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Sample records for accumulating evidence supports

  1. Accumulating evidence supports a taste component for free fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2011-09-26

    The requisite criteria for what constitutes a taste primary have not been established. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms and functions of taste have prompted suggestions for an expanded list of unique taste sensations, including fat, or more specifically, free fatty acids (FFA). A set of criteria are proposed here and the data related to FFA are reviewed on each point. It is concluded that the data are moderate to strong that there are: A) adaptive advantages to FFA detection in the oral cavity; B) adequate concentrations of FFA to serve as taste stimuli; C) multiple complimentary putative FFA receptors on taste cells; D) signals generated by FFA that are conveyed by gustatory nerves; E) sensations generated by FFA that can be detected and scaled by psychophysical methods in humans when non-gustatory cues are masked; and F) physiological responses to oral fat/FFA exposure. On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA.

  2. Accumulating Evidence Supports a Taste Component for Free Fatty Acids in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The requisite criteria for what constitutes a taste primary have not been established. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms and functions of taste have prompted suggestions for an expanded list of unique taste sensations, including fat, or more specifically, free fatty acids (FFA). A set of criteria are proposed here and the data related to FFA are reviewed on each point. It is concluded that the data are moderate to strong that there are: A) adaptive advantages to FFA detection in the oral cavity; B) adequate concentrations of FFA to serve as taste stimuli; C) multiple complimentary putative FFA receptors on taste cells; D) signals generated by FFA that are conveyed by gustatory nerves; E) sensations generated by FFA that can be detected and scaled by psychophysical methods in humans when non-gustatory cues are masked; and F) physiological responses to oral fat/FFA exposure. On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA. PMID:21557960

  3. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  4. Evidence Accumulation in the Magnitude System

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Anna; Walsh, Vincent; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers) have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number) in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively) or after (retrospectively) a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules. PMID:24339998

  5. Evidence accumulation as a model for lexical selection.

    PubMed

    Anders, R; Riès, S; van Maanen, L; Alario, F X

    2015-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate evidence accumulation as a plausible theoretical and/or empirical model for the lexical selection process of lexical retrieval. A number of current psycholinguistic theories consider lexical selection as a process related to selecting a lexical target from a number of alternatives, which each have varying activations (or signal supports), that are largely resultant of an initial stimulus recognition. We thoroughly present a case for how such a process may be theoretically explained by the evidence accumulation paradigm, and we demonstrate how this paradigm can be directly related or combined with conventional psycholinguistic theory and their simulatory instantiations (generally, neural network models). Then with a demonstrative application on a large new real data set, we establish how the empirical evidence accumulation approach is able to provide parameter results that are informative to leading psycholinguistic theory, and that motivate future theoretical development. PMID:26375509

  6. Evidence of aluminium accumulation in aluminium welders.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Ahrengart, L; Lidums, V; Pettersson, E; Sjögren, B

    1991-01-01

    Using atomic absorption spectrometry the aluminium concentrations in blood and urine and in two iliac bone biopsies obtained from welders with long term exposure to fumes containing aluminium were measured. The urinary excretion of two workers who had welded for 20 and 21 years varied between 107 and 351 micrograms Al/l, more than 10 times the concentration found in persons without occupational exposure. Urinary aluminium excretion remained high many years after stopping exposure. Blood and bone aluminium concentrations (4-53 micrograms Al/l and 18-29 micrograms Al/g respectively) were also raised but not to the same extent as urine excretion. It is concluded that long term exposure to aluminium by inhalation gives rise to accumulation of aluminium in the body and skeleton of health persons, and that the elimination of retained aluminium is very slow, in the order of several years. PMID:1954151

  7. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  8. Neural evidence accumulation persists after choice to inform metacognitive judgments

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R; Robertson, Ian H; Harty, Siobhán; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2015-01-01

    The ability to revise one’s certainty or confidence in a preceding choice is a critical feature of adaptive decision-making but the neural mechanisms underpinning this metacognitive process have yet to be characterized. In the present study, we demonstrate that the same build-to-threshold decision variable signal that triggers an initial choice continues to evolve after commitment, and determines the timing and accuracy of self-initiated error detection reports by selectively representing accumulated evidence that the preceding choice was incorrect. We also show that a peri-choice signal generated in medial frontal cortex provides a source of input to this post-decision accumulation process, indicating that metacognitive judgments are not solely based on the accumulation of feedforward sensory evidence. These findings impart novel insights into the generative mechanisms of metacognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11946.001 PMID:26687008

  9. Conscious and Nonconscious Processes:Distinct Forms of Evidence Accumulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaene, Stanislas

    Among the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which ones are associated specifically with conscious perception, and which merely reflect nonconscious processing? Understanding the neuronal mechanisms of consciousness is a major challenge for cognitive neuroscience. Recently, progress has been achieved by contrasting behavior and brain activation in minimally different experimental conditions, one of which leads to conscious perception whereas the other does not. This chapter reviews briefly this line of research and speculates on its theoretical interpretation. I propose to draw links between evidence accumulation models, which are highly successful in capturing elementary psychophysical decisions, and the conscious/nonconscious dichotomy. In this framework, conscious access would correspond to the crossing of a threshold in evidence accumulation within a distributed global workspace, a set of recurrently connected neurons with long axons that is able to integrate and broadcast back evidence from multiple brain processors. During nonconscious processing, evidence would be accumulated locally within specialized subcircuits, but would fail to reach the threshold needed for global ignition and, therefore, conscious reportability.

  10. Interference effects of choice on confidence: Quantum characteristics of evidence accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Peter D; Pleskac, Timothy J; Yu, Shuli; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-08-25

    Decision-making relies on a process of evidence accumulation which generates support for possible hypotheses. Models of this process derived from classical stochastic theories assume that information accumulates by moving across definite levels of evidence, carving out a single trajectory across these levels over time. In contrast, quantum decision models assume that evidence develops over time in a superposition state analogous to a wavelike pattern and that judgments and decisions are constructed by a measurement process by which a definite state of evidence is created from this indefinite state. This constructive process implies that interference effects should arise when multiple responses (measurements) are elicited over time. We report such an interference effect during a motion direction discrimination task. Decisions during the task interfered with subsequent confidence judgments, resulting in less extreme and more accurate judgments than when no decision was elicited. These results provide qualitative and quantitative support for a quantum random walk model of evidence accumulation over the popular Markov random walk model. We discuss the cognitive and neural implications of modeling evidence accumulation as a quantum dynamic system. PMID:26261322

  11. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  12. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named "auditory streaming". Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally.

  13. Is There Neural Evidence for an Evidence Accumulation Process in Memory Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Beulen, Marijke A.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2016-01-01

    Models of evidence accumulation have been very successful at describing human decision making behavior. Recent years have also seen the first reports of neural correlates of this accumulation process. However, these studies have mostly focused on perceptual decision making tasks, ignoring the role of additional cognitive processes like memory retrieval that are crucial in real-world decisions. In this study, we tried to find a neural signature of evidence accumulation during a recognition memory task. To do this, we applied a method we have successfully used to localize evidence accumulation in scalp EEG during a perceptual decision making task. This time, however, we applied it to intracranial EEG recordings, which provide a much higher spatial resolution. We identified several brain areas where activity ramps up over time, but these neural patterns do not appear to be modulated by behavioral variables such as the amount of available evidence or response time. This casts doubt on the idea of evidence accumulation as a general decision-making mechanism underlying different types of decisions. PMID:27014024

  14. Error awareness as evidence accumulation: effects of speed-accuracy trade-off on error signaling

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marco; Yeung, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Errors in choice tasks have been shown to elicit a cascade of characteristic components in the human event-related potential (ERPs)—the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Despite the large number of studies concerned with these components, it is still unclear how they relate to error awareness as measured by overt error signaling responses. In the present study, we considered error awareness as a decision process in which evidence for an error is accumulated until a decision criterion is reached, and hypothesized that the Pe is a correlate of the accumulated decision evidence. To test the prediction that the amplitude of the Pe varies as a function of the strength and latency of the accumulated evidence for an error, we manipulated the speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) in a brightness discrimination task while participants signaled the occurrence of errors. Based on a previous modeling study, we predicted that lower speed pressure should be associated with weaker evidence for an error and, thus, with smaller Pe amplitudes. As predicted, average Pe amplitude was decreased and error signaling was impaired in a low speed pressure condition compared to a high speed pressure condition. In further analyses, we derived single-trial Pe amplitudes using a logistic regression approach. Single-trial amplitudes robustly predicted the occurrence of signaling responses on a trial-by-trial basis. These results confirm the predictions of the evidence accumulation account, supporting the notion that the Pe reflects accumulated evidence for an error and that this evidence drives the emergence of error awareness. PMID:22905027

  15. What is value—accumulated reward or evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl; Adams, Rick; Montague, Read

    2012-01-01

    Why are you reading this abstract? In some sense, your answer will cast the exercise as valuable—but what is value? In what follows, we suggest that value is evidence or, more exactly, log Bayesian evidence. This implies that a sufficient explanation for valuable behavior is the accumulation of evidence for internal models of our world. This contrasts with normative models of optimal control and reinforcement learning, which assume the existence of a value function that explains behavior, where (somewhat tautologically) behavior maximizes value. In this paper, we consider an alternative formulation—active inference—that replaces policies in normative models with prior beliefs about the (future) states agents should occupy. This enables optimal behavior to be cast purely in terms of inference: where agents sample their sensorium to maximize the evidence for their generative model of hidden states in the world, and minimize their uncertainty about those states. Crucially, this formulation resolves the tautology inherent in normative models and allows one to consider how prior beliefs are themselves optimized in a hierarchical setting. We illustrate these points by showing that any optimal policy can be specified with prior beliefs in the context of Bayesian inference. We then show how these prior beliefs are themselves prescribed by an imperative to minimize uncertainty. This formulation explains the saccadic eye movements required to read this text and defines the value of the visual sensations you are soliciting. PMID:23133414

  16. What is value-accumulated reward or evidence?

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Adams, Rick; Montague, Read

    2012-01-01

    Why are you reading this abstract? In some sense, your answer will cast the exercise as valuable-but what is value? In what follows, we suggest that value is evidence or, more exactly, log Bayesian evidence. This implies that a sufficient explanation for valuable behavior is the accumulation of evidence for internal models of our world. This contrasts with normative models of optimal control and reinforcement learning, which assume the existence of a value function that explains behavior, where (somewhat tautologically) behavior maximizes value. In this paper, we consider an alternative formulation-active inference-that replaces policies in normative models with prior beliefs about the (future) states agents should occupy. This enables optimal behavior to be cast purely in terms of inference: where agents sample their sensorium to maximize the evidence for their generative model of hidden states in the world, and minimize their uncertainty about those states. Crucially, this formulation resolves the tautology inherent in normative models and allows one to consider how prior beliefs are themselves optimized in a hierarchical setting. We illustrate these points by showing that any optimal policy can be specified with prior beliefs in the context of Bayesian inference. We then show how these prior beliefs are themselves prescribed by an imperative to minimize uncertainty. This formulation explains the saccadic eye movements required to read this text and defines the value of the visual sensations you are soliciting.

  17. Loess is the accumulation of dust, not evidence for aridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are valuable terrestrial archives for Quaternary climate and environmental changes. The famous sections on the Chinese Loess Plateau, for example, document the alternation of warm and humid interglacials (paleosols) and cold and more arid glacials (loess). This, at least partly, reflects the weakening of the monsoonal circulation during glacials and has led to the notion that loess in general documents more arid conditions. Paleosols, on the other hand, are often interpreted to document more humid conditions. We studied the LPS Crvenka in the Carpathian Basin, southeast Europe, which spans the full last glacial cycle, and obtained results that do not fit the above concept: (i) The analysis of plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes indicates the presence of deciduous trees and shrubs during glacials, i.e. sufficient precipitation for tree growth, whereas tree-less grass steppes seem to have prevailed during the Eemian, the last interglacial. (ii) Compound-specific deuterium analyses on the alkanes show only little changes on glacial-interglacial timescale. When compared with the isotopic enrichment of the Mediterranean Sea during the last glacial, this likely documents a combination of increased rainfall, reduced evapo-transpiration and reduced temperatures. (iii) Novel lipid biomarkers derived from soil bacteria (GDGTs, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers) also indicate humid glacials (BIT index close to 1) and more arid interglacials (BIT<0.8). Our results are in good agreement with modelling studies suggesting a southward shift of the westerlies during glacials, and aridization in the Mediterranean area in response to man-made global warming. More importantly, they remind us of an important fact: Loess is the accumulation of dust, but not (necessarily) evidence for aridity. Pedogenesis may simply not have been able to keep pace with high glacial dust accumulation rates related to intense glacial, periglacial and fluvial activity

  18. Evidence accumulation in a complex task: Making choices about concurrent multiattribute stimuli under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Palada, Hector; Neal, Andrew; Vuckovic, Anita; Martin, Russell; Samuels, Kate; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence accumulation models transform observed choices and associated response times into psychologically meaningful constructs such as the strength of evidence and the degree of caution. Standard versions of these models were developed for rapid (∼1 s) choices about simple stimuli, and have recently been elaborated to some degree to address more complex stimuli and response methods. However, these elaborations can be difficult to use with designs and measurements typically encountered in complex applied settings. We test the applicability of 2 standard accumulation models-the diffusion (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) and the linear ballistic accumulation (LBA) (Brown & Heathcote, 2008)-to data from a task representative of many applied situations: the detection of heterogeneous multiattribute targets in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator task. Despite responses taking more than 2 s and complications added by realistic features, such as a complex target classification rule, interruptions from a simultaneous UAV navigation task, and time pressured choices about several concurrently present potential targets, these models performed well descriptively. They also provided a coherent psychological explanation of the effects of decision uncertainty and workload manipulations. Our results support the wider application of standard evidence accumulation models to applied decision-making settings. PMID:26844369

  19. Evidence accumulation in a complex task: Making choices about concurrent multiattribute stimuli under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Palada, Hector; Neal, Andrew; Vuckovic, Anita; Martin, Russell; Samuels, Kate; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence accumulation models transform observed choices and associated response times into psychologically meaningful constructs such as the strength of evidence and the degree of caution. Standard versions of these models were developed for rapid (∼1 s) choices about simple stimuli, and have recently been elaborated to some degree to address more complex stimuli and response methods. However, these elaborations can be difficult to use with designs and measurements typically encountered in complex applied settings. We test the applicability of 2 standard accumulation models-the diffusion (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) and the linear ballistic accumulation (LBA) (Brown & Heathcote, 2008)-to data from a task representative of many applied situations: the detection of heterogeneous multiattribute targets in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator task. Despite responses taking more than 2 s and complications added by realistic features, such as a complex target classification rule, interruptions from a simultaneous UAV navigation task, and time pressured choices about several concurrently present potential targets, these models performed well descriptively. They also provided a coherent psychological explanation of the effects of decision uncertainty and workload manipulations. Our results support the wider application of standard evidence accumulation models to applied decision-making settings.

  20. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.9 Supporting evidence. (a) In... claims for damage to property which as been or can be economically repaired, the claimant should submit... signed receipts if payment has been made. (c) In support of claims for loss or damage to property...

  1. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.9 Supporting evidence. (a) In... claims for damage to property which as been or can be economically repaired, the claimant should submit... signed receipts if payment has been made. (c) In support of claims for loss or damage to property...

  2. The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw, A. K.; Law, M. R.; Wald, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of lung cancer in lifelong non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. DESIGN: Analysis of 37 published epidemiological studies of the risk of lung cancer (4626 cases) in non-smokers who did and did not live with a smoker. The risk estimate was compared with that from linear extrapolation of the risk in smokers using seven studies of biochemical markers of tobacco smoke intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of lung cancer in lifelong non-smokers according to whether the spouse currently smoked or had never smoked. RESULTS: The excess risk of lung cancer was 24% (95% confidence interval 13% to 36%) in non-smokers who lived with a smoker (P < 0.001). Adjustment for the effects of bias (positive and negative) and dietary confounding had little overall effect; the adjusted excess risk was 26% (7% to 47%). The dose-response relation of the risk of lung cancer with both the number of cigarettes smoked by the spouse and the duration of exposure was significant. The excess risk derived by linear extrapolation from that in smokers was 19%, similar to the direct estimate of 26%. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological and biochemical evidence on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, with the supporting evidence of tobacco specific carcinogens in the blood and urine of non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, provides compelling confirmation that breathing other people's tobacco smoke is a cause of lung cancer. PMID:9365295

  3. Evidence Accumulation and Choice Maintenance Are Dissociated in Human Perceptual Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads Lund; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decision making in monkeys relies on decision neurons, which accumulate evidence and maintain choices until a response is given. In humans, several brain regions have been proposed to accumulate evidence, but it is unknown if these regions also maintain choices. To test if accumulator regions in humans also maintain decisions we compared delayed and self-paced responses during a face/house discrimination decision making task. Computational modeling and fMRI results revealed dissociated processes of evidence accumulation and decision maintenance, with potential accumulator activations found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral insula. Potential maintenance activation spanned the frontal pole, temporal gyri, precuneus and the lateral occipital and frontal orbital cortices. Results of a quantitative reverse inference meta-analysis performed to differentiate the functions associated with the identified regions did not narrow down potential accumulation regions, but suggested that response-maintenance might rely on a verbalization of the response. PMID:26510176

  4. Evidence Accumulation and Choice Maintenance Are Dissociated in Human Perceptual Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads Lund; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decision making in monkeys relies on decision neurons, which accumulate evidence and maintain choices until a response is given. In humans, several brain regions have been proposed to accumulate evidence, but it is unknown if these regions also maintain choices. To test if accumulator regions in humans also maintain decisions we compared delayed and self-paced responses during a face/house discrimination decision making task. Computational modeling and fMRI results revealed dissociated processes of evidence accumulation and decision maintenance, with potential accumulator activations found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral insula. Potential maintenance activation spanned the frontal pole, temporal gyri, precuneus and the lateral occipital and frontal orbital cortices. Results of a quantitative reverse inference meta-analysis performed to differentiate the functions associated with the identified regions did not narrow down potential accumulation regions, but suggested that response-maintenance might rely on a verbalization of the response.

  5. Action Planning and the Timescale of Evidence Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Pfeffer, Thomas; Jentgens, Pia; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are based on the temporal integration of sensory evidence for different states of the outside world. The timescale of this integration process varies widely across behavioral contexts and individuals, and it is diagnostic for the underlying neural mechanisms. In many situations, the decision-maker knows the required mapping between perceptual evidence and motor response (henceforth termed "sensory-motor contingency") before decision formation. Here, the integrated evidence can be directly translated into a motor plan and, indeed, neural signatures of the integration process are evident as build-up activity in premotor brain regions. In other situations, however, the sensory-motor contingencies are unknown at the time of decision formation. We used behavioral psychophysics and computational modeling to test if knowledge about sensory-motor contingencies affects the timescale of perceptual evidence integration. We asked human observers to perform the same motion discrimination task, with or without trial-to-trial variations of the mapping between perceptual choice and motor response. When the mapping varied, it was either instructed before or after the stimulus presentation. We quantified the timescale of evidence integration under these different sensory-motor mapping conditions by means of two approaches. First, we analyzed subjects' discrimination threshold as a function of stimulus duration. Second, we fitted a dynamical decision-making model to subjects' choice behavior. The results from both approaches indicated that observers (i) integrated motion information for several hundred ms, (ii) used a shorter than optimal integration timescale, and (iii) used the same integration timescale under all sensory-motor mappings. We conclude that the mechanisms limiting the timescale of perceptual decisions are largely independent from long-term learning (under fixed mapping) or rapid acquisition (under variable mapping) of sensory-motor contingencies

  6. 20 CFR 404.750 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 404.750... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.750 Evidence of a parent's support. If you apply for parent's benefits, we will ask you for evidence to show that...

  7. Silica uptake by Spartina—evidence of multiple modes of accumulation from salt marshes around the world

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Joanna C.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) plays a critical role in plant functional ecology, protecting plants from multiple environmental stressors. While all terrestrial plants contain some Si, wetland grasses are frequently found to have the highest concentrations, although the mechanisms driving Si accumulation in wetland grasses remain in large part uncertain. For example, active Si accumulation is often assumed to be responsible for elevated Si concentrations found in wetland grasses. However, life stage and differences in Si availability in the surrounding environment also appear to be important variables controlling the Si concentrations of wetland grasses. Here we used original data from five North American salt marshes, as well as all known published literature values, to examine the primary drivers of Si accumulation in Spartina, a genus of prolific salt marsh grasses found worldwide. We found evidence of multiple modes of Si accumulation in Spartina, with passive accumulation observed in non-degraded marshes where Spartina was native, while rejective accumulation was found in regions where Spartina was invasive. Evidence of active accumulation was found in only one marsh where Spartina was native, but was also subjected to nutrient over-enrichment. We developed a conceptual model which hypothesizes that the mode of Si uptake by Spartina is dependent on local environmental factors and genetic origin, supporting the idea that plant species should be placed along a spectrum of Si accumulation. We hypothesize that Spartina exhibits previously unrecognized phenotypic plasticity with regard to Si accumulation, allowing these plants to respond to changes in marsh condition. These results provide new insight regarding how salt marsh ecosystems regulate Si exchange at the land-sea interface. PMID:24904599

  8. Evidence supporting early nutritional support with parenteral amino acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C; Poindexter, Brenda B

    2007-04-01

    Postnatal growth of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains poor and does not come close to approximating rates of in utero growth. There is good evidence that early deficiencies in protein may be an important contributor to the poor growth outcomes observed in this population. Protein losses are inversely related to gestational age, and ELBW infants lose 1% to 2% of their total endogenous body protein stores each day that they receive glucose alone. It is now abundantly clear from a variety of studies that providing intravenous amino acids to sick premature infants in early postnatal life can improve protein balance and can increase protein accretion, even at low caloric intakes. Provision of approximately 1 g/kg/day of amino acids will result in a net protein balance close to zero, whereas delivery of 3 g/kg/day will accomplish protein accretion. Although data from metabolic studies, observational studies, and even a few randomized clinical trials overwhelmingly support the short-term safety and efficacy of early amino acids in reversing protein loss, there is much less known about the effects of early amino acid administration on longer-term outcomes such as growth and neurodevelopment in extremely premature infants. Based on the sum of currently available evidence presented, providing ELBW infants with 2.5 to 3.5 g/kg/day of intravenous amino acids as soon as possible after birth is a reasonable recommendation. Future studies are required to determine whether provision of 3 to 3.5 g/kg/day of amino acids is "aggressive" enough for optimal growth and neurodevelopmental outcome of ELBW infants.

  9. 20 CFR 219.57 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 219.57... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.57 Evidence of a parent's support. (a) The Board will require the parent's signed statement showing his or her income, any other sources of...

  10. First evidence of accumulation in cyanobacteria of guanidinoacetate, a precursor of the toxin cylindrospermopsin.

    PubMed

    Barón-Sola, Ángel; Sanz-Alférez, Soledad; del Campo, Francisca F

    2015-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is one of the most extensively studied toxic guanidine compounds. Changes in GAA can affect the nervous system and induce hyperhomocysteinemia, representing a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In cyanobacteria, GAA is thought to be an intermediate in the synthesis of the toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN), one of the most common known cyanotoxins that affects multiple organs and functions in animals and plants. In spite of the evidence supporting GAA toxicity and its role in CYN synthesis, no data have been reported on the accumulation of GAA in any cyanobacterium. We have analyzed and compared the content of GAA in cultures of diverse cyanobacteria types, both cylindrospermopsin producing (CYN(+)) and not producing (CYN(-)). The results obtained show that GAA accumulates in the majority of the strains tested, although the highest content was found in one of the CYN(+) strain, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum UAM-MAO. In this strain, both GAA and CYN can be located within and out the cells. In conclusion, GAA appears to be a general cyanobacterial metabolite that due to its proven toxic should be considered when studying and managing cyanobacteria toxicity.

  11. Perception as Evidence Accumulation and Bayesian Inference: Insights from Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    The authors argue that perception is Bayesian inference based on accumulation of noisy evidence and that, in masked priming, the perceptual system is tricked into treating the prime and the target as a single object. Of the 2 algorithms considered for formalizing how the evidence sampled from a prime and target is combined, only 1 was shown to be…

  12. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.9 Supporting... support of claims for damage to property which as been or can be economically repaired, the claimant... itemized signed receipts if payment has been made. (c) In support of claims for loss or damage to...

  13. Rhythmic fluctuations in evidence accumulation during decision making in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Wyart, Valentin; de Gardelle, Vincent; Scholl, Jacqueline; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Summary Categorical choices are preceded by the accumulation of sensory evidence in favour of one action or another. Current models describe evidence accumulation as a continuous process occurring at a constant rate, but this view is inconsistent with accounts of a psychological refractory period during sequential information processing. During multi-sample perceptual categorisation, we found that the neural encoding of momentary evidence in human electrical brain signals and its subsequent impact on choice fluctuated rhythmically according to the phase of ongoing parietal delta oscillations (1-3 Hz). By contrast, lateralised beta-band power (10-30 Hz) overlying human motor cortex encoded the integrated evidence as a response preparation signal. These findings draw a clear distinction between central and motor stages of perceptual decision making, with successive samples of sensory evidence competing to pass through a serial processing bottleneck before being mapped onto action. PMID:23177968

  14. 20 CFR 404.750 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 404.750 Section 404.750 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.750 Evidence of...

