yr on the normal fault, but record no evidence of right-lateral slip along the rangefront fault. A complementary study presents new GPS velocity data that measures present-day deformation across the Central Walker Lane and infers fault slip and block rotation rates using an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> block model. The model results show a clear partitioning between distinct zones of <span class="hlt">strain</span> accommodation characterized by (1) right-lateral translation of blocks on northwest trending faults, (2) left-lateral slip and clockwise block rotations between east and northeast trending faults, and (3) right-lateral oblique normal slip with minor clockwise block rotations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.G32A..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.G32A..03N"><span id="translatedtitle">The Lima-Peru seismic gap: a study of inter-seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> from a decade of GPS measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norabuena, E. O.; Pollitz, F. F.; Dixon, T. H.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The Peruvian subduction zone between the Mendaña Fracture zone and Arica, northern Chile, has been source of large megathrust earthquakes since historical to present times, The two last major events affecting the southern segment corresponds to Arequipa 2001 (Mw 8.3) and Pisco 2007 (Mw 8.1). A noteworthy event is the Lima 1746 earthquake with an assigned magnitude of Mw 8.5 and which is assumed to have broken several km of the seismogenic zone off Lima. The great shock was followed by a devastating tsunami that destroyed the main port of Callao, killing about 99 percent of its population. This extreme event was followed by quiescence of a few hundred years until the XX century when the Lima subduction zone was broken again by the earthquakes of May 1940 (Mw 8.0), October 1966 (Mw 8.0) and Lima 1974 (Mw 8.0). The broken areas overlap partially with the estimated area of the 1746 earthquake and put the region in a state of seismic gap representing a major hazard for Lima city - Peru's capital and its about 9 million of inhabitants. Our study reports the interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> derived from a decade of GPS measurement at 11 geodetic monuments including one measurement in an island 80 km offshore and models variations of coupling along the plate interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29b6101C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29b6101C"><span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation and <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> in an InN Film Characterized by Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Feng-Feng; Fa, Tao; Wang, Xin-Qiang; Yao, Shu-De</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Dislocation information and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-related tetragonal distortion as well as crystalline qualities of a 2-μm-thick InN film grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are characterized by Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) and synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). The minimum yield χmin = 2.5% deduced from the RBS/C results indicates a fairly good crystalline quality. From the SR-XRD results, we obtain the values of the screw and edge densities to be ρscrew = 7.0027 × 109 and ρedge = 8.6115 × 109 cm-2, respectively. The tetragonal distortion of the sample is found to be -0.27% by angular scans, which is close to the -0.28% derived by SR-XRD. The value of |e⊥/e∥| = 0.6742 implies that the InN layer is much stiffer along the a axis than that along the c axis, where e∥ is the parallel <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and e⊥ is the perpendicular <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Photoluminescence results reveal a main peak of 0.653 eV with the linewidth of 60 meV, additional shoulder band could be due to impurities and related defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11737110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11737110"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of cortical and cancellous bone in the posterior mandible increases peri-implant stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> under oblique loading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Mahony, A M; Williams, J L; Spencer, P</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to compare implant-bone interface stresses and peri-implant principal <span class="hlt">strains</span> in anisotropic versus isotropic three-dimensional finite element models of an osseointegrated implant in the posterior mandible. We obtained anisotropic (transversely isotropic) <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants for mandibular bone and derived equivalent isotropic constants by averaging over all possible spatial orientations. A finite element model was constructed using ten-node tetrahedral p-elements, providing curved edges where necessary and increasing the accuracy of the results in regions of high stress gradients. Perfect bonding was assumed at the implant-bone interface. An oblique load was applied at the coronal aspect of the crown with 100 N vertical and 20 N bucco-to-lingual components. Implant-bone interface stresses exceeded reported bond strengths and principal <span class="hlt">strains</span> reached yield <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels in the cortical crest. Anisotropy increased what were already high levels of stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the isotropic case by 20 to 30% in the cortical crest. In cancellous bone, anisotropy increased what were relatively low levels of interface stress in the isotropic case by three- to four-fold to exceed bond strength levels. Anisotropy has subtle, yet significant effects on interface stresses and peri-implant <span class="hlt">strains</span> and careful consideration should be given to its use in finite element studies of dental implants. PMID:11737110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSV...291...19H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSV...291...19H"><span id="translatedtitle">The transient responses of a special non-homogeneous magneto-electro-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> hollow cylinder for axisymmetric plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hou, P. F.; Ding, H. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>By virtue of the introduction of new dependent variable and the separation of variables technique, the transient responses of a special non-homogeneous magneto-electro-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> hollow cylinder are transformed to two Volterra integral equations of the second kind of about two functions with respect to time. These integral equations can be solved successfully by means of the interpolation method. Then, the complete solutions of displacements, stresses, electric potential, electric displacements, magnetic potential and magnetic inductions are obtained. The present method is suitable for a magneto-electro-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> hollow cylinder with an arbitrary thickness subjected to arbitrary axisymmetric mechanical and electromagnetic loads. Numerical results are finally presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54...79E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54...79E"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ identification of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution in a microalloyed transformation induced plasticity steel using digital image correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eskandari, M.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Yadegari, M.; Soltani, N.; Asghari, A.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A non-contact <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement technique, based on an in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) method in association with magnetic martensite point measurement (Feritoscopy testing) was applied to study inhomogeneous deformation corresponding to martensitic transformation of a microalloyed low carbon transformation induced plasticity steel during tensile <span class="hlt">straining</span>. The progress of inhomogeneous deformation is traced by the <span class="hlt">strain</span> maps. The microstructural observation is used to validate the DIC results. The experimental steel shows continuous yielding with a high true fracture strength of 1410±10 MPa at 25 °C along with the lack of tensile necking. The DIC results show that the yield point is controlled by stress-assisted martensite transformation, which in turn induces the <span class="hlt">strain</span> inhomogeneity. The latter starts prior to the yield point after <span class="hlt">straining</span> to 0.016. The microstructural evolution reveals the ɛ-martensite is obtained through stress-assisted martensite formation. After yielding, thanks to the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced martensite transformation, the deformation inhomogeneity in <span class="hlt">strain</span> maps is increased with <span class="hlt">strain</span>, corresponding to increasing the volume fraction of martensite. The results suggest that the continuous yielding and initial <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening is controlled by stress-assisted martensite formation while the higher total elongation to fracture (80%) and the tensile necking behavior is mainly influenced by the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced martensite transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4833956','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4833956"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Light, Temperature, and Nutrition on Growth and Pigment <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of Three Dunaliella salina <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Isolated from Saline Soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Zhe; Duangmanee, Promchup; Zhao, Pu; Juntawong, Niran; Ma, Chunhong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Developing algal industries in saline-alkali areas is necessary. However, suitable <span class="hlt">strains</span> and optimal production conditions must be studied before widespread commercial use. Objectives: The effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and CO(NH2)2 on beta-carotene and biomass <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> were compared and evaluated in order to provide scientific guidance for commercial algal production in northeastern Thailand. Materials and Methods: An orthogonal design was used for evaluating optimal conditions for the algal production of three candidate Dunaliella salina <span class="hlt">strains</span> (KU XI, KU 10 and KU 31) which were isolated from saline soils and cultured in the column photobioreactor. Results: The optimal light and temperature for algae growth were 135.3 μmol m-2 s-1 and 22°C, while the conditions of 245.6 μmol m-2 s-1 and 22°C induced the highest level of beta-carotene production (117.99 mg L-1). The optimal concentrations of KNO3, CO(NH2)2, and NaHCO3 for algae growth were 0.5 g L-1, 0.36 g L-1, and 1.5 g L-1, respectively, while 0, 0.12 g L-1 and 1.5 g L-1 were best suited for beta-carotene <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. The highest beta-carotene rate per cell appeared with the highest light intensity (12.21 pg) and lowest temperature (12.47 pg), and the lowest total beta-carotene content appeared at the lowest temperature (15°C). There was not a significant difference in biomass <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> among the three Dunaliella <span class="hlt">strains</span>; however, the beta-carotene <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of KU XI was higher than that of the other two <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Conclusions: Light and temperature were both relevant factors that contributed to the growth and beta-carotene <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of the three D. salina <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and NaHCO3 had significantly positive effects on growth. The degree of impact of the different factors on cell growth was temperature > NaHCO3 > light intensity > KNO3 > CO (NH2)2 > <span class="hlt">strains</span>; the impact on beta-carotene <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was temperature > light intensity > KNO3 > CO (NH2)2 > <span class="hlt">strains</span> > NaHCO3 PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410391D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410391D"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Southern Andes (25°-35°S) using Envisat SAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ducret, G.; Doin, M. P.; Grandin, R.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Métois, M.; Béjar-Pizzaro, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Chilean subduction zone is one of the most active in the world. The Nazca plate subducts under the South America plate with a velocity around 7 cm/year. Along-strike and along-dip variations of interseismic coupling suggest that the subduction interface is divided into segments. Rupture of one or several consecutive segments may produce earthquakes of magnitude greater than 8.0. However, the definition of the segmentation in the particular case of the Chilean subduction and its relation to earthquake nucleation in general is a debated topic. We focus on an area extending over 1000 km in latitude, located between Taltal (~25°S) and Constitution (~35°S), which has been <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> tectonic <span class="hlt">strain</span> since the mid-20th century. Three main earthquakes occurred in the last decade around the boundaries of this segment : the 1995 Antogagasta (M=8.1) and the 2007 Tocopilla (M=7.7) earthquakes to the North and the 2010 Maule (M=8.8) earthquake to the South. A few seismic swarms occurred in recent years : the episode of Valparaiso (~33°S) in 1985, the Puntaqui (~30°S) crisis in 1997, and the swarms in the Copiapo (~27°S) region in 1973 and 2006. The 25-35°S part of the subduction zone experiences since 38 years a background seismicity (given by USGS catalog), that is mainly located along the plate interface and less frequently within the overriding plate. The seismicity rate is varying from South to North with a maximum seismicity located around La Serena area (~30°S). There, the coupling distribution is constrained by an important GPS dataset that indicate a lower coupling (less than 60%) compared with areas further North and South. Similarly, GPS data suggest that the Copiapo area also corresponds to a local minimum of coupling. However the GPS network is too sparse further North to constrain coupling variations between 28° and 25°S. We use InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) to provide additional insights on interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMPSo..61..873S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMPSo..61..873S"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for a constrained, finitely deforming, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid with rotation gradient dependent <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy, and its specialization to von Kármán plates and beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasa, A. R.; Reddy, J. N.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to develop the governing equations for a fully constrained finitely deforming hyperelastic Cosserat continuum where the directors are constrained to rotate with the body rotation. This is the generalization of small deformation couple stress theories and would be useful for developing mathematical models for an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> material with embedded stiff short fibers or inclusions (e.g., materials with carbon nanotubes or nematic elastomers, cellular materials with oriented hard phases, open cell foams, and other similar materials), that account for certain longer range interactions. The theory is developed as a limiting case of a regular Cosserat <span class="hlt">elastic</span> material where the directors are allowed to rotate freely by considering the case of a high "rotational mismatch energy". The theory is developed using the formalism of Lagrangian mechanics, with the static case being based on Castigliano's first theorem. By considering the stretch U and the rotation R as additional independent variables and using the polar decomposition theorem as an additional constraint equation, we obtain the governing and as well as the boundary conditions for finite deformations. The resulting equations are further specialized for plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> and axisymmetric finite deformations, deformations of beams and plates with small <span class="hlt">strain</span> and moderate rotation, and for small deformation theories. We also show that the boundary conditions for this theory involve "surface tension" like terms due to the higher gradients in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy function. For beams and plates, the rotational gradient dependent <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy does not require additional variables (unlike Cosserat theories) and additional differential equations; nor do they raise the order of the differential equations, thus allowing us to include a material length scale dependent response at no extra "computational cost" even for finite deformation beam/plate theories</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10115625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10115625"><span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical analysis of the effect of uniaxial <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the critical temperature of cuprate superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, D.O.; Baetzold, R.C.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>Factors which influence the effect of uniaxial stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the superconducting critical temperature are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the mobile hole density of YBa{sub 2}Ci{sub 3}O{sub 7}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956121"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing the cross-effect of <span class="hlt">strains</span> in non-linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of nearly regular polymer networks by pure shear deformation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katashima, Takuya; Urayama, Kenji; Chung, Ung-il; Sakai, Takamasa</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The pure shear deformation of the Tetra-polyethylene glycol gels reveals the presence of an explicit cross-effect of <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density function even for the polymer networks with nearly regular structure including no appreciable amount of structural defect such as trapped entanglement. This result is in contrast to the expectation of the classical Gaussian network model (Neo Hookean model), i.e., the vanishing of the cross effect in regular networks with no trapped entanglement. The results show that (1) the cross effect of <span class="hlt">strains</span> is not dependent on the network-strand length; (2) the cross effect is not affected by the presence of non-network strands; (3) the cross effect is proportional to the network polymer concentration including both <span class="hlt">elastically</span> effective and ineffective strands; (4) no cross effect is expected exclusively in zero limit of network concentration in real polymer networks. These features indicate that the real polymer networks with regular network structures have an explicit cross-effect of <span class="hlt">strains</span>, which originates from some interaction between network strands (other than entanglement effect) such as nematic interaction, topological interaction, and excluded volume interaction. PMID:25956121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150599"><span id="translatedtitle">The internal-<span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor of crystals for nuclear-relaxed <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and piezoelectric constants: on the full exploitation of its symmetry features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erba, Alessandro</p> <p>2016-05-18</p> <p>Symmetry features of the internal-<span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor of crystals (whose components are mixed second-energy derivatives with respect to atomic displacements and lattice <span class="hlt">strains</span>) are formally presented, which originate from translational-invariance, atomic equivalences, and atomic invariances. A general computational scheme is devised, and implemented into the public Crystal program, for the quantum-mechanical evaluation of the internal-<span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor of crystals belonging to any space-group, which takes full-advantage of the exploitation of these symmetry-features. The gain in computing time due to the full symmetry exploitation is documented to be rather significant not just for high-symmetry crystalline systems such as cubic, hexagonal or trigonal, but also for low-symmetry ones such as monoclinic and orthorhombic. The internal-<span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor is used for the evaluation of the nuclear relaxation term of the fourth-rank <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and third-rank piezoelectric tensors of crystals, where, apart from a reduction of the computing time, the exploitation of symmetry is documented to remarkably increase the numerical precision of computed coefficients. PMID:27150599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeoJI.146..571M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeoJI.146..571M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional GPS data confirm high <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> prior to the 2000 June 4 Mw = 7.8 earthquake at southeast Sumatra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michel, G. W.; Becker, M.; Reigber, Ch.; Tibi, R.; Yu, Y. Q.; Zhu, S. Y.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>Site velocities derived from repeated measurements in a regional GPS network in Southeast Asia help to constrain the motion of tectonic blocks as well as slip rates along major faults in the area. Using 3-D forward dislocation modelling, the influence of seismic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> loading and unloading on the measured site motions are approximated. Results suggest that the northwestern Sunda arc is fully coupled seismogenically, whereas its eastern part along Java shows localized deformation. Higher horizontal velocity gradients than expected from the modelling of a fully coupled plate interface west of Manila in the Philippines suggest that deformation may be localized there. Assuming that geodetically derived convergence represents long-term rates, <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> geodetic moments are compared to those derived using seismic data from 1977 to 2000 (Harvard CMT catalogue). If areas displaying localized deformation are dominated by creep processes, the largest difference between <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> and seismically released deformation is located where the 2000 June 4 Mw=7.8 Sumatra earthquake occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190587"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> limit of silicane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various <span class="hlt">strains</span> using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limits defined by ultimate tensile <span class="hlt">strains</span> are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants are in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers. PMID:25190587</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25771890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25771890"><span id="translatedtitle">Three hen <span class="hlt">strains</span> fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates and source-specific isomer deposition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates in different hen <span class="hlt">strains</span> is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and depletion in three hen <span class="hlt">strains</span> by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. PMID:25771890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000760&hterms=plastic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dplastic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000760&hterms=plastic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dplastic"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> And Plastic Deformations In Butt Welds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verderaime, V.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Report presents study of mathematical modeling of stresses and <span class="hlt">strains</span>, reaching beyond limits of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, in bars and plates. Study oriented toward development of capability to predict stresses and resulting <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> in butt welds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.G33A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.G33A..02T"><span id="translatedtitle">Forearc Sliver Translation, a Lack of Arc-Normal <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span>, and Interplate Thrust Earthquakes: GPS Geodesy in Western Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Styron, R. H.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>We have been investigating the kinematics of the Nicaraguan forearc using campaign GPS measurements of our geodetic network made over the last seven years (Turner et al., 2007). We currently have interseismic velocities for 18 campaign sites and have installed 10 additional sites in the backarc to investigate the nature of the transition from forearc sliver motion to stable Caribbean Plate motion. Our work focusing on the later issue is presented elsewhere at this meeting (Styron et al., 2007). Corrections for modeled coseismic offsets from the Jan. 13, 2001 Mw7.7 earthquake off the coast of El Salvador have been applied to our campaign site velocities. Some of our time-series are also strongly affected by coseismic and postseismic effects of the Oct. 9, 2004 Mw6.9 earthquake off of the coast of Nicaragua. The geodetic effects of this event are being removed from the affected time-series for interseismic velocity analysis. We have also derived interseismic velocities for five continuous GPS sites in the region. Our GPS results confirm previous predictions of northwest transport of a forearc sliver with an average Northwest velocity of ~15 mm yr-1, but show little evidence for an arc- normal component of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> associated with locking on the subduction interface. However, the amount of seismicity along this section of the Middle America Trench, including several recent large events such as the 1992 Mw7.6 and 2004 Mw6.9 earthquakes, indicates some amount of locking is present. Several possibilities may account for the apparent contradiction between the GPS results and observed seismicity. The locked zone may be too shallow and too far offshore for the arc-normal component to show up in our network, or the arc-normal signal may be masked by post-seismic effects from the 1992 offshore earthquake. If coupling between the downgoing slab and the overriding plate is weak or limited to a small seismogenic zone, then arc-parallel motion of the forearc sliver may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449629"><span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of proteins with chitinase activity in the culture media of the parent and mutant Serratia marcescens <span class="hlt">strain</span> grown in the presence of mitomycin C].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iusupova, D V; Petukhova, E V; Sokolova, R B; Gabdrakhmanova, L A</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The study of the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> pattern of extracellular proteins with chitinase activity in the parent Serratia marcescens <span class="hlt">strain</span> Bú 211 (ATCC 9986) grown in the presence of mitomycin C and its mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> with the constitutive synthesis of chitinases grown in the absence of the inducer showed that chitinase activity appeared in the culture liquids of both <span class="hlt">strains</span> at the end of the exponential phase (4 h of growth) and reached a maximum in the stationary phase (18-20 h of growth). The analysis of the culture liquids (12 h of growth) by denaturing electrophoresis in PAAG followed by the protein renaturation step revealed the presence of four extracellular proteins with chitinase activity and molecular masses of 21, 38, 52, and 58 kDa. PMID:12449629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.670..144W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.670..144W"><span id="translatedtitle">Coseismic deformations of the 2015 MW 7.8 Gorkha earthquake and interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the Himalayan tectonic belt and Tibetan plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yanqiang; Jiang, Zaisen; Liang, Hongbao; Chang, Liu; Chen, Changyun; Zhu, Shuang; Zhao, Jingyang; Du, Jiliang</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, derived from GPS velocities from the Tibetan Plateau and the India Plate, shows that the Himalayan tectonic belt exhibits compression deformation in a NE-NS-NE direction from the west to the east. The GPS velocity profiles reflect that the distribution of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> is uneven: there is a 17.1 mm/yr. compressive deformation distributed over 400 km along 85° E longitude, a 20.9-22.2 mm/yr. compressive deformation dispersed across 400-500 km along 79° E longitude, and a 15.3-16.9 mm/yr. compressive deformation spread across 500-600 km along 91° E longitude. The MW 7.8 Gorkha earthquake occurred at the edge of an intense compression deformation zone of about 6.0 × 10- 8/yr. in a north-south direction, and an about 90% compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> is absorbed in the 300 km region near the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Coseismic displacements, larger than three standard deviations (3SD), are mainly concentrated within 360 km from the epicenter. The nodal plane of the main shock divides the areas where tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> release in an exponential attenuation pattern is dominant to the north, and where compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> with upward movement is dominant to the south. The results inversed by the SDM program reveal that the maximal slip of the Gorkha earthquake is 5.33 m, and its moment magnitude is MW 7.85, and the largest stress drop is 4.21 Mpa. Slips larger than 0.5 m are mainly distributed in a region approximately 135 km × 105 km, which show that the rupture of the Gorkha earthquake does not reach the surface. Finally, we estimate that the recurrence period of this earthquake is about 166 ± 20 years according to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> before the earthquake and the coseismic release feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMag...90.1893S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMag...90.1893S"><span id="translatedtitle">A formulation for the characteristic lengths of fcc materials in first <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> via the Sutton-Chen potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shodja, H. M.; Tehranchi, A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The usual continuum theories are inadequate in predicting the mechanical behavior of solids in the presence of small defects and stress concentrators; it is well known that such continuum methods are unable to detect the change of the size of the inhomogeneities and defects. For these reasons various augmented continuum theories and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theories have been proposed in the literature. The major difficulty in implication of these theories lies in the lack of information about the additional material constants which appear in such theories. For fcc metals, for the calculation of the associated characteristic lengths which arise in first <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory, an atomistic approach based on the Sutton-Chen interatomic potential function is proposed. For the validity of the computed characteristic lengths, the phenomenon of the size effect pertinent to a nano-sized circular void within an fcc (111) plane is examined via both first <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory and lattice statics. Comparison of the results explains the physical ramifications of the characteristic lengths in improving the usual continuum results. Moreover, by reconsideration of the Kelvin problem it is shown that a commonly employed variant of the first <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient theory is only valid for a few fcc metals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1388906','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1388906"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Volatile Fatty Acids on Nitrite <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> by a Pseudomonas stutzeri <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Isolated from a Denitrifying Fluidized Bed Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Rijn, J.; Tal, Y.; Barak, Y.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Intermediate nitrite <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> during denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor was examined in the presence of different volatile fatty acids. Nitrite <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> when acetate or propionate served as the carbon and electron source but did not <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> in the presence of butyrate, valerate, or caproate. Nitrite <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the presence of acetate was caused by differences in the rates of nitrate and nitrite reduction and, in addition, by competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways for electrons. Incubation of the cells with butyrate resulted in a slower nitrate reduction rate and a faster nitrite reduction rate than incubation with acetate. Whereas nitrate inhibited the nitrite reduction rate in the presence of acetate, no such inhibition was found in butyrate-supplemented cells. Cytochromes b and c were found to mediate electron transport during nitrate reduction by the cells. Cytochrome c was reduced via a different pathway when nitrite-reducing cells were incubated with acetate than when they were incubated with butyrate. Furthermore, addition of antimycin A to nitrite-reducing cells resulted in partial inhibition of electron transport to cytochrome c in acetate-supplemented cells but not in butyrate-supplemented cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that differences in intermediate nitrite <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> are caused by differences in electron flow to nitrate and nitrite reductases during oxidation of either acetate or butyrate. PMID:16535368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185571-strain-effects-intermixing-si-surface-importance-long-range-elastic-corrections-first-principles-calculations','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185571-strain-effects-intermixing-si-surface-importance-long-range-elastic-corrections-first-principles-calculations"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range <span class="hlt">elastic</span> corrections in first-principles calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand</p> <p>2014-10-06</p> <p>Here we investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2 N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field,more » we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more signi cant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185571','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185571"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range <span class="hlt">elastic</span> corrections in first-principles calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand</p> <p>2014-10-06</p> <p>Here we investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2 N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more signi cant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90o5302B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90o5302B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> effects and intermixing at the Si surface: Importance of long-range <span class="hlt">elastic</span> corrections in first-principles calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Béland, Laurent Karim; Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Pochet, Pascal; Mousseau, Normand</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We investigate Ge mixing at the Si(001) surface and characterize the 2×N Si(001) reconstruction by means of hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM). Avoiding fake <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dampening, this scheme allows to correctly take into account long-range deformation induced by reconstructed and defective surfaces. We focus in particular on the dimer vacancy line (DVL) and its interaction with Ge adatoms. We first show that calculated formation energies for these defects are highly dependent on the choice of chemical potential and that the latter must be chosen carefully. Characterizing the effect of the DVL on the deformation field, we also find that the DVL favors Ge segregation in the fourth layer close to the DVL. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and QM/MM, we show that a complex diffusion path permits the substitution of the Ge atom in the fourth layer, with barriers compatible with mixing observed at intermediate temperature. We also show that the use of QM/MM results in much more significant corrections at the saddle points (up to 0.5 eV) that at minima, demonstrating its importance for describing kinetics correctly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24121194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24121194"><span id="translatedtitle">Hierarchical modelling of in situ <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation of human enamel based on photoelastic and diffraction analysis of stresses and <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sui, Tan; Lunt, Alexander J G; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Sandholzer, Michael A; Hu, Jianan; Dolbnya, Igor P; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Human enamel is a typical hierarchical mineralized tissue with a two-level composite structure. To date, few studies have focused on how the mechanical behaviour of this tissue is affected by both the rod orientation at the microscale and the preferred orientation of mineral crystallites at the nanoscale. In this study, wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the internal lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> response of human enamel samples (with differing rod directions) as a function of in situ uniaxial compressive loading. Quantitative stress distribution evaluation in the birefringent mounting epoxy was performed in parallel using photoelastic techniques. The resulting experimental data was analysed using an advanced multiscale Eshelby inclusion model that takes into account the two-level hierarchical structure of human enamel, and reflects the differing rod directions and orientation distributions of hydroxyapatite crystals. The achieved satisfactory agreement between the model and the experimental data, in terms of the values of multidirectional <span class="hlt">strain</span> components under the action of differently orientated loads, suggests that the multiscale approach captures reasonably successfully the structure-property relationship between the hierarchical architecture of human enamel and its response to the applied forces. This novel and systematic approach can be used to improve the interpretation of the mechanical properties of enamel, as well as of the textured hierarchical biomaterials in general. PMID:24121194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41B2803R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41B2803R"><span id="translatedtitle">Project Hotspot: Linear <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates of late Cenozoic basalt at Kimama, Idaho, and implications for crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and subsidence rates of the central Snake River Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodgers, D. W.; Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Champion, D. E.; Duncan, R. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Project Hotspot's Kimama drill hole on the Snake River Plain, Idaho recovered a 1912 m thick section of basalt core that ranges in age from ~700 ka to at least 6.14 Ma, based on five 40Ar/39Ar analyses and twenty paleomagnetic age assignments. Fifty-four flow groups comprising 510 individual flows were defined, yielding an average recurrence interval of ~11,400 years between flows. Age-depth analysis indicate that, over thicknesses >150 m and age spans >500 k.y., <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates were constant at 30 m/100 k.y. The existence and persistence of this linear <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rate for greater than 5 m.y. documents an external tectonic control on eruption dynamics. One conceptual model relates <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates to horizontal crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span>, such that far-field extension rate controls the periodicity of dikes that feed basalt flows. In this model, each of the 54 flow groups would have a deep-seated, relatively wide (1-10m) dike that branches upward into a network of narrow (10-100 cm) dikes feeding individual lava flows. Assuming an east-west lateral lava flow extent of up to 50 km, the Kimama data record a steady-state crustal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of 10-9 to 10-10 y-1. This rate is comparable to modern, decadal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates measured with GPS in the adjacent Basin & Range province, but exceeds decadal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of zero measured in the eastern Snake River Plain. Linear <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> rates also provide insight into basalt subsidence history. In this model, the middle-upper crust subsides due to the added weight of lava flows, the added weight of mid-crustal sills/dikes, and thermal contraction in the wake of the Yellowstone hot spot. Isostatic compensation would occur in the (nearly) molten lower crust. Assuming constant surface elevation and a basalt density of 2.6 g/cm3, the lava flow weight would account for 87% of the burial through time, yielding a steady-state "tectonic" subsidence rate of 4 m/100 k.y. attributed to the driving forces of mid-crustal injection and/or thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008cosp...37.3373W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008cosp...37.3373W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear visco-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis and the design of super-pressure balloons : stress, <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wakefield, David</p> <p></p> <p> approach to stress and stability analysis inherent in inTENS, and focuses in particular on: Implementation of an alternative application of the Incremental Schapery Rand (ISR) representation of the non-linear visco-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of the polyethylene balloon film. This is based upon the relaxation modulus, rather than the creep compliance, and as such fits more efficiently into the Dynamic Relaxation analysis procedure used within inTENS. Comparisons of results between the two approaches are given. Verification of the material model by comparison with material tests. Verification of the application to pumpkin balloon structures by comparison with scale model tests. Application of inTENS with ISR to time-stepping analyses of a balloon flight including diurnal variations of temperature and pressure. This includes the demonstration of a method for checking the likely hood of overall instability developing at any particular time in the flight as both balloon geometry and film properties change due to visco-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T33E..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T33E..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in the Imperial Valley and Implications for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in Southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear <span class="hlt">strain</span>, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed <span class="hlt">strain</span> field to that computed using the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of 0.7 μ<span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the southern Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the southern San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25594491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25594491"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy enables the distinction of lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in thraustochytrid <span class="hlt">strains</span> through analysis of individual live cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Gupta, Adarsha; Thyagarajan, Tamilselvi; Puri, Munish; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The superior characteristics of high photon flux and diffraction-limited spatial resolution achieved by synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy allowed molecular characterization of individual live thraustochytrids. Principal component analysis revealed distinct separation of the single live cell spectra into their corresponding <span class="hlt">strains</span>, comprised of new Australasian thraustochytrids (AMCQS5-5 and S7) and standard cultures (AH-2 and S31). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (UHCA) indicated close similarities between S7 and AH-7 <span class="hlt">strains</span>, with AMCQS5-5 being distinctly different. UHCA correlation conformed well to the fatty acid profiles, indicating the type of fatty acids as a critical factor in chemotaxonomic discrimination of these thraustochytrids and also revealing the distinctively high polyunsaturated fatty acid content as key identity of AMCQS5-5. Partial least squares discriminant analysis using cross-validation approach between two replicate datasets was demonstrated to be a powerful classification method leading to models of high robustness and 100% predictive accuracy for <span class="hlt">strain</span> identification. The results emphasized the exceptional S-FTIR capability to perform real-time in vivo measurement of single live cells directly within their original medium, providing unique information on cell variability among the population of each isolate and evidence of spontaneous lipid peroxidation that could lead to deeper understanding of lipid production and oxidation in thraustochytrids for single-cell oil development. PMID:25594491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300008"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutron diffraction study on very high <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> of 6% in an Fe{sub 3}Pt under compressive stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Takashi; Fukuda, Takashi Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Harjo, Stefanus; Nakamoto, Tatsushi</p> <p>2014-06-09</p> <p>An Fe{sub 3}Pt alloy with degree of order 0.75 exhibits a second-order-like martensitic transformation from a cubic structure to a tetragonal one at about 90 K; its tetragonality c/a changes nearly continuously from 1 to 0.945 on cooling from 90 K to 14 K. We have investigated the change in lattice parameters in a single crystal of the Fe{sub 3}Pt alloy at 93 K under compressive stresses, σ, applied in the [001] direction by neutron diffraction. The tetragonality c/a has decreased continuously from 1 to 0.907 with an increase in |σ| up to |σ| = 280 MPa; the corresponding lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the [001] direction, due to the continuous structure change, increases from 0% to 6.1%. When the stress of 300 MPa is reached, c/a has changed abruptly from 0.907 to 0.789 due to a first-order martensitic transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=92450','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=92450"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Nitrite Reduction and Active Phosphate Uptake in the Phosphate-<span class="hlt">Accumulating</span> Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> JR 12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Phosphate uptake by the phosphate-<span class="hlt">accumulating</span> denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. JR12 was examined with different combinations of electron and carbon donors and electron acceptors. Phosphate uptake in acetate-supplemented cells took place with either oxygen or nitrate but did not take place when nitrite served as the final electron acceptor. Furthermore, nitrite reduction rates by this denitrifier were shown to be significantly reduced in the presence of phosphate. Phosphate uptake assays in the presence of the H+-ATPase inhibitor N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), in the presence of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), or with osmotic shock-treated cells indicated that phosphate transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of this bacterium was mediated by primary and secondary transport systems. By examining the redox transitions of whole cells at 553 nm we found that phosphate addition caused a significant oxidation of a c-type cytochrome. Based on these findings, we propose that this c-type cytochrome serves as an intermediate in the electron transfer to both nitrite reductase and the site responsible for active phosphate transport. In previous studies with this bacterium we found that the oxidation state of this c-type cytochrome was significantly higher in acetate-supplemented, nitrite-respiring cells (incapable of phosphate uptake) than in phosphate-<span class="hlt">accumulating</span> cells incubated with different combinations of electron donors and acceptors. Based on the latter finding and results obtained in the present study it is suggested that phosphate uptake in this bacterium is subjected to a redox control of the active phosphate transport site. By means of this mechanism an explanation is provided for the observed absence of phosphate uptake in the presence of nitrite and inhibition of nitrite reduction by phosphate in this organism. The implications of these findings regarding denitrifying, phosphate removal wastewater plants is discussed. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5073771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5073771"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake depths and the relation to <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and stress near strike-slip faults in southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sanders, C.O. )</p> <p>1990-04-10</p> <p>Earthquakes in the major fault zones are predominantly deep. Earthquakes in the crustal blocks bounding the fault zones are predominantly shallow. In the San Jacinto fault zone, maximum earthquake depths correlate with surface heat flow. These relations together with focal mechanisms, geodetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements, and fault zone models are consistent with the following ideas: (1) Interseismic plate motion is accommodated by aseismic slip along an extension of the major fault zone below a brittle zone that is locked between large earthquakes. (2) The aseismic slip in a narrow fault zone in the brittle-plastic transition region concentrates <span class="hlt">strain</span> at the base of the brittle fault zone. (3) Deep earthquakes occur in thelower part of the brittle fault zone due to stick-slip failure of highly stressed patches. (4) Background earhtquakes and aftershocks that occur several kilometers deeper than large earthquake hypocenters suggest that a zone of mixed slip behavior may exist between the stable sliding (deep) and stick-slip (shallow) regions of the fault zone. Furthermore, the difference in seismicity between the San Jacinto and southern San Andreas faults suggests that the nature of this mixed zone may evolve as total displacement in the fault zone increases. (5) Shear stress may be less in the crustal blocks than in the deep brittle fault zones and generally at a level sufficient to cause brittle failure only shallow in the crustal blocks. (6) In the stress field produced by plate motion and slip in the deep fault zone, the upper brittle fault zone is not oriented favorably for shear failure. Lack of shallow earthquakes in the fault zones and the predominance of shallow earthquakes on favorably oriented fractures in the adjacent crustal blocks suggest that either stress in the upper brittle fault zone is relatively low or the upper fault zone is effectively strong due to its orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18582519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18582519"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a Vibrio cholerae prototype vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> O395-N1-E1 which <span class="hlt">accumulates</span> cell-associated cholera toxin B subunit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rhie, Gi-eun; Jung, Hae-Mi; Kim, Bong Su; Mekalanos, John J</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Because of its production and use in Vietnam, the most widely used oral cholera vaccine consists of heat- or formalin-killed Vibrio cholerae whole cells (WC). An earlier version of this type of vaccine called whole cell-recombinant B subunit vaccine (BS-WC) produced in Sweden also contained the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). Both WC and BS-WC vaccines produced moderate levels of protection in field trials designed to evaluate their cholera efficacy. V. cholerae cells in these vaccines induce antibacterial immunity, and CTB contributes to the vaccine's efficacy presumably by stimulating production of anti-toxin neutralizing antibody. Although more effective than the WC vaccine, the BS-WC vaccine has not been adopted for manufacture by developing world countries primarily because the CTB component is difficult to manufacture and include in the vaccine in the doses needed to induce significant immune responses. We reasoned this was a technical problem that might be solved by engineering <span class="hlt">strains</span> of V. cholerae that express cell-associated CTB that would co-purify with the bacterial cell fraction during the manufacture of WC vaccine. Here we report that construction of a V. cholerae O1 classical <span class="hlt">strain</span>, O395-N1-E1, that has been engineered to <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> CTB in the periplasmic fraction by disrupting the epsE gene of type II secretion pathway. O395-N1-E1 induces anti-CTB IgG and vibriocidal antibodies in mice immunized with two doses of formalin killed whole cells. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with O395-N1-E1 induced a significantly higher anti-CTB antibody response compared to that of the parental <span class="hlt">strain</span>, O395-N1. Our results suggest that this prototype cholera vaccine candidate <span class="hlt">strain</span> may assist in preparing improved and inexpensive oral BS-WC cholera vaccine without the need to purify CTB separately. PMID:18582519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3527125','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3527125"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a Vibrio cholerae Vaccine Candidate <span class="hlt">Strain</span> O395-N1-E1 which <span class="hlt">Accumulates</span> Cell-associated Cholera Toxin B Subunit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rhie, Gi-eun; Jung, Hae-Mi; Kim, Bong Su; Mekalanos, John J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Because of its production and use in Vietnam, the most widely used oral cholera vaccine consists of heat- or formalin-killed Vibrio cholerae whole cells (WC). An earlier version of this type of vaccine called whole cell-recombinant B subunit vaccine (BS-WC) produced in Sweden also contained the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). Both WC and BS-WC vaccines produced moderate levels of protection in field trials designed to evaluate their cholera efficacy. V. cholerae cells in these vaccines induce antibacterial immunity, and CTB contributes to the vaccine’s efficacy presumably by stimulating production of anti-toxin neutralizing antibody. Although more effective than the WC vaccine, the BS-WC vaccine has not been adopted for manufacture by developing world countries primarily because the CTB component is difficult to manufacture and include in the vaccine in the doses needed to induce significant immune responses. We reasoned this was technical problem that might be solved simply by engineering <span class="hlt">strains</span> of V. cholerae that express cell-associated CTB that would co-purify with the bacterial cell fraction during manufacture of WC vaccine. Here we report that construction of a V. cholerae O1 classical <span class="hlt">strain</span>, 0395-N1-E1, that has been engineered to <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> CTB in the periplasmic fraction by disrupting the epsE gene of type II secretion pathway. 0395-N1-E1 induces anti-CTB IgG and vibriocidal antibodies in mice immunized with two doses of formalin killed whole cells. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with O395-N1-E1 induced a significantly higher anti-CTB antibody response compared to that of the parental <span class="hlt">strain</span>, 0395-N1. Our results suggest that this type of cholera vaccine candidate <span class="hlt">strain</span> may assist in preparing improved, effective, and inexpensive oral or parenteral cholera vaccine without the need to purify CTB separately. PMID:18582519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266246"><span id="translatedtitle">[Study of the <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of Rec A from Bacillus subtilis in the Mitochondria of a Recombinant <span class="hlt">Strain</span> of the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Isakova, E P; Deryabina, Y I; Leonovich, O A; Zylkova, M V; Biriukova, Iu K</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>No eukaryotic species has a system for homologous DNA recombination of the mitochondrial genome. We report on an integrative genetic systembased on the pQ-SRUS construct that allows the expression of the RecA recombinase from Bacillus subtilis and its transportation to mitochondria of Yarrowia lipolytica. The targeting of recombinant RecA to mitochondria is provided by leader sequences (5'-UTR and 3-UTR) derived from the SOD2 gene mRNA, which exhibit affinity to the outer mitochondrial membrane and provides cotranslational import of RecA to the inner space of mitochondria. The <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of RecA in mitochondria of the Y. lipolytica recombinant <span class="hlt">strain</span> bearing the pQ-SRUS construct has been shown by immunoblotting of purified mitochondrial preparations. PMID:27266246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683913','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683913"><span id="translatedtitle">Escherichia coli rimM and yjeQ null <span class="hlt">strains</span> <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> immature 30S subunits of similar structure and protein complement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leong, Vivian; Kent, Meredith; Jomaa, Ahmad; Ortega, Joaquin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Assembly of the Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits proceeds through multiple parallel pathways. The protein factors RimM, YjeQ, RbfA, and Era work in conjunction to assist at the late stages of the maturation process of the small subunit. However, it is unclear how the functional interplay between these factors occurs in the context of multiple parallel pathways. To understand how these factors work together, we have characterized the immature 30S subunits that <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> in ΔrimM cells and compared them with immature 30S subunits from a ΔyjeQ <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The cryo-EM maps obtained from these particles showed that the densities representing helices 44 and 45 in the rRNA were partially missing, suggesting mobility of these motifs. These 30S subunits were also partially depleted in all tertiary ribosomal proteins, particularly those binding in the head domain. Using image classification, we identified four subpopulations of ΔrimM immature 30S subunits differing in the amount of missing density for helices 44 and 45, as well as the amount of density existing in these maps for the underrepresented proteins. The structural defects found in these immature subunits resembled those of the 30S subunits that <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> in the ΔyjeQ <span class="hlt">strain</span>. These findings are consistent with an “early convergency model” in which multiple parallel assembly pathways of the 30S subunit converge into a late assembly intermediate, as opposed to the mature state. Functionally related factors will bind to this intermediate to catalyze the last steps of maturation leading to the mature 30S subunit. PMID:23611982</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18560831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18560831"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of docosahexaenoic acid-rich lipid in thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> T66: effects of N and P starvation and O2 limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jakobsen, Anita N; Aasen, Inga M; Josefsen, Kjell D; Strøm, Arne R</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Aurantiochytrium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> T66 was grown in batch bioreactor cultures in a defined glutamate- and glycerol-containing growth medium. Exponentially growing cells had a lipid content of 13% (w/w) of dry weight. A fattening of cells fed excess glycerol occurred in the post-exponential growth phase, after the medium was depleted of N or P. Lipid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was also initiated by O2 limitation (below 1% of saturation). N starvation per se, or in combination with O2 limitation, gave the highest lipid content, i.e., 54% to 63% (w/w) of dry weight. The corresponding maximum culture density was 90 to 100 g/l dry biomass. The content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in N starved, well-oxygenated cells reached 29% (w/w) of total fatty acids but increased to 36% to 52% in O2-limited cells, depending on the time span of the limitation. O2-limited cells did not <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> the monounsaturated fatty acids that were normally present. We inferred that the biological explanation is that O2 limitation hindered the O2-dependent desaturase(s) and favored the O2-independent polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase. The highest overall volumetric productivity of docosahexaenoic acid observed was 93 mg/l/h. Additionally, we present a protocol for quantitative lipid extraction, involving heat and protease treatment of freeze-dried thraustochytrids. PMID:18560831</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730012184','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730012184"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> plate spallation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stress waves in a plate. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> displacement and stress <span class="hlt">strain</span> relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boyles+AND+law&pg=3&id=EJ054997','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boyles+AND+law&pg=3&id=EJ054997"><span id="translatedtitle">The First Law of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Girill, T. R.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relation, and generally regarded as a law of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27159017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27159017"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> second skin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report the synthesis and application of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span>, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low <span class="hlt">strain</span> (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, <span class="hlt">elastically</span> recoiling with minimal <span class="hlt">strain</span>-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatMa..15..911Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatMa..15..911Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> second skin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report the synthesis and application of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span>, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low <span class="hlt">strain</span> (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, <span class="hlt">elastically</span> recoiling with minimal <span class="hlt">strain</span>-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850040999&hterms=kinematic+hardening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkinematic%2Bhardening','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850040999&hterms=kinematic+hardening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkinematic%2Bhardening"><span id="translatedtitle">A simplified method for <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic-creep structural analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaufman, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> from the material stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant <span class="hlt">strain</span>, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840006474','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840006474"><span id="translatedtitle">A simplified method for <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic-creep structural analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaufman, A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> from the material stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant <span class="hlt">strain</span>, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7934C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7934C"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Akoǧlu, Ahmet M.; ćakmak, Rahşan; Tatar, Orhan; Meghraoui, Mustapha</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency's Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T43E..02C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T43E..02C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Secular Variation in the Storage and Dissipation of <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Energy Along the Central Altyn Tagh Fault (86-88.5°E), NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Friedrich, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">elastic</span> rebound theory, hazard increases as interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> rebuilds after rupture. This model is challenged by the temporal variation in the pacing of major earthquakes that is both predicted by mechanical models and suggested by some long paleoseismic records (e.g., 1-3). However, the extent of such behavior remains unclear due to a lack of long (5-25 ky) records of fault slip. Using Monte Carlo analysis of 11 offset landforms, we determined a 16-ky record of fault slip for the active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault, which bounds the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This history reveals a pulse of accelerated slip between 6.4 and 6.0 ka, during which the fault slipped 9 +14/-2 m at a rate of 23 +35/-5 mm/y, or ~3x the 16 ky average of 8.1 +1.2/-0.9mm/y. These two modes of earthquake behavior suggest temporal variation in the rates of stress storage and release. The simplest explanation for the pulse is a cluster of 2-8 Mw > 7.5 earthquakes. Such supercyclicity has been reported for the Sunda (4) and Cascadia (3) megathrusts, but contrasts with steady slip along the strike-slip Alpine fault (5), for example. A second possibility is that the pulse reflects a single, unusually large rupture. However, this Black Swan event is unlikely: empirical scaling relationships require a Mw 8.2 rupture of the entire 1200-km-long ATF to produce 7 m of average slip. Likewise, Coulomb stress change from rupture on the adjacent North Altyn fault is of modest magnitude and overlap with the ATF. Poor temporal correlation between precipitation and the slip pulse argues against climatically modulated changes in surface loading (lakes/ice) or pore-fluid pressure. "Paleoslip" studies such as this sacrifice the single-event resolution of paleoseismology in exchange for long records that quantify both the timing and magnitude of fault slip averaged over multiple ruptures, and are essential for documenting temporal variations in fault slip as we begin to use calibrated physical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V53E..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V53E..02H"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogeneous crystal-rich vs. zoned crystal-poor ignimbrites: how much <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulates</span> in large magma reservoirs between a new magma recharge and eruption? (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.; Manga, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Silicic volcanic fields often display two different types of deposits: (1) crystal-rich dacitic magmas that display a striking homogeneity at the hand-sample scale and (2 dominantly crystal-poor, rhyolitic magmas that commonly grade into more mafic and more crystal-rich magmas towards the end of the eruption. An well-documented example of this dichotomy is the Central San Juan Volcanic Field (Colorado, USA), where, from the 9 major ignimbrites erupted during the climactic stage (~28.6 to 26.9 Ma), 4 occur as zoned crystal-poor to crystal-rich units and the remaining 5 form crystal-rich homogeneous deposits (make sure you explain what zoned means). In this presentation, we discuss different thermal and mechanical processes that influence the homogeneity of magmas as they evolve in shallow reservoirs. For magma bodies that are able to convect, we discuss the effect of stirring and introduce a new metric for their homogeneity for time-dependent convection. We show that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> during 5-10 convective overturns is necessary to homogenize a magma to the hand-sample scale. In contrast, crystal-rich magmas do not experience any/enough stirring as they reach a rigid mush state. For these magmas, we discuss the effect of latent heat buffering as an agent for homogenization of temperature and crystallinity near the solidus. In order to become eruptible again, a crystal mush requires a reactivation event usually, usually attributed to the injection of new, hotter magma. We show that the time required to reactivate a mush, in every relevant case, greatly exceeds the time required to <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> 5-10 overturns for the part of the mush that is able to convect. This difference in time-scales explains why reactivated mushes are inherently homogenous when they erupt. On the other hand, dominantly crystal-poor magmas do not need to be reactivated. Their homogeneity is governed by the competition between the time between the introduction of heterogeneities (for example</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6754S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6754S"><span id="translatedtitle">A joint analysis of GPS and PS-InSAR to infer the fault segmentation and interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> for the North Tabriz fault, NW Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, Zhe; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Talebian, Morteza; Karimzadeh, Sadra</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The accommodation of deformation due to the collision of between Arabian and Eurasian plates dominates in shortening along the Greater and Lesser Caucasus to the north and conjugated strike-slip fault in Turkish and Armenia plateau. Several discontinuous strike-slip faults are distributed all over the NW Iran to the south, which control the lateral motion of micro-blocks. The North Tabriz fault (NTF) in one of them. Furthermore, the area of NW Iran is suggested as a possible southward termination of the 2000-km long North Anatolian Fault into and northward termination of the 600-km long Zagros Main Recent fault. The reason why such a large-scale strike-slip fault system disappears in the NW Iran and the interaction with the other small fault systems is unclear right now. After the 1780 earthquake (M ~7.4), no big earthquake (Mw > 7.0) has occurred along the NTF for almost three centuries. Thus the GPS data and small-baselines PS-InSAR technique are used to study the interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and slip deficit distribution along the NTF. We also calculate the maximum and minimum principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates, rotational and dextral shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates across the NTF. Based on the 6 profiles of deformation rate along line of sight (LOS) towards to satellite, we find that the northern and central segment of the NTF is more active than the southern one. In addition, the extensional deformation dominates in the southern segment of the NTF. We also use the Okada's code to inverse the inter-seismic slip on the fault patches. The locking depth of the northern and central segments is ~10 km while the southern one demonstrates a deeper locking depth of ~15-20 km. We estimate recurrence interval is ~1500 years for a big earthquake M > 7.0. If the Gailatu-Siak-Khoy and North Mishu faults are the segments of the NTF, this recurrence interval might be underestimated in terms of our numerical simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060046314&hterms=Parity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DParity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060046314&hterms=Parity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DParity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> repeat <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called '<span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> Repeat <span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat <span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat <span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> (IRA) code, where simply an <span class="hlt">accumulator</span> is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the <span class="hlt">accumulators</span> any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880012097','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880012097"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic support using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Geirsson, Arni; Debra, Daniel B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The design of kinematic supports using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> elements is reviewed. The two standard methods (cone, Vee and flat and three Vees) are presented and a design example involving a machine tool metrology bench is given. Design goals included thousandfold <span class="hlt">strain</span> attenuation in the bench relative to the base when the base <span class="hlt">strains</span> due to temperature variations and shifting loads. Space applications are also considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115b5703Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115b5703Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Critical <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zacharias, Mario; Paul, Indranil; Garst, Markus</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We discuss <span class="hlt">elastic</span> instabilities of the atomic crystal lattice at zero temperature. Because of long-range shear forces of the solid, at such transitions the phonon velocities vanish, if at all, only along certain crystallographic directions, and, consequently, the critical phonon fluctuations are suppressed to a lower dimensional manifold and governed by a Gaussian fixed point. In the case of symmetry-breaking <span class="hlt">elastic</span> transitions, a characteristic critical phonon thermodynamics arises that is found, e.g., to violate Debye's T3 law for the specific heat. We point out that quantum critical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is triggered whenever a critical soft mode couples linearly to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor. In particular, this is relevant for the electronic Ising-nematic quantum phase transition in a tetragonal crystal as discussed in the context of certain cuprates, ruthenates, and iron-based superconductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of HMX.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic <span class="hlt">strain</span> fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207483"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Critical <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zacharias, Mario; Paul, Indranil; Garst, Markus</p> <p>2015-07-10</p> <p>We discuss <span class="hlt">elastic</span> instabilities of the atomic crystal lattice at zero temperature. Because of long-range shear forces of the solid, at such transitions the phonon velocities vanish, if at all, only along certain crystallographic directions, and, consequently, the critical phonon fluctuations are suppressed to a lower dimensional manifold and governed by a Gaussian fixed point. In the case of symmetry-breaking <span class="hlt">elastic</span> transitions, a characteristic critical phonon thermodynamics arises that is found, e.g., to violate Debye's T(3) law for the specific heat. We point out that quantum critical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is triggered whenever a critical soft mode couples linearly to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor. In particular, this is relevant for the electronic Ising-nematic quantum phase transition in a tetragonal crystal as discussed in the context of certain cuprates, ruthenates, and iron-based superconductors. PMID:26207483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G23A0816J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G23A0816J"><span id="translatedtitle">Time series and MinTS analysis of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along the Haiyuan fault (Gansu, China) over the 2003-2010 period, from ENVISAT InSAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Lin, N.; Simons, M.; Doin, M.; Hetland, E. A.; Muse, P.; Peltzer, G.; Jianbao, S.; Dailu, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We use SAR interferometry to measure the <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along the left-lateral Haiyuan fault system (hereafter HFS), that marks the north-eastern boundary of the tibetan plateau. The last major earthquakes that occured along the HFS are the M~8 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (strike-slip mechanism) and the Ml=8-8.3 1927 Gulang earthquake that ruptured a thrust fault system. There has been no known large earthquake on the central section of the HFS, the “Tianzhu seismic gap”, in the last ~1000 years. We first analyze the complete ENVISAT SAR data archive along three descending and two ascending tracks for the 2003-2009 period and construct an InSAR-based mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity map around the HFS from the eastern end of the Qilian Shan (102° E), to the west, to the Liupan Shan (106° E), to the east. We empirically correct our interferograms for propagation delays associated with changes on the stratified atmospheric structure. We then estimate the mean LOS velocity for each track using a time series analysis which reveals the existence of a 40 km long creeping segment located at the western end of the 1920 rupture. Extending from the Jingtai pull-apart basin, which shows a 2-3 mm/yr subsidence rate, to the Mao Mao Shan, the creep rate is estimated to reach 8 mm/yr locally and is higher than the long term loading rate of the Haiyuan fault, estimated geodetically at 5±1 mm/yr. The surface extension of the creeping segment is colocated with strong micro- and moderate seismic activity. We also explore the possibility of transient creep during the 2003-2010 time period, using a SBAS style, smoothed, time series analysis and the Multiscale Interferometric Time Series method (MinTS, CalTech, see Hetland et al. 2010 AGU abstract). While classic time series methods are based on a pixel-by-pixel approach and do not consider spatial data covariances, due to residual atmospheric noise, the wavelet decomposition of each interferograms and the time inversion in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyU...58.1106V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyU...58.1106V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of solids at high pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vekilov, Yu Kh; Krasilnikov, O. M.; Lugovskoy, A. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This review examines the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of solids under load. The definitions of isothermal and adiabatic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of ( n≥2) for a loaded crystal are given. For the case of hydrostatic pressure, two techniques are proposed for calculating the second-, third-, and fourth-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants from the energy-<span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations. As an example, using the proposed approach within the framework of the density functional theory, the second- to fourth-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of bcc tungsten are calculated for the pressure range of 0-600 GPa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/136325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/136325"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic transport in the quasi-one-dimensional conductors, NbSe{sub 3} and Tl{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, under <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tseng, Yaw-Teng</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>I have investigated two different linear chain compounds; NbSe{sub 3}, a conventional CDW material undergoing two independent charge density wave phase transitions at 144 K and 59 K, and Tl{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, a novel quasi-one-dimensional conductor standing out from its M{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}X{sub 6} family because of its superconductivity at 5-7 K. Under <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> {var_epsilon}, the threshold field E{sub Tau} is greatly increased for the upper CDW but not for the lower CDW. The minimum in E{sub Tau} doubles at {epsilon} = 1% for the upper CDW whereas it increases less than 10% for the lower CDW. Using a plot of the E{sub Tau} vs. the reduced temperature, t = T/T{sub Rho} where T{sub Rho} is the Peierls transition temperature, we show that the t{sub min}, temperature where E{sub Tau} goes through a minimum, is independent of {epsilon}/ Below t{sub min}, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> experiments can separate E{sub Tau} into two additive terms, E{sub Tau}({epsilon},{Tau}) = E{prime} {sub Tau}(t) + E{double_prime}{sub Tau}({epsilon},t) is independent of t and is equal to Emin below tmin., and E`{sub Tau}(t) is independent of {epsilon} and n{sub i}. We speculate that E{prime}{sub Tau}(t) is due to phase slip, and E{double_prime}{sub Tau}({epsilon},t) is due to impurity pinning. Such a separation is valid for both the upper and lower CDWs. The lower CDW resistance anomaly and thermopower are strongly enhanced by {epsilon}. An interesting feature is that the slope of the piezoresistance dR/D{sigma} and piezothermopower dS/d{sigma} both show a peculiar decrease at {epsilon} = 0.5 {plus_minus} 0.1%. They exhibit a plateau-like region below 40 K. We discuss the results in term of suggested Fermi surfaces topological change using a model in which a electron-like Fermi surface at the zone boundary is depleted under <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011232&hterms=Parity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DParity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011232&hterms=Parity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DParity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate</span>-Codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Inspired by recently proposed <span class="hlt">Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate</span> (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called <span class="hlt">Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate</span> (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-<span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another <span class="hlt">accumulator</span>, where simply an <span class="hlt">accumulator</span> is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the <span class="hlt">accumulators</span> we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=14660','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=14660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of soluble and wall-bound indolic metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves infected with virulent or avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hagemeier, Jens; Schneider, Bernd; Oldham, Neil J.; Hahlbrock, Klaus</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The chemical structures and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> kinetics of several major soluble as well as wall-bound, alkali-hydrolyzable compounds induced upon infection of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato were established. All identified <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> products were structurally related to tryptophan. Most prominent among the soluble substances were tryptophan, β-d-glucopyranosyl indole-3-carboxylic acid, 6-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylic acid 6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and the indolic phytoalexin camalexin. The single major <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> wall component detectable under these conditions was indole-3-carboxylic acid. All of these compounds increased more rapidly, and camalexin as well as indole-3-carboxylic acid reached much higher levels, in the incompatible than in the compatible P. syringae/A. thaliana interaction. The only three prominent phenylpropanoid derivatives present in the soluble extract behaved differently. Two kaempferol glycosides remained largely unaffected, and sinapoyl malate decreased strongly upon bacterial infection with a time course inversely correlated with that of the <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> tryptophan-related products. The <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> patterns of both soluble and wall-bound compounds, as well as the disease resistance phenotypes, were essentially the same for infected wild-type and tt4 (no kaempferol glycosides) or fah1 (no sinapoyl malate) mutant plants. Largely different product combinations <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in wounded or senescing A. thaliana leaves. It seems unlikely that any one of the infection-induced compounds identified so far has a decisive role in the resistance response to P. syringae. PMID:11136235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006teel.book.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006teel.book.....M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moraru, Gheorghe; Mursa, Condrat</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>In this book we present the basic concepts of the theory of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>: stress and deformation states (plane and three-dimensional) and generalized Hooke's law. We present a number of problems which have applications in strength analysis. The book includes a synthesis of the theory of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and modern methods of applied mathematics. This book is designed for students, post graduate students and specialists in strength analysis. the book contains a number of appendixes which includes: elements of matrix-calculation, concepts of tensorial calculation, the Fourier transform, the notion of improper integrals,singular and hypersingular integrals, generalized functions, the Dirac Delta function</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26986237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26986237"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and (137)Cs uptake and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in association with a Bacillus pumilus <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs <span class="hlt">accumulations</span>, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in their shoots. PMID:26986237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...77..138S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...77..138S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tunable electronic and magnetic properties of a MoS2 monolayer with vacancies under <span class="hlt">elastic</span> planar <span class="hlt">strain</span>: Ab initio study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salami, N.; Shokri, A. A.; Elahi, S. M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Electronic and magnetic properties of a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer with some intrinsic and extrinsic vacancies are investigated using ab initio method in the presence of planar <span class="hlt">strain</span> distributions. The calculations are carried out within the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in SIESTA package. By using fully relaxed structures and applying a full spin-polarized description to the system, we concentrate on created magnetic moment due to the vacancies under different planar <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The results show that the extrinsic MoS6 vacancy induces a net magnetic moment of 6.00 μB per supercell. Also, it is found that the pure MoS2 monolayer for the most cases does not show any magnetic properties under the planar <span class="hlt">strain</span>. While the net magnetic moment of MoS2 monolayer with the vacancies enhances as the planar tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> is applied. The tunable magnetic moment of MoS2 monolayer may be utilized for the development of spintronic and flexible electronic nano-devices.