  15. 20 CFR 404.750 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 404.750 Section 404.750 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... parent's support. If you apply for parent's benefits, we will ask you for evidence to show that...

  16. Biochemical evidence supporting the Cortina criteria.

    PubMed

    von Werder, K

    2005-01-01

    Whether acromegaly is inactive or active, respectively cured or not cured depends on the GH suppressibility and the basal IGF-I level. According to the Cortina criteria, GH suppression after oral ingestion of 75 g glucose to <1 microg/l using conventional polyclonal immunoassays and an IGF-I level within the age-matched normal range are regarded as evidence of good control of acromegaly. According to more recent publications, mortality, which is increased in active acromegaly, is normalized when GH and IGF-I levels have become normal as defined above. Morbidity, i.e. typical features of acromegaly like cardiac problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, carbohydrate intolerance, and excessive sweating may also improve though painful arthropathy, and coarse facial features usually remain unaltered even if the biochemistry has been completely normalized. Using more sensitive GH assays, a group of acromegalic patients was shown to have normal IGF-I levels after surgery, with post-glucose levels of GH <1 microg/l but >0.14 microg/l, which is the upper level of normal subjects and of a second group of successfully operated acromegalic patients. The latter group also had slightly lower IGF-I levels, though such levels were normal in both groups. Whether this may indicate that these patients who have higher GH levels after oral glucose measured with the more sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) will more likely develop recurrences remains to be demonstrated in a larger cohort. According to the criteria put forward in Cortina d'Ampezzo in February 1999, all patients who have post-glucose GH levels <1 microg/l and normal age-matched IGF-I levels have to be regarded as well controlled, i.e. sufficiently treated. Because of lack of evidence, there is at present no reason to change the consensus reached there.

  17. Ultrastructural evidence for iron accumulation within the tube of Vestimentiferan Ridgeia piscesae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yao, Huiqiang; Li, Jiangtao; Wu, Zijun

    2009-10-01

    This study reports on the accumulation of iron within the tube wall of the deep sea vent macro invertebrate Vestimentiferan Ridgeia piscesae collected from Juan de Fuca ridge. Combining an array of approaches including environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray microanalysis (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), we provide evidences for the influence of prokaryotic organisms on the accumulation of metals on and within the tube wall. Two types of iron-rich minerals such as iron oxides and framboidal pyrites are identified within or on the tube wall. Our results reveal the presence of prokaryotic organism is apparently responsible for the early accumulation of iron-rich minerals in the tube wall. The implications of the biomineralisation of iron in tube wall at hydrothermal vents are discussed. PMID:19199091

  18. Ultrastructural evidence for iron accumulation within the tube of Vestimentiferan Ridgeia piscesae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yao, Huiqiang; Li, Jiangtao; Wu, Zijun

    2009-10-01

    This study reports on the accumulation of iron within the tube wall of the deep sea vent macro invertebrate Vestimentiferan Ridgeia piscesae collected from Juan de Fuca ridge. Combining an array of approaches including environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray microanalysis (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), we provide evidences for the influence of prokaryotic organisms on the accumulation of metals on and within the tube wall. Two types of iron-rich minerals such as iron oxides and framboidal pyrites are identified within or on the tube wall. Our results reveal the presence of prokaryotic organism is apparently responsible for the early accumulation of iron-rich minerals in the tube wall. The implications of the biomineralisation of iron in tube wall at hydrothermal vents are discussed.

  19. 14 CFR 1261.107 - Evidence in support of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.107 Evidence in support of claim. (a... repair for property which has been repaired, or one or more written estimates of the cost of repairs...

  20. Sources of noise during accumulation of evidence in unrestrained and voluntarily head-restrained rats

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Benjamin B; Constantinople, Christine M; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Tank, David W; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is often characterized by substantial variability, but its source remains unclear. We developed a visual accumulation of evidence task designed to quantify sources of noise and to be performed during voluntary head restraint, enabling cellular resolution imaging in future studies. Rats accumulated discrete numbers of flashes presented to the left and right visual hemifields and indicated the side that had the greater number of flashes. Using a signal-detection theory-based model, we found that the standard deviation in their internal estimate of flash number scaled linearly with the number of flashes. This indicates a major source of noise that, surprisingly, is not consistent with the widely used 'drift-diffusion modeling' (DDM) approach but is instead closely related to proposed models of numerical cognition and counting. We speculate that this form of noise could be important in accumulation of evidence tasks generally. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11308.001 PMID:26673896

  1. The nitrogen legacy: emerging evidence of nitrogen accumulation in anthropogenic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; Veenstra, J. J.; Burras, C. L.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed and global-scale nitrogen (N) budgets indicate that the majority of the N surplus in anthropogenic landscapes does not reach the coastal oceans. While there is general consensus that this ‘missing’ N either exits the landscape via denitrification or is retained within watersheds as nitrate or organic N, the relative magnitudes of these pools and fluxes are subject to considerable uncertainty. Our study, for the first time, provides direct, large-scale evidence of N accumulation in the root zones of agricultural soils that may account for much of the ‘missing N’ identified in mass balance studies. We analyzed long-term soil data (1957-2010) from 2069 sites throughout the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) to reveal N accumulation in cropland of 25-70 kg ha-1 yr-1, a total of 3.8 ± 1.8 Mt yr-1 at the watershed scale. We then developed a simple modeling framework to capture N depletion and accumulation dynamics under intensive agriculture. Using the model, we show that the observed accumulation of soil organic N (SON) in the MRB over a 30 year period (142 Tg N) would lead to a biogeochemical lag time of 35 years for 99% of legacy SON, even with complete cessation of fertilizer application. By demonstrating that agricultural soils can act as a net N sink, the present work makes a critical contribution towards the closing of watershed N budgets.

  2. Evidence-based practice: developing mentors to support students.

    PubMed

    Barry, Debbie; Houghton, Trish; Warburton, Tyler

    2016-08-17

    This article, the ninth in a series of 11, provides guidance for new and established mentors and practice teachers on evidence-based practice, the seventh domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). Evidence-based practice is an important aspect of contemporary healthcare and is central to student preparation programmes for nursing, midwifery and specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN). The article describes evidence-based practice, discussing the importance and implementation of an evidence-based approach in the context of role development for mentors and practice teachers in the preparation of nursing, midwifery and SCPHN students. PMID:27533414

  3. Using Time-Varying Evidence to Test Models of Decision Dynamics: Bounded Diffusion vs. the Leaky Competing Accumulator Model.

    PubMed

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L; Usher, Marius

    2012-01-01

    When people make decisions, do they give equal weight to evidence arriving at different times? A recent study (Kiani et al., 2008) using brief motion pulses (superimposed on a random moving dot display) reported a primacy effect: pulses presented early in a motion observation period had a stronger impact than pulses presented later. This observation was interpreted as supporting the bounded diffusion (BD) model and ruling out models in which evidence accumulation is subject to leakage or decay of early-arriving information. We use motion pulses and other manipulations of the timing of the perceptual evidence in new experiments and simulations that support the leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model as an alternative to the BD model. While the LCA does include leakage, we show that it can exhibit primacy as a result of competition between alternatives (implemented via mutual inhibition), when the inhibition is strong relative to the leak. Our experiments replicate the primacy effect when participants must be prepared to respond quickly at the end of a motion observation period. With less time pressure, however, the primacy effect is much weaker. For 2 (out of 10) participants, a primacy bias observed in trials where the motion observation period is short becomes weaker or reverses (becoming a recency effect) as the observation period lengthens. Our simulation studies show that primacy is equally consistent with the LCA or with BD. The transition from primacy-to-recency can also be captured by the LCA but not by BD. Individual differences and relations between the LCA and other models are discussed.

  4. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates.

  5. Demystifying "free will": the role of contextual information and evidence accumulation for predictive brain activity.

    PubMed

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten; Soon, Chun Siong; Bode, Philipp; Stahl, Jutta; Smith, Philip L

    2014-11-01

    Novel multivariate pattern classification analyses have enabled the prediction of decision outcomes from brain activity prior to decision-makers' reported awareness. These findings are often discussed in relation to the philosophical concept of "free will". We argue that these studies demonstrate the role of unconscious processes in simple free choices, but they do not inform the philosophical debate. Moreover, these findings are difficult to relate to cognitive decision-making models, due to misleading assumptions about random choices. We review evidence suggesting that sequential-sampling models, which assume accumulation of evidence towards a decision threshold, can also be applied to free decisions. If external evidence is eliminated by the task instructions, decision-makers might use alternative, subtle contextual information as evidence, such as their choice history, that is not consciously monitored and usually concealed by the experimental design. We conclude that the investigation of neural activity patterns associated with free decisions should aim to investigate how decisions are jointly a function of internal and external contexts, rather than to resolve the philosophical "free will" debate.

  6. Distinct effects of prefrontal and parietal cortex inactivations on an accumulation of evidence task in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Jeffrey C; Brunton, Bingni W; Duan, Chunyu A; Hanks, Timothy D; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Numerous brain regions have been shown to have neural correlates of gradually accumulating evidence for decision-making, but the causal roles of these regions in decisions driven by accumulation of evidence have yet to be determined. Here, in rats performing an auditory evidence accumulation task, we inactivated the frontal orienting fields (FOF) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), two rat cortical regions that have neural correlates of accumulating evidence and that have been proposed as central to decision-making. We used a detailed model of the decision process to analyze the effect of inactivations. Inactivation of the FOF induced substantial performance impairments that were quantitatively best described as an impairment in the output pathway of an evidence accumulator with a long integration time constant (>240 ms). In contrast, we found a minimal role for PPC in decisions guided by accumulating auditory evidence, even while finding a strong role for PPC in internally-guided decisions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05457.001 PMID:25869470

  7. Tools to support evidence-informed public health decision making

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health professionals are increasingly expected to engage in evidence-informed decision making to inform practice and policy decisions. Evidence-informed decision making involves the use of research evidence along with expertise, existing public health resources, knowledge about community health issues, the local context and community, and the political climate. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools has identified a seven step process for evidence-informed decision making. Tools have been developed to support public health professionals as they work through each of these steps. This paper provides an overview of tools used in three Canadian public health departments involved in a study to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. Methods As part of a knowledge translation and exchange intervention, a Knowledge Broker worked with public health professionals to identify and apply tools for use with each of the steps of evidence-informed decision making. The Knowledge Broker maintained a reflective journal and interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of decision makers and public health professionals. This paper presents qualitative analysis of the perceived usefulness and usability of the tools. Results Tools were used in the health departments to assist in: question identification and clarification; searching for the best available research evidence; assessing the research evidence for quality through critical appraisal; deciphering the ‘actionable message(s)’ from the research evidence; tailoring messages to the local context to ensure their relevance and suitability; deciding whether and planning how to implement research evidence in the local context; and evaluating the effectiveness of implementation efforts. Decision makers provided descriptions of how the tools were used within the health departments and made suggestions for improvement. Overall, the tools were perceived as valuable for advancing

  8. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) Assurances and Obligations § 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary need....

  9. NICU nurse educators: what evidence supports your teaching strategies?

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2013-01-01

    One of our roles as nurse educators is to teach best practices related to patient care. However, have you ever stopped to think about what evidence supports your teaching strategies? Just as our patients deserve care that is based on the best available evidence, our learners also deserve education that is based on evidence.1-3 With so many advances in knowledge, technology, and even life itself, it is interesting that education has changed very little over the past 100 years. A study among 946 nurse educators documented that most teach the way they were taught.4 In addition, even after learning new strategies, educators often continue teaching in the manner they are most comfortable. However, this trend is beginning to change. Nurse educators are becoming increasingly aware of and willing to try new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators are also seeking out evidence-based teaching strategies and are becoming more involved in nursing education research.

  10. The support of human genetic evidence for approved drug indications.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew R; Tipney, Hannah; Painter, Jeffery L; Shen, Judong; Nicoletti, Paola; Shen, Yufeng; Floratos, Aris; Sham, Pak Chung; Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen; Cardon, Lon R; Whittaker, John C; Sanseau, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Over a quarter of drugs that enter clinical development fail because they are ineffective. Growing insight into genes that influence human disease may affect how drug targets and indications are selected. However, there is little guidance about how much weight should be given to genetic evidence in making these key decisions. To answer this question, we investigated how well the current archive of genetic evidence predicts drug mechanisms. We found that, among well-studied indications, the proportion of drug mechanisms with direct genetic support increases significantly across the drug development pipeline, from 2.0% at the preclinical stage to 8.2% among mechanisms for approved drugs, and varies dramatically among disease areas. We estimate that selecting genetically supported targets could double the success rate in clinical development. Therefore, using the growing wealth of human genetic data to select the best targets and indications should have a measurable impact on the successful development of new drugs.

  11. Evidence accumulation in decision making: unifying the "take the best" and the "rational" models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael D; Cummins, Tarrant D R

    2004-04-01

    An evidence accumulation model of forced-choice decision making is proposed to unify the fast and frugal take the best (TTB) model and the alternative rational (RAT) model with which it is usually contrasted. The basic idea is to treat the TTB model as a sequential-sampling process that terminates as soon as any evidence in favor of a decision is found and the rational approach as a sequential-sampling process that terminates only when all available information has been assessed. The unified TTB and RAT models were tested in an experiment in which participants learned to make correct judgments for a set of real-world stimuli on the basis of feedback, and were then asked to make additional judgments without feedback for cases in which the TTB and the rational models made different predictions. The results show that, in both experiments, there was strong intraparticipant consistency in the use of either the TTB or the rational model but large interparticipant differences in which model was used. The unified model is shown to be able to capture the differences in decision making across participants in an interpretable way and is preferred by the minimum description length model selection criterion.

  12. ART-EMAP: A neural network architecture for object recognition by evidence accumulation.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, G A; Ross, W D

    1995-01-01

    A new neural network architecture is introduced for the recognition of pattern classes after supervised and unsupervised learning. Applications include spatio-temporal image understanding and prediction and 3D object recognition from a series of ambiguous 2D views. The architecture, called ART-EMAP, achieves a synthesis of adaptive resonance theory (ART) and spatial and temporal evidence integration for dynamic predictive mapping (EMAP). ART-EMAP extends the capabilities of fuzzy ARTMAP in four incremental stages. Stage 1 introduces distributed pattern representation at a view category field. Stage 2 adds a decision criterion to the mapping between view and object categories, delaying identification of ambiguous objects when faced with a low confidence prediction. Stage 3 augments the system with a field where evidence accumulates in medium-term memory. Stage 4 adds an unsupervised learning process to fine-tune performance after the limited initial period of supervised network training. Each ART-EMAP stage is illustrated with a benchmark simulation example, using both noisy and noise-free data. PMID:18263371

  13. Evidence for gas accumulation associated with diapirism and gas hydrates at the head of the Cape Fear Slide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmuck, E.A.; Paull, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Single-channel seismic reflection profiles show evidence for areas of significant gas accumulation at the head of the Cape Fear Slide on the continental rise off North Carolina. Gas accumulation appears to occur beneath a gas hydrate seal in landward-dipping strata and in domed strata associated with diapirism. In addition, gas venting may have occurred near diapirs located at the head of the slide. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  15. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  16. Potential of biogas recirculation to enhance biomass accumulation on supporting media.

    PubMed

    Suvajittanont, W; Chaiprasert, P

    2003-06-01

    Two lab-scale anaerobic hybrid reactors (AHR) were operated to investigate the effect of recirculated biogas on the development of biomass on supporting media during the start-up. The reactor comprised of two distinct zones; sludge bed on the bottom and packed bed using nylon fiber as the media on the upper half of the reactor. Both reactors were continuously fed with cassava starch wastewater. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 0.3 to 5.5 g COD/L/day by gradually decreasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 37 to 3.5 days in two months. The biogas at 2.6 L/L/day was recirculated merely in the first month of the operation in order to allow the attached biomass to grow according to the organic matters present in the reactor at the final stage of the start up. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of over 80% was achieved throughout the study. The result demonstrated a better COD removal efficiency for the reactor with biogas recirculation, especially at low HRTs. The amounts of biomass accumulated on the media in both reactors were slightly different with 11.9 gVSS found on the one with biogas recirculation compared to 9.8 gVSS on the other. In addition, 16.3% increase of the sludge bed was achieved with biogas recirculation as opposed to 9% in the control one. The attached biomass activity test indicated a greater amount and more favorable ratio of the methanogenic bacterial group on the media with the recirculation correlating well to a relatively higher methane content in biogas. As a result, the recirculation of biogas has a potential of improving the characteristics of the AHR especially in terms of biomass accumulation.

  17. Precision and neuronal dynamics in the human posterior parietal cortex during evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Primate studies show slow ramping activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) neurons during perceptual decision-making. These findings have inspired a rich theoretical literature to account for this activity. These accounts are largely unrelated to Bayesian theories of perception and predictive coding, a related formulation of perceptual inference in the cortical hierarchy. Here, we tested a key prediction of such hierarchical inference, namely that the estimated precision (reliability) of information ascending the cortical hierarchy plays a key role in determining both the speed of decision-making and the rate of increase of PPC activity. Using dynamic causal modelling of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked responses, recorded during a simple perceptual decision-making task, we recover ramping-activity from an anatomically and functionally plausible network of regions, including early visual cortex, the middle temporal area (MT) and PPC. Precision, as reflected by the gain on pyramidal cell activity, was strongly correlated with both the speed of decision making and the slope of PPC ramping activity. Our findings indicate that the dynamics of neuronal activity in the human PPC during perceptual decision-making recapitulate those observed in the macaque, and in so doing we link observations from primate electrophysiology and human choice behaviour. Moreover, the synaptic gain control modulating these dynamics is consistent with predictive coding formulations of evidence accumulation. PMID:25512038

  18. Ice core evidence for a recent increase in snow accumulation in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Lenaerts, Jan; Sheldon, Simon Geoffrey; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of snow accumulation, a crucial component of Antarctic mass balance. Coastal areas are particularly under-represented in such records, despite their relatively high and sensitive accumulation rates. Here we present records from a 120 m ice core drilled on Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica in 2012. We date the ice core bottom back to 1745 ± 2 AD. δ18O and δD stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles, and verified independently by electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) to detect volcanic horizons. The resulting annual layer history is combined with the core density profile to calculate accumulation history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean long-term accumulation is 0.425 ± 0.035 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 (average corrected value). Reconstructed annual accumulation rates show an increase from 1955 onward to a mean value of 0.61 ± 0.02 m w.e. a-1 between 1955 and 2012. This trend is compared to other reported accumulation data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Applying the Community Earth System Model demonstrated that sea ice and atmosphere patterns largely explain the accumulation variability. This is the first and longest record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica showing a steady increase during the 20th and 21st centuries, thereby confirming modelling predictions.

  19. Lack of Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Disaster Supply Kits.

    PubMed

    Heagele, Tara N

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the available evidence in support of the effectiveness of disaster supply kits presently used in household emergency preparedness in the United States. The expectation that people should take responsibility for their own disaster preparedness has largely not taken into account contextual influences on disaster preparedness. The efficiency of current disaster supply kits used during critical postdisaster periods has not been empirically tested. Professional recommendations regarding the composition of disaster supply kits containing at least water, food, first aid, hygiene, and clothing have not been universally defined. This lack of consensus may lead to the assembling of disaster supply kits yielding suboptimal results. The use of disaster supply kits should continue to be nationally recommended, although additional research is needed to demonstrate their beneficial impact on survival and resilience after a disaster. PMID:27077362

  20. The new polio eradication end game: rationale and supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Roland W; Platt, Lauren; Mach, Ondrej; Jafari, Hamid; Aylward, R Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Polio eradication requires the removal of all polioviruses from human populations, whether wild poliovirus or those emanating from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 provides a framework for interruption of wild poliovirus transmission in remaining endemic foci and lays out a plan for the new polio end game, which includes the withdrawal of Sabin strains, starting with type 2, and the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, for risk mitigation purposes. This report summarizes the rationale and evidence that supports the policy decision to switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV and to introduce 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine into routine immunization schedules, and it describes the proposed implementation of this policy in countries using trivalent OPV.

  1. Teaching strategies to support evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Winters, Charlene A; Echeverri, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is an expected core competency of all health care clinicians regardless of discipline. Use of evidence-based practice means integrating the best research with clinical expertise and patient values to achieve optimal health outcomes. Evidence-based practice requires nurses to access and appraise evidence rapidly before integrating it into clinical practice. Role modeling and integrating the skills necessary to develop evidence-based practice into clinical and nonclinical courses is an important part in developing positive attitudes toward evidence-based practice, an essential first step to using evidence to guide practice decisions. The step-by-step approach to evidence-based practice proposed by Melnyk and colleagues provides an excellent organizing framework for teaching strategies specifically designed to facilitate nurses' knowledge and skill development in evidence-based practice.

  2. Experimental evidence for the accumulation of egg pigment in the brain cavities of Xenopus tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Kordylewski, L

    1983-07-01

    The origin and fate of darkly pigmented clusters of cells that float freely in the brain cavities of the tadpoles of Xenopus laevis have been experimentally investigated. The results point to the conclusion that the clusters are the sites of egg pigment accumulation, which remain within the brain cavities or at its walls until metamorphosis.

  3. Analysis of storage lipid accumulation in Alcanivorax borkumensis: Evidence for alternative triacylglycerol biosynthesis routes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Golyshin, Peter N; Sabirova, Julia S; Ferrer, Manuel; Timmis, Kenneth N; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, like Alcanivorax borkumensis, play a globally important role in bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination in marine ecosystems. Accumulation of storage lipids, serving as endogenous carbon and energy sources during starvation periods, might be a potential adaptation mechanism for coping with nutrient limitation, which is a frequent stress factor challenging those bacteria in their natural marine habitats. Here we report on the analysis of storage lipid biosynthesis in A. borkumensis strain SK2. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs), but not poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids), are the principal storage lipids present in this and other hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species. Although so far assumed to be a characteristic restricted to gram-positive actinomycetes, substantial accumulation of TAGs corresponding to a fatty acid content of more than 23% of the cellular dry weight is the first characteristic of large-scale de novo TAG biosynthesis in a gram-negative bacterium. The acyltransferase AtfA1 (ABO_2742) exhibiting wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) activity plays a key role in both TAG and WE biosynthesis, whereas AtfA2 (ABO_1804) was dispensable for storage lipid formation. However, reduced but still substantial residual TAG levels in atfA1 and atfA2 knockout mutants compellingly indicate the existence of a yet unknown WS/DGAT-independent alternative TAG biosynthesis route. Storage lipids of A. borkumensis were enriched in saturated fatty acids and accumulated as insoluble intracytoplasmic inclusions exhibiting great structural variety. Storage lipid accumulation provided only a slight growth advantage during short-term starvation periods but was not required for maintaining viability and long-term persistence during extended starvation phases. PMID:17122340

  4. Mechanical circulatory support devices as destination therapy—current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Stephan; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Börgermann, Jochen; Rehn, Erik; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Morshuis, Michiel; Gummert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced heart failure is an increasing problem worldwide. Nowadays, mechanical circulatory support devices (MSCD) are an established therapeutic option for terminal heart failure after exhaustion of medical and conventional surgical treatment, and are becoming a realistic alternative to heart transplantation (HTX). There are a number of different treatment options for these patients, such as bridge to transplantation (BTT), bridge to candidacy (BTC), bridge to recovery (BTR) and the destination therapy (DT) option. The latter option has become more frequent throughout the last years, due to a donor organ shortage and an increasing number of older patients with terminal heart failure who are not eligible for HTX. These factors have led to a rapidly increasing number of LVAD implantations as well as centers which perform these procedures. This has also been due to improved LVAD survival rates and quality of life following the introduction of smaller, intrapericardial and more durable continuous flow left ventricular devices. The most common complications for these patients are device-related problems, such as coagulation disorders, gastrointestinal bleeding, device related infection, pump thrombosis or cerebrovascular accidents. However, some questions still remain unanswered or under debate, such as the exact time-point for LVAD implantation. In addition, aspects such as better biocompatibility for LVADs remain a major challenge. This review will concentrate on DT for terminal heart failure and provide an overview of the current evidence for LVAD implantation in this patient group, with particular emphasis on indication and time-point of implantation, choice of LVADs, and long term outcomes and quality of life. PMID:25452913

  5. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Emily S; Laird, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. PMID:25177156

  6. The Nitrogen Legacy: Evidence of Soil Nitrogen Accumulation in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of the nitrogen (N) cycle has resulted in increased flows of reactive N, with some suggesting that planetary boundaries for maintaining human and ecosystem health have been exceeded. Persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters created by elevated concentrations of nitrate is one of the most significant impacts of such increased flows. While the need to manage these flows and their associated ecological impacts is recognized, best management practices to reduce stream N concentrations have had only limited success. Some have attributed this lack of success to an accumulation of legacy N stores from decades of fertilizer application. Nitrogen mass balance studies seem to suggest an ongoing retention of N within anthropogenic landscapes, but the exact form and location of this legacy N and the associated retention rates are subject to question. Here we introduce an unprecedented analysis of long-term soil data from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) revealing significant increases in total N (TN) content. We show that TN accumulation for the MRB accounts for 49% of net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), which complements previous work indicating that approximately 25% of net inputs are lost as riverine output. These findings significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with basin-level N retention. Further, our results demonstrate that, despite conventional wisdom of intensive agriculture leading to a depletion of TN, an accumulation of N is occurring in the deeper subsurface (25 - 100 cm) that compensates for depletion in the plow layer (0-25 cm). These legacy N stores may lead to time lags between changes in management practices and decreasing N concentrations in stream waters, thus resulting in multidecadal effects on water quality in agricultural watersheds.

  7. Preliminary Results to Support Evidence of Thermospheric Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, A.; Swinerd, G.; Lewis, H.

    Atmospheric density has an important influence in predicting the positions of satellites in low Earth orbit. For long-term predictions of satellite ephemerides, any density trend in the thermosphere would be a valuable input, not only to satellite operators, but also to studies of the future low Earth orbit environment in terms of space debris. A secular thermospheric density trend has not yet been definitively proven but predictions by Ramesh and Roble [1], along with evidence by Emmert et al. [2], strongly suggest the existence of such a phenomenon. With the ultimate goal of deriving a long-term empirical model of thermospheric cooling and contraction, the primary focus of this paper is to present preliminary results obtained to support the existing evidence for such a thermospheric contraction. There are many ways of determining atmospheric density, but inferring thermospheric density from satellite drag data is a relatively cost-effective way of gathering in-situ measurements. Given an initial satellite orbit, one approach is to use an orbital propagator to predict the satellite's state at some time ahead and then to compare that state with Two-Line Element (TLE) data at the same epoch. The difference between the semi-major axis of the satellite from the initial orbit and that after the orbit propagation is then integrated to obtain an estimate of global average density. This is the approach adopted in our new work, using a bespoke, orbital propagator that includes perturbations due to atmospheric drag, gravitational anomalies, luni-solar gravity effects and solar radiation pressure. The methods used to derive precise estimates of the ballistic coefficient of each satellite for use in the propagator are outlined, as this information is not contained explicitly in the TLE sets. In validation of the orbital propagator used in this study, Saunders et al. [3] ran simulations to predict satellite re-entry dates with satisfactory results. Now, historical satellite

  8. 20 CFR 219.56 - When evidence of a parent's support is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence of a parent's support is... a parent's support is required. If a person applies for a parent's annuity, the Board will require evidence to show that the parent received at least one-half of his or her support from the employee in...

  9. Caught on Video! Using Handheld Digital Video Cameras to Support Evidence-Based Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Nealy, Jennifer; Roland, Christine; Ryan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Engaging elementary students in evidence-based reasoning is an essential aspect of science and engineering education. Evidence-based reasoning involves students making claims (i.e., answers to questions, or solutions to problems), providing evidence to support those claims, and articulating their reasoning to connect the evidence to the claim. In…

  10. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth.

    PubMed

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Downing, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Comolli, Luis R; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-02-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III)-bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Furthermore, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA, close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated two- and three-dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The outer membranes of most cells were decorated with aggregates up to 150 nm in diameter composed of ∼3 nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well-studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L(2,3) absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)-Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed-valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension.

  11. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth

    PubMed Central

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Downing, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Comolli, Luis R; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-01-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III)-bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Furthermore, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA, close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated two- and three-dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The outer membranes of most cells were decorated with aggregates up to 150 nm in diameter composed of ∼3 nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well-studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L2,3 absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)–Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed-valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension. PMID:23038172

  12. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C.; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Comolli, Luis R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-02-04

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III) bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Further, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated 2- and 3- dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Most cells had their outer membranes decorated with up to 150 nm diameter aggregates composed of a few nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L2,3 absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)-Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell-surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension.

  13. Evidence for accumulation of Synechococcus elongatus (Cyanobacteria: Cyanophyceae) in the tissues of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Torres-Ariño, Alejandra; Girón-Cruz, Diego Ademir; Cuevas-Aguirre, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria appear to have direct relations with mollusks in several aspects. This is the first time, distinguishing Gram-negative cyanoprokaryotic Synechococcus elongatus as bright yellow-gold autofluorescence by Lillie's and Hiss' staining methods on paraffin-embedded tissues of Crassostrea gigas. Three diets: cyanoprokaryotes, cyanoprokaryotes with microalgae, and only microalgae were evaluated. Cyanoprokaryotes were intact, densely bundled, and immersed in the cytosol of the digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad of C. gigas, revealing an accumulation systemic without tissue damage observed by histology. Unexpectedly, cyanoprokaryotes were slightly most accumulated with microalgae diet by each of the tissues of the C. gigas than with any other diets. Cyanoprokaryotes tend to be in mean slightly higher in the digestive gland than in any other tissues respectively for each diet, although these values are closely similar to connective tissue. A possible order of exposure of the oyster tissues to accumulation of cyanoprokaryotes was digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad. Thereby, the digestive gland could be the major target tissue for the accumulation. Our observations provide a valuable insight regarding the ability of cyanoprokaryotes to penetrate, spread, and remain inside the oyster tissues, suggesting for S. elongatus: (1) a pre-accumulation in oyster tissues from the natural environment, (2) a phagocytosis and/or endocytosis process rather than ingestion and extracellular digestion, (3) an apparent cellular division in the cytosol of oyster tissues, (4) an apparent inter-tissue movement, and (5) a possible endosymbiosis between C. gigas and S. elongatus. Hereby, it is possible that S. elongatus have a well-developed host-endobiont relationship with oysters, and thereby support future work toward a description of the escape and spreading mechanisms of S. elongatus inside the tissues of mollusks, and put forward questions as

  14. Evidence for accumulation of Synechococcus elongatus (Cyanobacteria: Cyanophyceae) in the tissues of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Torres-Ariño, Alejandra; Girón-Cruz, Diego Ademir; Cuevas-Aguirre, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria appear to have direct relations with mollusks in several aspects. This is the first time, distinguishing Gram-negative cyanoprokaryotic Synechococcus elongatus as bright yellow-gold autofluorescence by Lillie's and Hiss' staining methods on paraffin-embedded tissues of Crassostrea gigas. Three diets: cyanoprokaryotes, cyanoprokaryotes with microalgae, and only microalgae were evaluated. Cyanoprokaryotes were intact, densely bundled, and immersed in the cytosol of the digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad of C. gigas, revealing an accumulation systemic without tissue damage observed by histology. Unexpectedly, cyanoprokaryotes were slightly most accumulated with microalgae diet by each of the tissues of the C. gigas than with any other diets. Cyanoprokaryotes tend to be in mean slightly higher in the digestive gland than in any other tissues respectively for each diet, although these values are closely similar to connective tissue. A possible order of exposure of the oyster tissues to accumulation of cyanoprokaryotes was digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad. Thereby, the digestive gland could be the major target tissue for the accumulation. Our observations provide a valuable insight regarding the ability of cyanoprokaryotes to penetrate, spread, and remain inside the oyster tissues, suggesting for S. elongatus: (1) a pre-accumulation in oyster tissues from the natural environment, (2) a phagocytosis and/or endocytosis process rather than ingestion and extracellular digestion, (3) an apparent cellular division in the cytosol of oyster tissues, (4) an apparent inter-tissue movement, and (5) a possible endosymbiosis between C. gigas and S. elongatus. Hereby, it is possible that S. elongatus have a well-developed host-endobiont relationship with oysters, and thereby support future work toward a description of the escape and spreading mechanisms of S. elongatus inside the tissues of mollusks, and put forward questions as

  15. Lifespan mercury accumulation pattern in Liza aurata : Evidence from two southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, S.; Oliveira, H.; Coelho, J. P.; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Mercury accumulation throughout the lifespan of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) was analysed in four tissues (muscle, gills, liver and brain) in two southern European coastal ecosystems with distinct mercury contamination. Specimens from four to five age classes were captured in two sampling sites in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay and Mira), a system historically contaminated by industrial mercury, and in one site in the Mondego estuary, assumed as a mercury-free ecosystem. Mercury concentration in all tissues was found to be significantly higher in the Ria de Aveiro (Laranjo bay) compared to the Mondego, in accordance with the environmental contamination (water, sediments and suspended particulate matter). Significant differences inside the Ria de Aveiro (between the Mira and Laranjo bay) were only detected in the liver. This tissue registered the highest levels of mercury (ranging from 0.11 to 4.2 μg g -1 ) in all sampling sites, followed by muscle, brain, and gills. In all sampling sites and tissues was denoted a mercury dilution pattern along the lifecycle (except in liver at the Mondego, the reference area where the concentrations are always very low). An exponential trend was found in the metal age variation patterns in Laranjo (the most contaminated area) and a linear trend in the Mira and the Mondego (the least contaminated areas). Organic mercury concentration in muscle generally accounted for over 95% of total mercury concentration, and followed the same accumulation pattern of total mercury. This fish species is of lesser importance in mercury transfer to adjacent coastal areas and although the consumption of fish from Laranjo may present some risk for the humans, this risk decreases with fish age/size.

  16. New Evidence: Data Documenting Parental Support for Earlier Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. Methods: As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the…

  17. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfide concentration of fluids in hydrothermal ecosystems is one of several factors determining the transition to microbial photosynthesis (Cox et al., 2011, Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351). To investigate the loss of sulfide in Yellowstone hot spring systems, measurements of total dissolved sulfide with respect to time were made in incubation experiments conducted on 0.2-micron filtered (killed controls) vs. unfiltered hot spring water at locations with three different pH:sulfide combinations (pH 2.5 with 50 μM sulfide, 5.2 with 5.6 μM sulfide, and 8.3 with 86 μM sulfide). At the higher pH values, the experiments yielded similar rates of sulfide loss in filtered and unfiltered water of approximately 0.8 (pH 5.2) and 7.6 nmol sulfide L-1s-1 (pH 8.3). At the acidic spring, the unfiltered water lost sulfide at a rate 1.6 times that of the filtered water (8.2 vs. 5 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). These results suggest that the pelagic biomass at the pH 5.2 and 8.3 springs may not affect sulfide loss, whereas in the pH 2.5 spring there appears to be an effect. In addition, the incubation of filamentous biomass with unfiltered water increased the rate of sulfide loss by approximately two-fold at a pH of 2.5 (59 vs. 31 nmol L-1s-1; Cox et al., 2011), five-fold at a pH of 5.2 (3.9 vs. 0.8 nmol sulfide L-1s-1), and barely increased the rate of sulfide loss at a pH of 8.3 (9.1 vs. 8.4 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). Sulfide is predominately present as HS- at a pH of 8.3, which may not be taken up as easily by microorganisms as the H2S (aq) that dominates sulfide speciation at pH 2.5 and 5.2. That the loss of sulfide at acidic pH is due to biotic rather than abiotic factors is further supported by studies with whole mat samples that show greater sulfide consumption than killed controls (D'Imperio et al., 2008, AEM 74, 5802-5808). Taken together, the results of these experiments suggest that the majority of sulfide oxidation occurs in the filamentous biomass of hot spring ecosystems, although

  18. The Thylakoid Membrane Protein CGL160 Supports CF1CF0 ATP Synthase Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Rikard; Martins, Nádia Figueira; Strenkert, Daniela; Clarke, Cornelia A.; Suchoszek, Monika; Thiele, Wolfram; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the major thylakoid protein complexes of the photosynthetic apparatus requires auxiliary proteins supporting individual assembly steps. Here, we identify a plant lineage specific gene, CGL160, whose homolog, atp1, co-occurs with ATP synthase subunits in an operon-like arrangement in many cyanobacteria. Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutants, which no longer accumulate the nucleus-encoded CGL160 protein, accumulate less than 25% of wild-type levels of the chloroplast ATP synthase. Severe cosmetic or growth phenotypes result under either short day or fluctuating light growth conditions, respectively, but this is ameliorated under long day constant light growth conditions where the growth, ATP synthase activity and photosynthetic electron transport of the mutants are less affected. Accumulation of other photosynthetic complexes is largely unaffected in cgl160 mutants, suggesting that CGL160 is a specific assembly or stability factor for the CF1CF0 complex. CGL160 is not found in the mature assembled complex but it does interact specifically with subunits of ATP synthase, predominantly those in the extrinsic CF1 sub-complex. We suggest therefore that it may facilitate the assembly of CF1 into the holocomplex. PMID:25835989

  19. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, C.; Demory, F.; Canut, V.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.

    2011-03-01

    An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  20. No Evidence of Elevated Germline Mutation Accumulation Under Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner-Matos, Joanna; Bean, Laura C.; Richardson, Heidi L.; Sammeli, Tammy; Baer, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in rates of molecular evolution has been attributed to numerous, interrelated causes, including metabolic rate, body size, and generation time. Speculation concerning the influence of metabolic rate on rates of evolution often invokes the putative mutagenic effects of oxidative stress. To isolate the effects of oxidative stress on the germline from the effects of metabolic rate, generation time, and other factors, we allowed mutations to accumulate under relaxed selection for 125 generations in two strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the canonical wild-type strain (N2) and a mutant strain with elevated steady-state oxidative stress (mev-1). Contrary to our expectation, the mutational decline in fitness did not differ between N2 and mev-1. This result suggests that the mutagenic effects of oxidative stress in C. elegans are minor relative to the effects of other types of mutations, such as errors during DNA replication. However, mev-1 MA lines did go extinct more frequently than wild-type lines; some possible explanations for the difference in extinction rate are discussed. PMID:21979932

  1. Eye-hand coordination during a double-step task: evidence for a common stochastic accumulator.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Atul; Murthy, Aditya

    2015-09-01

    Many studies of reaching and pointing have shown significant spatial and temporal correlations between eye and hand movements. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether these correlations are incidental, arising from common inputs (independent model); whether these correlations represent an interaction between otherwise independent eye and hand systems (interactive model); or whether these correlations arise from a single dedicated eye-hand system (common command model). Subjects were instructed to redirect gaze and pointing movements in a double-step task in an attempt to decouple eye-hand movements and causally distinguish between the three architectures. We used a drift-diffusion framework in the context of a race model, which has been previously used to explain redirect behavior for eye and hand movements separately, to predict the pattern of eye-hand decoupling. We found that the common command architecture could best explain the observed frequency of different eye and hand response patterns to the target step. A common stochastic accumulator for eye-hand coordination also predicts comparable variances, despite significant difference in the means of the eye and hand reaction time (RT) distributions, which we tested. Consistent with this prediction, we observed that the variances of the eye and hand RTs were similar, despite much larger hand RTs (∼90 ms). Moreover, changes in mean eye RTs, which also increased eye RT variance, produced a similar increase in mean and variance of the associated hand RT. Taken together, these data suggest that a dedicated circuit underlies coordinated eye-hand planning.

  2. Evidence in Support of a Scalar Implicature Account of Plurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patson, Nikole D.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the plural is semantically unmarked for number such that a plural can be interpreted as meaning "at least one." The 2 experiments reported here used a picture matching paradigm to investigate the conceptual representations built during the comprehension of sentences with plural definite descriptions…

  3. Testimony and Evidence To Support Small Classes, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    This testimonial presents evidence that reduced class size (CSR) has positive effects on student learning in grades K-3. Student achievement is improved in the areas of academics, behavior and discipline, citizenship and participation in and outside school, and development into competent and productive adults. The paper emphasizes that class size…

  4. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  5. Error awareness revisited: accumulation of multimodal evidence from central and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The differences between erroneous actions that are consciously perceived as errors and those that go unnoticed have recently become an issue in the field of performance monitoring. In EEG studies, error awareness has been suggested to influence the error positivity (Pe) of the response-locked event-related brain potential, a positive voltage deflection prominent approximately 300 msec after error commission, whereas the preceding error-related negativity (ERN) seemed to be unaffected by error awareness. Erroneous actions, in general, have been shown to promote several changes in ongoing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, yet such investigations have only rarely taken into account the question of subjective error awareness. In the first part of this study, heart rate, pupillometry, and EEG were recorded during an antisaccade task to measure autonomic arousal and activity of the CNS separately for perceived and unperceived errors. Contrary to our expectations, we observed differences in both Pe and ERN with respect to subjective error awareness. This was replicated in a second experiment, using a modified version of the same task. In line with our predictions, only perceived errors provoke the previously established post-error heart rate deceleration. Also, pupil size yields a more prominent dilatory effect after an erroneous saccade, which is also significantly larger for perceived than unperceived errors. On the basis of the ERP and ANS results as well as brain-behavior correlations, we suggest a novel interpretation of the implementation and emergence of error awareness in the brain. In our framework, several systems generate input signals (e.g., ERN, sensory input, proprioception) that influence the emergence of error awareness, which is then accumulated and presumably reflected in later potentials, such as the Pe.

  6. [Evidence on support during labor and delivery: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Osis, Maria José Duarte

    2005-01-01

    The effects of support for women during labor and delivery provided by health professionals, lay women, and doulas on the maternal and neonatal outcomes have been evaluated through randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. This article presents a review of these studies, focusing on the principal characteristics, support provider, simultaneous presence of the woman's spouse and/or family members during labor and delivery and the outcomes. The analysis included studies published from 1980 to 2004 which explicitly approached these aspects. In general, the results of such support were favorable, highlighting a reduction in the cesarean rate, analgesia/ medication for pain relief, duration of labor, and utilization of oxytocin and an increase in maternal satisfaction with the experience. The benefits were greater when the support provider was not a health professional. The available studies did not evaluate the specific companion chosen by the woman as a support provider, which constitutes a gap in the knowledge that should be filled by future research.

  7. Accumulation and effect of volatile organic compounds in closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) being considered for long duration space missions will operate with limited resupply and utilize biological systems to revitalize the atmosphere, purify water, and produce food. The presence of man-made materials, plant and microbial communities, and human activities will result in the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A database of VOC production from potential BLSS crops is being developed by the Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center. Most research to date has focused on the development of air revitalization systems that minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants in a closed environment. Similar approaches are being pursued in the design of atmospheric revitalization systems in bioregenerative life support systems. In a BLSS one must consider the effect of VOC concentration on the performance of plants being used for water and atmospheric purification processes. In addition to phytotoxic responses, the impact of removing biogenic compounds from the atmosphere on BLSS function needs to be assessed. This paper provides a synopsis of criteria for setting exposure limits, gives an overview of existing information, and discusses production of biogenic compounds from plants grown in the Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center.

  8. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed Policymaking in health 11: Finding and using evidence about local conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Evidence about local conditions is evidence that is available from the specific setting(s) in which a decision or action on a policy or programme option will be taken. Such evidence is always needed, together with other forms of evidence, in order to inform decisions about options. Global evidence is the best starting point for judgements about effects, factors that modify those effects, and insights into ways to approach and address problems. But local evidence is needed for most other judgements about what decisions and actions should be taken. In this article, we suggest five questions that can help to identify and appraise the local evidence that is needed to inform a decision about policy or programme options. These are: 1. What local evidence is needed to inform a decision about options? 2. How can the necessary local evidence be found? 3. How should the quality of the available local evidence be assessed? 4. Are there important variations in the availability, quality or results of local evidence? 5. How should local evidence be incorporated with other information? PMID:20018101

  9. Standardized Nursing Documentation Supports Evidence-Based Nursing Management.

    PubMed

    Mykkänen, Minna; Miettinen, Merja; Saranto, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    Nursing documentation is crucial to high quality, effective and safe nursing care. According to earlier studies nursing documentation practices vary and nursing classifications used in electronic patient records (EPR) are not yet standardized internationally nor nationally. A unified national model for documenting patient care improves information flow in nursing practice, management, research and development toward evidence-based nursing care. Nursing documentation quality, accuracy and development requires follow-up and evaluation. An audit instrument is used in the Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) when evaluating nursing documentation. The results of the auditing process suggest that the national nursing documentation model fulfills nurses' expectations of electronic tools, facilitating their important documentation duty. This paper discusses the importance of using information about nursing documentation and how we can take advantage of structural information in evidence-based nursing management. PMID:27332244

  10. Geochemical evidence for modern sediment accumulation on the continental shelf off southern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Spiker, E. C.; Johnson, P. P.; Rendigs, R. R.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    An area of fine-grained sediment approximately 170 km x 74 km in size, located in water depths between 60 m and 150 m, south of Martha's Vineyard, Mass., is a site of modern sediment deposition. The 14C ages systematically increase with sediment depth from about 1,300 years B.P. at the surface to 8,000-10,000 years B.P. at the depth of maximum core penetration. The old age for the surface sediments probably results from a combination of deposition of old carbon and faunal mixing. In the finest sediments, the sedimentation rates were approximately 130 cm/1,000 yrs when deposition began and have decreased to about 25 cm/1,000 yrs. The decreasing sedimentation rate reflects a diminishing source of fine sediments, which presumably came from the Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals area. Inventories of excess 210Pb in undisturbed cores average 70 dpm/cm2 (disintegrations per minute per square centimeter), more than two times higher than the flux of 210Pb from the atmosphere and from 226Ra decay in the overlying water. This additional influx of 210Pb either must be with new fine-grained sediment material or from solutions that are stripped of their 210Pb by particulates in the bottom nepheloid layer. Stable Pb concentrations in surface sediments are about 28 ppm, as much as two times higher than concentrations at depth. The high accumulation rates, 210Pb inventories, and trace-metal profiles imply that this area is a modern sink for fine-grained sediments and for pollutants associated with particulate matter in the water column. To our knowledge, this is the only site of present-day natural deposition on the Continental Shelf off the eastern United States, exclusive of the Gulf of Maine. Because the net currents on the outer half of this Continental Shelf flow from northeast to southwest, this fine-grained deposit may receive its sediments and possible contaminants from the Nantucket Shoals and Georges Bank regions.

  11. Chronic Pain and Depression: Does the Evidence Support a Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Turner, Judith A.

    1985-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the relevant literature provides some support for an association between depression and chronic pain. Common conceptual and methodological problems are discussed. Current biological and psychological models of the mechanisms by which the two syndromes may interact are summarized, and suggestions are made for future…

  12. Play and Divergent Problem Solving: Evidence Supporting a Reciprocal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1999-01-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between specific forms of preschoolers' social and pretend play and divergent/convergent problem solving. Naturalistic and experimental designs were used to provide clearer account of relationship and to challenge assumption of single direction of influence. Results support complex reciprocal causality model…

  13. Self Directed Support and People with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Published Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkes, Mary Anne; Brown, Michael; Horsburgh, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the evidence base underpinning the strategy of Self Directed Support and whether evidence demonstrates that this policy is accessible to everyone with a learning disability. It also sought to identify whether there were any barriers to Self Directed Support for people with severe or…

  14. Target blood pressure in diabetes patients with hypertension--what is the accumulated evidence in 2011?

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter M

    2011-08-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that hypertension is an important risk factor for both macrovascular and microvascular complications in patients with diabetes, but the problem remains to identify appropriate goals for preventive therapies. A number of guidelines (the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2007, the Joint National Committee (JNC)-VII 2003, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2011) have for example advocated a blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mmHg, but this suggestion has been challenged by findings in recent trials and meta-analyses (2011). The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) therefore recommends a systolic blood pressure goal of "well below" 140 mmHg. Based on evidence from both randomized controlled trials (hypertension optimal treatment (HOT), action in diabetes and vascular disease: preterax and diamicron MR controlled evaluation (ADVANCE), action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes (ACCORD)) and observational studies (ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril global endpoint trial (ONTARGET), international verapamil-trandolapril study (INVEST), treat to new targets (TNT), and the National Diabetes Register (NDR)), it has been shown that the benefit for stroke reduction remains even at lower achieved blood pressure levels, but the risk of coronary events may be uninfluenced or even increased at lower systolic blood pressure levels. In a recent meta-analysis, it was therefore concluded that the new recommended goal should be 130-135 mmHg systolic blood pressure for most patients with type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors should also be controlled with a more ambitious strategy applied in the younger patients with shorter diabetes duration, but a more cautious approach in the elderly and frail patients with a number of vascular or non-vascular co-morbidities. In patients from East Asia, such as China, the stroke risk is relatively higher than the risk of

  15. Nitrogen starvation-induced accumulation of triacylglycerol in the green algae: evidence for a role for ROC40, a transcription factor involved in circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Elton C; Koh, Jin; Zhu, Ning; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chen, Sixue; Matsuo, Takuya; Johnson, Jodie V; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal triacylglycerol (TAG), a promising source of biofuel, is induced upon nitrogen starvation (-N), but the proteins and genes involved in this process are poorly known. We performed isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics to identify Chlorella proteins with modulated expression under short-term -N. Out of 1736 soluble proteins and 2187 membrane-associated proteins identified, 288 and 56, respectively, were differentially expressed under -N. Gene expression analysis on select genes confirmed the same direction of mRNA modulation for most proteins. The MYB-related transcription factor ROC40 was the most induced protein, with a 9.6-fold increase upon -N. In a previously generated Chlamydomonas mutant, gravimetric measurements of crude total lipids revealed that roc40 was impaired in its ability to increase the accumulation of TAG upon -N, and this phenotype was complemented when wild-type Roc40 was expressed. Results from radiotracer experiments were consistent with the roc40 mutant being comparable to the wild type in recycling membrane lipids to TAG but being impaired in additional de novo synthesis of TAG during -N stress. In this study we provide evidence to support the hypothesis that transcription factor ROC40 has a role in -N-induced lipid accumulation, and uncover multiple previously unknown proteins modulated by short-term -N in green algae. PMID:26920093

  16. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  17. Evidence in support of a scalar implicature account of plurality.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that the plural is semantically unmarked for number such that a plural can be interpreted as meaning "at least one." The 2 experiments reported here used a picture matching paradigm to investigate the conceptual representations built during the comprehension of sentences with plural definite descriptions (e.g., leaves). In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that specified that the objects in the plural were spatially distributed (scattered leaves), spatially grouped (a pile of leaves), or neutral with respect to spatial distribution. After reading the sentence, participants saw a picture that either contained multiple spatially distributed objects, multiple spatially grouped objects, or a single object. In Experiment 2, the sentential context specified a large, uncountable set size, a small set size, or was neutral with respect to set size. The picture that followed either depicted a large set size, a small set size, or a single object. Participants read each sentence and then judged whether the picture was of an object that was in the sentence. Both experiments provided evidence that even when comprehenders build detailed conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions, they have still activated the singular interpretation of the plural. These data are consistent with an account of the plural in which the plural is semantically unmarked for number and the plural meaning is derived via a scalar implicature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  19. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment.