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100010943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100010943"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate</span> Codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate</span> (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed <span class="hlt">accumulate-repeat-accumulate</span> (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112n6102I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112n6102I"><span id="translatedtitle">Wetting of <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Solids on Nanopillars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ignacio, M.; Saito, Y.; Smereka, P.; Pierre-Louis, O.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Solids and liquids are both known to exhibit Cassie-Baxter states, where a drop or a solid nanoparticle is maintained on top of pillars due to wetting forces. We point out that due to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, solid nanocrystals exhibit a behavior different from that of liquids. First, the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter state on a single pillar exhibits a spontaneous symmetry breaking due to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> effects. The second consequence of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is the existence of stable partially impaled states, resulting from a compromise between wetting forces which favor impalement and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> which resists impalement. Based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which include <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, we discuss these effects and we propose a global phase diagram for the stability of nanocrystals on nanopillars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6647760','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6647760"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial uptake and <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of (/sup 14/C Carbofuran) 1,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7 benzofuranylmethyl carbamate in twenty fungal <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated by miniecosystem studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, K.D.; Lakshmanan, M.</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>Studies have amply demonstrated that members of the microbial world vary widely in their response to pesticides and that several factors may influence the toxicity of pesticides. Similarly, the microbial tolerance of pesticides may be affected by growth conditions, physiological conditions of cells and various stress factors which might exist in natural population. The pesticides are incorporated into microorganisms by an active or passive <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> mechanism. Most observations of pesticide <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> within the cells were recorded with chlorinated hydrocarbons. It was found that not only live bacterial cells, but autoclaved cells also, show a similar uptake of pesticides. Since aquatic microorganisms and plankton in freshwater and marine environments are an important nutrient source for a broad spectrum of aquatic filter-feeding organisms, their <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of pesticides can constitute a hazardous link in the food chain to fish and higher vertebrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.P1064B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.P1064B"><span id="translatedtitle">Fingering in Confined <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biggins, John; Mahadevan, L.; Wei, Z.; Saintyves, Baudouin; Bouchaud, Elizabeth</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Fingering has recently been observed in soft highly <span class="hlt">elastic</span> layers that are confined between and bonded to two rigid bodies. In one case an injected fluid invades the layer in finger-like protrusions at the layer's perimeter, a solid analogue of Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering. In a second case, separation of the rigid bodies (with maintained adhesion to the layer) leads air to the formation of similar fingers at the layer's perimeter. In both cases the finger formation is reversible: if the fluid is removed or the separation reduced, the fingers vanish. In this talk I will discuss a theoretical model for such <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fingers that shows that the origin of the fingers is large-<span class="hlt">strain</span> geometric non-linearity in the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of soft solids. Our simplified <span class="hlt">elastic</span> model unifies the two types of fingering and accurately estimates the thresholds and wavelengths of the fingers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161560','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161560"><span id="translatedtitle">Suppressor Mutations in the Study of Photosystem I Biogenesis: sll0088 Is a Previously Unidentified Gene Involved in Reaction Center <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> in Synechocystis sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> PCC 6803</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yu, Jianping; Shen, Gaozhong; Wang, Tao; Bryant, Donald A.; Golbeck, John H.; McIntosh, Lee</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In previous work, some members of our group isolated mutant <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Synechocystis sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> PCC 6803 in which point mutations had been inserted into the psaC gene to alter the cysteine residues to the FA and FB iron-sulfur clusters in the PsaC subunit of photosystem I (J. P. Yu, I. R. Vassiliev, Y. S. Jung, J. H. Golbeck, and L. McIntosh, J. Biol. Chem. 272:8032-8039, 1997). These mutant <span class="hlt">strains</span> did not grow photoautotrophically due to suppressed levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I. In the results described here, we show that suppressor mutations produced <span class="hlt">strains</span> that are capable of photoautotrophic growth at moderate light intensity (20 μmol m−2 s−1). Two separate suppressor <span class="hlt">strains</span> of C14SPsaC, termed C14SPsaC-R62 and C14SPsaC-R18, were studied and found to have mutations in a previously uncharacterized open reading frame of the Synechocystis sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> PCC 6803 genome named sll0088. C14SPsaC-R62 was found to substitute Pro for Arg at residue 161 as the result of a G482→C change in sll0088, and C14SPsaC-R18 was found to have a three-amino-acid insertion of Gly-Tyr-Phe following Cys231 as the result of a TGGTTATTT duplication at T690 in sll0088. These suppressor <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed near-wild-type levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I, yet the serine oxygen ligand to FB was retained as shown by the retention of the S ≥ 3/2 spin state of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The inactivation of sll0088 by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge in the primary C14SPsaC mutant produced an engineered suppressor <span class="hlt">strain</span> capable of photoautotrophic growth. There was no difference in psaC gene expression or in the amount of PsaC protein assembled in thylakoids between the wild type and an sll0088 deletion mutant. The sll0088 gene encodes a protein predicted to be a transcriptional regulator with sequence similarities to transcription factors in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana. The protein contains a typical helix</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4472907','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4472907"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete Genome Sequence of Sedimenticola thiotaurini <span class="hlt">Strain</span> SIP-G1, a Polyphosphate- and Polyhydroxyalkanoate-<span class="hlt">Accumulating</span> Sulfur-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Isolated from Salt Marsh Sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Daniel S.; Bailey, Jake V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We report the closed genome sequence of Sedimenticola thiotaurini <span class="hlt">strain</span> SIP-G1 and an unnamed plasmid obtained through PacBio sequencing with 100% consensus concordance. The genome contained several distinctive features not found in other published Sedimenticola genomes, including a complete nitrogen fixation pathway, a complete ethanolamine degradation pathway, and an alkane-1-monooxygenase. PMID:26089430</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPCM...26X5402P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPCM...26X5402P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> relaxation mechanisms of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> softening and twin wall freezing associated with structural phase transitions in (Ca,Sr)TiO3 perovskites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perks, N. J.; Zhang, Z.; Harrison, R. J.; Carpenter, M. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to measure the bulk modulus (K), shear modulus (G) and acoustic dissipation of polycrystalline perovskite samples across the CaTiO3-SrTiO3 solid solution in the temperature range ˜10-1350 K. A remarkable pattern of up to ˜25% softening of G as a function of both temperature and composition is due to coupling of shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> with order parameters for the Pm \\overline 3 m ≤ftrightarrow I 4/mcm, I4/mcm ↔ Pnma and I4/mcm ↔ Pbcm transitions. Anomalies in K associated with the phase transitions are small, consistent with only weak coupling of octahedral tilting order parameter(s) with volume <span class="hlt">strain</span>. A change from tricritical character for the Pm \\overline 3 m ≤ftrightarrow I 4/mcm transition towards second order character at Sr-rich compositions appears to be due to changing properties of the soft optic mode rather than to changes in magnitude of <span class="hlt">strain</span>/order parameter coupling coefficients. Precursor softening of G ahead of the Pm \\overline 3 m ≤ftrightarrow I 4/mcm transition, due to fluctuations or clustering, occurs over a temperature interval of up to ˜200 K, and also changes character at the most Sr-rich compositions. The tetragonal structure with Sr-rich compositions is characterized by additional softening with falling temperature which is most likely related to the proximity of a ferroelectric instability. The I4/mcm ↔ Pnma transition is accompanied by stiffening, which is attributed to the effects of strong coupling between order parameters for M-point and R-point tilting. The pattern of attenuation at RUS frequencies in the tetragonal phase can be understood in terms of the mobility of twin walls which become pinned below ˜500 K, and the loss mechanism most likely involves local bowing of the walls by lateral motion of ledges rather than the advance and retraction of needle tips. Twin wall mobility is suppressed in the orthorhombic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728652"><span id="translatedtitle">The Improvement of SAM <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> by Integrating the Endogenous Methionine Adenosyltransferase Gene SAM2 in Genome of the Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae <span class="hlt">Strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Weijun; Shi, Feng; Hang, Baojian; Huang, Lei; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) plays important roles in trans-methylation, trans-sulfuration, and polyamine synthesis in all living cells, and it is also an effective cure for liver disease, depressive syndromes, and osteoarthritis. The increased demands of SAM in pharmaceuticals industry have aroused lots of attempts to improve its production. In this study, a multiple-copy integrative plasmid pYMIKP-SAM2 was introduced into the chromosome of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae <span class="hlt">strain</span> ZJU001 to construct the recombined <span class="hlt">strain</span> R1-ZJU001. Further studies showed that the recombinant yeast exhibited higher enzymatic activity of methionine adenosyltransferase and improved its SAM biosynthesis. With a three-phase fed-batch strategy in 15-liter bench-top fermentor, 8.81 g/L SAM was achieved after 52 h cultivation of R1-ZJU001, about 27.1 % increase over its parent <span class="hlt">strain</span> ZJU001, whereas the SAM content was also improved from 64.6 mg/g DCW to 91.0 mg/g DCW. Our results shall provide insights into the metabolic engineering of SAM pathway in yeast for improved productivity of SAM and subsequent industrial applications. PMID:26728652</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23819291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23819291"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of plant-growth-promoting effects and concurrent promotion of heavy metal <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the tissues of the plants grown in the polluted soil by Burkholderia <span class="hlt">strain</span> LD-11.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Gui-Hai; Tian, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fan, Xian-Wei; Liang, Yu; Li, You-Zhi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria especially with the resistance to multiple heavy metals are helpful to phytoremediation. Further development of PGP bacteria is very necessary because of the extreme diversity of plants, soils, and heavy metal pollution. A Burkholderia sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span>, numbered LD-11, was isolated, which showed resistances to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. It can produce indole-3-acetic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and siderophores. Inoculation with the LD-11 improved germination of seeds of the investigated vegetable plants in the presence of Cu, promoted elongation of roots and hypocotyledonary axes, enhanced the dry weights of the plants grown in the soils polluted with Cu and/or Pb, and increased activity of the soil urease and the rhizobacteria diversity. Inoculation with the LD-11 significantly enhanced Cu and/or Pb <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> especially in the roots of the plants grown in the polluted soils. Notably, LD-11 could produce siderophores in the presence of Cu. Conclusively, the PGP effects and concurrent heavy metal <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the plant tissues results from combined effects of the above-mentioned multiple factors. Cu is an important element that represses production of the siderophore by the bacteria. Phytoremediation by synergistic use of the investigated plants and the bacterial <span class="hlt">strain</span> LD-11 is a phytoextraction process. PMID:23819291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1706l0007Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1706l0007Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of fatigue damage <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in composites via linear and nonlinear guided wave methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jinling; Chillara, Vamshi; Cho, Hwanjeong; Qiu, Jinhao; Lissenden, Cliff</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>For non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fatigue damage <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in composites, this research proposed a combined linear and a nonlinear ultrasonic guided wave method. For the linear Lamb waves approach, a laser-generation based imaging system (LGBI) is utilized to measure the phase velocities of guided waves in composites. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of the specimen are then obtained by inverting the measured phase velocities using genetic algorithms (GAs). The variation of the above two parameters (phase velocity and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli), together with the guided wave amplitudes, are then observed during the fatigue process. Nonlinear second harmonics in composites are studied theoretically and numerically. A third-order <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy function of transversely isotropic materials is expressed by five invariants of the Green-Lagrange <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor. Results enable intelligent selection of primary modes for cumulative second harmonics generation. Meanwhile, finite element simulations are conducted to characterize second harmonics in light of the theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006819','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006819"><span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Analysis of Solder Joint in NASA Fatigue Specimen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dasgupta, Abhijit; Oyan, Chen</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The solder fatigue specimen designed by NASA-GSFC/UNISYS is analyzed in order to obtain the inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> history during two different representative temperature cycles specified by UNISYS. In previous reports (dated July 25, 1990, and November 15, 1990), results were presented of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic and creep analysis for delta T = 31 C cycle, respectively. Subsequent results obtained during the current phase, from viscoplastic finite element analysis of the solder fatigue specimen for delta T = 113 C cycle are summarized. Some common information is repeated for self-completeness. Large-deformation continuum formulations in conjunction with a standard linear solid model is utilized for modeling the solder constitutive creep-plasticity behavior. Relevant material properties are obtained from the literature. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> amplitudes, mean <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and residual <span class="hlt">strains</span> (as well as stresses) <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> due to a representative complete temperature cycle are obtained as a result of this analysis. The partitioning between <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span>, time-independent inelastic (plastic) <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and time-dependent inelastic (creep) <span class="hlt">strains</span> is also explicitly obtained for two representative cycles. Detailed plots are presented for two representative temperature cycles. This information forms an important input for fatigue damage models, when predicting the fatigue life of solder joints under thermal cycling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhB..19i6201W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhB..19i6201W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Effective <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external <span class="hlt">strain</span> are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T22C..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T22C..04V"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of remotely triggered displacement events to the long-term <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> along the Atacama Fault System, N-Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Victor, P.; Schurr, B.; Sobiesiak, M.; Ewiak, O.; Oncken, O.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Atacama Fault System (AFS) in N-Chile is an active trench-parallel fault system, located above approximately the down-dip end of coupling of the north Chilean subduction zone. The average long-term displacement rate for the last 100 000 - 10 000 years ranges between 0.2 and 0.3 mm/yr as determined by various methods and authors. The mode of displacement <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> through time for this type of fault is not well understood. Surface ruptures along individual segments of the main fault scarp unambiguously reveal that the AFS has seismically ruptured several times during its past, but recurrence intervals are at least one order of magnitude longer than the megathrust earthquake cycle of the underlying subduction interface. Nevertheless these trench parallel fault systems bear a potential of unexpected large seismic ruptures as demonstrated by prominent examples like the Kobe Earthquak in 1995 and Denali Earthquake in 2002. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative proportion of aseismic and seismic slip through time and to investigate the impact of subduction zone earthquakes on the slip behavior of the AFS. Since 2008 we continuously monitor four active fault segments of the AFS with an array of 11 creepmeter stations, two of them co-located with Broadband seismometers. The displacement across the fault is continuously monitored with 2 samples/min with a resolution of 1μm. The displacement time series reveals that no continuous creep can be detected for 10 of the 11 stations. Instead we observe sudden displacement events correlated in time with far field megathrust earthquakes or local earthquakes on the plate interface or in the overriding crust. The most prominent event recorded on the creepmeters was the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake in 2010 located 1500km to 1800km away from the creepmeter array. All of the stations showed a triggered sudden displacement event 6-8 min after the main shock. Correlation with seismological data from a nearby IPOC station</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......323S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......323S"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Seismic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> and Stress Evolution from Continuous GPS Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shcherbenko, Gina Nicole</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> evolution and stress evolution following the 4 April 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake are modeled using an adaptation of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> transient detection tool developed by Holt and Shcherbenko 2013. The evolution of stress is calculated from postseismic <span class="hlt">strains</span>, which are modeled from continuous GPS horizontal displacements. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> fields are modeled in 2 ways; the total <span class="hlt">strain</span> field based on total observed cGPS displacements, and the residual <span class="hlt">strain</span> field, which subtracts a reference field from the total model. The residual shows anomalous <span class="hlt">strains</span> resulting from the postseismic relaxation of the 2010 event. Anomalous and total <span class="hlt">strains</span> are modeled in 0.1 year epochs for 2.4 years following the event. Both total and anomalous <span class="hlt">strains</span> are converted into stress changes over time, assuming <span class="hlt">elastic</span> incompressible behavior. Following the El Mayor event, the GPS constrained <span class="hlt">strain</span> evolution shows the following: (1) The Southern San Andreas experiences a reduced rate of right-lateral strike slip <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> between 3 July 2010 and 7 August 2012 (Figure 16a-d). (2) The San Jacinto Fault has normal rate of right-lateral strike-slip <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> during this time. (3) Before the Brawley swarm of 26 August 2012, the state of <span class="hlt">strain</span> evolves to enable unclamping of a left-lateral fault zone in the Brawley Seismic Zone (Figure 16a-d). (4) Large shear <span class="hlt">strains</span> <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> on the Laguna Salada Fault (northernmost segment)/southern Elsinore FZ (Figure 16a-d). We converted the <span class="hlt">strain</span> changes into Coulomb stress changes on existing faults (both right-lateral and left-lateral). Several regions show increased Coulomb stress changes throughout the postseismic process. Furthermore, the Coulomb stress changes on the faults in the region progressively increase toward failure up to the time of the Brawley swarm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoJI.174..889M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoJI.174..889M"><span id="translatedtitle">Interseismic Plate coupling and <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning in the Northeastern Caribbean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manaker, D. M.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Ali, S. T.; Przybylski, P.; Mattioli, G.; Jansma, P.; Prépetit, C.; de Chabalier, J. B.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The northeastern Caribbean provides a natural laboratory to investigate <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning, its causes and its consequences on the stress regime and tectonic evolution of a subduction plate boundary. Here, we use GPS and earthquake slip vector data to produce a present-day kinematic model that accounts for secular block rotation and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>, with variable interplate coupling, on active faults. We confirm that the oblique convergence between Caribbean and North America in Hispaniola is partitioned between plate boundary parallel motion on the Septentrional and Enriquillo faults in the overriding plate and plate-boundary normal motion at the plate interface on the Northern Hispaniola Fault. To the east, the Caribbean/North America plate motion is accommodated by oblique slip on the faults bounding the Puerto Rico block to the north (Puerto Rico subduction) and to the south (Muertos thrust), with no evidence for partitioning. The spatial correlation between interplate coupling, <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning and the subduction of buoyant oceanic asperities suggests that the latter enhance the transfer of interplate shear stresses to the overriding plate, facilitating strike-slip faulting in the overriding plate. The model slip rate deficit, together with the dates of large historical earthquakes, indicates the potential for a large (Mw7.5 or greater) earthquake on the Septentrional fault in the Dominican Republic. Similarly, the Enriquillo fault in Haiti is currently capable of a Mw7.2 earthquake if the entire <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> since the last major earthquake was released in a single event today. The model results show that the Puerto Rico/Lesser Antilles subduction thrust is only partially coupled, meaning that the plate interface is <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> at rates slower than the total plate motion. This does not preclude the existence of isolated locked patches <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> to be released in future earthquakes, but whose</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZaMP...67...46L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZaMP...67...46L"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced warp in torsion of reticulated foam due to Cosserat <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>: experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lakes, Roderic S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Warp of cross sections of square section bars in torsion is reduced in Cosserat <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in comparison with classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Warp is observed experimentally to be substantially reduced, by about a factor of four compared with classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, in an open-cell polymer foam for which Cosserat <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants were previously determined. The observed warp in the foam is consistent with a prediction based on Cosserat <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Concentration of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the foam is therefore reduced in comparison with classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26888345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26888345"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces <span class="hlt">strains</span> co-fermentation increases acetaldehyde <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>: effect on anthocyanin-derived pigments in Tannat red wines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>During fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae releases into the medium secondary metabolic products, such as acetaldehyde, able to react with anthocyanins, producing more stable derived pigments. However, very limited reports are found about non-Saccharomyces effects on grape fermentation. In this study, six non-Saccharomyces yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span>, belonging to the genera Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora, were screened for their effect on red wine colour and wine-making capacity under pure culture conditions and mixed with Saccharomyces. An artificial red grape must was prepared, containing a phenolic extract of Tannat grapes that allows monitoring changes of key phenol parameters during fermentation, but without skin solids in the medium. When fermented in pure cultures, S. cerevisiae produced higher concentrations of acetaldehyde and vitisin B (acetaldehyde reaction-dependent) compared to M. pulcherrima M00/09G, Hanseniaspora guillermondii T06/09G, H. opuntiae T06/01G, H. vineae T02/05F and H. clermontiae (A10/82Fand C10/54F). However, co-fermentation of H. vineae and H. clermontiae with S. cerevisiae resulted in a significantly higher concentration of acetaldehyde compared with the pure S. cerevisiae control. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis confirmed an increased formation of vitisin B in co-fermentation treatments when compared to pure Saccharomyces fermentation, suggesting the key role of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26888345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MAR.Q4001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MAR.Q4001G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> instabilities in rubber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gent, Alan</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Materials that undergo large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/768239','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/768239"><span id="translatedtitle">A NONLINEAR MESOSCOPIC <span class="hlt">ELASTIC</span> CLASS OF MATERIALS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>P. JOHNSON; R. GUYER; L. OSTROVSKY</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>It is becoming clear that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of rock are shared by numerous other materials (sand, soil, some ceramics, concrete, etc.). These materials have one or more of the following properties in common strong nonlinearity, hysteresis in stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relation, slow dynamics and discrete memory. Primarily, it is the material's compliance, the mesoscopic linkages between the rigid components, that give these materials their unusual <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013270&hterms=Parity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DParity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013270&hterms=Parity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DParity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> Repeat <span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> Coded Modulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called '<span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> Repeat <span class="hlt">Accumulate</span> Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.668...82M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.668...82M"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-buckling relaxation of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> layer and its geological relevance: Insights from analogue experiments in pure shear</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marques, Fernando O.; Mandal, Nibir</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>By physical modelling we investigated the buckling and post-buckling behaviour of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> layer hosted in a viscous medium, as analogue of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of crustal rocks. The experiments were performed by embedding thin <span class="hlt">elastic</span> layers of finite length in a linear viscous medium, and in two successive stages: a first stage of layer-parallel shortening in pure shear, followed by a second stage of post-buckling unfolding with zero velocity at the bounding walls. The experimental results show that the fold wavelength varies inversely with applied piston velocity, following an exponential function for which the higher the piston velocity the higher the number of waves. With cessation of layer-parallel shortening, the buckled layers underwent post-buckling relaxation in response to the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> during the buckling stage. Such relaxation reduces the number of waves by successive elimination of the lower amplitude folds. The relaxation process gives rise to larger folds of higher amplitude in the centre of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> layer, concomitantly with the production of a train of gentle folds in the outer domains by outward motion of the ends of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> layer. This means that relaxation is more efficient away from the central domain. Comparison of our experimental results with available analytical solutions reveals significant discrepancies. Finally, we suggest that a similar process of relaxation of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, although of lower amplitude, may explain the late stage open folding and the formation of overlying extensional basins observed in past orogens like the Caledonides in western Norway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvL..82.3280G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvL..82.3280G"><span id="translatedtitle">Hysteresis and the Dynamic <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of Consolidated Granular Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guyer, R. A.; Tencate, James; Johnson, Paul</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>Quasistatic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurements on rocks show them to be strikingly nonlinear and to have <span class="hlt">elastic</span> hysteresis with end point memory. When the model for this quasistatic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is extended to the description of nonlinear dynamic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> elements responsible for the hysteresis dominate the behavior. Consequently, in a resonant bar, driven to nonlinearity, the frequency shift and the attenuation are predicted to be nonanalytic functions of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field. A resonant bar experiment yielding results in substantial qualitative and quantitative accord with these predictions is reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1395702','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1395702"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of the human lens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fisher, R. F.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>1. When the lens is spun around its antero-posterior polar axis in an apparatus designed for the purpose, high speed photography can be used to record its changing profile. By this method a variable radial centrifugal force can be applied to the lens which mimics the pull of the zonule. 2. If the lens is not stressed at its centre beyond 100 Nm-2 it behaves as a truly <span class="hlt">elastic</span> body. When stressed beyond this limit visco-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> is produced at its poles. 3. The human lens has isotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties at the extremes of life, but at the other times Young's Modulus of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> varies with the direction in which it is measured. 4. Young's Modulus of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of the lens varies with age, polar <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and equatorial <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, at birth being 0·75 × 103 and 0·85 × 103 Nm-2 respectively, while at 63 years of age both are equal to 3 × 103 Nm-2. 5. A comparison of Young's Modulus of the young human lens with that of the rabbit and cat shows that the polar <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the lenses of these animals was 5 times greater in the young rabbit, and 21 times greater in the adult cat. Equatorial <span class="hlt">elasticities</span> of the rabbit and human lens were equal, while in the cat the equatorial <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> was four times greater. 6. A mathematical model showing the lens substance possessing a nucleus of lower isotropic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> than that of the isotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> cortex surrounding it, accounts for the difference between polar and equatorial <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the intact adult lens. 7. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to: (i) accommodation and the rheological properties of the lens; (ii) possible differences in the physical state of the lenticular proteins in the cortex and nucleus which may account for the senile variations in Young's Modulus of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> in these regions of the lens; (iii) the loss of accommodation due solely to an increase in Young's Modulus of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of the lens between the ages of 15 and 60. This would amount to 44% of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122616','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122616"><span id="translatedtitle">Attenuated Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">strains</span> expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C</p> <p>2013-03-15</p> <p>Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli <span class="hlt">strain</span> (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span>, one <span class="hlt">strain</span> expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one <span class="hlt">strain</span> expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span>, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> had less fluid <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> as compared to the sham</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720011185','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720011185"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations of the planet Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, H.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is shown that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of 0.004 and a period of 176 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730027919&hterms=Mercury+Planet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DMercury%2BPlanet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730027919&hterms=Mercury+Planet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DMercury%2BPlanet"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations of the planet Mercury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, H.-S.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is found that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of .004 and a period of 176 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3413382','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3413382"><span id="translatedtitle">A nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> phantom containing spherical inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pavan, Theo Z.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Hall, Timothy J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">strain</span> image contrast of some in vivo breast lesions changes with increasing applied load. This change is attributed to differences in the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of the constituent tissues suggesting some potential to help classify breast diseases by their nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties. A phantom with inclusions and long-term stability is desired to serve as a test bed for nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging method development, testing, etc. This study reports a phantom designed to investigate nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties with ultrasound elastographic techniques. The phantom contains four spherical inclusions and was manufactured from a mixture of gelatin, agar and oil. The phantom background and each of the inclusions has distinct Young’s modulus and nonlinear mechanical behavior. This phantom was subjected to large deformations (up to 20%) while scanning with ultrasound, and changes in <span class="hlt">strain</span> image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between inclusion and background, as a function of applied deformation, were investigated. The changes in contrast over a large deformation range predicted by the finite element analysis (FEA) were consistent with those experimentally observed. Therefore, the paper reports a procedure for making phantoms with predictable nonlinear behavior, based on independent measurements of the constituent materials, and shows that the resulting <span class="hlt">strain</span> images (e.g., <span class="hlt">strain</span> contrast) agrees with that predicted with nonlinear FEA. PMID:22772074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010245"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of numerical methods to <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, <span class="hlt">strain</span> elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. PMID:24010245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Nanot..19L4005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Nanot..19L4005A"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure, cell wall <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and polysaccharide properties of living yeast cells, as probed by AFM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; McEvoy, Kevin; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Dufrêne, Yves F.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Although the chemical composition of yeast cell walls is known, the organization, assembly, and interactions of the various macromolecules remain poorly understood. Here, we used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) in three different modes to probe the ultrastructure, cell wall <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and polymer properties of two brewing yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span>, i.e. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae. Topographic images of the two <span class="hlt">strains</span> revealed smooth and homogeneous cell surfaces, and the presence of circular bud scars on dividing cells. Nanomechanical measurements demonstrated that the cell wall <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of S. carlsbergensis is homogeneous. By contrast, the bud scar of S. cerevisiae was found to be stiffer than the cell wall, presumably due to the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of chitin. Notably, single molecule force spectroscopy with lectin-modified tips revealed major differences in polysaccharide properties of the two <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Polysaccharides were clearly more extended on S. cerevisiae, suggesting that not only oligosaccharides, but also polypeptide chains of the mannoproteins were stretched. Consistent with earlier cell surface analyses, these findings may explain the very different aggregation properties of the two organisms. This study demonstrates the power of using multiple complementary AFM modalities for probing the organization and interactions of the various macromolecules of microbial cell walls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1976/0484/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1976/0484/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Documentation of programs that compute 1) quasi-static tilts produced by an expanding dislocation loop in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and viscoelastic material, and 2) surface shear stresses, <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and shear displacements produced by screw dislocations in a vertical slab with modulus contrast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McHugh, Stuart</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The material in this report can be grouped into two categories: 1) programs that compute tilts produced by a vertically oriented expanding rectangular dislocation loop in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> or viscoelastic material and 2) programs that compute the shear stresses, <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and shear displacements in a three-phase half-space (i.e. a half-space containing a vertical slab). Each section describes the relevant theory, and provides a detailed guide to the operation of the programs. A series of examples is provided at the end of each section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866874"><span id="translatedtitle">Athermal nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of amorphous solids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We derive expressions for the lowest nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of amorphous solids in athermal conditions (up to third order), in terms of the interaction potential between the constituent particles. The effect of these constants cannot be disregarded when amorphous solids undergo instabilities such as plastic flow or fracture in the athermal limit; in such situations the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response increases enormously, bringing the system much beyond the linear regime. We demonstrate that the existing theory of thermal nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants converges to our expressions in the limit of zero temperature. We motivate the calculation by discussing two examples in which these nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants play a crucial role in the context of elastoplasticity of amorphous solids. The first example is the plasticity-induced memory that is typical to amorphous solids (giving rise to the Bauschinger effect). The second example is how to predict the next plastic event from knowledge of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants. Using the results of our calculations we derive a simple differential equation for the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix in the external <span class="hlt">strain</span> near mechanical instabilities; this equation predicts how the eigenvalue vanishes at the mechanical instability and the value of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> where the mechanical instability takes place. PMID:20866874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82b6105K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82b6105K"><span id="translatedtitle">Athermal nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of amorphous solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We derive expressions for the lowest nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of amorphous solids in athermal conditions (up to third order), in terms of the interaction potential between the constituent particles. The effect of these constants cannot be disregarded when amorphous solids undergo instabilities such as plastic flow or fracture in the athermal limit; in such situations the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response increases enormously, bringing the system much beyond the linear regime. We demonstrate that the existing theory of thermal nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants converges to our expressions in the limit of zero temperature. We motivate the calculation by discussing two examples in which these nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants play a crucial role in the context of elastoplasticity of amorphous solids. The first example is the plasticity-induced memory that is typical to amorphous solids (giving rise to the Bauschinger effect). The second example is how to predict the next plastic event from knowledge of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants. Using the results of our calculations we derive a simple differential equation for the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix in the external <span class="hlt">strain</span> near mechanical instabilities; this equation predicts how the eigenvalue vanishes at the mechanical instability and the value of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> where the mechanical instability takes place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26701708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26701708"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic stability in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> systems: Hard spheres embedded in a finite spherical <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Solano-Altamirano, J M; Goldman, Saul</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We determined the total system <span class="hlt">elastic</span> Helmholtz free energy, under the constraints of constant temperature and volume, for systems comprised of one or more perfectly bonded hard spherical inclusions (i.e. "hard spheres") embedded in a finite spherical <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid. Dirichlet boundary conditions were applied both at the surface(s) of the hard spheres, and at the outer surface of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid. The boundary conditions at the surface of the spheres were used to describe the rigid displacements of the spheres, relative to their initial location(s) in the unstressed initial state. These displacements, together with the initial positions, provided the final shape of the <span class="hlt">strained</span> <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid. The boundary conditions at the outer surface of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium were used to ensure constancy of the system volume. We determined the <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress tensors numerically, using a method that combines the Neuber-Papkovich spherical harmonic decomposition, the Schwartz alternating method, and Least-squares for determining the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients. The total system <span class="hlt">elastic</span> Helmholtz free energy was determined by numerically integrating the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> Helmholtz free energy density over the volume of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid, either by a quadrature, or a Monte Carlo method, or both. Depending on the initial position of the hard sphere(s) (or equivalently, the shape of the un-deformed stress-free <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solid), and the displacements, either stationary or non-stationary Helmholtz free energy minima were found. The non-stationary minima, which involved the hard spheres nearly in contact with one another, corresponded to lower Helmholtz free energies, than did the stationary minima, for which the hard spheres were further away from one another. PMID:26701708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeoJI.118..459G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeoJI.118..459G"><span id="translatedtitle">Wave propagation in polar <span class="hlt">elastic</span> superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Green, W. A.; Green, E. Rhian</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>This paper examines the passband and stop band regions for time-periodic waves travelling normal to the layering through an infinite medium composed of alternating layers of two different <span class="hlt">elastic</span> materials. The materials are such that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy density is a function of the <span class="hlt">strains</span> and the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradients and, in consequence, a deformation gives rise to both the usual Cauchy stress and to a hyperstress or couple-stress. Such materials can exhibit a non-uniform wrinkling deformation at a free surface and similar non-uniform deformations can arise at interfaces between two different media. The presence of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> derivatives in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy function introduces a natural length scale l into the material and the depth of the non-uniform deformation is of the order of this length scale. This model can give rise to enhanced <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response when the layer depths are comparable with l and it is of interest as a possible mathematical model of nanolayered structures. The model also includes a non-standard set of continuity conditions at material interfaces. These arise from the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> interaction energy of the two materials at the boundary and their effect is localized in a boundary layer whose depth is of order l. The periodic layering gives rise to displacements which are periodic with a frequency-dependent wave number, the Floquet wave number. Dispersion curves, relating circular frequency to the Floquet wave number, are obtained for different ratios of the layer depth to the natural length l and for different values of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> interface coupling parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.116v1302K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.116v1302K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastically</span> Decoupling Dark Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present a novel dark matter candidate, an <span class="hlt">elastically</span> decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its <span class="hlt">elastic</span> scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10-3- 1 fb range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27314712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27314712"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastically</span> Decoupling Dark Matter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present a novel dark matter candidate, an <span class="hlt">elastically</span> decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its <span class="hlt">elastic</span> scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1  fb range. PMID:27314712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6294559','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6294559"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> internal flywheel gimbal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rabenhorst, D.W.</p> <p>1981-01-13</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> joint mounting and rotatably coupling a rotary inertial energy storage device or flywheel, to a shaft, the present gimbal structure reduces vibration and shock while allowing precession of the flywheel without the need for external gimbal mounts. The present <span class="hlt">elastic</span> joint usually takes the form of an annular <span class="hlt">elastic</span> member either integrally formed into the flywheel as a centermost segment thereof or attached to the flywheel or flywheel hub member at the center thereof, the rotary shaft then being mounted centrally to the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> member.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108a3104W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108a3104W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of suspended black phosphorus nanosheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jia-Ying; Li, Yang; Zhan, Zhao-Yao; Li, Tie; Zhen, Liang; Xu, Cheng-Yan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mechanical properties of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets suspended over circular holes were measured by an atomic force microscope nanoindentation method. The continuum mechanic model was introduced to calculate the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus and pretension of BP nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14.3 to 34 nm. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> modulus of BP nanosheets declines with thickness, and the maximum value is 276 ± 32.4 GPa. Besides, the effective <span class="hlt">strain</span> of BP ranges from 8 to 17% with a breaking strength of 25 GPa. Our results show that BP nanosheets serve as a promising candidate for flexible electronic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91d2710F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91d2710F"><span id="translatedtitle">Alignment and nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in biopolymer gels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Jingchen; Levine, Herbert; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present a Landau-type theory for the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of biopolymer gels with a part of the order parameter describing induced nematic order of fibers in the gel. We attribute the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior of these materials to fiber alignment induced by <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We suggest an application to contact guidance of cell motility in tissue. We compare our theory to simulation of a disordered lattice model for biopolymers. We treat homogeneous deformations such as simple shear, hydrostatic expansion, and simple extension, and obtain good agreement between theory and simulation. We also consider a localized perturbation which is a simple model for a contracting cell in a medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012691','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012691"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic finite-element analyses of thermally cycled single-edge wedge specimens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaufman, A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> analyses were performed for single-edge wedge alloys subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds. Three cases (NASA TAZ-8A alloy under one cycling condition and 316 stainless steel alloy under two cycling conditions) were analyzed by using the MARC nonlinear, finite-element computer program. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> solutions from MARC showed good agreement with previously reported solutions that used the NASTRAN and ISO3DQ computer programs. The NASA TAZ-8A case exhibited no plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analyses gave identical results. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic analyses of the 316 stainless steel alloy showed plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> reversal with a shift of the mean stresses in the compressive direction. The maximum equivalent total <span class="hlt">strain</span> ranges for these cases were 13 to 22 percent greater than that calculated from <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analyses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9498605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9498605"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> reconstructive imaging by means of stimulated echo MRI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chenevert, T L; Skovoroda, A R; O'Donnell, M; Emelianov, S Y</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>A method is introduced to measure internal mechanical displacement and <span class="hlt">strain</span> by means of MRI. Such measurements are needed to reconstruct an image of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> Young's modulus. A stimulated echo acquisition sequence with additional gradient pulses encodes internal displacements in response to an externally applied differential deformation. The sequence provides an accurate measure of static displacement by limiting the mechanical transitions to the mixing period of the simulated echo. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> reconstruction involves definition of a region of interest having uniform Young's modulus along its boundary and subsequent solution of the discretized <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> equilibrium equations. Data acquisition and reconstruction were performed on a urethane rubber phantom of known <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties and an ex vivo canine kidney phantom using <2% differential deformation. Regional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties are well represented on Young's modulus images. The long-term objective of this work is to provide a means for remote palpation and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> quantitation in deep tissues otherwise inaccessible to manual palpation. PMID:9498605</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..83e1925P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..83e1925P"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of red blood cell membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Feld, Michael S.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations of the RBCs to extract the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of this composite membrane. By applying known osmotic stresses, we measure the changes in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants under imposed <span class="hlt">strain</span> and thereby determine the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of the membrane. We find that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> nonlinearities of the shear modulus in tensed RBC membranes can be well understood in terms of a simple wormlike chain model. Our results show that the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the spectrin network can mostly account for the area compression modulus at physiological osmolality, suggesting that the lipid bilayer has significant excess area. As the cell swells, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> contribution from the now tensed lipid membrane becomes dominant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21744922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21744922"><span id="translatedtitle">Transversely isotropic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging of cancellous bone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shore, Spencer W; Barbone, Paul E; Oberai, Assad A; Morgan, Elise F</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>To measure spatial variations in mechanical properties of biological materials, prior studies have typically performed mechanical tests on excised specimens of tissue. Less invasive measurements, however, are preferable in many applications, such as patient-specific modeling, disease diagnosis, and tracking of age- or damage-related degradation of mechanical properties. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> imaging (elastography) is a nondestructive imaging method in which the distribution of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties throughout a specimen can be reconstructed from measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> or displacement fields. To date, most work in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging has concerned incompressible, isotropic materials. This study presents an extension of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging to three-dimensional, compressible, transversely isotropic materials. The formulation and solution of an inverse problem for an anisotropic tissue subjected to a combination of quasi-static loads is described, and an optimization and regularization strategy that indirectly obtains the solution to the inverse problem is presented. Several applications of transversely isotropic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging to cancellous bone from the human vertebra are then considered. The feasibility of using isotropic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging to obtain meaningful reconstructions of the distribution of material properties for vertebral cancellous bone from experiment is established. However, using simulation, it is shown that an isotropic reconstruction is not appropriate for anisotropic materials. It is further shown that the transversely isotropic method identifies a solution that predicts the measured displacements, reveals regions of low stiffness, and recovers all five <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters with approximately 10% error. The recovery of a given <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameter is found to require the presence of its corresponding <span class="hlt">strain</span> (e.g., a deformation that generates ɛ₁₂ is necessary to reconstruct C₁₂₁₂), and the application of regularization is shown to improve accuracy. Finally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435451"><span id="translatedtitle">Programmable shape transformation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> spherical domes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Arif M; Braun, Paul V; Hsia, K Jimmy</p> <p>2016-07-20</p> <p>We investigate mismatch <span class="hlt">strain</span> driven programmable shape transformation of spherical domes and report the effects of different geometric and structural characteristics on dome behavior in response to applied mismatch <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We envision a bilayer dome design where the differential swelling of the inner layer with respect to the passive outer layer in response to changes in dome surroundings (such as the introduction of an organic solvent) introduces mismatch <span class="hlt">strain</span> within the bilayer system and causes dome shape transformation. Finite element analysis reveals that, in addition to snap-through, spherical domes undergo bifurcation buckling and eventually gradual bending to morph into cylinders with increasing mismatch <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Besides demonstrating how the snap-through energy barrier depends on the spherical dome shape, our analysis identifies three distinct groups of dome geometries based on their mismatch <span class="hlt">strain</span>-transformed configuration relationships. Our experiments with polymer-based <span class="hlt">elastic</span> bilayer domes that exhibit differential swelling in organic solvents qualitatively confirm the finite element predictions. We establish that, in addition to externally applied stimuli (mismatch <span class="hlt">strain</span>), bilayer spherical dome morphing can be tuned and hence programmed through its geometry and structural characteristics. Incorporation of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> instability mechanism such as snap-through within the framework of stimuli-responsive functional devices can improve their response time which is otherwise controlled by diffusion. Hence, our proposed design guidelines can be used to realize deployable, multi-functional, reconfigurable, and therefore, adaptive structures responsive to a diverse set of stimuli across multiple length scales. PMID:27435451</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1159466','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1159466"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> anisotropy and mesoscale deformation in a nanostructured ferritic alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stoica, G. M.; Stoica, A. D.; Miller, M. K.; Ma, D.</p> <p>2014-10-10</p> <p>Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) are a new class of ultrafine-grained oxide dispersion-strengthened steels, promising for service in extreme environments of high temperature and high irradiation in the next-generation of nuclear reactors. This is owing to the remarkable stability of their complex microstructures containing a high density of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters within grains and along the grain boundaries. While nanoclusters have been recognized to be the primary contributor to the exceptional resistance to irradiation and high-temperature creep, very little is known about the mechanical roles of the polycrystalline grains that constitute the bulk ferritic matrix. Here we report the mesoscale characterization of anisotropic responses of the ultrafine NFA grains to tensile stresses at various temperatures using the state-of-the-art in situ neutron diffraction. We show the first experimental determination of temperature-dependent single-crystal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants for the NFA, and reveal a strong temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> anisotropy due to a sharp decrease in the shear stiffness constant [c'=(c_11-c_12)/2] when a critical temperature ( T_c ) is approached, indicative of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> softening and instability of the ferritic matrix. We also show, from anisotropy-induced intergranular <span class="hlt">strain</span>/stress <span class="hlt">accumulations</span>, that a common dislocation slip mechanism operates at the onset of yielding for low temperatures, while there is a deformation crossover from low-temperature lattice hardening to high temperature lattice softening in response to extensive plastic deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1159466-temperature-dependent-elastic-anisotropy-mesoscale-deformation-nanostructured-ferritic-alloy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1159466-temperature-dependent-elastic-anisotropy-mesoscale-deformation-nanostructured-ferritic-alloy"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> anisotropy and mesoscale deformation in a nanostructured ferritic alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Stoica, G. M.; Stoica, A. D.; Miller, M. K.; Ma, D.</p> <p>2014-10-10</p> <p>Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) are a new class of ultrafine-grained oxide dispersion-strengthened steels, promising for service in extreme environments of high temperature and high irradiation in the next-generation of nuclear reactors. This is owing to the remarkable stability of their complex microstructures containing a high density of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters within grains and along the grain boundaries. While nanoclusters have been recognized to be the primary contributor to the exceptional resistance to irradiation and high-temperature creep, very little is known about the mechanical roles of the polycrystalline grains that constitute the bulk ferritic matrix. Here we report the mesoscale characterization ofmore » anisotropic responses of the ultrafine NFA grains to tensile stresses at various temperatures using the state-of-the-art in situ neutron diffraction. We show the first experimental determination of temperature-dependent single-crystal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants for the NFA, and reveal a strong temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> anisotropy due to a sharp decrease in the shear stiffness constant [c'=(c_11-c_12)/2] when a critical temperature ( T_c ) is approached, indicative of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> softening and instability of the ferritic matrix. We also show, from anisotropy-induced intergranular <span class="hlt">strain</span>/stress <span class="hlt">accumulations</span>, that a common dislocation slip mechanism operates at the onset of yielding for low temperatures, while there is a deformation crossover from low-temperature lattice hardening to high temperature lattice softening in response to extensive plastic deformation.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/28566','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/28566"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of minerals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Investigations of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the <span class="hlt">elasticities</span> of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840059144&hterms=mechanica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmechanica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840059144&hterms=mechanica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmechanica"><span id="translatedtitle">Postinstability models in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zak, M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>It is demonstrated that the instability caused by the failure of hyperbolicity in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and associated with the problem of unpredictability in classical mechanics expresses the incompleteness of the original model of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium. The instability as well as the ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem are eliminated by reformulating the original model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23400109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23400109"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> carbon nanotube straight yarns embedded with helical loops.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Luhui; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shi, Enzheng; Wu, Shiting; Cao, Anyuan</p> <p>2013-03-21</p> <p>Introducing stretchability and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> into carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns could extend their applications to areas such as stretchable and deformable fiber-based devices and <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors. Here, we convert a straight and inelastic yarn into a highly <span class="hlt">elastic</span> structure by spinning a predefined number of helical loops along the yarn, resulting in a short helical segment with smooth structural transition to the straight portions. The loop-forming process is well controlled, and the obtained straight-helical-straight hybrid yarn is freestanding, stable, and based entirely on CNTs. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and conductive yarns can be stretched to moderate tensile <span class="hlt">strains</span> (up to 25%) repeatedly for 1000 cycles without producing residual deformation, with a simultaneous and linear change of electrical resistance depending on the <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Our results indicate that conventional straight CNT yarns could be used as fiber-shaped <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors by simple structural modification. PMID:23400109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27610857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27610857"><span id="translatedtitle">Tensile Instability in a Thick <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Body.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Overvelde, Johannes T B; Dykstra, David M J; de Rooij, Rijk; Weaver, James; Bertoldi, Katia</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> conditions and observed for the first time this <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction. Our work uncovers a new type of instability that can be triggered in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> bodies, enlarging the design space for smart structures that harness instabilities to enhance their functionality. PMID:27610857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CRMec.337..591C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CRMec.337..591C"><span id="translatedtitle">A dispersive wave equation using nonlocal <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Challamel, Noël; Rakotomanana, Lalaonirina; Le Marrec, Loïc</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Nonlocal continuum mechanics allows one to account for the small length scale effect that becomes significant when dealing with micro- or nano-structures. This Note investigates a model of wave propagation in a nonlocal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> material. We show that a dispersive wave equation is obtained from a nonlocal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constitutive law, based on a mixture of a local and a nonlocal <span class="hlt">strain</span>. This model comprises both the classical gradient model and the Eringen's integral model. The dynamic properties of the model are discussed, and corroborate well some recent theoretical studies published to unify both static and dynamics gradient <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theories. Moreover, an excellent matching of the dispersive curve of the Born-Kármán model of lattice dynamics is obtained with such nonlocal model. To cite this article: N. Challamel et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87c5417H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87c5417H"><span id="translatedtitle">Friction, adhesion, and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of graphene edges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hunley, D. Patrick; Flynn, Tyler J.; Dodson, Tom; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Boland, Mathias J.; Strachan, Douglas R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Frictional, adhesive, and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> characteristics of graphene edges are determined through lateral force microscopy. Measurements reveal a significant local frictional increase at exposed graphene edges, whereas a single overlapping layer of graphene removes this local frictional increase. Comparison of lateral force and atomic force microscopy measurements shows that local forces on the probe are successfully modeled with a vertical adhesion in the vicinity of the atomic-scale graphene steps which also provides a new low-load calibration method. Lateral force microscopy performed with carefully maintained low-adhesion probes shows evidence of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">straining</span> of graphene edges. Estimates of the energy stored of this observed <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response is consistent with out-of-plane bending of the graphene edge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120611&hterms=Plant+cell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPlant%2Bcell','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120611&hterms=Plant+cell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPlant%2Bcell"><span id="translatedtitle">Cell wall <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>: I. A critique of the bulk <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus approach and an analysis using polymer <span class="hlt">elastic</span> principles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The traditional bulk <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1268048-proton-nucleus-elastic-scattering-data','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1268048-proton-nucleus-elastic-scattering-data"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton Nucleus <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Scattering Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-08-18</p> <p>Version 00 The Proton Nucleus <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential <span class="hlt">elastic</span> cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> proton-nucleus scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..352N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..352N"><span id="translatedtitle">Fatigue life prediction using multiaxial energy calculations with the mean stress effect to predict failure of linear and nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagode, Marko; Šeruga, Domen</p> <p></p> <p>An approach is presented that enables the calculation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy in linear and nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solids during arbitrary thermomechanical load cycles. The approach uses the simple fact that the variation of both <span class="hlt">strain</span> and complementary energies always forms a rectangular shape in stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> space, hence integration is no longer required to calculate the energy. Furthermore, the approach considers the mean stress effect so that predictions of fatigue damage are more realistically representative of real-life experimental observations. By doing so, a parameter has been proposed to adjust the mean stress effect. This parameter α is based on the well-known Smith-Watson-Topper energy criterion, but allows consideration of other arbitrary mean stress effects, e.g. the Bergmann type criterion. The approach has then been incorporated into a numerical method which can be applied to uniaxial and multiaxial, proportional and non-proportional loadings to predict fatigue damage. The end result of the method is the cyclic evolution of <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> damage. Numerical examples show how the method presented in this paper could be applied to a nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4423350','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4423350"><span id="translatedtitle">On granular <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. A function for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy barrier in the PEL, granular <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1939897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1939897"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> models of vocal fold tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alipour-Haghighi, F; Titze, I R</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of canine vocal fold tissue (muscle and mucosa) were obtained through a series of experiments conducted in vitro and were modeled mathematically. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties play a significant role in quantitative analysis of vocal fold vibrations and theory of pitch control. Samples of vocalis muscle and mucosa were dissected and prepared from dog larynges a few minutes premortem and kept in a Krebs solution at a temperature of 37 +/- 1 degrees C and a pH of 7.4 +/- 0.05. Samples of muscle tissue and mucosa were stretched and released in a slow, sinusoidal fashion. Force and displacement of the samples were measured with a dual-servo system (ergometer). After digitization, stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> data for samples of muscle tissue and cover tissue were averaged. The stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> data were then fitted numerically by polynomial and exponential models. PMID:1939897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDM21005B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDM21005B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> membranes in confinement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bostwick, Joshua; Miksis, Michael; Davis, Stephen</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and DNA, have finer internal structure in which a membrane (or <span class="hlt">elastic</span> member) is geometrically ``confined'' by another object. We study the shape stability of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> membranes in a ``confining'' box and introduce repulsive van der Waals forces to prevent the membrane from intersecting the wall. We aim to define the parameter space associated with mitochondria-like deformations. We compare the confined to `unconfined' solutions and show how the structure and stability of the membrane shapes changes with the system parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000329&hterms=plywood&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dplywood','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910000329&hterms=plywood&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dplywood"><span id="translatedtitle">Triangular Element For Analyzing <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> Of Laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, C. Wayne; Lung, S. F.; Gupta, K. K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Flat triangular element developed for use in finite-element analyses of stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> in laminated plates made of such materials as plywood or advanced fiber/epoxy composite materials. Has multiple layers, each of which can have different isotropic or orthotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties. Many such elements used in finite-element mesh to calculate stiffness of plate. Formulation of element straight-forward, and calculation of its stiffness matrix simple and fast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2793538','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2793538"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> Imaging of Polymeric Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sridhar, Mallika; Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues and hydropolymers depend on the strength of molecular bonding forces connecting the polymer matrix and surrounding fluids. The basis for diagnostic imaging is that disease processes alter molecular-scale bonding in ways that vary the measurable stiffness and viscosity of the tissues. This paper reviews linear viscoelastic theory as applied to gelatin hydrogels for the purpose of formulating approaches to molecular-scale interpretation of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging in soft biological tissues. Comparing measurements acquired under different geometries, we investigate the limitations of viscoelastic parameters acquired under various imaging conditions. Quasistatic (step-and-hold and low-frequency harmonic) stimuli applied to gels during creep and stress relaxation experiments in confined and unconfined geometries reveal continuous, bimodal distributions of respondance times. Within the linear range of responses, gelatin will behave more like a solid or fluid depending on the stimulus magnitude. Gelatin can be described statistically from a few parameters of low-order rheological models that form the basis of viscoelastic imaging. Unbiased estimates of imaging parameters are obtained only if creep data are acquired for greater than twice the highest retardance time constant and any steady-state viscous response has been eliminated. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and retardance time images are found to provide the best combination of contrast and signal strength in gelatin. Retardance times indicate average behavior of fast (1–10 s) fluid flows and slow (50–400 s) matrix restructuring in response to the mechanical stimulus. Insofar as gelatin mimics other polymers, such as soft biological tissues, <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging can provide unique insights into complex structural and biochemical features of connectives tissues affected by disease. PMID:17408331</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22409701','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22409701"><span id="translatedtitle">WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging will be presented, including quasistatic <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging, shear wave <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including <span class="hlt">elastic</span> relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue <span class="hlt">strain</span> in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> measurement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007PhRvE..76a1706S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007PhRvE..76a1706S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Unconventional <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in smectic- A elastomers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, T. C.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>We study two aspects of the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of smectic- A elastomers that make these materials genuinely and qualitatively different from conventional uniaxial rubbers. Under <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied parallel to the layer normal, monodomain smectic- A elastomers exhibit a drastic change in Young’s modulus above a threshold <span class="hlt">strain</span> value of about 3% , as has been measured in experiments by [Nishikawa and Finkelmann, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 200, 312 (1999)]. Our theory predicts that such <span class="hlt">strains</span> induce a transition to a smectic- C -like state and that it is this transition that causes the change in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus. We calculate the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior as well as the tilt of the smectic layers and the molecular orientation for <span class="hlt">strain</span> along the layer normal, and we compare our findings with the experimental data. We also study the electroclinic effect in chiral smectic- A* elastomers. According to experiments by [Lehmann , Nature (London) 410, 447 (2001)] and [Köhler , Appl. Phys. A 80, 381 (2003)], this effect leads in smectic- A* elastomers to a giant or, respectively, at least very large lateral electrostriction. Incorporating polarization into our theory, we calculate the height change of smectic- A* elastomer films in response to a lateral external electric field, and we compare this result to the experimental findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4256016','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4256016"><span id="translatedtitle">Yielding <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Tethers Stabilize Robust Cell Adhesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Whitfield, Matt J.; Luo, Jonathon P.; Thomas, Wendy E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Here we address the function of yielding <span class="hlt">elastic</span> adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, <span class="hlt">strain</span>-hardening and linear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011934','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011934"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements in Washington.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W.H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Two new geodetic measurements of <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in the state of Washington for the interval 1972-1979 are reported. Near Seattle the average principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates are 0.07 + or - 0.03 mu <span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr N19oW and -0.13 + or - 0.02 mu <span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr N71oE, and near Richland (south central Washington) the average principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates are -0.02 + or - 0.01 mu <span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr N36oW and -0.04 + or - 0.01 mu <span class="hlt">strain</span>/yr N54oE. Extension is taken as positive, and the uncertainties quoted are standard deviations. A measurement of shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> (dilation not determined) in the epoch 1914- 1966 along the north coast of Vancouver Island by the Geodetic Survey of Canada indicates a marginally significant <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of right-lateral shear (0.06 + or - 0.03 mu rad/yr) across the plate boundary (N40oW strike). Although there are significant differences in detail, these <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements are roughly consistent with a crude dislocation model that represents subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate. The observed <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of <span class="hlt">strain</span> implies that large, shallow, thrust earthquakes should be expected off the coast of Washington and British Columbia. However, this conclusion is not easily reconciled with either observations of elevation change along the Washington coast or the focal mechanism solutions for shallow earthquakes in Washington. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515854R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515854R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of polymeric nanocolloidal particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riest, Jonas; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Egorov, Sergei A.; Likos, Christos N.; Ziherl, Primož</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Softness is an essential mechanical feature of macromolecular particles such as polymer-grafted nanocolloids, polyelectrolyte networks, cross-linked microgels as well as block copolymer and dendrimer micelles. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of individual particles directly controls their swelling, wetting, and adsorption behaviour, their aggregation and self-assembly as well as structural and rheological properties of suspensions. Here we use numerical simulations and self-consistent field theory to study the deformation behaviour of a single spherical polymer brush upon diametral compression. We observe a universal response, which is rationalised using scaling arguments and interpreted in terms of two coarse-grained models. At small and intermediate compressions the deformation can be accurately reproduced by modelling the brush as a liquid drop, whereas at large compressions the brush behaves as a soft ball. Applicable far beyond the pairwise-additive small-<span class="hlt">strain</span> regime, the models may be used to describe microelasticity of nanocolloids in severe confinement including dense disordered and crystalline phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3527747','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3527747"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of Resilin <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qin, Guokui; Hu, Xiao; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Resilin is critical in the flight and jumping systems of insects as a polymeric rubber-like protein with outstanding <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. However, insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for resilin <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> remains undefined. Here we report the structure and function of resilin from Drosophila CG15920. A reversible beta-turn transition was identified in the peptide encoded by exon III and for full length resilin during energy input and release, features that correlate to the rapid deformation of resilin during functions in vivo. Micellar structures and nano-porous patterns formed after beta-turn structures were present via changes in either the thermal or mechanical inputs. A model is proposed to explain the super <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and energy conversion mechanisms of resilin, providing important insight into structure-function relationships for this protein. Further, this model offers a view of elastomeric proteins in general where beta-turn related structures serve as fundamental units of the structure and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. PMID:22893127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012692','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012692"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic finite-element analyses of thermally cycled double-edge wedge specimens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaufman, A.; Hunt, L. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> analyses were performed for double-edge wedge specimens subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds at 316 and 1088 C. Four cases involving different nickel-base alloys (IN 100, Mar M-200, NASA TAZ-8A, and Rene 80) were analyzed by using the MARC nonlinear, finite element computer program. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> solutions from MARC showed good agreement with previously reported solutions obtained by using the NASTRAN and ISO3DQ computer programs. Equivalent total <span class="hlt">strain</span> ranges at the critical locations calculated by <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analyses agreed within 3 percent with those calculated from <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analyses. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analyses always resulted in compressive mean stresses at the critical locations. However, <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analyses showed tensile mean stresses for two of the four alloys and an increase in the compressive mean stress for the highest plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010APS..MARH11006Q&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010APS..MARH11006Q&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Deflation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quilliet, Catherine; Quemeneur, François; Marmottant, Philippe; Imhof, Arnout; Pépin-Donat, Brigitte; van Blaaderen, Alfons</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The deflation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> spherical surfaces has been numerically investigated, and show very different types of deformations according the range of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters, some of them being quantitatively explained through simple calculations. This allows to retrieve various shapes observed on hollow shells (from colloidal to centimeter scale), on lipid vesicles, or on some biological objects. The extension of this process to other geometries allows to modelize vegetal objects such as the ultrafast trap of carnivorous plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EnOp...48...53K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EnOp...48...53K"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological derivatives for fundamental frequencies of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobelev, Vladimir</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this article a new method for topological optimization of fundamental frequencies of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> bodies, which could be considered as an improvement on the bubble method, is introduced. The method is based on generalized topological derivatives. For a body with different types of inclusion the vector genus is introduced. The dimension of the genus is the number of different <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of the inclusions being introduced. The disturbances of stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix due to a newly inserted <span class="hlt">elastic</span> inhomogeneity are given explicitly in terms of the stresses and <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the initial body. The iterative positioning of inclusions is carried out by determination of the preferable position of the new inhomogeneity at the extreme points of the characteristic function. The characteristic function was derived using Eshelby's method. The expressions for optimal ratios of the semi-axes of the ellipse and angular orientation of newly inserted infinitesimally small inclusions of elliptical form are derived in closed analytical form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JMMM..280..287V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JMMM..280..287V"><span id="translatedtitle">Third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of the alloy Fe 72Pt 28</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vinu, T. P.; Menon, C. S.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The complete sets of second- and third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of the cubic Fe72Pt28 have been obtained using the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density derived from interactions up to three nearest neighbours of each atom in the unit cell. The finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory has been used to get the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density of Fe72Pt28. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density is compared with the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent lattice energy density obtained from the continuum model approximation and the expressions for the second- and third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of Fe72Pt28 are given. The second-order potential parameter is deduced from the measured second-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of Fe72Pt28 and the third-order potential parameter is estimated from the Lennard-Jones inter-atomic potential for Fe72Pt28. The inter-lattice displacements; the three independent second-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants and the six independent third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of Fe72Pt28 are also determined. The second-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants are compared with the experimental <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of Fe72Pt28. We also study the effect of pressure on the second-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of Fe72Pt28.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009APS..TSS.M1002B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009APS..TSS.M1002B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Collisions and Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ball, Steven</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> collisions are fascinating demonstrations of conservation principles. The mediating force must be conservative in an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> collision. Truly <span class="hlt">elastic</span> collisions take place only when the objects in collision do not touch, e.g. magnetic bumpers on low friction carts. This requires that we define a collision as a momentum transfer. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> collisions in 1-D can be solved in general and the implications are quite remarkable. For example, a heavy object moving initially towards a light object followed by an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> collision results in a final velocity of the light object greater than either initial velocity. This is easily demonstrated with low friction carts. Gravitational <span class="hlt">elastic</span> collisions involving a light spacecraft and an extremely massive body like a moon or planet can be approximated as 1-D collisions, such as the ``free return'' trajectory of Apollo 13 around the moon. The most fascinating gravitational collisions involve the gravitational slingshot effect used to boost spacecraft velocities. The maximum gravitational slingshot effect occurs when approaching a nearly 1-D collision, revealing that the spacecraft can be boosted to greater than twice the planet velocity, enabling the spacecraft to travel much further away from the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25375508"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological study of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic-brittle transitions in disordered media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kale, Sohan; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use a spring lattice model with springs following a bilinear elastoplastic-brittle constitutive behavior with spatial disorder in the yield and failure thresholds to study patterns of plasticity and damage evolution. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-perfectly plastic transition is observed to follow percolation scaling with the correlation length critical exponent ν≈1.59, implying the universality class corresponding to the long-range correlated percolation. A quantitative analysis of the plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> reveals a dipolar anisotropy (for antiplane loading) which vanishes with increasing hardening modulus. A parametric study with hardening modulus and ductility controlled through the spring level constitutive response demonstrates a wide spectrum of behaviors with varying degree of coupling between plasticity and damage evolution. PMID:25375508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830005975','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830005975"><span id="translatedtitle">Strainrange partitioning: A total <span class="hlt">strain</span> range version</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total <span class="hlt">strain</span> range. Inelastic and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range - life relations are summed to give total <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range - life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span>. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> range. The total <span class="hlt">strain</span> SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total <span class="hlt">strain</span>-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> range SRP approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121..663B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121..663B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of plagioclase feldspars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, J. Michael; Angel, Ross J.; Ross, Nancy L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties are reported for eight plagioclase feldspars that span compositions from albite (NaSi3AlO8) to anorthite (CaSi2Al2O8). Surface acoustic wave velocities measured using Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering and compliance sums from high-pressure X-ray compression studies accurately determine all 21 components of the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> tensor for these triclinic minerals. The overall pattern of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and the changes in individual <span class="hlt">elastic</span> components with composition can be rationalized on the basis of the evolution of crystal structures and chemistry across this solid-solution join. All plagioclase feldspars have high <span class="hlt">elastic</span> anisotropy; a* (the direction perpendicular to the b and c axes) is the softest direction by a factor of 3 in albite. From albite to anorthite the stiffness of this direction undergoes the greatest change, increasing twofold. Small discontinuities in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> components, inferred to occur between the three plagioclase phases with distinct symmetry (C1>¯, I1>¯, and P1>¯), appear consistent with the nature of the underlying conformation of the framework-linked tetrahedra and the associated structural changes. Measured body wave velocities of plagioclase-rich rocks, reported over the last five decades, are consistent with calculated Hill-averaged velocities using the current moduli. This confirms long-standing speculation that previously reported <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli for plagioclase feldspars are systematically in error. The current results provide greater assurance that the seismic structure of the middle and lower crusts can be accurately estimated on the basis of specified mineral modes, chemistry, and fabric.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJCEM..15..253A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJCEM..15..253A"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite Element Analysis of 2-D <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Contacts Involving FGMs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abhilash, M. N.; Murthy, H.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The response of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> indenters in contact with Functionally Graded Material (FGM) coated homogeneous <span class="hlt">elastic</span> half space has been presented in the current paper. Finite element analysis has been used due to its ability to handle complex geometry, material, and boundary conditions. Indenters of different typical surface profiles have been considered and the problem has been idealized as a two-dimensional (2D) plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> problem considering only normal loads. Initially, indenters were considered to be rigid and the results were validated with the solutions presented in the literature. The analysis has then been extended to the case of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> indenters on FGM-coated half spaces and the results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3551595','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3551595"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in biomimetic regeneration of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Bashur, Chris A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Elastin is a vital component of the extracellular matrix, providing soft connective tissues with the property of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> recoil following deformation and regulating the cellular response via biomechanical transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. The limited ability of most adult cells to synthesize elastin precursors and assemble them into mature crosslinked structures has hindered the development of functional tissue-engineered constructs that exhibit the structure and biomechanics of normal native <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tissues in the body. In diseased tissues, the chronic overexpression of proteolytic enzymes can cause significant matrix degradation, to further limit the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and quality (e.g., fiber formation) of newly deposited <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix. This review provides an overview of the role and importance of elastin and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix in soft tissues, the challenges to <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix generation in vitro and to regenerative <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix repair in vivo, current biomolecular strategies to enhance elastin deposition and matrix assembly, and the need to concurrently inhibit proteolytic matrix disruption for improving the quantity and quality of elastogenesis. The review further presents biomaterial-based options using scaffolds and nanocarriers for spatio-temporal control over the presentation and release of these biomolecules, to enable biomimetic assembly of clinically relevant native <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix-like superstructures. Finally, this review provides an overview of recent advances and prospects for the application of these strategies to regenerating tissue-type specific <span class="hlt">elastic</span> matrix structures and superstructures. PMID:23355960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1248231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1248231"><span id="translatedtitle">Locality and rapidity of the ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation of Nb nanowires in a NiTi phase-transforming matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Shan; Cui, Lishan; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Liu, Zhenyang; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong; Ren, Yang</p> <p>2014-10-24</p> <p>This study investigated the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation behaviour of Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix. The Nb nanowires exhibited an ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation, which is found to be dictated by the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix, thus exhibiting unique characteristics of locality and rapidity. These are in clear contrast to our conventional observation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations of crystalline solids, which is a homogeneous lattice distortion with a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate controlled by the applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The Nb nanowires are also found to exhibit <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic deformation accompanying the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix in the case when the transformation <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the matrix over-matches the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit of the nanowires, or exhibit only <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation in the case of under-matching. Such insight provides an important opportunity for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering and composite design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208026','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208026"><span id="translatedtitle">Locality and rapidity of the ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation of Nb nanowires in a NiTi phase-transforming matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Shan; Cui, Lishan; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Liu, Zhenyang; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong; Ren, Yang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation behaviour of Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix. The Nb nanowires exhibited an ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation, which is found to be dictated by the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix, thus exhibiting unique characteristics of locality and rapidity. These are in clear contrast to our conventional observation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations of crystalline solids, which is a homogeneous lattice distortion with a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate controlled by the applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The Nb nanowires are also found to exhibit <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic deformation accompanying the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix in the case when the transformation <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the matrix over-matches the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit of the nanowires, or exhibit only <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation in the case of under-matching. Such insight provides an important opportunity for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering and composite design. PMID:25341619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4241013','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4241013"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanics of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Norris, Andrew N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We consider a periodic lattice structure in d=2 or 3 dimensions with unit cell comprising Z thin <span class="hlt">elastic</span> members emanating from a similarly situated central node. A general theoretical approach provides an algebraic formula for the effective <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of such frameworks. The method yields the effective cubic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants for three-dimensional space-filling lattices with Z=4, 6, 8, 12 and 14, the last being the ‘stiffest’ lattice proposed by Gurtner & Durand (Gurtner & Durand 2014 Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20130611. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0611)). The analytical expressions provide explicit formulae for the effective properties of pentamode materials, both isotropic and anisotropic, obtained from the general formulation in the stretch-dominated limit for Z=d+1. PMID:25484608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27440257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27440257"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> membranes in confinement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or <span class="hlt">elastic</span> member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. PMID:27440257</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010572','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> constants of calcite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.</p> <p>1962-01-01</p> <p>The recent measurements of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815195"><span id="translatedtitle">Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate <span class="hlt">Strain</span> and True Stress-True <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Curves for High Yield Steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true <span class="hlt">strain</span> curves for <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true <span class="hlt">strain</span> curves derived herein are valid for use in <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate <span class="hlt">strain</span> values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> acceptance criteria for transient analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPA..3141015T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPA..3141015T"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">strained</span> state cosmology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tartaglia, Angelo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behavior of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativity and the classical description of an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strained</span> material continuum is discussed. Extending the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> field of space-time reproduces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the <span class="hlt">Strained</span> State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theories. The possible role of structure topological defects is also mentioned. The conclusion is that SSC is at least as good as the ΛCDM standard cosmology, giving a more intuitive interpretation of the physical nature of the phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780063297&hterms=dog&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddog','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780063297&hterms=dog&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddog"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of excised dog lung parenchyma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vawter, D. L.; Fung, Y. C.; West, J. B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>An optical-electromechanical system is used to measure the force-deformation behavior of biaxially loaded rectangular slabs of excised dog lung parenchyma. In the course of the study, the effects of time, the consistency of reference lengths and areas, the presence of hysteresis, the necessity of preconditioning, the repeatability of results, the effects of lateral load, the effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, the effect of pH, the influence of temperature, and the variations among specimens are considered. A new finding is that there is a change in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior when the tissue undergoes a compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span>. When the tissue is in tension, increasing the lateral load decreases the compliance, whereas the opposite is true when compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> is present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvL..99o4302H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvL..99o4302H"><span id="translatedtitle">Coiling of <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Ropes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Habibi, M.; Ribe, N. M.; Bonn, Daniel</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>A rope falling onto a solid surface typically forms a series of regular coils. Here, we study this phenomenon using laboratory experiments (with cotton threads and softened spaghetti) and an asymptotic “slender-rope” numerical model. The excellent agreement between the two with no adjustable parameters allows us to determine a complete phase diagram for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> coiling comprising three basic regimes involving different force balances (<span class="hlt">elastic</span>, gravitational, and inertial) together with resonant “whirling string” and “whirling shaft” eigenmodes in the inertial regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27444846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27444846"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of semiflexible filament networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meng, Fanlong; Terentjev, Eugene M</p> <p>2016-08-10</p> <p>We develop a continuum theory for equilibrium <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of a network of crosslinked semiflexible filaments, spanning the full range between flexible entropy-driven chains to stiff athermal rods. We choose the 3-chain constitutive model of network <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> over several plausible candidates, and derive analytical expressions for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy at arbitrary <span class="hlt">strain</span>, with the corresponding stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship. The theory fits well to a wide range of experimental data on simple shear in different filament networks, quantitatively matching the differential shear modulus variation with stress, with only two adjustable parameters (which represent the filament stiffness and the pre-tension in the network, respectively). The general theory accurately describes the crossover between the positive and negative Poynting effect (normal stress on imposed shear) on increasing the stiffness of filaments forming the network. We discuss the network stability (the point of marginal rigidity) and the phenomenon of tensegrity, showing that filament pre-tension on crosslinking into the network determines the magnitude of linear modulus G0. PMID:27444846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010086235','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010086235"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress Formulation in Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The theory of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> evolved over centuries through the contributions of eminent scientists like Cauchy, Navier, Hooke Saint Venant, and others. It was deemed complete when Saint Venant provided the <span class="hlt">strain</span> formulation in 1860. However, unlike Cauchy, who addressed equilibrium in the field and on the boundary, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> formulation was confined only to the field. Saint Venant overlooked the compatibility on the boundary. Because of this deficiency, a direct stress formulation could not be developed. Stress with traditional methods must be recovered by backcalculation: differentiating either the displacement or the stress function. We have addressed the compatibility on the boundary. Augmentation of these conditions has completed the stress formulation in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, opening up a way for a direct determination of stress without the intermediate step of calculating the displacement or the stress function. This Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation (CBMF) can be specialized to derive the traditional methods, but the reverse is not possible. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> solutions must be verified for the compliance of the new equation because the boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of displacement are not trivially satisfied. This paper presents the variational derivation of the stress formulation, illustrates the method, examines attributes and benefits, and outlines the future course of research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMRE...47.1153L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMRE...47.1153L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate Dependency of Coarse Crystal Marble Under Uniaxial Compression: Strength, Deformation and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yanrong; Huang, Da; Li, Xi'an</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate during testing, uniaxial or triaxial, has important influence on the measured mechanical properties of rocks. Uniaxial compression tests were performed at nine pre-specified static-to-quasistatic <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates (ranging from 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-1 s-1) on coarse crystal marble. The aim is to gain deep insight into the influence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate on characteristic stresses, deformation properties and conversion of <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy of such rock. It is found that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of 5 × 10-3 s-1 is the threshold to delineate the failure modes the tested coarse marble behaves in. At a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate less than this threshold, single-plane shear and conjugate X-shaped shear are the main failure modes, while beyond this threshold, extensile and splitting failures are dominant. The stress for crack initiation, the critical stress for dilation, the peak stress, and Young's modulus are all found to increase with <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, with an exception that the above stresses and modulus appear relatively low compared to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in the range of between 1 × 10-4 and 5 × 10-3 s-1. The pre-peak absorbed <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy, damage <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy are found to increase with <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate. In addition, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy stored before peak point favors brittle failure of the specimen, as the more stored <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy in the specimen, the stronger the fragmenting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23E..05V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23E..05V"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogenization of Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Materials with Applications to Seismic Anisotropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vel, S. S.; Johnson, S. E.; Okaya, D. A.; Cook, A. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The velocities of seismic waves passing through a complex Earth volume can be influenced by heterogeneities at length scales shorter than the seismic wavelength. As such, seismic wave propagation analyses can be performed by replacing the actual Earth volume by a homogeneous i.e., "effective", <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium. Homogenization refers to the process by which the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness tensor of the effective medium is "averaged" from the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties, orientations, modal proportions and spatial distributions of the finer heterogeneities. When computing the homogenized properties of a heterogeneous material, the goal is to compute an effective or bulk <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness tensor that relates the average stresses to the average <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the material. Tensor averaging schemes such as the Voigt and Reuss methods are based on certain simplifying assumptions. The Voigt method assumes spatially uniform <span class="hlt">strains</span> while the Reuss method assumes spatially uniform stresses within the heterogeneous material. Although they are both physically unrealistic, they provide upper and lower bounds for the actual homogenized <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness tensor. In order to more precisely determine the homogenized stiffness tensor, the stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> distributions must be computed by solving the three-dimensional equations of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> over the heterogeneous region. Asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) is one such structure-based approach for the comprehensive micromechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials. Unlike modal volume methods, the AEH method takes into account how geometrical orientation and alignment can increase <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffness in certain directions. We use the AEH method in conjunction with finite element analysis to calculate the bulk <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stiffnesses of heterogeneous materials. In our presentation, wave speeds computed using the AEH method are compared with those generated using stiffness tensors derived from commonly-used analytical estimates. The method is illustrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SurSc.375..129S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SurSc.375..129S"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion on <span class="hlt">strained</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schroeder, M.; Wolf, D. E.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>The change of diffusion kinetics when <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fields are present is discussed for diffusion on (001) surfaces of simple cubic, fcc and bcc lattices. All particles interact pairwise with a Lennard-Jones potential. The simple cubic lattice was stabilized by an anisotropic prefactor. It is found that generically compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> enhances diffusion whereas tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> increases the activation barrier. An approximately linear dependence of the barrier in a wide range of misfits is found. In heteroepitaxy, diffusion on top of large clusters is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The kinetics close to edges and centers of islands are remarkably different. In many cases changes of binding energies are small compared to those of saddle point energies. Thermodynamic arguments (minimization of free energy) are not appropriate to describe diffusion on <span class="hlt">strained</span> surfaces in these cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1684b0002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1684b0002S"><span id="translatedtitle">Bulk solitary waves in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of <span class="hlt">strain</span>, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for <span class="hlt">strain</span> soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly <span class="hlt">elastic</span> cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal <span class="hlt">strain</span> is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear <span class="hlt">strain</span> wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93q4113H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93q4113H"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of strong solids: First-principles calculations of the third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hmiel, A.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.; Desjarlais, M. P.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Accurate theoretical calculations of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of strong solids (e.g., diamond) constitute a fundamental and important scientific need for understanding the response of such materials and for exploring the potential synthesis and design of novel solids. However, without corresponding experimental data, it is difficult to select between predictions from different theoretical methods. Recently the complete set of third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants (TOECs) for diamond was determined experimentally, and the validity of various theoretical approaches to calculate the same may now be assessed. We report on the use of density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate the six third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants of diamond. Two different approaches based on homogeneous deformations were used: (1) an energy-<span class="hlt">strain</span> fitting approach using a prescribed set of deformations, and (2) a longitudinal stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> fitting approach using uniaxial compressive <span class="hlt">strains</span> along the [100], [110], and [111] directions, together with calculated pressure derivatives of the second-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants. The latter approach provides a direct comparison to the experimental results. The TOECs calculated using the energy-<span class="hlt">strain</span> approach differ significantly from the measured TOECs. In contrast, calculations using the longitudinal stress-uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> approach show good agreement with the measured TOECs and match the experimental values significantly better than the TOECs reported in previous theoretical studies. Our results on diamond have demonstrated that, with proper analysis procedures, first-principles calculations can indeed be used to accurately calculate the TOECs of strong solids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811113B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811113B"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for assessment of slope unloading zone based on unloading <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bao, Han; Wu, Faquan; Xi, Pengcheng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Slope unloading is a process of energy release. During the evolution of slope, unloading deformation appears and unloading zone is formed in shallow slope with rock mass relaxation and extension. In this paper, a new method is proposed to quantify the extent and damage degree of unloading zone according to unloading <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy which is released in the process of unloading. By using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> theory and statistical mechanics of rock masses, we establish a relation between <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> opening displacement of unloading cracks and unloading <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which is the principle to assess the extent and damage degree of unloading zone. Based on the unloading <span class="hlt">strain</span>, the degree of unloading zone can be divided into two sub-zones, i.e., strongly unloading zone and slightly unloading zone, and the extent of the two sub-zones can be determined from the <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> opening displacement curves of cracks. This method is applied to assess the slope unloading zone at a hydropower station dam site in northwest China. Results show that the <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> opening displacement curves of cracks along adits vary regularly, and the curves can be divided into three parts. The strongly and slightly unloading zones can be recognized from the slope of each part, and their extent is limited by the two inflexions of each curve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077677"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, fluctuations and heterogeneity of nematic elastomers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xing Xiangjun Radzihovsky, Leo</p> <p>2008-01-15</p> <p>Liquid crystal elastomers realize a fascinating new form of soft matter that is a composite of a conventional crosslinked polymer gel (rubber) and a liquid crystal. These solid liquid crystal amalgams, quite similarly to their (conventional, fluid) liquid crystal counterparts, can spontaneously partially break translational and/or orientational symmetries, accompanied by novel soft Goldstone modes. As a consequence, these materials can exhibit unconventional <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> characterized by symmetry-enforced vanishing of some <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli. Thus, a proper description of such solids requires an essential modification of the classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory. In this work, we develop a rotationally invariant, nonlinear theory of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> for the nematic phase of ideal liquid crystal elastomers. We show that it is characterized by soft modes, corresponding to a combination of long wavelength shear deformations of the solid network and rotations of the nematic director field. We study thermal fluctuations of these soft modes in the presence of network heterogeneities and show that they lead to a large variety of anomalous <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties, such as singular length-scale dependent shear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli, a divergent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constant for splay distortion of the nematic director, long-scale incompressibility, universal Poisson ratios and a nonlinear stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relation for arbitrary small <span class="hlt">strains</span>. These long-scale <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties are universal, controlled by a nontrivial zero-temperature fixed point and constitute a qualitative breakdown of the classical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory in nematic elastomers. Thus, nematic elastomers realize a stable 'critical phase', characterized by universal power-law correlations, akin to a critical point of a continuous phase transition, but extending over an entire phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMMR23B4346R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMMR23B4346R"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Acousto-<span class="hlt">Elasticity</span>: Pressure and Frequency Dependences in Berea Sandstone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riviere, J. V.; Pimienta, L.; Latour, S.; Fortin, J.; Schubnel, A.; Johnson, P. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is studied at the laboratory scale with the goal of understanding observations at earth scales, for instance during strong ground motion, tidal forcing and earthquake slip processes. Here we report frequency and pressure dependences on <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> when applying dynamic acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> (DAE) of rock samples, analogous to quasi-static acousto-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. DAE allows one to obtain the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. We perform DAE on a sample of Berea sandstone subject to 0.5MPa uniaxial load, with sinusoidal oscillating <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitudes ranging from 10-6 to 10-5 and at frequencies from 0.1 to 260Hz. In addition, the confining pressure is increased stepwise from 0 to 30MPa. We compare results to previous measurements made at lower (mHz) and higher (kHz) frequencies. Nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters corresponding to conditioning effects, third order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants and fourth order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants are quantitatively compared over the pressure and frequency ranges. We observe that the decrease in modulus due to conditioning increases with frequency, suggesting a frequency and/or <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate dependence that should be included in nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> models of rocks. In agreement with previous measurements, nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> effects also decrease with confining pressure, suggesting that nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> sources such as micro-cracks, soft bonds and dislocations are turned off as the pressure increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fig&pg=6&id=EJ876115','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fig&pg=6&id=EJ876115"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> and Inelastic Collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gluck, Paul</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=elasticity&pg=2&id=EJ875496','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=elasticity&pg=2&id=EJ875496"><span id="translatedtitle">The Calculus of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gordon, Warren B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of demand, and shows that geometrically, it may be interpreted as the ratio of two simple distances along the tangent line: the distance from the point on the curve to the x-intercept to the distance from the point on the curve to the y-intercept. It also shows that total revenue is maximized at the transition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ925432.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ925432.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Law of <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-2000-00328&hterms=composite+structures&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcomposite%2Bstructures','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-2000-00328&hterms=composite+structures&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcomposite%2Bstructures"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastically</span> tailored composite structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastically</span> tailored composite structures using out-of-autoclave processes. Several unsymetric autoclave-cured and electron-beam-cured composite laminates are compared. Cantilevered beam (unbalanced/asymetric laminate) used to demonstrate bend-twist coupling effects. Photographed in building 1145, photographic studio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230252-hydrodynamic-elastic-magneto-plastic','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230252-hydrodynamic-elastic-magneto-plastic"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Magneto Plastic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhLA..120..207A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhLA..120..207A"><span id="translatedtitle">Renormalization of curvature <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and fluid membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ami, S.; Kleinert, H.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>We study the fluctuations of membranes with area and curvature <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and calculate the renormalization of the curvature <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants due to thermal fluctuations. For the mean curvature <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constant the result is the same as obtained previously for “ideal membranes” which resist only to curvature deformations. The renormalization of the gaussian curvature, on the other hand, depends on the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> contants. In an incompressible membrane, it is five times weaker than in an ideal membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAG...131...84Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JAG...131...84Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedance inversion for interstratified dispersive <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedance equation is extended to frequency dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedance equation by taking partial derivative to frequency. With this equation as the forward solver, a practical frequency dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedance inversion approach is presented to implement the estimation of the interstratified dispersive <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters which makes full use of the frequency information of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedances. Three main steps are included in this approach. Firstly, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> Bayesian inversion is implemented for the estimation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedances from different incident angle. Secondly, with those estimated <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedances, their variations are used to estimate P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity. Finally, with the prior <span class="hlt">elastic</span> impedance and P-wave and S-wave velocity information, the frequency dependent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> variation with incident angle inversion is presented for the estimation of the interstratified <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters. With this approach, the interstratified <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters rather than the interface information can be estimated, making easier the interpretation of frequency dependent seismic attributes. The model examples illustrate the feasibility and stability of the proposed method in P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion estimation. The field data example validates the possibility and efficiency in hydrocarbon indication of the estimated P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21057355"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu</p> <p>2007-05-17</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix - WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of microscopic plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908.1295H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908.1295H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix — WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of microscopic plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23986790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23986790"><span id="translatedtitle">Damage of collagen and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibres by borrelia burgdorferi - known and new clinical and histopathological aspects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller, Kurt E</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Lyme Borreliosis, or Lyme's disease, manifests itself in numerous skin conditions. Therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans is made. The histopathology of some of the skin conditions associated with Lyme Borreliosis is characterised by structural changes to collagen, and sometimes also <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibres. These conditions include morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. More recently, further skin conditions have been identified by the new microscopic investigation technique of focus floating microscopy: granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, erythema annulare centrifugum, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, cutaneous sarcoidosis and lymphocytic infiltration; these conditions also sometimes cause changes in the connective tissue. In the case of ligaments and tendons, collagen and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibres predominate structurally. They are also the structures that are targeted by Borrelia. The resultant functional disorders have previously only rarely been associated with Borreliosis in clinical practice. Ligamentopathies and tendinopathies, spontaneous ruptures of tendons after slight <span class="hlt">strain</span>, dislocation of vertebrae and an <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of prolapsed intervertebral discs as well as ossification of tendon insertions can be viewed in this light. PMID:23986790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9790E..0GH&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9790E..0GH&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach to ultrasonic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoerig, Cameron; Ghaboussi, Jamshid; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Biomechanical properties of soft tissues can provide information regarding the local health status. Often the cells in pathological tissues can be found to form a stiff extracellular environment, which is a sensitive, early diagnostic indicator of disease. Quasi-static ultrasonic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging provides a way to image the mechanical properties of tissues. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> images provide a map of the relative tissue stiffness, but ambiguities and artifacts limit its diagnostic value. Accurately mapping intrinsic mechanical parameters of a region may increase diagnostic specificity. However, the inverse problem, whereby force and displacement estimates are used to estimate a constitutive matrix, is ill conditioned. Our method avoids many of the issues involved with solving the inverse problem, such as unknown boundary conditions and incomplete information about the stress field, by building an empirical model directly from measured data. Surface force and volumetric displacement data gathered during imaging are used in conjunction with the AutoProgressive method to teach artificial neural networks the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship of tissues. The Autoprogressive algorithm has been successfully used in many civil engineering applications and to estimate ocular pressure and corneal stiffness; here, we are expanding its use to any tissues imaged ultrasonically. We show that force-displacement data recorded with an ultrasound probe and displacements estimated at a few points in the imaged region can be used to estimate the full stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> vectors throughout an entire model while only assuming conservation laws. We will also demonstrate methods to parameterize the mechanical properties based on the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> response of trained neural networks. This method is a fundamentally new approach to medical <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging that for the first time provides full stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> vectors from one set of observation data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221160-locality-rapidity-ultra-large-elastic-deformation-nb-nanowires-niti-phase-transforming-matrix','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221160-locality-rapidity-ultra-large-elastic-deformation-nb-nanowires-niti-phase-transforming-matrix"><span id="translatedtitle">Locality and rapidity of the ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation of Nb nanowires in a NiTi phase-transforming matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Wang, Shan; Cui, Lishan; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Liu, Zhenyang; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong; Ren, Yang</p> <p>2014-10-24</p> <p>This study investigated the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation behaviour of Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix. The Nb nanowires exhibited an ultra-large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation, which is found to be dictated by the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix, thus exhibiting unique characteristics of locality and rapidity. These are in clear contrast to our conventional observation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations of crystalline solids, which is a homogeneous lattice distortion with a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate controlled by the applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The Nb nanowires are also found to exhibit <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic deformation accompanying the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix in the case when the transformation strainmore » of the matrix over-matches the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit of the nanowires, or exhibit only <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation in the case of under-matching. Such insight provides an important opportunity for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering and composite design.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JChPh.145e4507C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JChPh.145e4507C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> from the atomistic description of matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cakir, Abdullah; Pica Ciamarra, Massimo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of the continuum <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit from the atomistic description of matter at zero temperature considering how locally defined <span class="hlt">elastic</span> quantities depend on the coarse graining length scale. Results obtained numerically investigating different model systems are rationalized in a unifying picture according to which the continuum <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit emerges through a process determined by two system properties, the degree of disorder, and a length scale associated to the transverse low-frequency vibrational modes. The degree of disorder controls the emergence of long-range local shear stress and shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> correlations, while the length scale influences the amplitude of the fluctuations of the local <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants close to the jamming transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARD22011Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARD22011Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Structures and <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> moduli were measured by <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced <span class="hlt">elastic</span> buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108n1907L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108n1907L"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional treatment of nonequilibrium dynamics and higher order <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lott, Martin; Payan, Cédric; Garnier, Vincent; Vu, Quang A.; Eiras, Jesús N.; Remillieux, Marcel C.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This letter presents a three-dimensional model to describe the complex behavior of nonlinear mesoscopic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> materials such as rocks and concrete. Assuming isotropy and geometric contraction of principal stress axes under dynamic loading, the expression of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wave velocity is derived, based on the second-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants ( λ , μ ) , third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants (l, m, n), and a parameter α of nonclassical nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> resulting from conditioning. We demonstrate that both softening and recovering of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties under dynamic loading is an isotropic effect related to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor. The measurement of the conditioning is achieved using three polarized waves. The model allows the evaluation of the third-order <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants uncoupled from conditioning and viscoelastic effects. The values obtained are similar to those reported in the literature using quasi-static loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5373..193A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5373..193A"><span id="translatedtitle">Young's modulus reconstruction for <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging of deep venous thrombosis: animal studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Xie, Hua; Kim, Kang; Rubin, Jonathan M.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wakefield, T. W.; Myers, D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Recently, it was suggested that ultrasound <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging can be used to age deep vein thrombosis (DVT) since blood clot hardness changes with fibrin content. The main components of ultrasound <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging are deformation of the object, speckle or internal boundary tracking and evaluation of tissue motion, measurement of <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor components, and reconstruction of the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus using <span class="hlt">strain</span> images. In this paper, we investigate a technique for Young's modulus reconstruction to quantify ultrasound <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging of DVT. In-vivo <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging experiments were performed using Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically induced clots in the inferior vena cavas (IVC). In this model, the clot matures from acute to chronic in less than 10 days. Therefore, nearly every 24 hours the <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging experiments were performed to reveal temporal transformation of the clot. The measured displacement and <span class="hlt">strain</span> images were then converted into maps of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> using model-based <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> reconstruction where the blood clot within an occluded vein was approximated as a layered <span class="hlt">elastic</span> cylinder surrounded by incompressible tissue. Results of this study demonstrate that Young's modulus gradually increases with clot maturity and can be used to differentiate clots providing a desperately needed clinical tool of DVT staging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1321750-origin-nonlinear-elasticity-disparate-rocks','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1321750-origin-nonlinear-elasticity-disparate-rocks"><span id="translatedtitle">On the origin of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in disparate rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Riviere, Jacques Vincent; Shokouhi, Parisa; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul Allan</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>Dynamic acousto-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> (DAE) studies are performed on a set of 6 rock samples (four sandstones, one soapstone, and one granite). From these studies, at 20 <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels 10-7 < ϵ < 10-5, four measures characterizing the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of each sample are found. Additionally, each sample is tested with nonlinear resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NRUS) and a fth measure of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response is found. The ve measures of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of the samples (approximately 3 x 6 x 20 x 5 numbers as each measurement is repeated 3 times) are subjected to careful analysis using model independentmore » statistical methods, principal component analysis and fuzzy clustering. This analysis reveals di erences among the samples and di erences among the nonlinear measures. Four of the nonlinear measures are sensing much the same physical mechanism in the samples. The fth is seeing something di erent. This is the case for all samples. Although the same physical mechanisms (two) are operating in all samples there are distinctive features in the way the physical mechanisms present themselves from sample to sample. This suggests classi cation of the samples into two groups. The numbers in this study and the classi cation of the measures/samples constitute an empirical characterization of rock nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties that can serve as a valuable testing ground for physically based theories that relate rock nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties to microscopic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> features.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1321750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1321750"><span id="translatedtitle">On the origin of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in disparate rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riviere, Jacques Vincent; Shokouhi, Parisa; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul Allan</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>Dynamic acousto-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> (DAE) studies are performed on a set of 6 rock samples (four sandstones, one soapstone, and one granite). From these studies, at 20 <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels 10<sup>-7</sup> < ϵ < 10<sup>-5</sup>, four measures characterizing the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of each sample are found. Additionally, each sample is tested with nonlinear resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NRUS) and a fth measure of nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response is found. The ve measures of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of the samples (approximately 3 x 6 x 20 x 5 numbers as each measurement is repeated 3 times) are subjected to careful analysis using model independent statistical methods, principal component analysis and fuzzy clustering. This analysis reveals di erences among the samples and di erences among the nonlinear measures. Four of the nonlinear measures are sensing much the same physical mechanism in the samples. The fth is seeing something di erent. This is the case for all samples. Although the same physical mechanisms (two) are operating in all samples there are distinctive features in the way the physical mechanisms present themselves from sample to sample. This suggests classi cation of the samples into two groups. The numbers in this study and the classi cation of the measures/samples constitute an empirical characterization of rock nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties that can serve as a valuable testing ground for physically based theories that relate rock nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties to microscopic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239115"><span id="translatedtitle">A new paradigm for the molecular basis of rubber <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.</p> <p>2015-02-19</p> <p>The molecular basis for rubber <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> is arguably the oldest and one of the most important questions in the field of polymer physics. The theoretical investigation of rubber <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> began in earnest almost a century ago with the development of analytic thermodynamic models, based on simple, highly-symmetric configurations of so-called Gaussian chains, i.e. polymer chains that obey Markov statistics. Numerous theories have been proposed over the past 90 years based on the ansatz that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> force for individual network chains arises from the entropy change associated with the distribution of end-to-end distances of a free polymer chain. There are serious philosophical objections to this assumption and others, such as the assumption that all network nodes undergo affine motion and that all of the network chains have the same length. Recently, a new paradigm for <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in rubber networks has been proposed that is based on mechanisms that originate at the molecular level. Using conventional statistical mechanics analyses, quantum chemistry, and molecular dynamics simulations, the fundamental entropic and enthalpic chain extension forces for polyisoprene (natural rubber) have been determined, along with estimates for the basic force constants. Concurrently, the complex morphology of natural rubber networks (the joint probability density distributions that relate the chain end-to-end distance to its contour length) has also been captured in a numerical model. When molecular chain forces are merged with the network structure in this model, it is possible to study the mechanical response to tensile and compressive <span class="hlt">strains</span> of a representative volume element of a polymer network. As <span class="hlt">strain</span> is imposed on a network, pathways of connected taut chains, that completely span the network along <span class="hlt">strain</span> axis, emerge. Although these chains represent only a few percent of the total, they account for nearly all of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stress at high <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Here we provide a brief</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JGR....93.1063K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JGR....93.1063K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of hedenbergite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kandelin, John; Weidner, Donald J.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The single-crystal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) hare been measured at 20°C and 1 bar using Brillouin spectroscopy. The moduli are (in gigapascals): C11 = 222, C22 = 176, C23 = 249, C44 = 55, C55 = 63, C66 = 60, C12 = 69, C13 = 79, C33, = 86, C15 = 12, C25 = 13, C35 = 26, C46 = -10. The comparison of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties among Mg-Fe-Ca bearing pyroxenes, known as quadrilateral pyroxenes, reveals only weak variations with changes in composition. Of the four quadrilateral pyroxenes, orthoferrosilite has <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties distinctive from the others. The principal differences among these pyroxenes are due to subtle structural differences. In particular, the mechanical linkage between the M2 polyhedral chains in clinopyroxenes enhances the importance of the cation in this site. In contrast to the orthopyroxenes, the aggregate shear modulus μ of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes (diopside and hedenbergite) exhibits no dependence on the amount of iron (Fe2+) present in the structure, while the ratio K/μ does. As a result, the compressional and shear acoustic velocities of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes show a smaller dependency on iron content than do the orthopyroxenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180483','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050180483"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freed, Alan D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Logarithmic <span class="hlt">strain</span> is the preferred measure of <span class="hlt">strain</span> used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true <span class="hlt">strain</span>." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural <span class="hlt">strain</span>," which seems more appropriate. This <span class="hlt">strain</span> measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific <span class="hlt">strain</span>." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic <span class="hlt">strains</span> for the three principal directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663570','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663570"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic material properties tests supporting <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Correlation studies have shown that hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS finite element code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture the inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> reversals that occur due to structural rebounding from a rapidly applied transient dynamic load. The purpose of the Cyclic Material properties Test program was to obtain response data for the first several cycles of inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> reversal from a cyclic properties test. This data is needed to develop <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis methods that can accurately predict <span class="hlt">strains</span> and permanent sets in structures due to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. Test specimens were cycled at inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels typical of rapidly applied transient dynamic analyses (0.5% to 4.0%). In addition to the inelastic response data, cyclic material properties for high yield strength (80 ksi) steel were determined including a cyclic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve for a stabilized specimen. Two test methods, the Incremental Step method and the Companion specimen Method, were sued to determine cyclic properties. The incrementally decreasing <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitudes in the first loading block of the Incremental Step method test is representative of the response of structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loads. The inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> history data generated by this test program will be used to support development of a material model that can accurately predict inelastic material behavior including inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> reversals. Additionally, this data can be used to verify material model enhancements to <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic finite element analysis codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4629145','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4629145"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of polymeric nanocolloidal particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Riest, Jonas; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Egorov, Sergei A.; Likos, Christos N.; Ziherl, Primož</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Softness is an essential mechanical feature of macromolecular particles such as polymer-grafted nanocolloids, polyelectrolyte networks, cross-linked microgels as well as block copolymer and dendrimer micelles. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of individual particles directly controls their swelling, wetting, and adsorption behaviour, their aggregation and self-assembly as well as structural and rheological properties of suspensions. Here we use numerical simulations and self-consistent field theory to study the deformation behaviour of a single spherical polymer brush upon diametral compression. We observe a universal response, which is rationalised using scaling arguments and interpreted in terms of two coarse-grained models. At small and intermediate compressions the deformation can be accurately reproduced by modelling the brush as a liquid drop, whereas at large compressions the brush behaves as a soft ball. Applicable far beyond the pairwise-additive small-<span class="hlt">strain</span> regime, the models may be used to describe microelasticity of nanocolloids in severe confinement including dense disordered and crystalline phases. PMID:26522242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMPSo..60..295S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMPSo..60..295S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic behavior of non-woven fibrous mats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silberstein, Meredith N.; Pai, Chia-Ling; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Boyce, Mary C.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Electrospinning is a novel method for creating non-woven polymer mats that have high surface area and high porosity. These attributes make them ideal candidates for multifunctional composites. Understanding the mechanical properties as a function of fiber properties and mat microstructure can aid in designing these composites. Further, a constitutive model which captures the membrane stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior as a function of fiber properties and the geometry of the fibrous network would be a powerful design tool. Here, mats electrospun from amorphous polyamide are used as a model system. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic behavior of single fibers are obtained in tensile tests. Uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tensile tests are conducted on non-woven mats. The mat exhibits <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior. The transverse <span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior provides important complementary data, showing a negligible initial Poisson's ratio followed by a transverse:axial <span class="hlt">strain</span> ratio greater than -1:1 after an axial <span class="hlt">strain</span> of 0.02. A triangulated framework has been developed to emulate the fibrous network structure of the mat. The micromechanically based model incorporates the <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic behavior of single fibers into a macroscopic membrane model of the mat. This representative volume element based model is shown to capture the uniaxial <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic response of the mat under monotonic and cyclic loading. The initial modulus and yield stress of the mat are governed by the fiber properties, the network geometry, and the network density. The transverse <span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior is linked to discrete deformation mechanisms of the fibrous mat structure including fiber alignment, fiber bending, and network consolidation. The model is further validated in comparison to experiments under different constrained axial loading conditions and found to capture the constraint effect on stiffness, yield, post-yield hardening, and post-yield transverse <span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior. Due to the direct connection between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.116h5502D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.116h5502D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> in Amorphous Solids: Nonlinear or Piecewise Linear?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubey, Awadhesh K.; Procaccia, Itamar; Shor, Carmel A. B. Z.; Singh, Murari</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Quasistatic <span class="hlt">strain</span>-controlled measurements of stress versus <span class="hlt">strain</span> curves in macroscopic amorphous solids result in a nonlinear-looking curve that ends up either in mechanical collapse or in a steady state with fluctuations around a mean stress that remains constant with increasing <span class="hlt">strain</span>. It is therefore very tempting to fit a nonlinear expansion of the stress in powers of the <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We argue here that at low temperatures the meaning of such an expansion needs to be reconsidered. We point out the enormous difference between quenched and annealed averages of the stress versus <span class="hlt">strain</span> curves and propose that a useful description of the mechanical response is given by a stress (or <span class="hlt">strain</span>) -dependent shear modulus for which a theoretical evaluation exists. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response is piecewise linear rather than nonlinear.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910002803','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910002803"><span id="translatedtitle">ZIP3D: An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>ZIP3D is an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and an <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvB..67b4114L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvB..67b4114L"><span id="translatedtitle">Ferroelastic dynamics and <span class="hlt">strain</span> compatibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lookman, T.; Shenoy, S. R.; Rasmussen, K. Ø.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A. R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We derive underdamped evolution equations for the order-parameter (OP) <span class="hlt">strains</span> of a proper ferroelastic material undergoing a structural transition, using Lagrangian variations with Rayleigh dissipation, and a free energy as a polynomial expansion in the N=n+Nop symmetry-adapted <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The Nop <span class="hlt">strain</span> equations are structurally similar in form to the Lagrange-Rayleigh one-dimensional <span class="hlt">strain</span> dynamics of Bales and Gooding (BG), with “<span class="hlt">strain</span> accelerations” proportional to a Laplacian acting on a sum of the free-energy <span class="hlt">strain</span> derivative and frictional <span class="hlt">strain</span> force assuming geometric linearity. The tensorial St. Venant’s <span class="hlt">elastic</span> compatibility constraints that forbid defects, are used to determine the n non-order-parameter <span class="hlt">strains</span> in terms of the OP <span class="hlt">strains</span>, generating anisotropic and long-range OP contributions to the free energy, friction, and noise. The same OP equations are obtained by either varying the displacement vector components, or by varying the N <span class="hlt">strains</span> subject to the Nc compatibility constraints. A Fokker-Planck equation, based on the BG dynamics in more than one dimension with noise terms, is set up. The BG dynamics corresponds to a set of nonidentical nonlinear (<span class="hlt">strain</span>) oscillators labeled by wave vector k→, with competing short- and long-range couplings. The oscillators have different “<span class="hlt">strain</span>-mass” densities ρ(k)˜1/k2 and dampings ˜1/ρ(k)˜k2, so the lighter large-k oscillators equilibrate first, corresponding to earlier formation of smaller-scale oriented textures. This produces a sequential-scale scenario for post-quench nucleation, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> patterning, and hierarchical growth. Neglecting inertial effects yields a late-time dynamics for identifying extremal free-energy states, that is, of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau form, with nonlocal, anisotropic Onsager coefficients that become constants for special parameter values. We consider in detail the two-dimensional (2D) unit-cell transitions from a triangular to a centered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9302E..16I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9302E..16I"><span id="translatedtitle">Change and anisotropy of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus in sheet metals due to plastic deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishitsuka, Yuki; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this study, the effect of the plastic deformation on the microscopic structure and the anisotropy of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus in the cold-rolled steel sheet (SPCC) is investigated. Various uniaxial plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) are applied to the annealed SPCC plates, then, the specimens for the tensile tests are cut out from them. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction to the direction that are pre-<span class="hlt">strained</span> are measured by the tensile tests. Cyclic tests are performed to investigate the effects of the internal friction caused by the movable dislocations in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation. Also, the movable dislocations are quantified by the boundary tracking for TEM micrographs. In addition, the behaviors of the change of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus in the solutionized and thermal aged aluminum alloy (A5052) are measured to investigate the effect on the movable dislocations with the amount of the depositions. As a result in SPCC, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of the 0° and 90° directions decrease more than 10% as 10% prestrain applied. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus shows the recovery behavior after the <span class="hlt">strain</span> aging and the annealing. The movable dislocation and the internal friction show a tendency to increase as the plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> increases. The marked anisotropy is not observed in the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus and the internal friction. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus in A5052 with many and few depositions decreases similarly by the plastic deformation. From the above, the movable dislocations affect the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus strongly without depending on the deposition amount. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus recovers after the plastic deformation by reducing the effects of them with the <span class="hlt">strain</span> aging and the heat treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764702"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Some issues that arise when modeling <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling <span class="hlt">elastic</span> interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field are the usual equations of linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy will yield the same <span class="hlt">strain</span> field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model <span class="hlt">elastic</span> effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for <span class="hlt">strained</span> thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that <span class="hlt">elastic</span> contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any <span class="hlt">elastic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6826C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6826C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for the release of long-term tectonic <span class="hlt">strain</span> stored in continental interiors through intraplate earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Craig, T. J.; Calais, E.; Fleitout, L.; Bollinger, L.; Scotti, O.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The occurrence of large earthquakes in stable continental interiors challenges the applicability of the classical steady state "seismic cycle" model to such regions. Here we shed new light onto this issue using as a case study the cluster of large reverse faulting earthquakes that occurred in Fennoscandia at 11-9 ka, triggered by the removal of the ice load during the final phase of regional deglaciation. We show that these reverse-faulting earthquakes occurred at a time when the horizontal <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate field was extensional, which implies that these events did not release horizontal <span class="hlt">strain</span> that was building up at the time but compressional <span class="hlt">strain</span> that had been <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> and stored <span class="hlt">elastically</span> in the lithosphere over timescales similar to or longer than a glacial cycle. We argue that the tectonically stable continental lithosphere can store <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> on long timescales, the release of which may be triggered by rapid, local transient stress changes caused by surface mass redistribution, resulting in the occurrence of intermittent intraplate earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017843','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017843"><span id="translatedtitle">Weld stresses beyond <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit: Materials discontinuity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verderaime, V.