  20. Periodontal self-care: evidence-based support.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Connie L

    2013-06-01

    The focus of this review on periodontal self-care will be based primarily on the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Based on the evidence gleaned from systematic reviews, it is notable that most authors of these reviews commented on the relatively small number of trials that could pass the quality-assessment inclusion in the systematic review. Interproximal devices, namely interproximal brushes, are more effective for reducing interproximal plaque and gingivitis than are flossing or brushing alone. Some added benefit may be attributed to the use of rotational oscillation powered toothbrushes over manual toothbrushes. Recommendations by the dentist and dental hygienist to add one or more chemotherapeutic agents to the typical oral hygiene regimen has been shown, in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to reduce the level of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients. Oral irrigation does not seem to reduce visible plaque but does tend to reduce inflammation, determined by the presence of bleeding on probing, the gingival index score and probing depth measurements. To date, high-quality evidence is either lacking or weak in some areas regarding the efficacy of self-care and periodontal disease. Low educational attainment, smoking and socio-economic status are related to adverse periodontal health outcomes. Variation in self-esteem, self-confidence and perfectionism are associated with oral health status and oral health behaviors. Better understanding of the psychological factors associated with oral hygiene would be of benefit in further developing strategies to help patients improve their oral hygiene in addition to helping professionals design better programs on prevention and education.

  1. Geochemical evidence supporting T. C. Chamberlin's theory of glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymo, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    In 1899, T.C. Chamberlin proposed that the CO{sub 2} content of the atomsphere decreased during times of enhanced continental erosion, ultimately resulting in glacial epochs. He ascribed the increase in the rate of chemical weathering (relative to the rate of supply of CO{sub 2} from Earth's interior) to increased orogenic activity and globally higher average elevations which promoted rapid chemical erosion of silicates. The oceanic record of strontium isotopes, preserved in marine sediment, supports his suggestion that glacial climates during the Phanerozoic are in part linked to increases in the rate of global chemical erosion relative to outgassing from Earth's interior. Further, the close correspondence of the major tectonic episodes of the late Cenozoic to times of increased continental erosion and glaciation suggests that Chamberlin's hypothesis of the cause of glacial periods should be revived.

  2. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds. PMID:26419321

  3. X-ray Evidence Supports Possible New Class Of Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for a significant new class of supernova has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton. These results strengthen the case for a population of stars that evolve rapidly and are destroyed by thermonuclear explosions. Such "prompt" supernovas could be valuable tools for probing the early history of the cosmos. A team of astronomers uncovered a puzzling situation when they examined X-ray data from DEM L238 and DEM L249, the remnants of two supernovas in a nearby galaxy. On the one hand, the unusually high concentration of iron atoms implied that the remnants are the products of thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, a well-known type of supernova known as Type Ia. On the other hand, the hot gas in the remnants was much denser and brighter in X-rays than typical Type Ia remnants. A white dwarf, the dense final stage in the evolution of a sun-like star, is a very stable object and will not explode on its own. However, if a white dwarf has a close companion star it can grow beyond a critical mass by pulling gas off the companion and explode. Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Computer simulations of Type Ia supernova remnants showed that the most likely explanation for the X-ray data is that the white dwarfs exploded into very dense environments. This suggests that the stars which evolved into these white dwarfs were more massive than usual, because heavier stars are known to expel more gas into their surroundings. "We know that the more massive a star is, the shorter its lifetime," said Kazimierz Borkowski of North Carolina State University, Raleigh. "If such a star could also begin to pull matter from its companion at an early stage, then this star would have a much shorter fuse and explode in only about 100 million years -- much less than other Type Ia supernovas." Other teams have independently found evidence for

  4. X-ray Evidence Supports Possible New Class Of Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for a significant new class of supernova has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton. These results strengthen the case for a population of stars that evolve rapidly and are destroyed by thermonuclear explosions. Such "prompt" supernovas could be valuable tools for probing the early history of the cosmos. A team of astronomers uncovered a puzzling situation when they examined X-ray data from DEM L238 and DEM L249, the remnants of two supernovas in a nearby galaxy. On the one hand, the unusually high concentration of iron atoms implied that the remnants are the products of thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, a well-known type of supernova known as Type Ia. On the other hand, the hot gas in the remnants was much denser and brighter in X-rays than typical Type Ia remnants. A white dwarf, the dense final stage in the evolution of a sun-like star, is a very stable object and will not explode on its own. However, if a white dwarf has a close companion star it can grow beyond a critical mass by pulling gas off the companion and explode. Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Computer simulations of Type Ia supernova remnants showed that the most likely explanation for the X-ray data is that the white dwarfs exploded into very dense environments. This suggests that the stars which evolved into these white dwarfs were more massive than usual, because heavier stars are known to expel more gas into their surroundings. "We know that the more massive a star is, the shorter its lifetime," said Kazimierz Borkowski of North Carolina State University, Raleigh. "If such a star could also begin to pull matter from its companion at an early stage, then this star would have a much shorter fuse and explode in only about 100 million years -- much less than other Type Ia supernovas." Other teams have independently found evidence for

  5. The Ganong paradigm: Converging evidence supporting initial phoneme weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Erik C.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2003-10-01

    In the present experiment we investigate whether the initial phoneme is given more weight in word recognition [W. D. Marslen-Wilson and A. Welsh, Cognit. Psych. 10, 29-63 (1978)] or if all phonemes in a word are weighted equally [C. M. Connine, D. G. Blasko, and D. Titone, J. Mem. Lang. 32, 193-210 (1993)]. Using the Ganong paradigm [W. F. Ganong, JEP:HPP. 6, 110-125 (1980)], participants were instructed to categorize a final ambiguous fricative in the target items, which included both words and pseudowords. Pseudowords were created by changing either the initial or a medial phoneme within the words. For example, the word diminish was altered to create the pseudowords timinish and dimimish. In addition, initial and medial phonemes were altered by either one or three distinctive features. The differences in the labeling of the final ambiguous fricative in the target items led to the conclusion that the initial phoneme is weighted more heavily. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  6. The theories underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy: where's the supportive evidence?

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Douglas

    2004-08-01

    This paper examines the underlying theoretical philosophy of one of the most widely used cognitive behaviour therapies, rational emotive behaviour therapy. It examines whether two central theoretical principles are supported by research evidence: firstly, that irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and inferences and that rational beliefs lead to functional emotions and inferences and, secondly, that demand beliefs are the primary core irrational belief. The established criteria for evaluating the efficacy of the theories are detailed and used to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting these two assumptions. The findings indicate there is limited evidence to support these theories.

  7. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers.

  8. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. PMID:24509365

  9. Mononuclear phagocyte accumulation in visceral tissue in HIV encephalitis: evidence for increased monocyte/macrophage trafficking and altered differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tracy; Wyatt, Christina M; D'Agati, Vivette D; Croul, Sidney; McCourt, Laura; Morgello, Susan; Rappaport, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of circulating monocytes/macrophages (MΦ)s from the peripheral blood into the central nervous system (CNS) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV dementia (HIV-D), the most severe form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), often confirmed histologically as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). In order to determine if trafficking of monocytes/MΦs is exclusive to the CNS or if it also occurs in organs outside of the brain, we have focused our investigation on visceral tissues of patients with HIVE. Liver, lymph node, spleen, and kidney autopsy tissues from the same HIVE cases investigated in earlier studies were examined by immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD14, CD16, CD68, Ki-67, and HIV-1 p24 expression. Here, we report a statistically significant increase in accumulation of MΦs in kidney, spleen, and lymph node tissues in specimens from patients with HIVE. In liver, we did not observe a significant increase in parenchymal macrophage accumulation, although perivascular macrophage accumulation was consistently observed with nodular lesions in 4 of 5 HIVE cases. We also observed an absence of CD14 expression on splenic MΦs in HIVE cases, which may implicate the spleen as a potential source of increased plasma soluble CD14 in HIV infection. HIV-1 p24 expression was observed in liver, lymph node and spleen but not kidney. Interestingly, renal pathology suggestive of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (possibly due to chronic pyelonephritis), including tubulointerstitial scarring, chronic interstitial inflammation and focal global glomerulosclerosis, without evidence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), was seen in four of eight HIVE cases. Focal segmental and global glomerulosclerosis with tubular dilatation and prominent interstitial inflammation, consistent with HIVAN, was observed in two of the eight cases. Abundant cells expressing monocyte/MΦ cell surface markers, CD14 and CD68, were also CD16(+) and found

  10. Evidence for gas accumulation beneath the surface crust driving cyclic rise and fall of the lava surface at Halema`uma`u, Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Wilson, D.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Fee, D.; Nadeau, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing eruption in Halema`uma`u crater, at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, has surpassed the two-year mark and is characterized by lava lake activity in the vent. As of August 2010, the lava lake is about 70 m in diameter and 180 m below the rim of a narrow vent cavity. Although the explosive events that typified the first year of activity have abated, episodic rise and fall of the lava surface remains common. Cycles of rise and fall range from several minutes to eight hours in duration and are characterized by a quiescent rise phase and violent, gas-charged fall, spanning a height change of 20-30 m. Several models have been proposed to explain the cyclic rise and fall of lava surfaces at basaltic volcanoes, which in some cases is referred to as “gas pistoning”. In one model, episodic rise and fall is driven by the ascent of gas slugs from depth. In another, the cyclic behavior is driven by gas accumulation beneath the surface crust, with each cycle terminated by an abrupt failure of the crust, resulting in gas release. Seismic and infrasound data, as well as gas and webcam monitoring, at Halema`uma`u over the past two years strongly support the gas accumulation model, based on several lines of evidence. First, gas emission rates drop significantly below background levels during the rise phase, and increase dramatically during the fall phase, suggesting a process of gas buildup and release as opposed to slug flow. Second, the rise phases can last several hours, which is longer than reasonable slug ascent times. Third, the rise rate decreases over time, and in many cases plateaus, as the lava reaches its high stand, which is contrary to the exponential increase expected for gas slugs. Fourth, webcam video has captured numerous instances where rockfalls piercing the surface crust initiate gas release and lava level drop, suggestive of gas accumulation at shallow levels. Lastly, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) data reveal changes in gas

  11. A Study of an Online Tool to Support Evidence-Based Practices with Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Walker, Dale; Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the effectiveness of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language promoting…

  12. Supporting Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Practice-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Fox, Lise

    2015-01-01

    In active implementation science frameworks, coaching has been described as an important competency "driver" to ensure evidence-based practices are implemented as intended. Empirical evidence also has identified coaching as a promising job-embedded professional development strategy to support implementation of quality teaching practices.…

  13. The Physics of Decision Making:. Stochastic Differential Equations as Models for Neural Dynamics and Evidence Accumulation in Cortical Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Philip; Eckhoff, Philip; Wong-Lin, K. F.; Bogacz, Rafal; Zacksenhouse, Miriam; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2010-03-01

    We describe how drift-diffusion (DD) processes - systems familiar in physics - can be used to model evidence accumulation and decision-making in two-alternative, forced choice tasks. We sketch the derivation of these stochastic differential equations from biophysically-detailed models of spiking neurons. DD processes are also continuum limits of the sequential probability ratio test and are therefore optimal in the sense that they deliver decisions of specified accuracy in the shortest possible time. This leaves open the critical balance of accuracy and speed. Using the DD model, we derive a speed-accuracy tradeoff that optimizes reward rate for a simple perceptual decision task, compare human performance with this benchmark, and discuss possible reasons for prevalent sub-optimality, focussing on the question of uncertain estimates of key parameters. We present an alternative theory of robust decisions that allows for uncertainty, and show that its predictions provide better fits to experimental data than a more prevalent account that emphasises a commitment to accuracy. The article illustrates how mathematical models can illuminate the neural basis of cognitive processes.

  14. Activity in Inferior Parietal and Medial Prefrontal Cortex Signals the Accumulation of Evidence in a Probability Learning Task

    PubMed Central

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Fornari, Eleonora; Bossaerts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In an uncertain environment, probabilities are key to predicting future events and making adaptive choices. However, little is known about how humans learn such probabilities and where and how they are encoded in the brain, especially when they concern more than two outcomes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), young adults learned the probabilities of uncertain stimuli through repetitive sampling. Stimuli represented payoffs and participants had to predict their occurrence to maximize their earnings. Choices indicated loss and risk aversion but unbiased estimation of probabilities. BOLD response in medial prefrontal cortex and angular gyri increased linearly with the probability of the currently observed stimulus, untainted by its value. Connectivity analyses during rest and task revealed that these regions belonged to the default mode network. The activation of past outcomes in memory is evoked as a possible mechanism to explain the engagement of the default mode network in probability learning. A BOLD response relating to value was detected only at decision time, mainly in striatum. It is concluded that activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex reflects the amount of evidence accumulated in favor of competing and uncertain outcomes. PMID:23401673

  15. Ecological risk and resilience perspective: a theoretical framework supporting evidence-based practice in schools.

    PubMed

    Powers, Joelle D

    2010-10-01

    Multidisciplinary school practitioners are clearly being called to use evidence-based practices from reputable sources such as their own professional organizations and federal agencies. In spite of this encouragement, most schools are not regularly employing empirically supported interventions. This paper further promotes the use of this approach by describing the theoretical support for evidence-based practice in schools. The ecological risk and resilience theoretical framework presented fills a gap in the literature and advocates for evidence-based practice in schools by illustrating how it can assist practitioners such as school social workers to better address problems associated with school failure.

  16. Ecological risk and resilience perspective: a theoretical framework supporting evidence-based practice in schools.

    PubMed

    Powers, Joelle D

    2010-10-01

    Multidisciplinary school practitioners are clearly being called to use evidence-based practices from reputable sources such as their own professional organizations and federal agencies. In spite of this encouragement, most schools are not regularly employing empirically supported interventions. This paper further promotes the use of this approach by describing the theoretical support for evidence-based practice in schools. The ecological risk and resilience theoretical framework presented fills a gap in the literature and advocates for evidence-based practice in schools by illustrating how it can assist practitioners such as school social workers to better address problems associated with school failure. PMID:21082473

  17. Consensus Recommendations for Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Evidence for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Scheife, Richard T.; Hines, Lisa E.; Boyce, Richard D.; Chung, Sophie P.; Momper, Jeremiah; Sommer, Christine D.; Abernethy, Darrell R.; Horn, John; Sklar, Stephen J.; Wong, Samantha K.; Jones, Gretchen; Brown, Mary; Grizzle, Amy J.; Comes, Susan; Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Borst, Clarissa; Wittie, Michael A.; Rich, Alissa; Malone, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations, compendia, and drug knowledgebase vendors use varying methods to evaluate and synthesize evidence on drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This situation has a negative effect on electronic prescribing and medication information systems that warn clinicians of potentially harmful medication combinations. Objective To provide recommendations for systematic evaluation of evidence from the scientific literature, drug product labeling, and regulatory documents with respect to DDIs for clinical decision support. Methods A conference series was conducted to develop a structured process to improve the quality of DDI alerting systems. Three expert workgroups were assembled to address the goals of the conference. The Evidence Workgroup consisted of 15 individuals with expertise in pharmacology, drug information, biomedical informatics, and clinical decision support. Workgroup members met via webinar from January 2013 to February 2014. Two in-person meetings were conducted in May and September 2013 to reach consensus on recommendations. Results We developed expert-consensus answers to three key questions: 1) What is the best approach to evaluate DDI evidence?; 2) What evidence is required for a DDI to be applicable to an entire class of drugs?; and 3) How should a structured evaluation process be vetted and validated? Conclusion Evidence-based decision support for DDIs requires consistent application of transparent and systematic methods to evaluate the evidence. Drug information systems that implement these recommendations should be able to provide higher quality information about DDIs in drug compendia and clinical decision support tools. PMID:25556085

  18. Contested evidence: Exposure to competing scientific claims and public support for banning bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul R; Ley, Barbara L

    2014-05-01

    The public controversy surrounding bisphenol A (BPA) revolves around competing claims about what scientific evidence shows regarding the effects of the chemical on human health. This study uses an experiment embedded within a public opinion survey to test the effects of exposure to such claims on public support for banning the use of BPA in products. Exposure to the claim that "there is not enough scientific evidence that BPA harms human health" reduced support, whereas exposure to the claim that there "is enough scientific evidence" failed to increase support. No effect emerged among those simultaneously exposed to both claims. The "not enough evidence" claim influenced less educated respondents and women but not college-educated respondents or men. Aspects of the underlying structure of opinion also differed depending on which claim(s) respondents received. The results illuminate how members of the public respond to competing scientific claims regarding controversial issues.

  19. The free-radical damage theory: Accumulating evidence against a simple link of oxidative stress to ageing and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Selman, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Recent work on a small European cave salamander (Proteus anguinus) has revealed that it has exceptional longevity, yet it appears to have unexceptional defences against oxidative damage. This paper comes at the end of a string of other studies that are calling into question the free-radical damage theory of ageing. This theory rose to prominence in the 1990s as the dominant theory for why we age and die. Despite substantial correlative evidence to support it, studies in the last five years have raised doubts over its importance. In particular, these include studies of mice with the major antioxidant genes knocked out (both singly and in combination), which show the expected elevation in oxidative damage but no impact on lifespan. Combined, these findings raise fundamental questions over whether the free-radical damage theory remains useful for understanding the ageing process, and variation in lifespan and life histories.

  20. Social costs of expanding access to evidence-based supported employment: concepts and interpretive review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Salkever, David

    2013-02-01

    A recent policy analysis argued that expanding access to evidence-based supported employment can provide savings in major components of social costs. This article extends the scope of this policy analysis by placing the argument within a recently developed economic framework for social cost-effectiveness analysis that defines a program's social cost impact as its effect on net consumption of all goods and services. A total of 27 studies over the past two decades are reviewed to synthesize evidence of the social cost impacts of expanding access to the individual placement and support model of supported employment (IPS-SE). Most studies have focused primarily on agency costs of providing IPS-SE services, cost offsets when clients shift from "traditional" rehabilitation to IPS-SE, and impacts on clients' earnings. Because costs and cost offsets are similar in magnitude, incremental costs of expanding services to persons who would otherwise receive traditional services are probably small or even negative. The population served by an expansion could be sizable, but the feasibility of a policy targeting IPS-SE expansion in this way has yet to be demonstrated. IPS-SE has positive impacts on competitive job earnings, but these may not fully translate into social cost offsets. Additional empirical support is needed for the argument that large-scale expansion would yield substantial mental health treatment cost offsets. Other gaps in evidence of policy impacts include take-up rate estimates, cost impact estimates from longer-term studies (exceeding two years), and longer-term studies of whether IPS-SE prevents younger clients from becoming recipients of Supplemental Security Income or Social Security Disability Insurance

  1. Building a knowledge translation platform in Malawi to support evidence-informed health policy.

    PubMed

    Berman, Joshua; Mitambo, Collins; Matanje-Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khan, Shiraz; Kachimanga, Chiyembekezo; Wroe, Emily; Mwape, Lonia; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chindebvu, Getrude; van Schoor, Vanessa; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; Panisset, Ulysses; Kathyola, Damson

    2015-01-01

    With the support of the World Health Organization's Evidence-Informed Policy Network, knowledge translation platforms have been developed throughout Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and Asia to further evidence-informed national health policy. In this commentary, we discuss the approaches, activities and early lessons learned from the development of a Knowledge Translation Platform in Malawi (KTPMalawi). Through ongoing leadership, as well as financial and administrative support, the Malawi Ministry of Health has strongly signalled its intention to utilize a knowledge translation platform methodology to support evidence-informed national health policy. A unique partnership between Dignitas International, a medical and research non-governmental organization, and the Malawi Ministry of Health, has established KTPMalawi to engage national-level policymakers, researchers and implementers in a coordinated approach to the generation and utilization of health-sector research. Utilizing a methodology developed and tested by knowledge translation platforms across Africa, a stakeholder mapping exercise and initial capacity building workshops were undertaken and a multidisciplinary Steering Committee was formed. This Steering Committee prioritized the development of two initial Communities of Practice to (1) improve data utilization in the pharmaceutical supply chain and (2) improve the screening and treatment of hypertension within HIV-infected populations. Each Community of Practice's mandate is to gather and synthesize the best available global and local evidence and produce evidence briefs for policy that have been used as the primary input into structured deliberative dialogues. While a lack of sustained initial funding slowed its early development, KTPMalawi has greatly benefited from extensive technical support and mentorship by an existing network of global knowledge translation platforms. With the continued support of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the

  2. Building a knowledge translation platform in Malawi to support evidence-informed health policy.

    PubMed

    Berman, Joshua; Mitambo, Collins; Matanje-Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khan, Shiraz; Kachimanga, Chiyembekezo; Wroe, Emily; Mwape, Lonia; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chindebvu, Getrude; van Schoor, Vanessa; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; Panisset, Ulysses; Kathyola, Damson

    2015-12-08

    With the support of the World Health Organization's Evidence-Informed Policy Network, knowledge translation platforms have been developed throughout Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and Asia to further evidence-informed national health policy. In this commentary, we discuss the approaches, activities and early lessons learned from the development of a Knowledge Translation Platform in Malawi (KTPMalawi). Through ongoing leadership, as well as financial and administrative support, the Malawi Ministry of Health has strongly signalled its intention to utilize a knowledge translation platform methodology to support evidence-informed national health policy. A unique partnership between Dignitas International, a medical and research non-governmental organization, and the Malawi Ministry of Health, has established KTPMalawi to engage national-level policymakers, researchers and implementers in a coordinated approach to the generation and utilization of health-sector research. Utilizing a methodology developed and tested by knowledge translation platforms across Africa, a stakeholder mapping exercise and initial capacity building workshops were undertaken and a multidisciplinary Steering Committee was formed. This Steering Committee prioritized the development of two initial Communities of Practice to (1) improve data utilization in the pharmaceutical supply chain and (2) improve the screening and treatment of hypertension within HIV-infected populations. Each Community of Practice's mandate is to gather and synthesize the best available global and local evidence and produce evidence briefs for policy that have been used as the primary input into structured deliberative dialogues. While a lack of sustained initial funding slowed its early development, KTPMalawi has greatly benefited from extensive technical support and mentorship by an existing network of global knowledge translation platforms. With the continued support of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the

  3. Empirically Supported Treatments in Psychotherapy: Towards an Evidence-Based or Evidence-Biased Psychology in Clinical Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs) movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM) perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented. PMID:21833197

  4. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  5. 76 FR 42077 - Claim-Related Documents or Supporting Evidence Not of Record

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... file. DATES: The proposed rule published at 74 FR 58232 on November 12, 2009, is withdrawn as of July... misplacement or destruction within 18 months from the asserted date of submission.'' 74 FR 58232 (Nov. 12, 2009... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN33 Claim-Related Documents or Supporting Evidence Not of Record...

  6. Supporting Evidence-Based Practice in Schools with an Online Database of Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joelle D.; Bowen, Natasha K.; Bowen, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of multidisciplinary recommendations to use evidence-based interventions in schools and a growing knowledge base of such practices, most schools are not using empirically supported interventions. On the basis of a careful analysis of barriers to the implementation of the best researched programs, an online, free, and publicly available…

  7. Promoting Evidence-Based Practices: The Adoption of a Prevention Support System in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, A. K.; Chinman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Prevention support systems (PSSs) are designed to help communities implement evidence-based practices (EBPs). Little is known about the factors that influence their adoption. In this article, we examined adoption of a PSS for substance abuse prevention called Getting To Outcomes (GTO)[R] among staff in two community coalitions with varying levels…

  8. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  9. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  10. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  11. Addressing Interpersonal Violence in the School Context: Awareness and Use of Evidence-Supported Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was completed by 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America. This article addresses the research-practice gap in the delivery of mental health services in the school setting by examining the extent to which evidence-supported school violence intervention programs (ESPs) are known and used by…

  12. 43 CFR 3712.2-2 - Evidence necessary to support a request for publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence necessary to support a request for publication. 3712.2-2 Section 3712.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Proceedings...

  13. Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

  14. A Scaffolding Framework to Support the Construction of Evidence-Based Arguments among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.; Glazewski, Krista D.; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach in which students in small groups engage in an authentic, ill-structured problem, and must (1) define, generate and pursue learning issues to understand the problem, (2) develop a possible solution, (3) provide evidence to support their solution, and (4) present their solution and the…

  15. [Evidence in support of Florence Nightingale's theories. 100 years after her death].

    PubMed

    Zapico Yáñez, Florentina

    2010-05-01

    This article has been written to pay homage to Florence Nightingale as a pioneer and beacon for scientific curiosity which should serve as the nursing professional's guide for fine praxis. For this purpose, the author studied the evidence regarding Ms Nightingale's supposed theories; these have been arranged into four large groups in order to make those findings which support her theories easier to understand.

  16. 5 CFR 831.1206 - Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits. 831.1206 Section 831.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1206...

  17. 5 CFR 831.1206 - Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits. 831.1206 Section 831.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1206...

  18. 5 CFR 831.1206 - Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits. 831.1206 Section 831.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1206...

  19. Evidence Supporting an Early as Well as Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting an intense early bombardment on the Moon in addition to the traditional Late Heavy Bombardment at approx. 4 BY ago include the distribution of N(50) Crater Retention Ages (CRAs) for candidate basins, a variety of absolute age scenarios for both a "young" and an "old" Nectaris age, and the decreasing contrasts in both topographic relief and Bouguer gravity with increasing CRA.

  20. Multiple Lines Of Evidence Supporting Natural Attenuation: Lines Of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuatin Of Chlorinated Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, Karen; Widemeirer, T. H.; Barden, M.J.; Dickson, W. Z.; Major, David

    2004-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Attenuation (EA) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EA. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EA Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, the DOE is publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report--documenting our evaluation of the state of the science for the lines of evidence for supporting decision-making for MNA--is one of those supplemental documents.

  1. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D; Fretheim, Atle; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in several ways. However, considerations of the consequences of options for resource use are similar to considerations related to other impacts in that policymakers and their staff need to identify important impacts on resource use, acquire and appraise the best available evidence regarding those impacts, and ensure that appropriate monetary values have been applied. We suggest four questions that can be considered when assessing resource use and the cost consequences of an option. These are: 1. What are the most important impacts on resource use? 2. What evidence is there for important impacts on resource use? 3. How confident is it possible to be in the evidence for impacts on resource use? 4. Have the impacts on resource use been valued appropriately in terms of their true costs? PMID:20018102

  2. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in several ways. However, considerations of the consequences of options for resource use are similar to considerations related to other impacts in that policymakers and their staff need to identify important impacts on resource use, acquire and appraise the best available evidence regarding those impacts, and ensure that appropriate monetary values have been applied. We suggest four questions that can be considered when assessing resource use and the cost consequences of an option. These are: 1. What are the most important impacts on resource use? 2. What evidence is there for important impacts on resource use? 3. How confident is it possible to be in the evidence for impacts on resource use? 4. Have the impacts on resource use been valued appropriately in terms of their true costs? PMID:20018102

  3. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  4. Excess 210Po in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull tephra (Iceland): Evidence for pre-eruptive gas accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Condomines, Michel; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean

    2015-10-01

    Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known worldwide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the rate of gas accumulation is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt, which suggests that the basaltic magma intruded a pre-existing rhyolitic magma chamber, and ultimately triggered the eruption. The mixed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po /210Pb) 0 = 1.88 ] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po) 0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, or in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. From a simple model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, the ratio of the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of magma accumulating the excess gas decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupting first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and

  5. Character, paleoenvironment, rate of accumulation, and evidence for seismic triggering of Holocene turbidites, Canada Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Phillips, R.L.; Mullen, M.W.; Starratt, S.W.; Jones, Glenn A.; Naidu, A.S.; Finney, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    Four box cores and one piston core show that Holocene sedimentation on the southern Canada Abyssal Plain for the last 8010??120 yr has consisted of a continuing rain of pelagic organic and ice-rafted elastic sediment with a net accumulation rate during the late Holocene of ???10 mm/1000 yr, and episodically emplaced turbidites 1-5 m thick deposited at intervals of 830 to 3450 yr (average 2000 yr). The average net accumulation rate of the mixed sequence of turbidites and thin pelagite interbeds in the cores is about 1.2 m/1000 yr. Physiography suggests that the turbidites originated on the Mackenzie Delta or its clinoform, and ??13C values of -27 to - 25??? in the turbidites are compatible with a provenance on a delta. Extant displaced neritic and lower slope to basin plain calcareous benthic foraminifers coexist in the turbidite units. Their joint occurence indicates that the turbidites originated on the modern continental shelf and entrained sediment from the slope and rise enroute to their final resting place on the Canada Abyssal Plain. The presence of Middle Pleistocene diatoms in the turbidites suggests, in addition, that the turbidites may have originated in shallow submarine slides beneath the upper slope or outer shelf. Small but consistent differences in organic carbon content and ??13C values between the turbidite units suggest that they did not share an identical provenance, which is at least compatible with an origin in slope failures. The primary provenance of the ice-rafted component of the pelagic beds was the glaciated terrane of northwestern Canada; and the provenance of the turbidite units was Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary deposits on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the Mackenzie Delta. Largely local derivation of the sediment of the Canada Abyssal Plain indicates that sediment accumulation rates in the Arctic Ocean are valid only for regions with similar depositional sources and processes, and that these rates cannot be

  6. Rotavirus Increases Levels of Lipidated LC3 Supporting Accumulation of Infectious Progeny Virus without Inducing Autophagosome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldi, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giuditta; Mano, Miguel; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Wild, Peter; Eichwald, Catherine; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Replication of many RNA viruses benefits from subversion of the autophagic pathway through many different mechanisms. Rotavirus, the main etiologic agent of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, has been recently described to induce accumulation of autophagosomes as a mean for targeting viral proteins to the sites of viral replication. Here we show that the viral-induced increase of the lipidated form of LC3 does not correlate with an augmented formation of autophagosomes, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The LC3-II accumulation was found to be dependent on active rotavirus replication through the use of antigenically intact inactivated viral particles and of siRNAs targeting viral genes that are essential for viral replication. Silencing expression of LC3 or of Atg7, a protein involved in LC3 lipidation, resulted in a significant impairment of viral titers, indicating that these elements of the autophagic pathway are required at late stages of the viral cycle. PMID:24736649

  7. Demise of reef-flat carbonate accumulation with late Holocene sea-level fall: Evidence from Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engels, M.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Field, M.; Conger, C.L.; Bochicchio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve cores from the protected reef-flat of Molokai revealed that carbonate sediment accumulation, ranging from 3 mm year-1 to less than 1 mm year-1, ended on average 2,500 years ago. Modern sediment is present as a mobile surface veneer but is not trapped within the reef framework. This finding is consistent with the arrest of deposition at the end of the mid-Holocene highstand, known locally as the "Kapapa Stand of the Sea," ???2 m above the present datum ca. 3,500 years ago in the main Hawaiian Islands. Subsequent erosion, non-deposition, and/or a lack of rigid binding were probable factors leading to the lack of reef-flat accumulation during the late Holocene sea-level fall. Given anticipated climate changes, increased sedimentation of reef-flat environments is to be expected as a consequence of higher sea level. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Non-genetic data supporting genetic evidence for the eastern wolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Two schools of thought dominate the molecular-genetics literature on Canis spp. (wolves) in the western Great Lakes region of the US and Canada: (1) they are hybrids between Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and Canis latrans (Coyote), or (2) they are hybrids between the Gray Wolf and Canis lycaon (Eastern Wolf). This article presents 3 types of non-genetic evidence that bears on the controversy and concludes that all 3 support the second interpretation.

  9. [DECIDE: developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence].

    PubMed

    Parmelli, Elena; Amato, Laura; Saitto, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Healthcare systems are offered with a wide range of technologies and services, but they have to cope with decreasing resources and the uncertainty about what is effective and more appropriate. Making decisions about health care interventions is complex. Decisions should be informed by the best available evidence, being comprehensive to take into account all the relevant aspects (e.g. efficacy, safety, equity, costs), and taken within a limited time period. DECIDE is a project funded by the European Community that, using the GRADE methodology, aims at implementing strategies to enhance dissemination and communication of scientific evidence to support on-time evidence-based decision making in clinical practice and healthcare policies. Communication strategies are developed in order to address different target audiences, trying to meet their information needs. One key target are policy makers and managers who are responsible for coverage decision making. PMID:24326703

  10. Determinants of Community Coalition Ability to Support Evidence-Based Programs

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of coalition functioning predict a coalition's ability to promote high-quality implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs). The study involved 62 Communities That Care (CTC) coalitions in Pennsylvania measured annually from 2003 to 2007. Findings indicate that the communities with higher levels of poverty and longer existing coalitions are related to lower support for high-quality EBP implementation. Several aspects of coalition functioning—including higher levels of funding; leadership strength; board efficiency; strong internal and external relationships; and fidelity to the CTC model—significantly predicted support for high-quality EBP implementation. Earlier measurements of coalition functioning (2003–2004 and 2005–2006) predicted EBP implementation (2007) more strongly than concurrent coalition assessments (2007). The discussion focuses on how coalitions and technical assistance providers can improve coalition support for the implementation of EBPs. PMID:20352332

  11. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  12. Accumulative job demands and support for strength use: Fine-tuning the job demands-resources model using conservation of resources theory.

    PubMed

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Bakker, Arnold B; Nishii, Lisa H

    2016-01-01

    Absenteeism associated with accumulated job demands is a ubiquitous problem. We build on prior research on the benefits of counteracting job demands with resources by focusing on a still untapped resource for buffering job demands-that of strengths use. We test the idea that employees who are actively encouraged to utilize their personal strengths on the job are better positioned to cope with job demands. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we hypothesized that job demands can accumulate and together have an exacerbating effect on company registered absenteeism. In addition, using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that perceived organizational support for strengths use can buffer the impact of separate and combined job demands (workload and emotional demands) on absenteeism. Our sample consisted of 832 employees from 96 departments (response rate = 40.3%) of a Dutch mental health care organization. Results of multilevel analyses indicated that high levels of workload strengthen the positive relationship between emotional demands and absenteeism and that support for strength use interacted with workload and emotional job demands in the predicted way. Moreover, workload, emotional job demands, and strengths use interacted to predict absenteeism. Strengths use support reduced the level of absenteeism of employees who experienced both high workload and high emotional demands. We conclude that providing strengths use support to employees offers organizations a tool to reduce absenteeism, even when it is difficult to redesign job demands.

  13. Evidence that specific mtDNA point mutations may not accumulate in skeletal muscle during normal human aging.

    PubMed Central

    Pallotti, F.; Chen, X.; Bonilla, E.; Schon, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is unclear at present whether specific mtDNA point mutations accumulate during normal human aging. In order to address this question, we used quantitative PCR of total DNA isolated from skeletal muscle from normal individuals of various ages to search for the presence and amount of spontaneous mtDNA point mutations in two small regions of the human mitochondrial genome. We observed low levels of somatic mutations above background in both regions, but there was no correlation between the amount of mutation detected and the age of the subject. These results contrasted with our finding of an age-related increase in the amount of the mtDNA "common deletion" in these very samples. Thus, it appears that both somatic mtDNA point mutations and mtDNA deletions can arise at low frequency in normal individuals but that, unlike deletions, there is no preferential amplification or accumulation of specific point mutations in skeletal muscle over the course of the normal human life span. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8751860

  14. Microcystin accumulation in cladocerans: first evidence of MC uptake from aqueous extracts of a natural bloom sample.

    PubMed

    Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio S; Herrera, Natalia A; Echeverri, Luis Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Bioaccumulation of microcystins (MC) in zooplankton has been shown in several studies, mainly in field samples. A few studies, however, have demonstrated MC bioaccumulation in laboratory experiments. Although ingestion of cell-bound MC is considered the main route of MC accumulation, another important source is the MC from the dissolved fraction (DMC). This study reports the accumulation of DMC from aqueous extracts of natural bloom samples in three cladoceran species: Moina micrura, Daphnia laevis and Daphnia similis. Animals were exposed for 96 h to aqueous extracts of lyophilized matter from two bloom samples from Colombian reservoirs in different concentrations (25-1000 mg DW L(-1)). Analysis by HPLC-MS detected MC-LR in these samples at concentrations of 434-538 μg g(-1). For the analysis of MC in animal tissues the samples were homogenized and sonicated in methanol:water (75%) and analyzed by ELISA. Results showed that the animals uptake of MC increased with increasing exposure concentrations of aqueous extracts, with M. micrura and D. laevis clones presenting the highest MC concentrations in their tissues (up to 1170-1260 μg g(-1)) while D. similis the lowest (184 μg g(-1)). This study shows, for the first time, that MC uptake from dissolved fraction by zooplankton is possible, not only from the ingestion of seston or cell-bound MC as previously demonstrated. PMID:24880137

  15. Salicylate elimination diets in children: is food restriction supported by the evidence?

    PubMed

    Gray, Paul E A; Mehr, Sam; Katelaris, Constance H; Wainstein, Brynn K; Star, Anita; Campbell, Dianne; Joshi, Preeti; Wong, Melanie; Frankum, Brad; Keat, Karuna; Dunne, Geraldine; Dennison, Barbara; Kakakios, Alyson; Ziegler, John B

    2013-06-17

    A review of case notes from our Sydney-based paediatric allergy services, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011, identified 74 children who had been prescribed diets that eliminated foods containing natural salicylates before attending our clinics. The most common indications for starting the diets were eczema (34/74) and behavioural disturbances (17/74) including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We could find no peer-reviewed evidence to support the efficacy of salicylate elimination diets in managing these diseases. We do not prescribe these diets, and in a survey of European and North American food allergy experts, only 1/23 respondents used a similar diet for eczema, with none of the respondents using salicylate elimination to treat ADHD. A high proportion (31/66) of children suffered adverse outcomes, including nutritional deficiencies and food aversion, with four children developing eating disorders. We could find no published evidence to support the safety of these diets in children. While this uncontrolled study does not prove a causal relationship between salicylate elimination diets and harm, the frequency of adverse events appears high, and in the absence of evidence of safety or efficacy, we cannot recommend the use of these diets in children.

  16. Influence of Vegetation on Sediment Accumulation in Restored Tidal Saltmarshes: Field Evidence from the Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal saltmarshes in the UK, and especially in the estuaries of southeast England, have been subject to degradation and erosion over the last few decades, primarily caused by sea-level rise and coastal squeeze due to fixed coastal defences. This is of great concern to a range of coastal stakeholders due to the corresponding loss of functions and services associated with these systems. The coastal defence role that saltmarshes play is well established, and the importance of saltmarsh ecosystems as habitats for birds, fish, and other species is evidenced in the fact that a large proportion of saltmarsh in the southeast England is designated for its scientific and conservation significance. Sediment accumulation is critical for the maintenance of marsh elevation within the tidal frame and for delivery of the aforementioned functions and services. Although many studies have examined accumulation processes, key questions have yet to be fully tested through intensive field observations. One such question relates to the role of vegetation in mediating the retention of newly introduced sediment, as recent research has called into doubt the traditional view of halophytes significantly enhancing rates of sedimentation through wave dissipation. This study presents early results from a project designed to advance our understanding of the processes controlling sediment accumulation. The research focuses on the UK's first large-scale experimental managed flood defence realignment at Tollesbury, Blackwater estuary, Essex. The seawall protecting 21ha of reclaimed agricultural land was artificially breached in 1995 and saltmarsh has progressively developed as tidal exchange has introduced fine sediment into the site. Results from a 12 month monitoring campaign involving hierarchical two-week sediment trap deployments indicates that the role of vegetation in marsh development is less clear cut that previously thought. Gross sedimentation rates were generally higher in non

  17. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  18. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  19. Clinical decision support and acute low back pain: evidence-based order sets.

    PubMed

    Forseen, Scott E; Corey, Amanda S

    2012-10-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common reasons for visits to physicians in the ambulatory care setting. Estimated medical expenditures related to low back pain have increased disproportionately relative to the more modest increase in the prevalence of self-reported low back pain in the past decade. The increase in spine care expenditures has not been associated with improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based order templates presented in this article are designed to assist practitioners through the process of managing patients with acute low back pain. A logical method of choosing, developing, and implementing clinical decision support interventions is presented that is based on the best available scientific evidence. These templates may be reasonably expected to improve patient care, decrease inappropriate imaging utilization, reduce the inappropriate use of steroids and narcotics, and potentially decrease the number of inappropriate invasive procedures. PMID:23025864

  20. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 15: Engaging the public in evidence-informed policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address strategies to inform and engage the public in policy development and implementation. The importance of engaging the public (both patients and citizens) at all levels of health systems is widely recognised. They are the ultimate recipients of the desirable and undesirable impacts of public policies, and many governments and organisations have acknowledged the value of engaging them in evidence-informed policy development. The potential benefits of doing this include the establishment of policies that include their ideas and address their concerns, the improved implementation of policies, improved health services, and better health. Public engagement can also be viewed as a goal in itself by encouraging participative democracy, public accountability and transparency. We suggest three questions that can be considered with regard to public participation strategies. These are: 1. What strategies can be used when working with the mass media to inform the public about policy development and implementation? 2. What strategies can be used when working with civil society groups to inform and engage them in policy development and implementation? 3. What methods can be used to involve consumers in policy development and implementation? PMID:20018105

  1. Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James

    2011-09-01

    Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

  2. Supporting evidence-based medicine: a survey of U.S. medical librarians.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Wu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify medical librarians' roles in supporting evidence-based medicine (EBM) practice; determine whether medical librarians' work settings, work experiences, or job titles made a difference in their EBM responsibilities; and find out medical librarians' perceptions of their roles in EBM practice. An online survey was distributed to U.S. medical librarians. The results showed that medical librarians had positive perceptions of their EBM-related responsibilities, which were diverse and specific. Their work experience, work settings, and job title categories related to some of their EBM responsibilities, as well as the nature of some of the responsibilities. PMID:22040243

  3. Crustal strain accumulation on Southern Basin and Range Province faults modulated by distant plate boundary earthquakes? Evidence from geodesy, seismic imaging, and paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Shirzaei, M.; Broermann, J.; Spinler, J. C.; Holland, A. A.; Pearthree, P.

    2014-12-01

    GPS in Arizona reveals a change in the pattern of crustal strain accumulation in 2010 and based on viscoelastic modeling appears to be associated with the distant M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California, Mexico. GPS data collected between 1999 and 2009 near the Santa Rita normal fault in SE Arizona reveal a narrow zone of crustal deformation coincident with the fault trace, delineated by W-NW facing Pleistocene fault scarps of heights 1 to 7 m. The apparent deformation zone is also seen in a preliminary InSAR interferogram. Total motion across the zone inferred using an elastic block model constrained by the pre-2010 GPS measurements is ~1 mm/yr in a sense consistent with normal fault motion. However, continuous GPS measurements throughout Arizona reveal pronounced changes in crustal velocity following the EMC earthquake, such that the relative motion across the Santa Rita fault post-2010 is negligible. Paleoseismic evidence indicates that mapped Santa Rita fault scarps were formed by two or more large magnitude (M6.7 to M7.6) surface rupturing normal-faulting earthquakes 60 to 100 kyrs ago. Seismic refraction and reflection data constrained by deep (~800 m) well log data provide evidence of progressive, possibly intermittent, displacement on the fault through time. The rate of strain accumulation observed geodetically prior to 2010, if constant over the past 60 to 100 kyrs, would imply an untenable minimum slip rate deficit of 60 to 100 m since the most recent earthquake. One explanation for the available geodetic, seismic, and paleoseismic evidence is that strain accumulation is modulated by viscoelastic relaxation associated with frequent large magnitude earthquakes in the Salton Trough region, episodically inhibiting the accumulation of elastic strain required to generate large earthquakes on the Santa Rita and possibly other faults in the Southern Basin and Range. An important question is thus for how long the postseismic velocity changes

  4. Evidence does not support absorption of intact solid lipid nanoparticles via oral delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiongwei; Fan, Wufa; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Wu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and simulated mixed micelles (SMMs) to intestinal mucus, but no evidence of penetration of integral nanocarriers. Both SLNs and SMMs exhibit significant cellular uptake, but fail to penetrate cell monolayers. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that nanocarriers mainly concentrate on the surface of the monolayers, and no evidence of penetration of intact vehicles can be obtained. The mucous layer acts as a barrier to the penetration of both SLNs and SMMs. Both bile salt-decoration and SMM formulation help to strengthen the interaction with biomembranes. It is concluded that evidence does not support absorption of intact SLNs via oral delivery.Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and

  5. An Extraordinary Accumulation of (-)-Pinoresinol in Cell-Free Extracts of Forsythia intermedia: Evidence for Enantiospecific Reduction of (+)-Pinoresinol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katayama, Takeshi; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselective and enantiospecific transformation mechanisms in lignan biogenesis are only now yielding to scientific inquiry: it has been shown that soluble cell-free preparations from Forsythia intermedia catalysis the formation of the enantiomerically pure lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, when incubated with coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2. Surprisingly, (-)-pinoresinol also accumulates in this soluble cell-free assay mixture in greater than 96% enantiomeric excess, even though it is not the naturally occurring antipode present in Forsythia sp. But these soluble cell-free preparations do not engender stereoselective coupling; instead, racemic pinoresinols are first formed, catalysed by an H2O2-dependent peroxidase reaction. An enantiospecific NAD(P)H reductase then converts (+)- pinoresinol, and not the (-)-antipode, into (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Stereoselective syntheis of(+)-pinoresinol from E-coniferyl alcohol is, however, catalysed by an insoluble enzyme preparation in F. suspensa, obtained following removal of readily soluble and ionically bound enzymes; no exogenously supplied cofactors were required other than oxygen, although the reaction was stimulated by NAD-malate addition. Thus, the overall biochemical pathway to enantiomerically pure (-)-secoisolariciresinol has been delineated.

  6. An extraordinary accumulation of (-)-pinoresinol in cell-free extracts of Forsythia intermedia: evidence for enantiospecific reduction of (+)-pinoresinol.

    PubMed

    Katayama, T; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1992-11-01

    Stereoselective and enantiospecific transformation mechanisms in lignan biogenesis are only now yielding to scientific inquiry: it has been shown that soluble cell-free preparations from Forsythia intermedia catalyse the formation of the enantiomerically pure lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, when incubated with coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2. Surprisingly, (-)-pinoresinol also accumulates in this soluble cell-free assay mixture in > 96% enantiomeric excess, even though it is not the naturally occurring antipode present in Forsythia sp. But these soluble cell-free preparations do not engender stereoselective coupling; instead, racemic pinoresinols are first formed, catalysed by an H2O2-dependent peroxidase reaction. An enantiospecific NAD(P)H reductase then converts (+)-pinoresinol, and not the (-)-antipode, into (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Stereoselective synthesis [correction of syntheis] of (+)-pinoresinol from E-coniferyl alcohol is, however, catalysed by an insoluble enzyme preparation in F. suspensa, obtained following removal of readily soluble and ionically bound enzymes; no exogenously supplied cofactors were required other than oxygen, although the reaction was stimulated by NAD-malate addition. Thus, the overall biochemical pathway to enantiomerically pure (-)-secoisolariciresinol has been delineated.