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>When welded structures depend on properties beyond the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit to qualify their ultimate safety factor, and weld-parent materials abruptly change at the interface, then stress discontinuity is inevitable. The stress concentration is mildly sensitive to material relative <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening and acutely sensitive to applied stress fields. Peak stresses occur on the weld surface, at the interface, and dissipate within a 0.01-inch band. When the stress is intense, the weld will always fracture at the interface. The analysis incorporates a classical mechanics model to more sharply define stress spikes within the bandwidth, and suggests a relative material index and Poisson's ratio related to <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening. Implications are discussed which are applicable to industries of high performance structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23i4005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23i4005M"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-folding miniature <span class="hlt">elastic</span> electric devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Tolley, Michael T.; Wood, Robert J.; Rus, Daniela</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11A0475M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G11A0475M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate by Geodetic Observations Associated with Seismic Events in the SIRGAS-CON Network Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G.; Galera Monico, J. F.; Fuck, R. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This research investigates surface <span class="hlt">strains</span> related to seismic events and their relationship with pre- and post-seismic events in South American, Antarctica, Nazca, Cocos, North American and Caribbean plates , by analyzing the variation of estimated earth coordinates, for the period 2000-2014, supplied by a geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. Based on data provided by the USGS for the same period, and after the Global Congruency test, we selected the events associated with unstable geodetic network points. The resulting <span class="hlt">strains</span> were estimated based on the finite element method. It was possible to determine the <span class="hlt">strains</span> along with the resulting guidelines for pre- and post-seismic, considering each region formed for analysis as a homogeneous solid body. Later, a multi-year solution of the network was estimated and used to estimate the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of the earth surface from the changing directions of the velocity vectors of 332 geodetic points located in the South American plate and surround plates. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate was determined and, using Euler vector computed, it was possible to estimate the convergence and accommodation rates to each plate. The results showed that contraction regions coincide with locations with most of the high magnitude seismic events. It suggest that major movements detected on the surface occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple rupture events; significant amounts of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> can be <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> on geological structures away from the plate boundary faults; and, behavior of contractions and extensions is similar to what has been found in seismological studies. Despite the association between seismic events and the <span class="hlt">strain</span> of geodetic network, some events of high magnitude were excluded because it does not show the surface <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which is located at great depths. It was confirmed that events of greater magnitude provide increased surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate when compared with other similar depths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970003258','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970003258"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freed, Alan D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20400811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20400811"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior of phantom materials for elastography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pavan, Theo Z; Madsen, Ernest L; Frank, Gary R; Adilton O Carneiro, Antonio; Hall, Timothy J</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The development of phantom materials for <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging is reported in this paper. These materials were specifically designed to provide nonlinear stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship that can be controlled independently of the small <span class="hlt">strain</span> shear modulus of the material. The materials are mixtures of agar and gelatin gels. Oil droplet dispersions in these materials provide further control of the small <span class="hlt">strain</span> shear modulus and the nonlinear parameter of the material. Since these materials are mostly water, they are assumed to be incompressible under typical experimental conditions in <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging. The Veronda-Westman model for <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density provided a good fit to all materials used in this study. Materials with a constant gelatin concentration (3.0% dry weight) but varying agar concentration (0.6-2.8% dry weight) demonstrated the same power law relationship between <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus and agar concentration found for pure agar (1.89 +/- 0.02), consistent with percolation theory, and provided a consistent nonlinearity parameter of 4.5 +/- 0.3. The insights provided by this study will form the basis for stable elastography phantoms with stiffness and nonlinear stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationships in the background that differ from those in the target. PMID:20400811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15032829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15032829"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">strain</span> and deposition of cuticle in developing sweet cherry fruit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knoche, Moritz; Beyer, Marco; Peschel, Stefanie; Oparlakov, Boyko; Bukovac, Martin J.</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Changes in surface area, deposition and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the cuticular membrane (CM) were monitored during development of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit. Fruit mass and surface area ('Sam') increased in a sigmoidal pattern between 16 and 85 days after full bloom (DAFB) with maximum rates of 0.35 g day(-1) and 0.62 cm(2) day(-1), respectively. Rates of total area <span class="hlt">strain</span>, namely the sum of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> plus plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span>, were highest in cheek and stem cavity regions followed by stylar and suture regions. Rates of total uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> were higher in transverse, namely perpendicular to the stem/stylar axis, than in longitudinal direction, namely parallel to the stem/stylar axis. On a whole fruit basis CM mass remained essentially constant during fruit development. Mass of CM, dewaxed CM and wax per unit surface area decreased during development, particularly between 43 and 71 DAFB. There was no change in wax content of isolated CM. Up to 43 DAFB the surface area of isolated CM was similar to the area prior to excision indicating little <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, but markedly decreased thereafter. Calculating <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and plastic components of total <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the CM revealed, that initial deformation up to 22 to 43 DAFB was mostly plastic. Thereafter, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> was evident and both, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and plastic deformation, increased linearly with an increase in total <span class="hlt">strain</span>. There was no consistent difference in the relative contribution of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> to total <span class="hlt">strain</span> between transverse and longitudinal directions, but both total and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> were larger in the transverse direction. Abrading the CM had only little effect on fruit turgor. However, turgor decreased when the exocarp was cut indicating that the exocarp provided a significant structural shell of a mature sweet cherry fruit ('Regina'). Our data demonstrate, that (1) surface area expansion in sweet cherry fruit causes <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the CM, and (2) the onset of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> coincided with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608021"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of Distributed Sensing of <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Waves by Fiber-Optic Interferometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agbodjan Prince, Just; Kohl, Franz; Sauter, Thilo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the transduction of <span class="hlt">strain</span> accompanying <span class="hlt">elastic</span> waves in solids by firmly attached optical fibers. Stretching sections of optical fibers changes the time required by guided light to pass such sections. Exploiting interferometric techniques, highly sensitive fiber-optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> transducers are feasible based on this fiber-intrinsic effect. The impact on the actual <span class="hlt">strain</span> conversion of the fiber segment's shape and size, as well as its inclination to the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wavefront is studied. FEM analyses show that severe distortions of the interferometric response occur when the attached fiber length spans a noticeable fraction of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wavelength. Analytical models of <span class="hlt">strain</span> transduction are presented for typical transducer shapes. They are used to compute input-output relationships for the transduction of narrow-band <span class="hlt">strain</span> pulses as a function of the mechanical wavelength. The described approach applies to many transducers depending on the distributed interaction with the investigated object. PMID:27608021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310637','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310637"><span id="translatedtitle">Sprayable <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Conductors Based on Block Copolymer Silver Nanoparticle Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite <span class="hlt">elastic</span> conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity values as high as 2000 ± 200 S/cm with only a 12% increase in resistance after 400 cycles of 150% <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Stretchable <span class="hlt">elastic</span> conductors with similar and higher bulk conductivity have not achieved comparable stability of electrical properties. These unique electromechanical characteristics are primarily the result of structural changes during mechanical deformation. The versatility of this approach was demonstrated by constructing a stretchable light emitting diode circuit and a <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor on planar and nonplanar substrates. PMID:25491507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1191998','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1191998"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomic picture of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation in a metallic glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; Ching, W. Y.; Sheng, H. W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, D. X.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z.</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using <i>ab initio</i> density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span>) in small-sized MG samples, mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1191998-atomic-picture-elastic-deformation-metallic-glass','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1191998-atomic-picture-elastic-deformation-metallic-glass"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomic picture of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation in a metallic glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; Ching, W. Y.; Sheng, H. W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, D. X.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z.</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span>) in small-sized MG samples,more » mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000273','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000273"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast carry <span class="hlt">accumulator</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mastin, W. C.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Simple iterative <span class="hlt">accumulator</span> combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three <span class="hlt">accumulators</span> with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107x3701Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107x3701Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> sensors for instrumented socks and wearable devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Song; Rajamani, Rajesh; Alexander, Lee; Sezen, Serdar A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of fluid in the lower legs occurs due to acute decompensated heart failure, venous deficiency, lymphedema, and a number of other medical conditions. An instrumented sock using an <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> sensor is developed for the purpose of monitoring lower leg fluid status. The design and sensing principles of the sock are introduced. Two generations of prototype <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> sensors have been constructed to verify the sensing principles. Their performances are analyzed and compared. Both in vivo and in vitro tests using the fabricated sensor prototypes show promising results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903060"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon <span class="hlt">elastic</span> form factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. Day</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CeMDA.tmp...14W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CeMDA.tmp...14W"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Tides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisdom, Jack; Meyer, Jennifer</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This is an exploration of dynamic tides on <span class="hlt">elastic</span> bodies. The body is thought of as a dynamical system described by its modes of oscillation. The dynamics of these modes are governed by differential equations that depend on the rheology. The modes are damped by dissipation. Tidal friction occurs as exterior bodies excite the modes and the modes act back on the tide raising body. The whole process is governed by a closed set of differential equations. Standard results from tidal theory are recovered in a two-timescale approximation to the solution of these differential equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1116758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1116758"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Properties of Rolled Uranium -- 10 wt.% Molybdenum Nuclear Fuel Foils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. W. Brown; D. J. Alexander; K. D. Clarke; B. Clausen; M. A. Okuniewski; T. A. Sisneros</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In situ neutron diffraction data was collected during <span class="hlt">elastic</span> loading of rolled foils of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum bonded to a thin layer of zirconium. Lattice parameters were ascertained from the diffraction patterns to determine the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> and, subsequently, the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli and Poisson’s ratio in the rolling and transverse directions. The foil was found to be <span class="hlt">elastically</span> isotropic in the rolling plane with an effective modulus of 86 + / - 3 GPa and a Poisson’s ratio 0.39 + / - 0.04.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..750L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..750L"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of a Visco-<span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Model for PET Near Tg Based on Uni and Biaxial Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Yun Mei; Chevalier, Luc; Monteiro, Eric</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The mechanical response of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) in elongation is strongly dependent on temperature, <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate. Near the glass transition temperature Tg, the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve presents a <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening effect vs <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate but a <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening effect vs <span class="hlt">strain</span> under conditions of large deformations. The main goal of this work is to propose a viscoelastic model to predict the PET behaviour when subjected to large deformations and to determine the material properties from the experimental data. The viscoelastic model is written in a Leonov like way and the variational formulation is carried out for the numerical simulation using this model. To represent the non-linear effects, an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> part depending on the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> equivalent <span class="hlt">strain</span> and a non-Newtonian viscous part depending on both viscous equivalent <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and cumulated viscous <span class="hlt">strain</span> are tested. The model parameters can then be accurately obtained through the comparison with the experimental uniaxial and biaxial tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvB..71c5412S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvB..71c5412S"><span id="translatedtitle">Transversely isotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Lianxi; Li, Jackie</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Five independent effective <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of a transversely isotropic multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are studied by analyzing its deformations under four loading conditions, i.e., axial tension, torsional moment, in-plane biaxial tension, and in-plane tension-compression stress. Two distributions of the tension loading on the outermost tube and on all tubes are considered, which correspond to the tensile and compressive Young’s moduli. The general relations between the interwall stresses and <span class="hlt">strains</span> are linearized due to the small <span class="hlt">strain</span> condition, where the interwall stresses correspond to the variation of the interwall van der Waals forces. Three interwall <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants are used to characterize the linear relations associated with three basic interwall deformation modes, i.e., normal deformation in radial direction and two shear deformations in axial and circumferential directions. By taking each tube as a single-walled carbon nanotube, the analytical expressions for the interwall shear stress under the tensile loading on the outermost tube and five <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli of a double-walled carbon nanotube are first obtained. Then, a replacement method is proposed to derive the corresponding expressions for the cases of more walls than two. These analytical expressions are plotted for the case of MWNT’s composed of armchair tubes, where the interwall <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constants are approximated as the corresponding ones of the graphite. The effect of the wall number, diameter, chirality, and length of the MWNT on the shear stress and five <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli are displayed and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15217230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15217230"><span id="translatedtitle">Model-based reconstructive <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging of deep venous thrombosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aglyamov, Salavat; Skovoroda, Andrei R; Rubin, Jonathan M; O'Donnell, Matthew; Emelianov, Stanislav Y</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its sequela, pulmonary embolism, is a significant clinical problem. Once detected, DVT treatment is based on the age of the clot. There are no good noninvasive methods, however, to determine clot age. Previously, we demonstrated that imaging internal mechanical <span class="hlt">strains</span> can identify and possibly age thrombus in a deep vein. In this study the deformation geometry for DVT <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging and its effect on Young's modulus estimates is addressed. A model-based reconstruction method is presented to estimate <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> in which the clot-containing vessel is modeled as a layered cylinder. Compared to an unconstrained approach in reconstructive <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> imaging, the proposed model-based approach has several advantages: only one component of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor is used; the minimization procedure is very fast; the method is highly efficient because an analytic solution of the forward <span class="hlt">elastic</span> problem is used; and the method is not very sensitive to the details of the external load pattern--a characteristic that is important for free-hand, external, surface-applied deformation. The approach was tested theoretically using a numerical model, and experimentally on both tissue-like phantoms and an animal model of DVT. Results suggest that <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> reconstruction may prove to be a practical adjunct to triplex scanning to detect, diagnose, and stage DVT. PMID:15217230</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097228"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> stiffening in collagen I networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Motte, Stéphanie; Kaufman, Laura J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Biopolymer gels exhibit <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening that is generally not seen in synthetic gels. Here, we investigate the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-stiffening behavior in collagen I gels that demonstrate <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> derived from a variety of sources including crosslinking through telopeptides, bundling through low-temperature gelation, and exogenous crosslinking with genipin. In all cases, it is found that these gels exhibit <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening; in general, onset of <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening occurs earlier, yield <span class="hlt">strain</span> is lower, and degree of <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening is smaller in higher concentration gels and in those displaying thick fibril bundles. Recovery after exposure to high <span class="hlt">strains</span> is substantial and similar in all gels, suggesting that much of the stiffening comes from reversible network deformations. A key finding of this study is that collagen I gels of identical storage and loss moduli may display different nonlinear responses and different capacities to recover from high <span class="hlt">strain</span>. PMID:23097228</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7899E..02G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7899E..02G"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodical study on plaque characterization using integrated vascular ultrasound, <span class="hlt">strain</span> and spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graf, Iulia M.; Su, Jimmy; Yeager, Doug; Amirian, James; Smalling, Richard; Emelianov, Stanislav</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Carotid atherosclerosis has been identified as a potential risk factor for cerebrovascular events, but information about its direct effect on the risk of recurrent stroke is limited due to incomplete diagnosis. The combination of vascular ultrasound, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and spectroscopic photoacoustics could improve the timely diagnosis of plaque status and risk of rupturing. Current ultrasound techniques can noninvasively image the anatomy of carotid arteries. The spatio-temporal variation in displacement of different regions within the arterial wall can be derived from ultrasound radio frequency data; therefore an ultrasound based <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate imaging modality can be used to reveal changes in arterial mechanical properties. Additionally, spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging can provide information on the optical absorption properties of arterial tissue and it can be used to identify the location of specific tissue components, such as lipid pools. An imaging technique combining ultrasound, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and spectroscopic photoacoustics was tested on an excised atherosclerotic rabbit aorta. The ultrasound image illustrates inhomogeneities in arterial wall thickness, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate indicates the arterial segment with reduced <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> and the spectroscopic photoacoustic image illustrates the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of lipids. The results demonstrated that ultrasound, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging are complementary. Thus the integration of the three imaging modalities advances the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5669209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5669209"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear <span class="hlt">strain</span> buildup and the earthquake cycle on the San Andreas Fault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thatcher, W.</p> <p>1983-07-10</p> <p>Two contrasting models of the earthquake deformation cycle on strike slip faults predict significant temporal declines in shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate near the fault, accompanied by a progressive broadening of the zone of deformation adjacent to it. In the thin lithosphere model, transient deformation results from flow in the asthenosphere due to stress relaxation following faulting through most or all of the lithosphere. For an earth model with a thick <span class="hlt">elastic</span> lithosphere (plate thickness >> depth of seismic slip), transient motions are due to postearthquake aseismic slip below the coseismic fault plane. Data from the San Andreas fault indicate a long-term temporal decrease in <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate that persists for at least 30 years and may extend through the entire earthquake cycle. Observations support a cycle-long rate decrease and a temporal spreading of the deformation profile only if movement cycles on the northern and southern locked sections of the fault are basically similar. If so, the usually lower <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates and broader deformation zone currently observed on the sourthern San Andreas represent a later evolutionary stage of the northern locked section, where a great earthquake is a more recent occurrence. Although the data allow some extreme models to be discarded, no sufficiently strong constraints exist to decide between the thin and thick lithosphere models. Regardless of the appropriate model the geodetic observations themselves indicate that <span class="hlt">strain</span> buildup is sufficiently nonlinear to cause signficant departures fromm recurrence estimates based on linear <span class="hlt">strain</span> <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and the time-predictable model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25025082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25025082"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of compressive strength and stiffness of grouted soils by using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, In-Mo; Kim, Jong-Sun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Lee, Jong-Sub</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus, and Poisson's ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> waves at small <span class="hlt">strain</span> are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wave velocity measured at small <span class="hlt">strain</span> and strength and stiffness measured at large <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils. PMID:25025082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92e2713K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92e2713K"><span id="translatedtitle">Theory of epithelial <span class="hlt">elasticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We propose an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> theory of epithelial monolayers based on a two-dimensional discrete model of dropletlike cells characterized by differential surface tensions of their apical, basal, and lateral sides. We show that the effective tissue bending modulus depends on the apicobasal differential tension and changes sign at the transition from the flat to the fold morphology. We discuss three mechanisms that stabilize the finite-wavelength fold structures: Physical constraint on cell geometry, hard-core interaction between non-neighboring cells, and bending <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the basement membrane. We show that the thickness of the monolayer changes along the waveform and thus needs to be considered as a variable rather than a parameter. Next we show that the coupling between the curvature and the thickness is governed by the apicobasal polarity and that the amplitude of thickness modulation along the waveform is proportional to the apicobasal differential tension. This suggests that intracellular stresses can be measured indirectly by observing easily measurable morphometric parameters. We also study the mechanics of three-dimensional structures with cylindrical symmetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/476648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/476648"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> emission polishing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> emission polishing, also called <span class="hlt">elastic</span> emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174568"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of fibrous networks under uniaxial prestress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vahabi, Mahsa; Sharma, Abhinav; Licup, Albert James; van Oosten, Anne S G; Galie, Peter A; Janmey, Paul A; MacKintosh, Fred C</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>We present theoretical and experimental studies of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response of fibrous networks subjected to uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Uniaxial compression or extension is applied to extracellular networks of fibrin and collagen using a shear rheometer with free water in/outflow. Both uniaxial stress and the network shear modulus are measured. Prior work [van Oosten, et al., Sci. Rep., 2015, 6, 19270] has shown softening/stiffening of these networks under compression/extension, together with a nonlinear response to shear, but the origin of such behaviour remains poorly understood. Here, we study how uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> influences the nonlinear mechanics of fibrous networks. Using a computational network model with bendable and stretchable fibres, we show that the softening/stiffening behaviour can be understood for fixed lateral boundaries in 2D and 3D networks with comparable average connectivities to the experimental extracellular networks. Moreover, we show that the onset of stiffening depends strongly on the imposed uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Our study highlights the importance of both uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and boundary conditions in determining the mechanical response of hydrogels. PMID:27174568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5848075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5848075"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic analysis of growing cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rice, J.R.; Drugan, W.J.; Sham, T.L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic stress and deformation fields at the tip of a crack which grow in an ideally plastic solid under plane <span class="hlt">strain</span>, small-scale yielding conditions is discussed. Asymptotic analysis suggests a crack-tip stress state similar to that of the classical Prandtl field, but containing <span class="hlt">elastic</span> unloading between the centered fan region and the trailing constant stress plastic region. The near tip expression for the rate of opening displacement delta at distance r from the growing tip is found to have the same form suggested by Rice and Sorensen, delta = ..cap alpha..J/sigma/sub 0/ + ..beta..(sigma/sub 0//E)a ln (R/r), but now the presence of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> wedge causes ..beta.. to have the revised value of 5.08 (for Poisson ratio ..nu.. = 0.3). Here, a = crack length, sigma/sub 0/ = yield strength, E = <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus, and J denotes the far-field value (1 - ..nu../sup 2/) K/sup 2//E for the small scale yielding conditions considered. The parameters ..cap alpha.. and R cannot be determined from the asymptotic analysis, but ..cap alpha.. is approximately the same for stationary and growing cracks, and R scales approximately with the size of the plastic zone, being about 15 to 30% larger. For large scale yielding, a similar form applies with possible variations in ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., at least in cases which maintain triaxial constraint at the crack tip, but in the fully yielded case R is expected to be proportional to the dimension of the uncracked ligament. The model crack growth criterion of Rice and Sorensen, requiring a critical delta at some fixed r from the tip, is reexamined. Results suggest that the J versus ..delta..a relation describing growth will be dependent on the extent of yielding, although it is suggested that this dependency might be small for highly ductile materials, provided that a similar triaxial constraint is maintained in all cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5790646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5790646"><span id="translatedtitle">Design guidance for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> followup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Naugle, F.V.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The basic mechanism of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where <span class="hlt">elastic</span> followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469894"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastically</span> driven ferromagnetic resonance in nickel thin films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weiler, M; Dreher, L; Heeg, C; Huebl, H; Gross, R; Brandt, M S; Goennenwein, S T B</p> <p>2011-03-18</p> <p>Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the GHz frequency range are exploited for the all-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> excitation and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric (Ni/LiNbO(3)) hybrid device. We measure the SAW magnetotransmission at room temperature as a function of frequency, external magnetic field magnitude, and orientation. Our data are well described by a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert approach, in which a virtual, <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced tickle field drives the magnetization precession. This causes a distinct magnetic field orientation dependence of <span class="hlt">elastically</span> driven FMR that we observe in both model and experiment. PMID:21469894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAP....97jM302D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAP....97jM302D"><span id="translatedtitle">Model for the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behavior near intermartensitic transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Liyang; Cullen, James; Wuttig, Manfred</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Transitions between different martensitic states have been observed in Ni0.50Mn0.284Ga0.216 using <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constant measurements. In this paper, we develop a model to explain the reentrant behavior based on a Landau expansion of the free energy in <span class="hlt">strain</span> space. Here, we assume that the coefficient of the third-order term as well as the second-order term has significant temperature dependence. This assumption results in a C' versus temperature in good agreement with observation. The model and possible modifications to it are discussed and compared to the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> constant data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NJPh...17h3035A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NJPh...17h3035A"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear and heterogeneous <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of multiply-crosslinked biopolymer networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amuasi, H. E.; Heussinger, C.; Vink, R. L. C.; Zippelius, A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We simulate randomly crosslinked networks of biopolymers, characterizing linear and nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> under different loading conditions (uniaxial extension, simple shear, and pure shear). Under uniaxial extension, and upon entering the nonlinear regime, the network switches from a dilatant to contractile response. Analogously, under isochoric conditions (pure shear), the normal stresses change their sign. Both effects are readily explained with a generic weakly nonlinear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli display an intermediate super-stiffening regime, where moduli increase much stronger with applied stress σ than predicted by the force-extension relation of a single wormlike-chain ({G}{wlc}∼ {σ }3/2). We interpret this super-stiffening regime in terms of the reorientation of filaments with the maximum tensile direction of the deformation field. A simple model for the reorientation response gives an exponential stiffening, G∼ {{{e}}}σ , in qualitative agreement with our data. The heterogeneous, anisotropic structure of the network is reflected in correspondingly heterogeneous and anisotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties. We provide a coarse-graining scheme to quantify the local anisotropy, the fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli, and the local stresses as a function of coarse-graining length. Heterogeneities of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli are strongly correlated with the local density and increase with applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7238691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7238691"><span id="translatedtitle">The atomic <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mott, P.H.; Argon, A.S. ); Suter, U.W. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA )</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>A definition of the local atomic <span class="hlt">strain</span> increments in three dimensions and an algorithm for computing them is presented. An arbitrary arrangement of atoms is tessellated in to Delaunay tetrahedra, identifying interstices, and Voronoi polyhedra, identifying atomic domains. The deformation gradient increment tensor for interstitial space is obtained from the displacement increments of the corner atoms of Delaunay tetrahedra. The atomic site <span class="hlt">strain</span> increment tensor is then obtained by finding the intersection of the Delaunay tetrahedra with the Voronoi polyhedra, <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> the individual deformation gradient contributions of the intersected Delaunay tetrahedra into the Voronoi polyhedra. An example application is discussed, showing how the atomic <span class="hlt">strain</span> clarifies the relative local atomic movement for a polymeric glass treated at the atomic level. 6 refs. 10 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815305C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815305C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of climatically-driven surface loading variations on continental <span class="hlt">strain</span> and seismicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Craig, Tim; Calais, Eric; Fleitout, Luce; Bollinger, Laurent; Scotti, Oona</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In slowly deforming regions of plate interiors, secondary sources of stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> can result in transient deformation rates comparable to, or greater than, the background tectonic rates. Highly variable in space and time, these transients have the potential to influence the spatio-temporal distribution of seismicity, interfering with any background tectonic effects to either promote or inhibit the failure of pre-existing faults, and potentially leading to a clustered, or 'pulse-like', seismic history. Here, we investigate the ways in which the large-scale deformation field resulting from climatically-controlled changes in surface ice mass over the Pleistocene and Holocene may have influenced not only the seismicity of glaciated regions, but also the wider seismicity around the ice periphery. We first use a set of geodynamic models to demonstrate that a major pulse of seismic activity occurring in Fennoscandia, coincident with the time of end-glaciation, occurred in a setting where the contemporaneous horizontal <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate resulting from the changing ice mass, was extensional - opposite to the reverse sense of coseismic displacement accommodated on these faults. Therefore, faulting did not release extensional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> that was building up at the time of failure, but compressional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> that had <span class="hlt">accumulated</span> in the lithosphere on timescales longer than the glacial cycle, illustrating the potential for a non-tectonic trigger to tap in to the background tectonic stress-state. We then move on to investigate the more distal influence that changing ice (and ocean) volumes may have had on the evolving <span class="hlt">strain</span> field across intraplate Europe, how this is reflected in the seismicity across intraplate Europe, and what impact this might have on the paleoseismic record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940033289&hterms=CLT&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCLT','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940033289&hterms=CLT&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCLT"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling, <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, and CLPT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brunelle, Eugene J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The first few viewgraphs describe the general solution properties of linear <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> theory which are given by the following two statements: (1) for stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and zero displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the altered displacements u(sub i)(*) and the actual stresses tau(sub ij) are <span class="hlt">elastically</span> dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual displacements are given by u(sub i) = mu(exp -1)u(sub i)(*); and (2) for zero stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the actual displacements u(sub i) and the altered stresses tau(sub ij)(*) are <span class="hlt">elastically</span> dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual stresses are given by tau(sub ij) = E tau(sub ij)(*). The remaining viewgraphs describe the minimum parameter formulation of the general classical laminate theory plate problem as follows: The general CLT plate problem is expressed as a 3 x 3 system of differential equations in the displacements u, v, and w. The eighteen (six each) A(sub ij), B(sub ij), and D(sub ij) system coefficients are ply-weighted sums of the transformed reduced stiffnesses (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k); the (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) in turn depend on six reduced stiffnesses (Q(sub ij))(sub k) and the material and geometry properties of the k(sup th) layer. This paper develops a method for redefining the system coefficients, the displacement components (u,v,w), and the position components (x,y) such that a minimum parameter formulation is possible. The pivotal steps in this method are (1) the reduction of (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) dependencies to just two constants Q(*) = (Q(12) + 2Q(66))/(Q(11)Q(22))(exp 1/2) and F(*) - (Q(22)/Q(11))(exp 1/2) in terms of ply-independent reference values Q(sub ij); (2) the reduction of the remaining portions of the A, B, and D coefficients to nondimensional ply-weighted sums (with 0 to 1 ranges) that are independent of Q(*) and F(*); and (3) the introduction of simple coordinate stretchings for u, v, w and x,y such that the process is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MPLB...2950193X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015MPLB...2950193X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> response of DNA molecules under the action of interfacial traction and stretching: An <span class="hlt">elastic</span> thin rod model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zaixing; Qiang, Lei; Gao, Jun</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In a multivalent salt solution, a segment of DNA is modeled as an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> rod subjected to the interfacial traction. The shooting method is used to calculate the equilibrium configurations of condensed DNA under the action of the longitudinal end-force and interfacial traction simultaneously. The results show that the shapes of DNA are mainly determined by the competition between the interfacial energy and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy of stretching. The change of end-to-end distance with the longitudinal end-force is consistent with the worm-like chain (WLC) model. The higher the concentration is, the stronger the condensation of DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1993RPPh...56..859B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1993RPPh...56..859B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> recoil detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bik, W. M. A.