  7. An evidence-based approach to perioperative nutrition support in the elective surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keith R; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Taylor, Beth; McClave, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    In surgical practice, great attention is given to the perioperative management of the elective surgical patient with regard to surgical planning, stratification of cardiopulmonary risk, and postoperative assessment for complication. However, growing evidence supports the beneficial role for implementation of a consistent and literature-based approach to perioperative nutrition therapy. Determining nutrition risk should be a routine component of the preoperative evaluation. As with the above issues, this concept begins with the clinician's first visit with the patient as risk is assessed and the severity of the surgical insult considered. If the patient is an appropriate candidate for benefit from preoperative support, a plan for initiation and reassessment should be implemented. Once appropriate nutrition end points have been achieved, special consideration should be given to beneficial practices the immediate day preceding surgery that may better prepare the patient for the intervention from a metabolic standpoint. In the operating room, consideration should be given to the potential placement of enteral access during the index operation as well as judicious and targeted intraoperative resuscitation. Immediately following the intervention, adequate resuscitation and glycemic control are key concepts, as is an evidence-based approach to the early advancement of an enteral/oral diet in the postoperative patient. Through the implementation of perioperative nutrition therapy plans in the elective surgery setting, outcomes can be improved. PMID:24009248

  8. Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®) was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX. Objective: To review the evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa for the treatment of patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Patients and methods: English-language databases were searched in September 2009 for reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the ability of rFVIIa to restore hemostasis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Results: Eight RCTs involving 256 hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factors, also known as inhibitors, were identified. The evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa in these patients was weak with regard to dose, clinical setting, mode of administration, efficacy, and adverse events, given the limited sample size of each RCT and the heterogeneity of the studies. Conclusion: The authors suggest that rFVIIa therapy in hemophilic patients with inhibitors should be based on the individual’s ability to generate thrombin and form a clot, and not on the patient’s weight alone. Therefore, assays for thrombin generation, such as whole-blood thromboelastography, have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of these patients. PMID:20689697

  9. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    PubMed Central

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research. PMID:16917647

  10. No evidence of nanodiamonds in Younger–Dryas sediments to support an impact event

    PubMed Central

    Daulton, Tyrone L.; Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America, disappearance of Clovis paleoindian lithic technology, and abrupt Younger–Dryas (YD) climate reversal of the last deglacial warming in the Northern Hemisphere remain an enigma. A controversial hypothesis proposes that one or more cometary airbursts/impacts barraged North America ≈12,900 cal yr B.P. and caused these events. Most evidence supporting this hypothesis has been discredited except for reports of nanodiamonds (including the rare hexagonal polytype) in Bølling–Ållerod-YD-boundary sediments. The hexagonal polytype of diamond, lonsdaleite, is of particular interest because it is often associated with shock pressures related to impacts where it has been found to occur naturally. Unfortunately, previous reports of YD-boundary nanodiamonds have left many unanswered questions regarding the nature and occurrence of the nanodiamonds. Therefore, we examined carbon-rich materials isolated from sediments dated 15,818 cal yr B.P. to present (including the Bølling–Ållerod-YD boundary). No nanodiamonds were found in our study. Instead, graphene- and graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates are ubiquitous in all specimens examined. We demonstrate that previous studies misidentified graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates as hexagonal diamond and likely misidentified graphene as cubic diamond. Our results cast doubt upon one of the last widely discussed pieces of evidence supporting the YD impact hypothesis. PMID:20805511

  11. Extracting physician group intelligence from electronic health records to support evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Kohane, Isaac S

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine employs expert opinion and clinical data to inform clinical decision making. The objective of this study is to determine whether it is possible to complement these sources of evidence with information about physician "group intelligence" that exists in electronic health records. Specifically, we measured laboratory test "repeat intervals", defined as the amount of time it takes for a physician to repeat a test that was previously ordered for the same patient. Our assumption is that while the result of a test is a direct measure of one marker of a patient's health, the physician's decision to order the test is based on multiple factors including past experience, available treatment options, and information about the patient that might not be coded in the electronic health record. By examining repeat intervals in aggregate over large numbers of patients, we show that it is possible to 1) determine what laboratory test results physicians consider "normal", 2) identify subpopulations of patients that deviate from the norm, and 3) identify situations where laboratory tests are over-ordered. We used laboratory tests as just one example of how physician group intelligence can be used to support evidence based medicine in a way that is automated and continually updated.

  12. Building an evidence-based multitiered system of supports for high-risk youth and communities.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Beverly E; Mihalic, Sharon F; Sigel, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The mental, emotional and behavioral health problems of high-risk youth and youth living in high-risk communities are not inevitable and can be prevented. A shift from the nation's focus on treating disease and illness after it occurs to a concentrated effort on preventing the root causes of these problems is needed. Prevention science suggests a comprehensive multitiered approach that provides evidence-based prevention supports for children and youth at each developmental stage and across multiple social contexts is likely to result in the greatest health impact and return on investment. However, actually implementing this approach at a neighborhood level has remained a challenge and an ongoing research gap especially in high-risk communities. This article describes a process and provides a case study example for implementing a comprehensive, multitiered approach in a high-risk community. This includes assessing and prioritizing the specific needs of individuals and communities; selecting evidence-based programs based upon assessed needs; and creating a continuum of programs to improve the health and well-being of youth across developmental age spans, social contexts, and levels of risk. Operational details and challenges for organizing and implementing this comprehensive approach are also described. We estimate that the collective impact of a multitiered evidence-based approach, implemented with fidelity, could conservatively result in a 30 to 40% reduction in problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Integrating scientific evidence to support telehomecare development in a remote region.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Duplantie, Julie; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Lamothe, Lise; Légaré, France; Labrecque, Michel

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to understand how different types of knowledge have influenced the decision making process regarding the implementation of telehomecare in the organization of regional healthcare services in the Province of Quebec (Canada). A case study was conducted in order to explore how scientific evidence was integrated in the decision-making processes regarding the implementation of a telehomecare system in the Gaspésie-Magdalene Islands Health Region. A total of 14 semistructured interviews were completed with key organizational decision makers (regional managers, organization managers, healthcare professionals, and technological managers). Two researchers independently carried out data analysis, encouraging iterations and validation with study participants. The Gaspésie-Magdalene Islands Telehomecare Project is based on a technological solution named Intelligent Distance Patient Monitoring and constitutes a relevant example of the evolution of an e-health solution. Indeed, the first reports of the experiment influenced decision makers to continue the deployment of the solution. Decision makers from all groups agreed on the importance of using past experience to avoid pitfalls and ensure an optimal decision-making process. They highlighted the importance of knowledge translation between sites as well as within sites. Knowledge translation played an important part in the success of the project. Efficient strategies to transfer evidence to organizational decision making have been identified such as an endusers forum, where researchers provide support by sharing evidence with end-users and actively participate in knowledge translation. PMID:19292630

  14. Mitochondrial DNA sequences support allozyme evidence for cryptic radiation of New Zealand Peripatoides (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Trewick, S A

    2000-03-01

    A combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and sequencing were used to survey cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity among New Zealand ovoviviparous Onychophora. Most of the sites and individuals had previously been analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. A total of 157 peripatus collected at 54 sites throughout New Zealand were screened yielding 62 different haplotypes. Comparison of 540-bp COI sequences from Peripatoides revealed mean among-clade genetic distances of up to 11. 4% using Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) analysis or 17.5% using general time-reversible (GTR + I + Gamma) analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight well-supported clades that were consistent with the allozyme analysis. Five of the six cryptic peripatus species distinguished by allozymes were confirmed by mtDNA analysis. The sixth taxon appeared to be paraphyletic, but genetic and geographical evidence suggested recent speciation. Two additional taxa were evident from the mtDNA data but neither occurred within the areas surveyed using allozymes. Among the peripatus surveyed with both mtDNA and allozymes, only one clear instance of recent introgression was evident, even though several taxa occurred in sympatry. This suggests well-developed mate recognition despite minimal morphological variation and low overall genetic diversity.

  15. Rapid and frequent turbidite accumulation in the bottom of Izu-Ogasawara Trench: Chemical and radiochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Yoichi

    1993-12-01

    Two sediment cores (pilot gravity and piston) were obtained from the bottom of the Izu-Ogasawara Trench at 9750 m and analyzed for various elements and radioisotopes. The results showed a history of complex and frequent turbidite deposition: In the gravity core, eight layers rich in manganese were observed, of which five are enriched in Cu and Co as well. The other three are also enriched in Mo but no other heavy metals, suggesting the presence of at least two mechanisms of formation. Trapping of iron manganese micronodules can account for the enrichment of Mn, Cu and Co. The other three layers rich in Mn and Mo appear to be formed by a post-depositional diagenetic process of Mn mobilization and redeposition in the sediment column. A strong correlation between Ra-226 and Cu in the gravity core suggests that the Ra-226 was also carried into the bottom of the trench in turbidites in association with Mn micronodules. Little excess of Pb-210 over Ra-226 was found at the top but the excess was significant at mid-depths from 30 to 70 cm, indicating that those sediments were deposited within the last 200 y. In the piston core there is a sharp discontinuity of chemical and radiochemical composition around a depth of 250 cm. Below that depth the sediments appear to be dominated by materials derived from terrestrial sources, as compared with those in the upper layer which are of contemporary marine origin. Ra-226 is deficient relative to Th-230 throughout the sediment column down to about 6 m. This finding is consistent with the finding that the average rate of sediment accumulation is 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than that in the western North Pacific abyssal plain, suggesting the convergence of materials into the bottom of the trench.

  16. A critical review of Early Supported Discharge for stroke patients: from evidence to implementation into practice.

    PubMed

    Mas, Miquel Àngel; Inzitari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    After an acute stroke, a multidimensional approach based on multidisciplinary work and rehabilitation is required in order to promote functional independence and social reinsertion and to maintain medical stability. These activities are usually developed in the hospital setting as a continuum of the acute phase, but hospitalization is resource consuming and resources are limited. Early Support Discharge strategies base postacute care and rehabilitation at home after an early discharge planning and represent possible alternatives to conventional hospitalization. Recent evidence suggests that Early Supported Discharge might be superior to hospitalization from both the clinical-functional and the economic viewpoints. Moreover, home-based rehabilitation might potentiate important determinants of effectiveness, such as patient's motivation and goal-directed rehabilitation. However, hitherto produced evidence and recommendations show a number of limitations related to the organization models, the inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the questionable applicability of results to any healthcare setting worldwide. In this article, we critically review different methodological and organizational aspects of the available studies. For example in the definition of the target population, based mainly on residual disability and medical stability, we suggest that other relevant aspects, such as premorbid functional status, cognitive function, and previous institutionalization, should be better defined. Focusing on the outcomes, we suggest that, besides strong outcomes such as global functioning, surrogate outcomes, such as physical function, could help to refine the specific interventions. Finally, considering that the majority of studies were conducted in northern Europe, further studies are needed to test the implementation of Early Supported Discharge in different regions.

  17. The Significance of Ongoing Teacher Support in Earth Science Education Programs: Evidence from the GLOBE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuel, B.; Korbak, C.; Shear, L.

    2003-12-01

    study, SRI researchers used the data on student data reporting activity from different partners to identify candidate sites for case studies, where we might investigate the nature of follow-up activities provided by successful partners more closely. We worked to select 2 regional partners that had evidence of high percentages of teachers trained that reported data and that also offered follow-up to teachers. Case study researchers conducted observations within 2-3 active GLOBE schools supported by each regional partner organization and interviewed teachers, principals, and partner staff. On the basis of our observation data and transcripts from interviews, we compiled profiles of schools' implementation and analyzed the core activities of each regional partner. Researchers found that keys to promoting successful implementation in one partnership were: one partnership were: close alignment with state mathematics and science initiatives; mentors that helped teachers by modeling inquiry in GLOBE and by assisting with equipment set-up and curriculum planning; and allowing room for schools to adopt diverse goals for GLOBE. In the second partnership, keys to success included a strategic approach to developing funding for the program; a focus on integration of culturally-relevant knowledge into teacher preparation; follow-up support for teachers; and use of GLOBE as an opportunity to investigate local evidence of climate change. Both partner organizations were challenged by funding limitations that prevented them from providing as much follow-up support as they believe is necessary.

  18. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted. PMID:27624514

  19. Identifying Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A Guide to the Selection of Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One component of the recently required State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) for State Departments of Education calls for the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This report provides six steps to guide the process of selecting evidence based practices (EBP): (1) Begin with the End in Mind--Determine Targeted Outcomes;…

  20. Evidence of liquid phase during laser-induced periodic surface structures formation induced by accumulative ultraviolet picosecond laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Petit, A.; Semmar, N.

    2015-11-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were formed on Cu/Si or Cu/glass thin films using Nd:YAG laser beam (40 ps, 10 Hz, and 30 mJ/cm{sup 2}). The study of ablation threshold is always achieved over melting when the variation of the number of pulses increases from 1 to 1000. But the incubation effect is leading to reduce the threshold of melting as increasing the number of laser pulse. Also, real time reflectivity signals exhibit typical behavior to stress the formation of a liquid phase during the laser-processing regime and helps to determine the threshold of soft ablation. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses have shown the topology of the micro-crater containing regular spikes with different height. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) allows finally to show three distinguished zones in the close region of isolated protrusions. The central zone is a typical crystallized area of few nanometers surrounded by a mixed poly-crystalline and amorphous area. Finally, in the region far from the protrusion zone, Cu film shows an amorphous structure. The real time reflectivity, AFM, and HR-TEM analyses evidence the formation of a liquid phase during the LIPSS formation in the picosecond regime.

  1. Synchrotron FTIR shows evidence of DNA damage and lipid accumulation in prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cells following proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipiec, Ewelina; Bambery, Keith R.; Heraud, Phil; Hirschmugl, Carol; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Tobin, Mark J.; Vogel, Christian; Whelan, Donna; Wood, Bayden R.

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) spectra of single human prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cells, irradiated with a defined number of 2 MeV protons generated by a proton microbeam along with non-irradiated control cells, were analysed using multivariate methods. A number of different Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were tested and the spectral ranges associated with nucleic acids, proteins and lipids were analysed separately. The results show a dose dependent shift of the Osbnd Psbnd O asymmetric stretching mode from 1234 cm-1 to 1237 cm-1, consistent with local disorder in the B-DNA conformation along with a change in intensity of the Osbnd Psbnd O symmetric stretching band at 1083 cm-1 indicative of chromatin fragmentation - the natural consequence of a high number of DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs). 2D mapping of characteristic functional groups at the diffraction limit shows evidence of lipid deposition and chromatin condensation in cells exposed to protons indicative of cell apoptosis following irradiation. These studies lay the foundation for understanding the macromolecular changes that occur to cells in response to radiation therapy, which has important implications in the treatment of tumours.

  2. Evidence of self organization in great Sumatra earthquake recurrence times: Implications for coupling of tidal forcing and tectonic stress accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Puli, K.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed inter- event time series of earthquake activities (M≥ 5) of Sumatra region spanning over 1973 to 2009 using techniques of nonlinear dynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the USGS catalogue centered on latitude 3.240N and longitude 95.825E. As a first step, in our analyses we computed the rank order statistics which revealed mixed response of earthquake dynamics indicating distinct breaks in slope of the rank order. This suggests that earthquake dynamics in this region is partly unstable and partly "self-organized" with a random tail. Comparison of return maps of the earthquakes inter- event time series with those representing random, stochastic and chaotic processes shows a quasi-deterministic behavior of earthquake genesis in the region. We further assessed the dimensionality of earthquake-generating mechanisms using a nonlinear predictor technique on two dimensional phase portrait constructed by recurrence time series. The nonlinear forecasting analysis suggests that the earthquake processes in the Sumatra region evolve on a non-random low-dimensional chaotic plane. Further, "K2" Entropy revealed a coherent structure indicating the deterministic dynamical pattern. This analysis is consistent with "self-organized" processes which could be explained invoking earth's internal dynamics, where, impulsively derived interdependencies cascades through the stress generated by tectonic plate movement. Our results, however, do not preclude the role of coupling of the above self-organized system with tidal forcing. Evidence for such a coupling in this region exists as 'triggering force". Keywords: Sumatra Earthquakes, Quasi-deterministic, Stochastic, Chaotic, Self-organized, K2 entropy, Phase portrait.

  3. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD. PMID:27106567

  4. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD.

  5. Cisapride: a review of the evidence supporting its use in premature infants with feeding intolerance.

    PubMed

    Premji, S S; Wilson, J; Paes, B; Gray, S

    1997-10-01

    A systematic computerized search of all databases was performed to review the scientific evidence in support of the efficacy of cisapride in reducing feeding intolerance in premature infants. Reference lists from these articles were used to identify relevant scientific literature to address important aspects of the use of cisapride. Three open prospective, uncontrolled studies were found. All studies reported improved clinical outcomes as evidenced by decreased gastric residuals, decreased incidence of vomiting, increased feeding volume, decrease in all reflux parameters measured, and increased weight gain. These observational studies reflect the current state of knowledge and have important research and clinical implications because of the profound effects of feeding intolerance on infant growth and development and on length of stay within NICUs.

  6. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  7. Geophysical, archaeological and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.; Hsu, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    Although the processes of climate change are not completely understood, an important causal candidate is variation in total solar output. Reported cycles in various climate-proxy data show a tendency to emulate a fundamental harmonic sequence of a basic solar-cycle length (11 years) multiplied by 2(N) (where N equals a positive or negative integer). A simple additive model for total solar-output variations was developed by superimposing a progression of fundamental harmonic cycles with slightly increasing amplitudes. The timeline of the model was calibrated to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 9,000 years before present. The calibrated model was compared with geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence of warm or cold climates during the Holocene. The evidence of periods of several centuries of cooler climates worldwide called 'little ice ages,' similar to the period anno Domini (A.D.) 1280-1860 and reoccurring approximately every 1,300 years, corresponds well with fluctuations in modeled solar output. A more detailed examination of the climate sensitive history of the last 1,000 years further supports the model. Extrapolation of the model into the future suggests a gradual cooling during the next few centuries with intermittent minor warmups and a return to near little-ice-age conditions within the next 500 years. This cool period then may be followed approximately 1,500 years from now by a return to altithermal conditions similar to the previous Holocene Maximum.

  8. Genetic evidence supports linguistic affinity of Mlabri - a hunter-gatherer group in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Mlabri are a group of nomadic hunter-gatherers inhabiting the rural highlands of Thailand. Little is known about the origins of the Mlabri and linguistic evidence suggests that the present-day Mlabri language most likely arose from Tin, a Khmuic language in the Austro-Asiatic language family. This study aims to examine whether the genetic affinity of the Mlabri is consistent with this linguistic relationship, and to further explore the origins of this enigmatic population. Results We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation using more than fifty thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed in thirteen population samples from Thailand, including the Mlabri, Htin and neighboring populations of the Northern Highlands, speaking Austro-Asiatic, Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien languages. The Mlabri population showed higher LD and lower haplotype diversity when compared with its neighboring populations. Both model-free and Bayesian model-based clustering analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between the Mlabri and the Htin, a group speaking a Tin language. Conclusion Our results strongly suggested that the Mlabri share more recent common ancestry with the Htin. We thus provided, to our knowledge, the first genetic evidence that supports the linguistic affinity of Mlabri, and this association between linguistic and genetic classifications could reflect the same past population processes. PMID:20302622

  9. Geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Charles A.; Hsu, Kenneth J.

    2000-01-01

    Although the processes of climate change are not completely understood, an important causal candidate is variation in total solar output. Reported cycles in various climate-proxy data show a tendency to emulate a fundamental harmonic sequence of a basic solar-cycle length (11 years) multiplied by 2N (where N equals a positive or negative integer). A simple additive model for total solar-output variations was developed by superimposing a progression of fundamental harmonic cycles with slightly increasing amplitudes. The timeline of the model was calibrated to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 9,000 years before present. The calibrated model was compared with geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence of warm or cold climates during the Holocene. The evidence of periods of several centuries of cooler climates worldwide called “little ice ages,” similar to the period anno Domini (A.D.) 1280–1860 and reoccurring approximately every 1,300 years, corresponds well with fluctuations in modeled solar output. A more detailed examination of the climate sensitive history of the last 1,000 years further supports the model. Extrapolation of the model into the future suggests a gradual cooling during the next few centuries with intermittent minor warmups and a return to near little-ice-age conditions within the next 500 years. This cool period then may be followed approximately 1,500 years from now by a return to altithermal conditions similar to the previous Holocene Maximum. PMID:11050181

  10. Pet ownership and cardiovascular risk reduction: supporting evidence, conflicting data and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arhant-Sudhir, Kanish; Arhant-Sudhir, Rish; Sudhir, Krishnankutty

    2011-11-01

    1. It is widely believed that pet ownership is beneficial to humans and that some of this benefit is through favourable effects on cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence in support of this hypothesis and present the available data with respect to major cardiovascular risk factors. 2. There is evidence that dog owners are less sedentary and have lower blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, attenuated responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and improved survival following myocardial infarction compared with non-pet owners. However, conflicting data exist with regard to the association between pet ownership and each of these risk factors. 3. Numerous non-cardiovascular effects of pet ownership have been reported, largely in the psychosocial domain, but the relationship is complex and can vary with demographic and social factors. 4. A unifying hypothesis is presented, linking improved mood and emotional state to decreased central and regional autonomic activity, improved endothelial function and, thus, lower blood pressure and reduced cardiac arrhythmias. 5. Overall, ownership of domestic pets, particularly dogs, is associated with positive health benefits. PMID:21824172

  11. Support as a complement, intrusion and right--evidence from ageing and disability support service users in Sweden and Australia.

    PubMed

    Laragy, Carmel; Fisher, Karen R; Cedersund, Elisabet; Campbell-McLean, Carolyn

    2011-12-01

    How service users conceptualise their personal support services is under researched, even though this understanding is important for responsive policy development and service implementation. This paper tests the proposition that service users understand formal support in three ways: support is a complement to their other arrangements, an intrusion into their personal life and a right. These three concepts were identified using discourse analysis in a Swedish study of older people wanting in-home support services. To test generalisability of these concepts, they were applied to data from an Australian study of people using disability personal support. The analysis found that the three concepts were core to people's views of their support, although the construction of the concepts differed in the two countries. Service users in Sweden asserted their right to services more forcefully than those in Australia, and they had higher expectations that their support needs would be met. These differences reflect the impact of each country's social policy environment on service users' expectations. The analysis suggests that service users and their families want to control their formal support arrangements to complement their informal care and their life preferences and to minimise the intrusive aspects of formal support. The findings imply that the three concepts have utility for theorising service users' perspectives, informing policy and developing implementation strategies which enhance peoples' quality of life. PMID:21585414

  12. Support as a complement, intrusion and right--evidence from ageing and disability support service users in Sweden and Australia.

    PubMed

    Laragy, Carmel; Fisher, Karen R; Cedersund, Elisabet; Campbell-McLean, Carolyn

    2011-12-01

    How service users conceptualise their personal support services is under researched, even though this understanding is important for responsive policy development and service implementation. This paper tests the proposition that service users understand formal support in three ways: support is a complement to their other arrangements, an intrusion into their personal life and a right. These three concepts were identified using discourse analysis in a Swedish study of older people wanting in-home support services. To test generalisability of these concepts, they were applied to data from an Australian study of people using disability personal support. The analysis found that the three concepts were core to people's views of their support, although the construction of the concepts differed in the two countries. Service users in Sweden asserted their right to services more forcefully than those in Australia, and they had higher expectations that their support needs would be met. These differences reflect the impact of each country's social policy environment on service users' expectations. The analysis suggests that service users and their families want to control their formal support arrangements to complement their informal care and their life preferences and to minimise the intrusive aspects of formal support. The findings imply that the three concepts have utility for theorising service users' perspectives, informing policy and developing implementation strategies which enhance peoples' quality of life.

  13. Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Diodato, A.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Biron, D.; Melfi, D.

    2009-04-01

    Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium). Cap. Attilio DI DIODATO(*), T.Col. Luigi DE LEONIBUS(*), T.Col Francesco ZAULI(*), Cap. Daniele BIRON(*), Ten. Davide Melfi(*) Satellite Application Facilities (SAFs) are specialised development and processing centres of the EUMETSAT Distributed Ground Segment. SAFs process level 1b data from meteorological satellites (geostationary and polar ones) in conjunction with all other relevant sources of data and appropriate models to generate services and level 2 products. Each SAF is a consortium of EUMETSAT European partners lead by a host institute responsible for the management of the complete SAF project. The Meteorological Service of Italian Air Force is the host Institute for the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). HSAF has the commitment to develop and to provide, operationally after 2010, products regarding precipitation, soil moisture and snow. HSAF is going to provide information on error structure of its products and validation of the products via their impacts into Hydrological models. To that purpose it has been structured a specific subgroups. Accumulated precipitation is computed by temporal integration of the instantaneous rain rate achieved by the blended LEO/MW and GEO/IR precipitation rate products generated by Rapid Update method available every 15 minutes. The algorithm provides four outputs, consisting in accumulated precipitation in 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, delivered every 3 hours at the synoptic hours. These outputs are our precipitation background fields. Satellite estimates can cover most of the globe, however, they suffer from errors due to lack of a direct relationship between observation parameters and precipitation, the poor sampling and algorithm imperfections. For this reason the 3 hours accumulated precipitation is

  14. Anaesthetic management of obese parturients: what is the evidence supporting practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Va, Eley; Aaj, van Zundert; J, Lipman; Lk, Callaway

    2016-09-01

    Increasing rates of obesity in western populations present management difficulties for clinicians caring for obese pregnant women. Various governing bodies have published clinical guidelines for the care of obese parturients. These guidelines refer to two components of anaesthetic care: anaesthetic consultation in the antenatal period for women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 and the provision of early epidural analgesia in labour. These recommendations are based on the increased incidence of obstetric complications and the predicted risks and difficulties in providing anaesthetic care. The concept behind early epidural analgesia is logical-site the epidural early, use it for surgical anaesthesia and avoid general anaesthesia if surgery is required. Experts support this recommendation, but there is weak supporting evidence. It is known that the management of labour epidurals in obese women is complicated and that women with extreme obesity require higher rates of general anaesthesia. Anecdotally, anaesthetists view and apply the early epidural recommendation inconsistently and the acceptability of early epidural analgesia to pregnant women is variable. In this topic review, we critically appraise these two practice recommendations. The elements required for effective implementation in multidisciplinary maternity care are considered. We identify gaps in the current literature and suggest areas for future research. While prospective cohort studies addressing epidural extension ('top-up') in obese parturients would help inform practice, audit of local practice may better answer the question "is early epidural analgesia beneficial to obese women in my practice?". PMID:27608337

  15. Structuring a life support program using evidence-based practice and the Magnet model for successful patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Mary; Paston, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating life support activities into an acute care academic hospital structure using evidence-based practice and the Magnet Model framework provides program operations and outcomes that are cost effective, link quality to life support professional development, and demonstrate excellence patient safety outcomes.

  16. A Comparison of Types of Support for Lower-Skill Workers: Evidence for the Importance of Family Supportive Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Lori A.; Pichler, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    The work-family literature to date does not offer a clear picture in terms of the relative importance of different types of supports for balancing work and family demands. Grounded in conservation or resources theory, we develop an integrative model relating multiple forms of social support, both formal (i.e., work-life benefit use) and informal…

  17. Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. immobilized on gel and solid supports: applicability to the treatment of liquid wastes containing heavy metal cations

    SciTech Connect

    Macaskie, L.E.; Wates, J.M.; Dean, A.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel-immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. removed cadmium from flows supplemented with glycerol 2-phosphate, the metal uptake mechanism being mediated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase that precipitates liberated inorganic phosphate with heavy metals at the cell surface. The constraints of elevated flow rate and temperature were investigated and the results discussed in terms of the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Loss in activity with respect to cadmium accumulation but not inorganic phosphate liberation was observed at acid pH and was attributed to the pH-dependent solubility of cadmium phosphate. Similarly high concentrations of chloride ions, and traces of cyanide inhibited cadmium uptake and this was attributed to the ability of these anions to complex heavy metals, especially the ability of CN/sup -/ to form complex anions with Cd/sup 2 +/. The data are discussed in terms of the known chemistry of chloride and cyanide-cadmium complexes and the relevance of these factors in the treatment of metal-containing liquid wastes is discussed. The cells immobilized in polyacrylamide provided a convenient small-scale laboratory model system. It was found that the Citrobacter sp. could be immobilized on glass supports with no chemical treatment or modification necessary. Such cells were also effective in metal accumulation and a prototype system more applicable to the treatment of metal-containing streams on a larger scale is described.

  18. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  19. Further evidence supporting a role for gs signal transduction in severe malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Fry, Andrew E; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Diakite, Mahamadou; Green, Angela; Richardson, Anna; Jallow, Muminatou; Sisay-Joof, Fatou; Pinder, Margaret; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E; Haldar, Kasturi; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2010-04-01

    With the functional demonstration of a role in erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, implications in the aetiology of common conditions that prevail in individuals of African origin, and a wealth of pharmacological knowledge, the stimulatory G protein (Gs) signal transduction pathway presents an exciting target for anti-malarial drug intervention. Having previously demonstrated a role for the G-alpha-s gene, GNAS, in severe malaria disease, we sought to identify other important components of the Gs pathway. Using meta-analysis across case-control and family trio (affected child and parental controls) studies of severe malaria from The Gambia and Malawi, we sought evidence of association in six Gs pathway candidate genes: adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A) and 2B (ADORA2B), beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1), adenylyl cyclase 9 (ADCY9), G protein beta subunit 3 (GNB3), and regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2). Our study amassed a total of 2278 cases and 2364 controls. Allele-based models of association were investigated in all genes, and genotype and haplotype-based models were investigated where significant allelic associations were identified. Although no significant associations were observed in the other genes, several were identified in ADORA2A. The most significant association was observed at the rs9624472 locus, where the G allele (approximately 20% frequency) appeared to confer enhanced risk to severe malaria [OR = 1.22 (1.09-1.37); P = 0.001]. Further investigation of the ADORA2A gene region is required to validate the associations identified here, and to identify and functionally characterize the responsible causal variant(s). Our results provide further evidence supporting a role of the Gs signal transduction pathway in the regulation of severe malaria, and request further exploration of this pathway in future studies.

  20. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  1. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  2. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-08-19

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  3. The Look AHEAD Study: A Description of the Lifestyle Intervention and the Evidence Supporting It

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, designed to determine whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. The study began in 2001 and is scheduled to conclude in 2012. A total of 5,145 participants, with a mean age of 60 years and body mass index of 36.0 kg/m2, have been randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention or to enhanced usual care condition (i.e., Diabetes Support and Education). This article describes the lifestyle intervention and the empirical evidence to support it. The two principal intervention goals are to induce a mean loss ≥ 7% of initial weight and to increase participants’ moderately-intense physical activity to ≥ 175 minutes a week. For the first 6 months, participants attend one individual and three group sessions per month and are encouraged to replace two meals and one snack a day with liquid shakes and meal bars. From months 7−12, they attend one individual and two group meetings per month and continue to replace one meal per day (which is recommended for the duration of the program). Starting at month 7, more intensive behavioral interventions, as well as weight loss medication, are available from a toolbox, designed to help participants with limited weight loss. In years 2−4, treatment is provided mainly on an individual basis and includes at least one on-site visit per month and a second contact by telephone, mail, or e-mail. Short-term (6−8 weeks) refresher groups and motivational campaigns also are offered three times yearly to help participants reverse small weight gains. After year 4, participants are offered monthly individual visits, as well as one refresher group and one campaign a year. The intervention is delivered by a multi-disciplinary team that includes medical staff who monitor participants at risk of hypoglycemic episodes. The study's evidence-based protocol should be

  4. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings. PMID

  5. New molecular evidence supports the species status of Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (Aves, Picidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Azevedo, Lorena; Aleixo, Alexandre; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Vallinoto, Marcelo; do Rêgo, Péricles Sena

    2013-01-01

    Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (Celeus obrieni) is the only species of the genus Celeus endemic to Brazil. The description of this taxon as a subspecies of the Rufous-headed Woodpecker (Celeus spectabilis) was based on a single specimen. While C. obrieni and C. spectabilis are now considered separate species based on morphological and limited molecular evidence, no study has critically tested the reciprocal monophyly and degree of evolutionary independence between these taxa with several specimens. Herein, fragments of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of three recently-collected specimens of C. obrieni were analyzed to evaluate the degree of evolutionary differentiation of this taxon with respect to C. spectabilis. The results confirm the reciprocal monophyly between the specimens of C. obrieni and C. spectabilis. The genetic divergence values for the two taxa also support their classification as independent species, given that they are greater than the values recorded among other closely-related but separate species of the same genus. Estimates of the divergence time between C. obrieni and C. spectabilis indicate that cladogenesis occurred in the mid-Pleistocene, during a period of major climatic fluctuations and landscape change, consistent with the hypothesis of a corridor of open bamboo dominated forests and woodland stretching. PMID:23885201

  6. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented. PMID:25932012

  7. Radiocarbon evidence for the substrates supporting methane formation within northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Chanton, J.P.; Bauer, J.E.; Glaser, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Bogs and fens from northern Minnesota produce large quantities of CH{sub 4}, which may be either emitted to the atmosphere or stored in below-ground reservoirs. The identity of the organic materials that support CH{sub 4} production has been uncertain, but we present evidence that a significant fraction of surface emission and below-ground CH{sub 4} is derived from recently fixed organic compounds. First, the CH{sub 4} emitted from both bogs and fens has a {sup 14}C signature equivalent to contemporary values for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Second, in flooded fens rates of CH{sub 4} emission are linearly related to rates of CO{sub 2} exchange to the {delta}{sup 13}C of emitted CH{sub 4}. Third, peat-porewaters as deep as several meters below the surface contain mixtures of CH{sub 4} derived from both modern and older organic substrates. The source of the modern organic substrates is most likely dissolved organic compounds produced from the decay of recently produced litter, roots and root exudation products and transported into deeper layers of the peat. These data indicate that CH{sub 4} emissions are closely linked to the living vegetation and hydrology of northern peatlands and less dependent on the lability and decomposition of peat within the deeper layers of the catotelm.

  8. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: further support for a distinct entity and evidence for a genetic defect.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, M; Moch, H; Brunner, F; Brunner, W; Burger, H R; Kiss, D; Wegmann, W; Dalquen, P; Oberholzer, M; Thiel, G

    1995-02-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis was first described in 1979 by Mihatsch, who was reporting three such cases. We report here four additional cases as well as two family investigations. Our findings support the association of karyomegaly and interstitial nephritis as a distinct entity. Typical clinical features are asymptomatic progressive renal failure in the third decade of life and recurrent infections, mostly of the upper respiratory tract. Histologic alterations consist of markedly enlarged and hyperchromic nuclei in many tubular epithelial cells throughout the nephron accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the surrounding atrophic tubules. Karyomegaly is not limited to the kidneys. In one case, autopsy revealed karyomegaly in epithelial and mesenchymal cells of many other organs. However, no association of karyomegaly with further histologic damage is evident except in the kidneys. Because of the familial clustering, karyomegalic interstitial nephritis seems to be an inherited disease. Examination of the nuclear proliferation-associated structures proliferating cell nuclear antigen/cyclin, Ki 67, and p53 suggests an inhibition of mitosis in karyomegalic cells. The finding of the same HLA haplotype, A9/B35, in four of six HLA-typed cases suggests the possibility of a genetic defect on chromosome 6, which is inherited and linked to the HLA locus.

  9. Is there evidence to support the need for routine surgeon presence on trauma patient arrival?

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M

    2006-05-01

    The trauma center certification requirements of the American College of Surgeons include the expectation that, whenever possible, general surgeons be routinely present at the emergency department arrival of seriously injured patients. The 2 historical factors that originally prompted this requirement, frequent exploratory laparotomies and emergency physicians without trauma training, no longer exist in most modern trauma centers. Research from multiple centers and in multiple varying formats has not identified improvement in patient-oriented outcomes from early surgeon involvement. Surgeons are not routinely present during the resuscitative phase of Canadian and European trauma care, with no demonstrated or perceived decrease in the quality of care. American trauma surgeons themselves do not consistently believe that their use in this capacity is either necessary or an efficient distribution of resources. There is not compelling evidence to support the assumption that trauma outcomes are improved by the routine presence of surgeons on patient arrival. Research is necessary to clarify which trauma patients require either emergency or urgent unique expertise of a general surgeon during the initial phase of trauma management. Individual trauma centers should be permitted the flexibility necessary to perform such research and to use such findings to refine and focus their secondary triage criteria. PMID:16631973

  10. Evidence of High Electrocatalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide Supported Platinum Nanorafts

    DOE PAGES

    Elbaz, Lior; Phillips, Jonathan; Artyushkova, Kateryna; More, Karren Leslie; Brosha, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable new supported metal catalyst structure on Mo2C substrates, ‘rafts’ of platinum consisting of less than 6 atoms, was synthesized and found to be catalytically active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. A novel catalytic synthesis method: Reduction-Expansion-Synthesis of Catalysts (RES-C), from rapid heating of dry mixture of solid precursors of molybdenum, platinum and urea in an inert gas environment, led to the creation of unique platinum Nanorafts on Mo2C. The Pt Nanorafts offer a complete utilization of the Pt atoms for electrocatalysis with no “hidden” atoms. This structure is strongly affected by its interaction with the substrate as was observedmore » by XPS. In this work, we show for the first time, evidence of electrocatalytic activity with such small clusters of non-crystalline Pt atoms as catalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical half-cell characterization shows that this structure permit more efficient utilization of platinum, with mass activity conservatively measured to be 50% that of platinum particles generated using traditional approaches. These novel material may dramatically enhance stability relative to the commercial Pt/carbon catalysts.« less

  11. Evidence of three maternal lineages in Near Eastern sheep supporting multiple domestication events.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Susana; Uzun, Metehan; Arranz, Juan-José; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; San Primitivo, Fermín; Bayón, Yolanda

    2005-10-22

    The variability of mtDNA was analysed in local sheep breeds reared throughout Turkey, for which a fragment of the D-loop region and the complete cytochrome b were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses performed independently for the D-loop and the Cyt b gene revealed three clearly separated clusters indicating three major maternal lineages, two of which had been previously described as types B and A. The new type, C, was present in all the breeds analysed and showed considerable mtDNA variability. Divergence time was obtained on the basis of Cyt b gene and was estimated to be around 160,000-170,000 years ago for lineages B and A, whereas the divergence of lineage C proved to have occurred earlier (between 450,000 and 750,000 years ago). These times greatly predate domestication and suggest that the origin of modern sheep breeds was more complex than previously thought and that at least three independent sheep domestication events occurred. Our results, together with archaeological information and the current wild sheep populations in the Near East region support the high importance of this area in the sheep domestication process. Finally, the evidence of a third maternal lineage has important implications regarding the history of modern sheep.

  12. Evidence of High Electrocatalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide Supported Platinum Nanorafts

    SciTech Connect

    Elbaz, Lior; Phillips, Jonathan; Artyushkova, Kateryna; More, Karren Leslie; Brosha, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable new supported metal catalyst structure on Mo2C substrates, ‘rafts’ of platinum consisting of less than 6 atoms, was synthesized and found to be catalytically active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. A novel catalytic synthesis method: Reduction-Expansion-Synthesis of Catalysts (RES-C), from rapid heating of dry mixture of solid precursors of molybdenum, platinum and urea in an inert gas environment, led to the creation of unique platinum Nanorafts on Mo2C. The Pt Nanorafts offer a complete utilization of the Pt atoms for electrocatalysis with no “hidden” atoms. This structure is strongly affected by its interaction with the substrate as was observed by XPS. In this work, we show for the first time, evidence of electrocatalytic activity with such small clusters of non-crystalline Pt atoms as catalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical half-cell characterization shows that this structure permit more efficient utilization of platinum, with mass activity conservatively measured to be 50% that of platinum particles generated using traditional approaches. These novel material may dramatically enhance stability relative to the commercial Pt/carbon catalysts.

  13. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-06-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  14. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-10-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4) non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  15. On The Observability Of Turbulent Transport Rates By Argo: Supporting Evidence From An Inversion Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  16. Supporting evidence-based health care in crises: what information do humanitarian organizations need?

    PubMed

    Turner, Tari; Green, Sally; Harris, Claire

    2011-03-01

    In crisis situations, there is an enormous burden of disease and very limited resources. To achieve the best possible health outcomes in these situations and ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, knowledge from health research needs to be translated into practice. We investigated what information from health research was needed by humanitarian aid workers in crisis settings and how it could be best provided. Semistructured interviews were conducted by telephone with 19 humanitarian aid workers from a range of organizations around the world and the results analyzed thematically. Participants identified a clear and currently unmet need for access to high-quality health research to support evidence-based practice in crisis situations. They emphasized that research into delivery of health care was potentially more valuable than research into the effectiveness of particular clinical interventions and highlighted the importance of including contextual information to enable the relevance of the research to be assessed. They suggested that providers of health research information and humanitarian aid organizations work together to develop these resources.

  17. Genetic Evidence Supporting the Association of Protease and Protease Inhibitor Genes with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Nüesch, Eveline; Mendes, Camila T.; Schmied, Stefanie; Wyder, Stefan; Kellen, Eliane; Villiger, Peter M.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine; Lottaz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family. PMID:21931648

  18. Supporting Replication and Scale-Up of Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs: Assessing the Implementation Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Del Grosso, Patricia; Supplee, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners have expressed a growing interest in the use of interventions with scientific evidence of effectiveness. Reproducing positive effects shown in research, however, requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. There is growing recognition across disciplines of the importance of implementation research to guide adoption, replication, and scale-up of evidence-based interventions. We evaluate the state of the knowledge base supporting replication and scale-up of evidence-based programs by reviewing information on implementation included in the research literature on 22 home visiting programs that have or are building an evidence base. We used the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation to assess programs. PMID:25033117

  19. Convergent lines of evidence support CAMKK2 as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Luo, X-J; Li, M; Huang, L; Steinberg, S; Mattheisen, M; Liang, G; Donohoe, G; Shi, Y; Chen, C; Yue, W; Alkelai, A; Lerer, B; Li, Z; Yi, Q; Rietschel, M; Cichon, S; Collier, D A; Tosato, S; Suvisaari, J; Rujescu, Dan; Golimbet, V; Silagadze, T; Durmishi, N; Milovancevic, M P; Stefansson, H; Schulze, T G; Nöthen, M M; Chen, C; Lyne, R; Morris, D W; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Zhang, D; Dong, Q; Moyzis, R K; Stefansson, K; Sigurdsson, E; Hu, F; Su, B; Gan, L

    2014-07-01

    Genes that are differentially expressed between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls may have key roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We analyzed two large-scale genome-wide expression studies, which examined changes in gene expression in schizophrenia patients and their matched controls. We found calcium/calmodulin (CAM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is significantly downregulated in individuals with schizophrenia in both studies. To seek the potential genetic variants that may regulate the expression of CAMKK2, we investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CAMKK2 and the expression level of CAMKK2. We found one SNP, rs1063843, which is located in intron 17 of CAMKK2, is strongly associated with the expression level of CAMKK2 in human brains (P=1.1 × 10(-6)) and lymphoblastoid cell lines (the lowest P=8.4 × 10(-6)). We further investigated the association between rs1063843 and schizophrenia in multiple independent populations (a total of 130 623 subjects) and found rs1063843 is significantly associated with schizophrenia (P=5.17 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, we found the T allele of rs1063843, which is associated with lower expression level of CAMKK2, has a higher frequency in individuals with schizophrenia in all of the tested samples, suggesting rs1063843 may be a causal variant. We also found that rs1063843 is associated with cognitive function and personality in humans. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that CAMKK2 participates in a highly interconnected PPI network formed by top schizophrenia genes, which further supports the potential role of CAMKK2 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Taken together, these converging lines of evidence strongly suggest that CAMKK2 may have pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility. PMID:23958956

  20. New sedimentological evidence supporting a catastrophic meltwater discharge event along the Beaufort margin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotsko, S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Keigwin, L. D.; Mendenhall, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, a cruise on the USCGC Healy mapped the Beaufort margin from Barrow, AK into the Amundsen Gulf using a towed CHIRP subbottom profiler and a hull-mounted Knudsen CHIRP subbottom profiler to study the deglaciation of the margin. Sediment cores were also acquired. New grain size analyses for three sediment cores will be presented. These records help constrain the flooding events captured in the existing grain size data from JPC 15, just east of the Mackenzie trough. This core shows evidence of multiple ice rafted debris events that were likely sourced from the retreat of the Amundsen ice stream. These layers have peaks in grain size around ~20 microns compared to the ~5 micron average for the rest of the core. The grain size peaks correlate to the high amplitude reflectors observed in the seismic CHIRP data. Similar reflectors are observed in the seismic data from two of the new core locations, one in the Mackenzie trough and one east of the trough. The seismic data from these stations also record a thick sediment package that is ~7 meters thick at its depocenter. This layer is interpreted to record a massive meltwater discharge event that entered the Arctic via the Mackenzie River. Oxygen isotope data from JPC 15 support an event at this location based on the covarying benthic and planktonic records. In our conceptual model, the pulses of freshwater from the Amundsen Gulf likely freshened the margin sufficiently that the major discharge event was then able to push the system over the edge. This catastrophic glacial lake draining out the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea and export out of the Arctic into the North Atlantic caused diminished meridional overturning circulation - slowing of the conveyor belt thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, potentially caused the Younger Dryas cold period.

  1. Support for Crater Count Chronometry and Evidence for Obliquity-driven Ice Deposition on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2007-10-01

    In December 2006, Malin et al. (Science) reported discovery of small Martian craters forming on Mars in the last 7 years. Diameters are 10 to 20 m for best detections. The formation rate for these craters is within a factor 2-3 of the rates I've used in the isochron system I developed at PSI (2005 Icarus) - which is within the uncertainty limits of factor 2-4 that I have quoted for the system. This supports the conclusion that order-of-magnitude ages can be measured for young, kilometer-scale Martian landforms, by counting small craters. If Malin et al. are right, the method can be refined to considerable precision in the future, by better measurement of small crater production rates. I have applied this dating system to tongue-shaped flows and debris aprons east of Hellas. These apparently involve flow of ice or ice/soil mixtures (Costard et al. 2002 Science). Surface features at lateral topographic scales of 10-20m and 3-6m depth consistently give ages of a few My to a few 10s My on the flow units, and older ages outside the flow units. This is true whether Hartmann, Malin, or Neukum cratering data are used. These ages are just in the range of the last few cycles of high obliquity (Laskar et al. 2002 Nature). Strikingly, the ice features are exactly in one of the two moderate-latitude regions with unusually high ice deposition at high obliquity, according to global climate models by Forget (2007 LPSC, private communication). I conclude that crater count chronometry is viable and we have evidence of localized high rates of ice deposition, and possible water release, on mid-latitude Mars within the last few tens of My.

  2. The Relationship Between College Zoology Students' Religious Beliefs and Their Ability to Objectively View the Scientific Evidence Supporting Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Anne; Baldwin, Beatrice

    An anonymous 12-item, multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to 218 southern college, introductory zoology students prior to and following a study of evolutionary theory to assess their understanding and acceptance of the credibility of the evidence supporting the theory. Key topics addressed were the history of evolutionary thought, basic…

  3. Supporting the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, David E.; Kola, Lenore A.; Ronis, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Significant barriers exist to the implementation of evidence-based practices into routine mental health and substance abuse settings. This paper discusses the role and function of technical assistance centers to help support the implementation process using, as a guide, the experience of the Ohio Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Coordinating…

  4. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis. PMID:27561888

  5. Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Internalizing Problems: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Ty, Sophie V.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) has a large evidence base for preventing and addressing externalizing problem behavior, but there is little research examining its effects on internalizing problems, such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of internalizing problems in today's children and youth,…

  6. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis.

  7. Type, Content, and Source of Social Support Perceived by Women during Pregnancy: Evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Moni; Sibley, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Specific and contextualized data on social support during distinct health events are needed to improve social support interventions. This study identified the type, content, and source of social support perceived by women during pregnancy. In-depth interviews with 25 women, aged 18-49 years, living in Matlab, Bangladesh, were conducted. The findings demonstrated that women perceived, the receipt of eight distinct types of support. The four most frequently-mentioned types included: practical help with routine activities, information/advice, emotional support and assurance, as well as the provision of resources and material goods. Sources varied by type of support and most frequently included-—mothers, mothers-in-law, sisters-in-law, and husbands. Examples depicting the content of each type of support revealed culturally-specific issues that can inform community-based social support interventions. PMID:21608426

  8. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-03-12

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  9. Building Your Program. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    "Building Your Program" is intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, and program leaders think through and develop Supported Education. The first part of this booklet gives you background information about the Supported Education model. Specific information about your role in implementing and sustaining Supported Education…

  10. Human Functioning, Supports, Assistive Technology, and Evidence-Based Practices in the Field of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of assistive technology (AT) in the context of three current international trends in the field of intellectual disability (ID) that are significantly impacting the delivery of services and supports to persons with ID: the provision of systems of supports based on the individual's assessed support needs, the increased…

  11. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 4: Using research evidence to clarify a problem

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them often find themselves in situations that spur them on to work out how best to define a problem. These situations may range from being asked an awkward or challenging question in the legislature, through to finding a problem highlighted on the front page of a newspaper. The motivations for policymakers wanting to clarify a problem are diverse. These may range from deciding whether to pay serious attention to a particular problem that others claim is important, through to wondering how to convince others to agree that a problem is important. Debates and struggles over how to define a problem are a critically important part of the policymaking process. The outcome of these debates and struggles will influence whether and, in part, how policymakers take action to address a problem. Efforts at problem clarification that are informed by an appreciation of concurrent developments are more likely to generate actions. These concurrent developments can relate to policy and programme options (e.g. the publication of a report demonstrating the effectiveness of a particular option) or to political events (e.g. the appointment of a new Minister of Health with a personal interest in a particular issue). In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying a problem and characterising its features. These are: 1. What is the problem? 2. How did the problem come to attention and has this process influenced the prospect of it being addressed? 3. What indicators can be used, or collected, to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 4. What comparisons can be made to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 5. How can the problem be framed (or described) in a

  12. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of âgood causeâ for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780...- ) Evidence Other Evidence Requirements § 404.780 Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits...

  13. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of âgood causeâ for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780...- ) Evidence Other Evidence Requirements § 404.780 Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits...

  14. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  15. 38 CFR 10.44 - Evidence required to support claim of mother or father.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outlined in section 601 of the Act, as amended, includes stepmothers, stepfathers, mothers and fathers... evidence of dependency required from a natural mother or father, a claim of a stepmother or...

  16. 38 CFR 10.44 - Evidence required to support claim of mother or father.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outlined in section 601 of the Act, as amended, includes stepmothers, stepfathers, mothers and fathers... evidence of dependency required from a natural mother or father, a claim of a stepmother or...

  17. Modeling the effects of biomass accumulation on the performance of a biotrickling filter packed with PUF support for the alkaline biotreatment of dimethyl disulfide vapors in air.