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">elastic</span> recoil detection (ERD) one determines the yield and energy of particles ejected out of the surface region of samples under MeV ion bombardment. By application of this surface and thin film analysis technique one can obtain quantitative information concerning the depth distribution of light elements in a sample to be analysed. The quantitativity and the depth resolving power are based on knowledge of the recoil cross section and the stopping power of high-energy ions in matter. This paper reviews the fundamentals of this technique and the various experimental methods for recoil identification. Furthermore, important features for material analysis, such as detection limits, depth resolution and elemental range are discussed. Some emphasis is put on the conversion of the spectral contribution of the elements to atomic concentrations in the films for several representative cases. Throughout the review numerous examples are given to illustrate the features of ERD and to demonstrate empirically the accuracy of the quantification method.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014FrEaS...2...10G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014FrEaS...2...10G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudmundsson, Agust</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed) <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy (the potential mechanical energy) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy derives from two sources: (1) the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2) the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement) on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy released or transformed (dU) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc) of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3), the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago) and largest single (effusive) Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago), both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy release at 10EJ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA..tmp..379A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA..tmp..379A"><span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening Mechanisms in Nanostructured Al/SiCp Composite Manufactured by <span class="hlt">Accumulative</span> Press Bonding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Rahimian, Mehdi; Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Yaghinali, Parisa; Carreño, Fernando</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The strengthening mechanisms in nanostructured Al/SiCp composite deformed to high <span class="hlt">strain</span> by a novel severe plastic deformation process, <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> press bonding (APB), were investigated. The composite exhibited yield strength of 148 MPa which was 5 and 1.5 times higher than that of raw aluminum (29 MPa) and aluminum-APB (95 MPa) alloys, respectively. A remarkable increase was also observed in the ultimate tensile strength of Al/SiCp-APB composite, 222 MPa, which was 2.5 and 1.2 times greater than the obtained values for raw aluminum (88 MPa) and aluminum-APB (180 MPa) alloys, respectively. Analytical models well described the contribution of various strengthening mechanisms. The contributions of grain boundary, <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening, thermal mismatch, Orowan, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> mismatch, and load-bearing strengthening mechanisms to the overall strength of the Al/SiCp microcomposite were 64.9, 49, 6.8, 2.4, 5.4, and 1.5 MPa, respectively. Whereas Orowan strengthening mechanism was considered as the most dominating strengthening mechanism in Al/SiCp nanocomposites, it was negligible for strengthening the microcomposite. Al/SiCp nanocomposite showed good agreement with quadratic summation model; however, experimental results exhibited good accordance with arithmetic and compounding summation models in the microcomposite. While average grain size of the composite reached 380 nm, it was less than 100 nm in the vicinity of SiC particles as a result of particle-stimulated nucleation mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091745','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091745"><span id="translatedtitle">Tensile <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of 18:8 chromium-nickel steel as affected by plastic deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcadam, D J; Mebs, R W</p> <p>1939-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and between stress and permanent set, for 18:8 alloy as affected by prior plastic deformation is discussed. Hysteresis and creep and their effects on the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress-set curves are also considered, as well as the influence of duration of the rest interval after cold work and the influence of plastic deformation on proof stresses, on the modulus of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> at zero stress, and on the curvature of the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> line. A constant (c sub 1) is suggested to represent the variation of the modulus of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> with stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750042201&hterms=Hill+Equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHill%2527s%2BEquation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750042201&hterms=Hill+Equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHill%2527s%2BEquation"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite-element formulations for problems of large <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcmeeking, R. M.; Rice, J. R.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is ideally suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. Further, the formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for 'small <span class="hlt">strain</span>' <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-<span class="hlt">strain</span> tension. The paper closes with a unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> measures. Further, a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic finite element analysis at large <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and the inadequacies of some of these are commented upon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.3207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.3207S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> engineering of graphene: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Si, Chen; Sun, Zhimei; Liu, Feng</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Graphene has intrigued the science community by many unique properties not found in conventional materials. In particular, it is the strongest two-dimensional material ever measured, being able to sustain reversible tensile <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> larger than 20%, which yields an interesting possibility to tune the properties of graphene by <span class="hlt">strain</span> and thus opens a new field called ``straintronics''. In this article, the current progress in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering of graphene is reviewed. We first summarize the <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on the electronic structure and Raman spectra of graphene. We then highlight the electron-phonon coupling greatly enhanced by the biaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and the strong pseudomagnetic field induced by the non-uniform <span class="hlt">strain</span> with specific distribution. Finally, the potential application of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-engineering in the self-assembly of foreign atoms on the graphene surface is also discussed. Given the short history of graphene straintronics research, the current progress has been notable, and many further advances in this field are expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624958Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624958Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase transition induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> in ZnO under high pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Xiaozhi; Dong, Haini; Li, Yanchun; Lin, Chuanlong; Park, Changyong; He, Duanwei; Yang, Wenge</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Under high pressure, the phase transition mechanism and mechanical property of material are supposed to be largely associated with the transformation induced <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>. However, the experimental evidences for such <span class="hlt">strain</span> are scanty. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and plastic properties of ZnO, a leading material for applications in chemical sensor, catalyst, and optical thin coatings, were determined using in situ high pressure synchrotron axial and radial x-ray diffraction. The abnormal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> behaviors of selected lattice planes of ZnO during phase transition revealed the existence of internal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which arise from the lattice misfit between wurtzite and rocksalt phase. Furthermore, the strength decrease of ZnO during phase transition under non-hydrostatic pressure was observed and could be attributed to such internal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span>, unveiling the relationship between pressure induced internal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and mechanical property of material. These findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and the properties of materials under pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PApGe.123...59G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PApGe.123...59G"><span id="translatedtitle">Design parameters for borehole <span class="hlt">strain</span> instrumentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The response of a borehole <span class="hlt">strain</span> meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known <span class="hlt">elastic</span> parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown <span class="hlt">strain</span> signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of the environment by examination of observed <span class="hlt">strain</span> response to known <span class="hlt">strain</span> signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3751012','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3751012"><span id="translatedtitle">Damage of Collagen and <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Fibres by Borrelia Burgdorferi – Known and New Clinical and Histopathological Aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Müller, Kurt E</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Lyme Borreliosis, or Lyme’s disease, manifests itself in numerous skin conditions. Therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans is made. The histopathology of some of the skin conditions associated with Lyme Borreliosis is characterised by structural changes to collagen, and sometimes also <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibres. These conditions include morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. More recently, further skin conditions have been identified by the new microscopic investigation technique of focus floating microscopy: granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, erythema annulare centrifugum, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, cutaneous sarcoidosis and lymphocytic infiltration; these conditions also sometimes cause changes in the connective tissue. In the case of ligaments and tendons, collagen and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> fibres predominate structurally. They are also the structures that are targeted by Borrelia. The resultant functional disorders have previously only rarely been associated with Borreliosis in clinical practice. Ligamentopathies and tendinopathies, spontaneous ruptures of tendons after slight <span class="hlt">strain</span>, dislocation of vertebrae and an <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of prolapsed intervertebral discs as well as ossification of tendon insertions can be viewed in this light. PMID:23986790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EPJAP...6..251J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EPJAP...6..251J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> relaxation in buried <span class="hlt">strained</span> layers by mixture of single and dipolar dislocation arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Z.; Yang, S.; Ma, C.; Liu, S.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">strain</span> relaxation in buried <span class="hlt">strained</span> layers is investigated using an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> continuum model. The mixture of single dislocations residing at the substrate/<span class="hlt">strained</span> layer interface (lower interface) and dipolar dislocations in which one is at the lower interface and the other at the <span class="hlt">strained</span> layer/capping layer interface (upper interface), is proposed. In the mixture, the dislocation distributions are denoted by a parameter which is the ratio of the density of misfit dislocations at the upper interface to that at the lower interface. In a buried <span class="hlt">strained</span> layer, relaxation of mean <span class="hlt">strain</span> occurs by introduction of two orthogonal arrays of mixture of single and dipolar dislocations. Considering both the free surface and interactions between dislocations, the total <span class="hlt">elastic</span> energy per unit area of buried <span class="hlt">strained</span> layer containing two orthogonal arrays of mixture of single and dipolar dislocations is calculated. The energy is dependent on the misfit dislocation distributions. On energy minimization considerations, the expression of the misfit dislocation distributions in a buried <span class="hlt">strained</span> layer with arbitrary <span class="hlt">strain</span> relaxation and capping layer thickness is derived. It is demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is initially relaxed by the single misfit dislocations and relaxed by the mixture of single and dipolar misfit dislocations in the final stage of <span class="hlt">strain</span> relaxation in many buried layers of practical interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014562','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014562"><span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> analogy for piecewise linear computation of creep residues in built-up structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Jerald M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An analogy between inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> caused by temperature and those caused by creep is presented in terms of isotropic <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. It is shown how the theoretical aspects can be blended with existing finite-element computer programs to exact a piecewise linear solution. The creep effect is determined by using the thermal stress computational approach, if appropriate alterations are made to the thermal expansion of the individual elements. The overall transient solution is achieved by consecutive piecewise linear iterations. The total residue caused by creep is obtained by <span class="hlt">accumulating</span> creep residues for each iteration and then resubmitting the total residues for each element as an equivalent input. A typical creep law is tested for incremental time convergence. The results indicate that the approach is practical, with a valid indication of the extent of creep after approximately 20 hr of incremental time. The general analogy between body forces and inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradients is discussed with respect to how an inelastic problem can be worked as an <span class="hlt">elastic</span> problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/nbia/nbia.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/nbia/nbia.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span>? Neurodegeneration with brain iron <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> (NBIA) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7841295"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistance and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of the suture threads employed in cardiac bioprostheses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García Paez, J M; Carrera San Martin, A; García Sestafe, J V; Jorge-Herrero, E; Millán, I; Navidad, R; Cordón, A; Castillo-Olivares, J L</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>The mechanoelastic features of five types of sutures were studied. The breaking stress for each was determined by means of tensile tests in which a constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate was applied, and a tensile test with graduated stress and relaxation defined the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit, i.e. the point beyond which deformation becomes irreversible. The study of the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve during this <span class="hlt">elastic</span> period enabled us to obtain the mathematical function that governs these reversible deformations, which shows excellence of fit (R2 > 0.98). The prime derivative at each point of the resulting functions is the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus, the best parameter for comparing the <span class="hlt">elasticities</span> of the suture threads. Since breaking stress alone does not suitably define the mechanical quality of a suture, we propose the use of other parameters during the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> period, such as percentage of elongation at a point 10 times lower than the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> limit (safety coefficient of 10), and tensile stress and <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus at the said point, which are more reliable in the assessment of the resistance and <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of these threads. PMID:7841295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036578','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036578"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF <span class="hlt">ELASTIC</span> OF POROUS CORDIERITE BY FLEXURE AND DYNAMIC TEST METHODS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stafford, Randall; Golovin, K. B.; Dickinson, A.; Watkins, Thomas R; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Previous work showed differences in apparent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus between mechanical flexure testing and resonance methods. Flexure tests have been conducted using non-contact optical systems to directly measure deflection for calculation of <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus. Dynamic test methods for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus measurement were conducted on the same material for comparison. The results show significant difference in the apparent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus for static flexure versus dynamic methods. The significance of the difference in apparent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus on thermal stress and the hypotheses for these differences will be discussed. Dynamic measurement (resonance) and static measurement (mechanical) produce different values for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus of porous cordierite ceramic. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus from resonance is a measure of the material response at very low <span class="hlt">strain</span> which is different from the material response in a mechanical test with relatively large <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The apparent <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli for dynamic versus static test methods in this study are different by a factor of two. This result has significant impact on calculated stress and life in an aftertreatment component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441407"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Stability of Concentric Tube Robots Subject to External Loads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ha, Junhyoung; Park, Frank C; Dupont, Pierre E</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Concentric tube robots, which are comprised of precurved <span class="hlt">elastic</span> tubes that are concentrically arranged, are being developed for many medical interventions. The shape of the robot is determined by the rotation and translation of the tubes relative to each other, and also by any external forces applied by the environment. As the tubes rotate and translate relative to each other, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> potential energy caused by tube bending and twisting can <span class="hlt">accumulate</span>; if a configuration is not locally <span class="hlt">elastically</span> stable, then a dangerous snapping motion may occur as energy is suddenly released. External loads on the robot also influence <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stability. In this paper, we provide a second-order sufficient condition, and also a separate necessary condition, for <span class="hlt">elastic</span> stability. Using methods of optimal control theory, we show that these conditions apply to general concentric tube robot designs subject to arbitrary conservative external loads. They can be used to assess the stability of candidate robot configurations. Our results are validated via comparison with other known stability criteria, and their utility is demonstrated by an application to stable path planning. PMID:26441407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485226"><span id="translatedtitle">Plastids and Carotenoid <span class="hlt">Accumulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> in plants. PMID:27485226</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6920438','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6920438"><span id="translatedtitle">Wave-induced response of poro-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> offshore foundations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toha, F.X.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> analysis based on Biot's theory of consolidation is utilized to investigate the pore-water pressures and displacements induced by steady-state linear planar waves beneath offshore gravity structures placed on poro-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> seabed of finite thickness. The response is characterized by three controlling parameters, i.e., poroelasticity factor, fluid compressibility factor, and Poisson's Ratio. A parametric study, using a range of the controlling parameters encountered in practice, indicates that the response is governed primarily by the poro-<span class="hlt">elasticity</span> factor and to a lesser extent by Poisson's Ratio (fluid compressibility factor has negligible influence for saturated soils). For offshore gravity structures, the wave-induced moment and horizontal force exerted by the structure on the foundation contribute most to the overall response while the influence of sea water pressure penetration through the sea bottom is, in general, negligible. For smaller structures, however, the latter influence dominates the response for soils as fine as silty sand. The maximum shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> amplitudes evaluated imply that the soil response remains primarily in the linear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> range, even for severe storm loadings. An experimental procedure was developed for the measurement of a composite poro-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> property which combines all the pertinent soil properties. Two test configurations were found to be suitable depending on the hydraulic conductivity of the soil considered. The results of test on nine specimens reconstituted from three soil samples conform with the theoretical estimates and indicate that the developed procedure is viable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhRvL.108q8103S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhRvL.108q8103S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling Laws for the Response of Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Media with Implications for Cell Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shokef, Yair; Safran, Samuel A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We show how <span class="hlt">strain</span> stiffening affects the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> response to internal forces, caused either by material defects and inhomogeneities or by active forces that molecular motors generate in living cells. For a spherical force dipole in a material with a strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density, <span class="hlt">strains</span> change sign with distance, indicating that, even around a contractile inclusion or molecular motor, there is radial compression; it is only at a long distance that one recovers the linear response in which the medium is radially stretched. Scaling laws with irrational exponents relate the far-field renormalized <span class="hlt">strain</span> to the near-field <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied by the inclusion or active force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908..227H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908..227H"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite Element Prediction of Sheet Forming Defects Using <span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-Plastic, Damage and Localization Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haddag, Badis; Abed-Meraim, Farid; Balan, Tudor</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>In this work, an advanced anisotropic <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plasticity model is combined with a damage model and a <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization criterion in the aim to describe accurately the mechanical behavior of sheet metals. Large <span class="hlt">strain</span>, fully three-dimensional, implicit time integration algorithms are developed for this model and implemented in the finite element code Abaqus. The resulting code is used to predict the <span class="hlt">strain</span> localization limits as well as the springback after forming of sheet steels. The impact of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-path dependent hardening models on the limit <span class="hlt">strains</span> and on the amount of springback is addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078392','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078392"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>HITEC Corporation developed a <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1484236','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1484236"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Anisotropic <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Properties of the Canine Aorta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vaishnav, Ramesh N.; Young, John T.; Janicki, Joseph S.; Patel, Dali J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A nonlinear theory of large <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformations of the aortic tissue has been developed. The wall tissue has been considered to be incompressible and curvilinearly orthotropic. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density function for the tissue is expressed as a polynomial in the circumferential and longitudinal Green-St. Venant <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Limiting application to states of <span class="hlt">strains</span> wherein the geometric axes are the principal axes and truncating the energy expression to include terms with highest degrees 2, 3, and 4, three expressions with 3, 7, and 12 constitutive constants are obtained. Results of application of these expressions to data from three series of in vitro and in vivo experiments involving 31 dogs have been presented. Whereas all the three expressions are found to be applicable to various degrees, the third-degree expression for the <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density function with seven constitutive constants is particularly recommended for general use. PMID:5044576</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/330635','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/330635"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Majumdar, S.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013920"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Face, An Anatomy-Based Biometrics Beyond Visible Cue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsap, L V; Zhang, Y; Kundu, S J; Goldgof, D B; Sarkar, S</p> <p>2004-03-29</p> <p>This paper describes a face recognition method that is designed based on the consideration of anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of facial tissues. <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> pattern inferred from face expression can reveal an individual's biometric signature associated with the underlying anatomical structure, and thus has the potential for face recognition. A method based on the continuum mechanics in finite element formulation is employed to compute the <span class="hlt">strain</span> pattern. Experiments show very promising results. The proposed method is quite different from other face recognition methods and both its advantages and limitations, as well as future research for improvement are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PEPI...96..113L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PEPI...96..113L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> of stishovite at high pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual <span class="hlt">strain</span>. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal <span class="hlt">elastic</span> moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515538K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515538K"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> using compression optical coherence elastography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue <span class="hlt">strain</span> with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, <span class="hlt">strain</span> provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behaviour. The measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> is determined by dividing the stress by the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the sample. We show that quantification of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707906"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of Thiel-embalmed human ankle tendon and ligament.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, Xiaochun; Kemp, Sandy; Corner, George; Eisma, Roos; Huang, Zhihong</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Thiel embalming is recommended as an alternative to formalin-based embalming because it preserves tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>, color, and flexibility in the long term, with low infection and toxicity risk. The degree to which Thiel embalming preserves <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> has so far been assessed mainly by subjective scoring, with little quantitative verification. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of Thiel embalming on the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of human ankle tendons and ligament. Biomechanical tensile tests were carried out on six Thiel-embalmed samples each of the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and calcaneal tendons, and the calcaneofibular ligament, with <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of 0.25%s(-1), 2%s(-1), and 8%s(-1). The stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship was calculated from the force-extension response with cross-sectional area and gauge length. Young's modulus was determined from the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve. The results showed that the tendon and ligament <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> were lower after Thiel embalming than the literature values for fresh nonembalmed tendons and ligament. The biomechanical tensile test showed that the measured <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of Thiel-embalmed tendons and ligaments increased with the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate. The Thiel embalming method is useful for preserving human ankle tendons and ligaments for anatomy and surgery teaching and research, but users need to be aware of its softening effects. The method retains the mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate effect on tendons and ligament. PMID:25707906</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622092','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622092"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> using compression optical coherence elastography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue <span class="hlt">strain</span> with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, <span class="hlt">strain</span> provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behaviour. The measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. <span class="hlt">Elasticity</span> is determined by dividing the stress by the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the sample. We show that quantification of <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue <span class="hlt">elasticity</span>. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map <span class="hlt">elasticity</span> of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues. PMID:26503225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923684','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923684"><span id="translatedtitle">Chimpanzee <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> stone throwing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone <span class="hlt">accumulations</span> at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770594','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770594"><span id="translatedtitle">Chimpanzee <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> stone throwing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their <span class="hlt">accumulation</span>. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone <span class="hlt">accumulations</span> at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee <span class="hlt">accumulative</span> stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013945"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Accumulation</span> of the planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wetherill, G. W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>In modeling the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals <span class="hlt">accumulate</span> into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the <span class="hlt">accumulation</span> history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950008040','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950008040"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span>-plastic models for multi-site damage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Actis, Ricardo L.; Szabo, Barna A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents recent developments in advanced analysis methods for the computation of stress site damage. The method of solution is based on the p-version of the finite element method. Its implementation was designed to permit extraction of linear stress intensity factors using a superconvergent extraction method (known as the contour integral method) and evaluation of the J-integral following an <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis. Coarse meshes are adequate for obtaining accurate results supported by p-convergence data. The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis is based on the deformation theory of plasticity and the von Mises yield criterion. The model problem consists of an aluminum plate with six equally spaced holes and a crack emanating from each hole. The cracks are of different sizes. The panel is subjected to a remote tensile load. Experimental results are available for the panel. The plasticity analysis provided the same limit load as the experimentally determined load. The results of <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-plastic analysis were compared with the results of linear <span class="hlt">elastic</span> analysis in an effort to evaluate how plastic zone sizes influence the crack growth rates. The onset of net-section yielding was determined also. The results show that crack growth rate is accelerated by the presence of adjacent damage, and the critical crack size is shorter when the effects of plasticity are taken into consideration. This work also addresses the effects of alternative stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> laws: The <span class="hlt">elastic</span>-ideally-plastic material model is compared against the Ramberg-Osgood model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93d5416L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93d5416L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> cost of silicon step rebonding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leroy, F.; Garreau, Y.; Cheynis, F.; Croset, B.; Coati, A.; Müller, P.; Prévot, G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We study by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field induced by periodic double steps on a Si(1 1 15) surface that is a vicinal of a Si(001) surface misoriented by 5 .4∘ towards the <110 > direction. The best fit of the experimental structure factors is reached on the basis of the rebonded DB step edge model and the displacement field is well characterized assuming that steps are described by parallel rows of extended buried <span class="hlt">elastic</span> dipoles. The dipole characteristics are the dipole position with respect to the step edge, the dipole amplitude (2.0 ±0.5 nN), and the lever arm Ω =5 .3∘ and force Φ =3 .7∘ orientations. We show that the dipole is dominated by a large stretch component localized between the lower and the upper corners of the step, which we assign to the presence of the rebonded atom at the step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108d2104Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108d2104Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> properties of suspended multilayer WSe2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report the experimental determination of the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D <span class="hlt">elastic</span> modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% <span class="hlt">strain</span> without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864302','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864302"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting wire with improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the wire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5188875','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5188875"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting wire with improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.</p> <p>1979-12-19</p> <p>A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the wire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864172','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864172"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting wire with improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced <span class="hlt">elastic</span> deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the wire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030015756','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030015756"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple Numerical Simulation of <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tai, H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform <span class="hlt">strain</span> conditions including photo-<span class="hlt">elastic</span> effect in certain cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657045','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657045"><span id="translatedtitle">Buckling of Microtubules on a 2D <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Afrin, Tanjina; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Kakugo, Akira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We have demonstrated compression stress induced mechanical deformation of microtubules (MTs) on a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium and investigated the role of compression <span class="hlt">strain</span>, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, and a MT-associated protein in the deformation of MTs. We show that MTs, supported on a two-dimensional substrate by a MT-associated protein kinesin, undergo buckling when they are subjected to compression stress. Compression <span class="hlt">strain</span> strongly affects the extent of buckling, although compression rate has no substantial effect on the buckling of MTs. Most importantly, the density of kinesin is found to play the key role in determining the buckling mode of MTs. We have made a comparison between our experimental results and the ‘<span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation model’ that theoretically predicts the buckling behavior of MTs and its connection to MT-associated proteins. Taking into consideration the role of kinesin in altering the mechanical property of MTs, we are able to explain the buckling behavior of MTs by the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation model. This work will help understand the buckling mechanism of MTs and its connection to MT-associated proteins or surrounding medium, and consequently will aid in obtaining a meticulous scenario of the compression stress induced deformation of MTs in cells. PMID:26596905</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517222K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517222K"><span id="translatedtitle">Buckling of Microtubules on a 2D <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Afrin, Tanjina; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Sada, Kazuki; Kakugo, Akira</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We have demonstrated compression stress induced mechanical deformation of microtubules (MTs) on a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elastic</span> medium and investigated the role of compression <span class="hlt">strain</span>, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, and a MT-associated protein in the deformation of MTs. We show that MTs, supported on a two-dimensional substrate by a MT-associated protein kinesin, undergo buckling when they are subjected to compression stress. Compression <span class="hlt">strain</span> strongly affects the extent of buckling, although compression rate has no substantial effect on the buckling of MTs. Most importantly, the density of kinesin is found to play the key role in determining the buckling mode of MTs. We have made a comparison between our experimental results and the ‘<span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation model’ that theoretically predicts the buckling behavior of MTs and its connection to MT-associated proteins. Taking into consideration the role of kinesin in altering the mechanical property of MTs, we are able to explain the buckling behavior of MTs by the <span class="hlt">elastic</span> foundation model. This work will help understand the buckling mechanism of MTs and its connection to MT-associated proteins or surrounding medium, and consequently will aid in obtaining a meticulous scenario of the compression stress induced deformation of MTs in cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......475M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......475M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Properties of Sedimentary Rocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melendez Martinez, Jaime</p> <p></p> <p>Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, <span class="hlt">elastic</span> and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arteries&pg=4&id=EJ556094','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arteries&pg=4&id=EJ556094"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring How <span class="hlt">Elastic</span> Arteries Function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in <span class="hlt">elastic</span> arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. 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