    PubMed

    Arellano-García, Luis; Dorado, Antonio D; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Sacristan, Emilio; Gamisans, Xavier; Revah, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Excess biomass buildup in biotrickling filters leads to low performance. The effect of biomass accumulation in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) was assessed in terms of hydrodynamics and void space availability in a system treating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) vapors with an alkaliphilic consortium. A sample of colonized support from a BTF having been operating for over a year was analyzed, and it was found that the BTF void bed fraction was reduced to almost half of that calculated initially without biomass. Liquid flow through the examined BTF yielded dispersion coefficient values of 0.30 and 0.72 m(2) h(-1), for clean or colonized PUF, respectively. 3D images of attached biomass obtained with magnetic resonance imaging allowed to calculate the superficial area and the biofilm volume percentage and depth as 650 m(2) m(-3), 35%, and 0.6 mm respectively. A simplified geometric approximation of the complex PUF structure was proposed using an orthogonal 3D mesh that predicted 600 m(2) m(-3) for the same biomass content. With this simplified model, it is suggested that the optimum biomass content would be around 20% of bed volume. The activity of the microorganisms was evaluated by respirometry and the kinetics represented with a Haldane equation type. Experimentally determined parameters were used in a mathematical model to simulate the DMDS elimination capacity (EC), and better description was found when the removal experimental data were matched with a model including liquid axial dispersion in contrast to an ideal plug flow model. PMID:25056290

  18. Modeling the effects of biomass accumulation on the performance of a biotrickling filter packed with PUF support for the alkaline biotreatment of dimethyl disulfide vapors in air.

    PubMed

    Arellano-García, Luis; Dorado, Antonio D; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Sacristan, Emilio; Gamisans, Xavier; Revah, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Excess biomass buildup in biotrickling filters leads to low performance. The effect of biomass accumulation in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) was assessed in terms of hydrodynamics and void space availability in a system treating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) vapors with an alkaliphilic consortium. A sample of colonized support from a BTF having been operating for over a year was analyzed, and it was found that the BTF void bed fraction was reduced to almost half of that calculated initially without biomass. Liquid flow through the examined BTF yielded dispersion coefficient values of 0.30 and 0.72 m(2) h(-1), for clean or colonized PUF, respectively. 3D images of attached biomass obtained with magnetic resonance imaging allowed to calculate the superficial area and the biofilm volume percentage and depth as 650 m(2) m(-3), 35%, and 0.6 mm respectively. A simplified geometric approximation of the complex PUF structure was proposed using an orthogonal 3D mesh that predicted 600 m(2) m(-3) for the same biomass content. With this simplified model, it is suggested that the optimum biomass content would be around 20% of bed volume. The activity of the microorganisms was evaluated by respirometry and the kinetics represented with a Haldane equation type. Experimentally determined parameters were used in a mathematical model to simulate the DMDS elimination capacity (EC), and better description was found when the removal experimental data were matched with a model including liquid axial dispersion in contrast to an ideal plug flow model.

  19. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  20. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  1. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  2. Active Support: A Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Practice Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Jeffery P.; Sturmey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have evaluated active support in agencies for persons with developmental disabilities to increase staff assistance and service user engagement. A systematic review identified two studies in which researchers reported three experimental evaluations of active support. Only one experiment showed a clear functional relationship between…

  3. Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems

  4. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of child, teacher, and peer reports of teacher-student support.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-Man; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of measures of teacher-student support in a sample of 709 ethnically diverse 2nd- and 3rd-grade academically at-risk students. Confirmatory factor analysis investigated the convergent and discriminant validities of teacher, child, and peer reports of teacher-student support and child conduct problems. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the measures. Peer reports accounted for the largest proportion of trait variance and nonsignificant method variance. Child reports accounted for the smallest proportion of trait variance and the largest method variance. A model with 2 latent factors provided a better fit to the data than a model with 1 factor, providing further evidence of the discriminant validity of measures of teacher-student support. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  5. [Online information service: the library support for evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Markulin, Helena; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    It frequently happens that physicians do not have adequate skills or enough time for searching and evaluating evidence needed in their everyday practice. Medical librarian can serve as a mediator in enabling physicians to utilize the potential offered by contemporary evidence-based medicine. The Central Medical Library (CML) at University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, designed a web-based information service aimed at the promotion of evidence-based practice in the Croatian medical community. The users can ask for a help in finding information on their clinical problems. A responsible librarian will analyse the problem, search information resources and evaluate the evidence. The answer is returned to the user by an e-mail. In the 2008-2012 period 166 questions from 12 clinical fields were received and most of them (36.1%) came from internal medicine doctors. The share of treatment-related questions was 70.5%. In the setting of underdeveloped ICT infrastructure and inadequate EBM resources availability, such information service can help in transfer of scientific evidence into the everyday clinical practice. PMID:24720156

  6. [Online information service: the library support for evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Markulin, Helena; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    It frequently happens that physicians do not have adequate skills or enough time for searching and evaluating evidence needed in their everyday practice. Medical librarian can serve as a mediator in enabling physicians to utilize the potential offered by contemporary evidence-based medicine. The Central Medical Library (CML) at University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, designed a web-based information service aimed at the promotion of evidence-based practice in the Croatian medical community. The users can ask for a help in finding information on their clinical problems. A responsible librarian will analyse the problem, search information resources and evaluate the evidence. The answer is returned to the user by an e-mail. In the 2008-2012 period 166 questions from 12 clinical fields were received and most of them (36.1%) came from internal medicine doctors. The share of treatment-related questions was 70.5%. In the setting of underdeveloped ICT infrastructure and inadequate EBM resources availability, such information service can help in transfer of scientific evidence into the everyday clinical practice.

  7. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline. PMID:24576369

  8. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2013-12-06

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline.

  9. Message generalizations that support evidence-based persuasive message design: specifying the evidentiary requirements.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based persuasive message design can be informed by dependable research-based generalizations about the relative persuasiveness of alternative message-design options. Five propositions are offered as specifying what constitutes the best evidence to underwrite such generalizations: (1) The evidence should take the form of replicated randomized trials in which message features are varied. (2) Results should be described in terms of effect sizes and confidence intervals, not statistical significance. (3) The results should be synthesized using random-effects meta-analytic procedures. (4) The analysis should treat attitudinal, intention, and behavioral assessments as yielding equivalent indices of relative persuasiveness. (5) The replications included in research syntheses should not be limited to published studies or to English-language studies.

  10. Comparative outcome studies of clinical decision support software: limitations to the practice of evidence-based system acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Gaurav Jay; Amber, Kyle T; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2015-04-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) assist clinicians with patient diagnosis and treatment. However, inadequate attention has been paid to the process of selecting and buying systems. The diversity of CDSSs, coupled with research obstacles, marketplace limitations, and legal impediments, has thwarted comparative outcome studies and reduced the availability of reliable information and advice for purchasers. We review these limitations and recommend several comparative studies, which were conducted in phases; studies conducted in phases and focused on limited outcomes of safety, efficacy, and implementation in varied clinical settings. Additionally, we recommend the increased availability of guidance tools to assist purchasers with evidence-based purchases. Transparency is necessary in purchasers' reporting of system defects and vendors' disclosure of marketing conflicts of interest to support methodologically sound studies. Taken together, these measures can foster the evolution of evidence-based tools that, in turn, will enable and empower system purchasers to make wise choices and improve the care of patients. PMID:25665704

  11. The Conceptualization, Integration, and Support of Evidence-Based Interventions in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Domitrovich, Celene E.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this issue break the mold of the traditional stage model of the development and testing of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within the confines of highly controlled studies (Onken, Blaine, & Battjes, 1997). Although this approach has merits, the need for EBIs in school settings has outpaced their deployment. The authors of these…

  12. Social Stories[TM]: Does the Research Evidence Support the Popularity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The use of Social Stories[TM] appears to be popular among educational psychologists (EPs) and other children's services professionals as an intervention for enhancing the social functioning of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This article explores and evaluates the research evidence upon which this apparent popularity is based.…

  13. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  14. Connecting Research to Practice: Searching for Evidence to Support Favorable Student Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenos, Jeanne; Trick, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Educators have reported feeling stressed, overwhelmed, or demoralized when undesirable student behaviors are coupled with other instructional and programmatic barriers. Although helpful resources abound, it is not always easy to connect research to practice. Teachers can benefit from evidence-based practice (EBP), which basically involves reading…

  15. Education Resources Needed to Support the Teaching of Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Eldon; Gallon, Steve; Porter, John

    2007-01-01

    The Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center surveyed addiction educators, providers and policy makers in Northwest states and Hawaii to define teaching resources and barriers in the teaching of evidence-based practices for the preparation of addiction professionals. The top three teaching resource needs were example student…

  16. Molecular archeological evidence in support of the repeated loss of a papillomavirus gene

    PubMed Central

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that, in addition to gene gain, the loss of genes may be an important evolutionary mechanism for many organisms. However, gene loss is often associated with an increased mutation rate, thus quickly erasing evidence from the genome. The analysis of evolutionarily related sequences can provide empirical evidence for gene loss events. This paper analyzes the sequences of over 300 genetically distinct papillomaviruses and provides evidence for a role of gene loss during the evolution of certain papillomavirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the viral E6 gene was lost at least twice. Despite belonging to distant papillomaviral genera, these viruses lacking a canonical E6 protein may potentially encode a highly hydrophobic protein from an overlapping open reading frame, which we designate E10. Evolutionary pressure working on this alternative frame, may explain why, despite having lost the E6 open reading frame between 20 and 60 million years ago, evidence of an E6-like protein is conserved. PMID:27604338

  17. Is There Evidence to Support the Use of Social Skills Interventions for Students with Emotional Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners advocate for the use of social skills interventions for students with emotional disabilities because significant social skills deficits are common among these students. Yet contemporary practices must be vetted for empirical evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness to ensure students are provided appropriate…

  18. Molecular archeological evidence in support of the repeated loss of a papillomavirus gene.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that, in addition to gene gain, the loss of genes may be an important evolutionary mechanism for many organisms. However, gene loss is often associated with an increased mutation rate, thus quickly erasing evidence from the genome. The analysis of evolutionarily related sequences can provide empirical evidence for gene loss events. This paper analyzes the sequences of over 300 genetically distinct papillomaviruses and provides evidence for a role of gene loss during the evolution of certain papillomavirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the viral E6 gene was lost at least twice. Despite belonging to distant papillomaviral genera, these viruses lacking a canonical E6 protein may potentially encode a highly hydrophobic protein from an overlapping open reading frame, which we designate E10. Evolutionary pressure working on this alternative frame, may explain why, despite having lost the E6 open reading frame between 20 and 60 million years ago, evidence of an E6-like protein is conserved. PMID:27604338

  19. An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; May, Michael E.; Chitiyo, George

    2012-01-01

    The use of SWPBS has increased quite rapidly across schools. This is happening against a backdrop of enthusiasm among policymakers, researchers and practitioners about the use of evidence-based practices in school settings. As SWPBS continues to attract the interest of school personnel it is necessary to look at this approach and examine its…

  20. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  1. Development of reasoning: Behavioral evidence to support reinforcement over cognitive control accounts.

    PubMed

    Badger, Julia R; Shapiro, Laura R

    2010-06-01

    Abstract Speed's theory makes two predictions for the development of analogical reasoning. Firstly, young children should not be able to reason analogically due to an undeveloped PFC neural network. Secondly, category knowledge enables the reinforcement of structural features over surface features, and thus the development of sophisticated, analogical, reasoning. We outline existing studies that support these predictions and highlight some critical remaining issues. Specifically, we argue that the development of inhibition must be directly compared alongside the development of reasoning strategies in order to support Speed's account.

  2. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, N. P.; Myburgh, N. G.; Nel, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1997, South Africa has been developing and implementing food-based dietary guidelines for people aged >6 years. The complexity of the population, which contains different ethnic groups, as well as the rapid urbanization that is taking place, means that food-based dietary guidelines need to consider both overnutrition and undernutrition. The initial guidelines did not include guidance on sugar, and the Department of Health was not prepared to approve them until appropriate guidance on sugar was included. This paper summarizes the evidence available for such a guideline and the nature of that evidence. Other low- and middle-income countries, particularly those in Africa, may face a similar dilemma and might learn from our experience. PMID:14576892

  3. Meniscal Scaffolds - Preclinical Evidence to Support their Use: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Perdisa, Francesco; Gostynska, Natalia; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic meniscal treatment is the most common procedure performed in the orthopedic practice. Current management of meniscal pathology relies on different therapeutic options, ranging from selective meniscectomy, suturing, and to meniscal replacement by using either allografts or scaffolds. The progresses made in the field of regenerative medicine and biomaterials allowed to develop several meniscal substitutes, some of those currently used in the clinical practice. Before reaching the clinical application, these devices necessarily undergo accurate testing in the animal model: the aim of the present manuscript is to systematically review the scientific evidence derived by animal model results for the use of meniscal scaffolds, in order to understand the current state of research in this particular field and to identify the trends at preclinical level that may influence in the near future the clinical practice. Thirty-four papers were included in the present analysis. In 12 cases the meniscal scaffolds were used with cells to further stimulate tissue regeneration. With the exception of some negative reports regarding dacron-based scaffolds, the majority of the trials highlighted that biomaterials and bio-engineered scaffolds are safe and could play a beneficial role in stimulating meniscal healing and in chondral protection. With regard to the benefits of cell augmentation, the evidence is limited to a small number of studies and no conclusive evidence is available. However, preclinical evidence seems to suggest that cells could enhance tissue regeneration with respect to the use of biomaterials alone, and further research should confirm the translational potential of cell-based approach. PMID:26157531

  4. Evidence-based architectural and space design supports Magnet® empirical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ecoff, Laurie; Brown, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    This department expands nursing leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design. The editor of this department, Dr Jaynelle Stichler, asked guest authors, Drs Ecoff and Brown, to describe the process of using the conceptual models of a nursing evidence-based practice model and the Magnet Recognition Program® as a structured process to lead decision making in the planning and design processes and to achieve desired outcomes in hospital design.

  5. An Evidence Based Approach to Designing Medical Support for Long Duration, Interplanetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, S. D.; McGrath, T. L.; Bauman, D. K.; Wu, J. H.; Barsten, K. N.; Barr, Y. R.; Kerstman, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements under NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). The goal of the ExMC element is to address the risk of the "inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crewmember." This poster highlights the evidence-based approach that the ExMC element has taken to address this goal, and the ExMC element's current areas of interest.

  6. Dronedarone: evidence supporting its therapeutic use in the treatment of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Renee M; Olshansky, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dronedarone, a benzofuran derivative with a structure similar to amiodarone, has been developed as a potential therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation. Aim: To review the published evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of dronedarone use in patients with atrial fibrillation. Evidence review: Available evidence suggests that dronedarone 400 mg orally twice daily can lengthen the time to and decrease the overall recurrence of atrial fibrillation compared with placebo. Dronedarone may reduce risk of mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization. Patients with atrial fibrillation receiving dronedarone had improved ventricular rate control compared with patients receiving placebo. Dronedarone is associated with few serious adverse events except, notably, in patients with decompensated heart failure. Place in therapy: Dronedarone may have a role in rate and rhythm control for patients with atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone can reduce unique, but potentially serious, end points in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite this, the exact role of dronedarone in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation continues to emerge. It remains uncertain if dronedarone should be considered a primary treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone should not be administered to patients with decompensated heart failure. Conclusion: Dronedarone is a unique drug that may serve a key role to treat patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:21042542

  7. Education, Income, and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…

  8. Education, Income and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. We make two contributions. First, we present a conceptual model, which has been lacking in the…

  9. Family Carers' Experiences Using Support Services in Europe: Empirical Evidence from the EUROFAMCARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamura, Giovanni; Mnich, Eva; Nolan, Mike; Wojszel, Beata; Krevers, Barbro; Mestheneos, Liz; Dohner, Hanneli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the experiences of family carers of older people in using support services in six European countries: Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and the UK. Design and Methods: Following a common protocol, data were collected from national samples of approximately 1,000 family carers per country and clustered into…

  10. Evidence Supports the Use of Soy Protein to Promote Cardiometabolic Health and Muscle Development.

    PubMed

    Paul, Greg; Mendelson, Garry J

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of adequate amounts of dietary protein can help individuals maintain a healthy body composition, especially when combined with resistance exercise and during weight loss. It is well established that dietary protein intake supports muscle development and helps reduce loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of soy protein intake for promoting fat loss while preserving muscle mass and supporting lean body mass gains. In fact, soy protein and animal-based proteins both support weight loss and weight maintenance equally as part of an energy-restricted diet; however, soy protein offers additional cardiometabolic advantages. Key teaching points: Soy protein is a high-quality, plant-based protein that can be consumed throughout the life span. More human clinical studies have been conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein than any other cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. Ingestion of proteins with unique and complementary characteristics like soy, whey, and casein helps resistance-trained individuals achieve significant muscle growth. Recent research supports the efficacy of consuming a combination of soy, whey, and casein after resistance exercise to extend the time period that muscle building occurs. PMID:26400436

  11. Making the Grade: Assessing the Evidence for Integrated Student Supports. Publication #2014-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Integrated student supports (ISS), sometimes referred to as integrated student services, represents an emerging field of practice that aims to address persistent disparities in educational achievement and attainment. ISS is a school-based approach to promoting students' academic achievement and educational attainment by coordinating a seamless…

  12. Who Supports the English-Only Movement? Evidence for Misconceptions About Latino Group Vitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Using vitality theory as a framework, investigates whether support for English-only policies among Anglo-Americans is related to perceptions about growing Latino group vitality and the presence of Spanish in the linguistic landscape. Conducted a telephone survey in Santa Barbara, California. Found Anglo-Americans' perceptions of growing latino…

  13. Teacher Support and Engagement in Math and Science: Evidence from the High School Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Supportive teacher-student relationships are associated with increased levels of engagement and higher levels of achievement. Yet, studies also show that higher achieving students typically receive the most encouragement. Moreover, many studies of teacher-student relationships pertain to elementary and middle school students; by the time students…

  14. Transition of Youth and Young Adults with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties: An Evidence-Supported Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Hewitt B., Ed.; Unruh, Deanne K., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive professional handbook will help transition specialists, general and special educators, school psychologists, and administrators support youth and young adults in setting goals and achieving positive outcomes across employment, education, and community settings. Through up-to-date research and in-depth analyses of five successful…

  15. Assessing the Effectiveness of Relocation Support. Some Evidence from the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Adrian R.; Saunders, Mark N. K.

    1998-01-01

    Review of research on employee relocation in the United Kingdom and North America identified barriers to relocation and types of personal and financial support provided by organizations. Force-field analysis assessed the relationship between barriers and organizational interventions, particularly in UK local government agencies. (SK)

  16. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  17. Evidence Supports the Use of Soy Protein to Promote Cardiometabolic Health and Muscle Development.

    PubMed

    Paul, Greg; Mendelson, Garry J

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of adequate amounts of dietary protein can help individuals maintain a healthy body composition, especially when combined with resistance exercise and during weight loss. It is well established that dietary protein intake supports muscle development and helps reduce loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of soy protein intake for promoting fat loss while preserving muscle mass and supporting lean body mass gains. In fact, soy protein and animal-based proteins both support weight loss and weight maintenance equally as part of an energy-restricted diet; however, soy protein offers additional cardiometabolic advantages. Key teaching points: Soy protein is a high-quality, plant-based protein that can be consumed throughout the life span. More human clinical studies have been conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein than any other cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. Ingestion of proteins with unique and complementary characteristics like soy, whey, and casein helps resistance-trained individuals achieve significant muscle growth. Recent research supports the efficacy of consuming a combination of soy, whey, and casein after resistance exercise to extend the time period that muscle building occurs.

  18. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  19. The Use of Prompting as an Evidence-Based Strategy to Support Children with ASD in School Settings in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dervla

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the use of prompting as an evidence-based strategy to support children with autism to develop their language, communication and social interactions skills. The literature is reviewed using a three-ringed, evidence-based practice model to support evaluation of the use of prompting. The article outlines considerations about the…

  20. 20 CFR 418.2250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.2250 Section 418.2250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? We will follow the...

  1. Evidence supporting the importance of terrestrial carbon in a large-river food web.

    PubMed

    Zeug, Steven C; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2008-06-01

    Algal carbon has been increasingly recognized as the primary carbon source supporting large-river food webs; however, many of the studies that support this contention have focused on lotic main channels during low-flow periods. The flow variability and habitat-heterogeneity characteristic of these systems has the potential to significantly influence food web structure and must be integrated into models of large-river webs. We used stable-isotope analysis and IsoSource software to model terrestrial and algal sources of organic carbon supporting consumer taxa in the main channel and oxbow lakes of the Brazos River, Texas, USA, during a period of frequent hydrologic connectivity between these habitat types. Standardized sampling was conducted monthly to collect production sources and consumer species used in isotopic analysis. Predictability of hydrologic connections between habitat types was based on the previous 30 years of flow data. IsoSource mixing models identified terrestrial C3 macrophytes (riparian origin) as the primary carbon source supporting virtually all consumers in the main channel and most consumers in oxbow lakes. Small-bodied consumers (<100 mm) in oxbow lakes assimilated large fractions of algal carbon whereas this pattern was not apparent in the main channel. Estimates of detritivore trophic positions based on delta15N values indicated that terrestrial material was likely assimilated via invertebrates rather than directly from detritus. High flows in the river channel influenced algal standing stock, and differences in the importance of terrestrial and algal production sources among consumers in channel vs. oxbow habitats were associated with patterns of flooding. The importance of terrestrial material contradicts the findings of recent studies of large-river food webs that have emphasized the importance of algal carbon and indicates that there can be significant spatial, temporal, and taxonomic variation in carbon sources supporting consumers in

  2. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  3. Sexual selection and maintenance of sex: evidence from comparisons of rates of genomic accumulation of mutations and divergence of sex-related genes in sexual and hermaphroditic species of Caenorhabditis.

    PubMed

    Artieri, Carlo G; Haerty, Wilfried; Gupta, Bhagwati P; Singh, Rama S

    2008-05-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the persistence of dioecy despite the reproductive advantages conferred to hermaphrodites, including greater efficiency at purging deleterious mutations in the former. Dioecy can benefit from both mutation purging and accelerated evolution by bringing together beneficial mutations in the same individual via recombination and shuffling of genotypes. In addition, mathematical treatment has shown that sexual selection is also capable of mitigating the cost of maintaining separate sexes by increasing the overall fitness of sexual populations, and genomic comparisons have shown that sexual selection can lead to accelerated evolution. Here, we examine the advantages of dioecy versus hermaphroditism by comparing the rate of evolution in sex-related genes and the rate of accumulation of deleterious mutations using a large number of orthologs (11,493) in the dioecious Caenorhabditis remanei and the hermaphroditic Caenorhabditis briggsae. We have used this data set to estimate the deleterious mutation rate per generation, U, in both species and find that although it is significantly higher in hermaphrodites, both species are at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than the value required to explain the persistence of sex by efficiency at purging deleterious mutations alone. We also find that genes expressed in sperm are evolving rapidly in both species; however, they show a greater increase in their rate of evolution relative to genes expressed in other tissues in C. remanei, suggesting stronger sexual selection pressure acting on these genes in dioecious species. Interestingly, the persistence of a signal of rapid evolution of sperm genes in C. briggsae suggests a recent evolutionary origin of hermaphrodism in this lineage. Our results provide empirical evidence of increased sexual selection pressure in dioecious animals, supporting the possibility that sexual selection may play an important role in the maintenance of sexual

  4. Evidence from Solanum tuberosum in support of the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.F.; Doong, R.L.; Jensen, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Key branchpoint enzymes of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DS) and chorismate mutase (CM), have previously been shown to exist as separate compartmentalized isozymes in the chloroplasts and cytosol of tobacco, sorghum and spinach. Although additional examples of plants containing these isozyme pairs are accumulating, some studies in the literature report the presence of only the single plastidic DS or CM enzyme. Such apparent exceptions contradict the universality of pathway organization existing in higher plants that is implied by the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis. Since potato (Solanum tuberosum) exemplifies a case where only a single species of both DS and CM have been reported, we selected this system for further analysis. The DS-Mn and DS-Co isozyme pair, exhibiting all of the differential properties described in Nicotiana silvestris, have now been identified in S. tuberosum. Likwise, partial purification via DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two isozymes of CM in disks excised from tubers of S. tuberosum. The differential regulatory properties of these isozymes were comparable to the CM-1 and CM-2 isozymes of N. silvestris.

  5. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  6. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  7. Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; El Jaouhari, Meryem; Saydi, Abdessalam; Kuper, Marcel; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities.

  8. Acceleration of large active earthflows triggered by massive snow accumulation events: evidences from monitoring the Corvara landslide in early 2014 (Dolomites, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Alessandro; Mulas, Marco; Marcato, Gianluca; Chinellato, Giulia; Mair, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    In the Dolomites of Italy, snowfall during winter 2013/2014 was exceptionally abundant. Major snowfall events occurred from late December 2013 to mid-March 2014. Snow accumulation in Badia Valley peaked in early February: from 2 to 4 meters with a positive gradient respect to altimetry and accordingly to wind accumulation zones. Below 2000 m asl, due to the mild temperatures recorded before the onset of snowfall, the relatively dry snow cover was mostly deposited on top of unfrozen soils. The Corvara landslide is a large active earthflow located close to Corvara in Badia, at an elevation from 2000 to 1600 m. It's displacement rate before, during and after the exceptional snowfall period was monitored at high temporal frequency. Surface displacement was measured bi-weekly by differential GPS in several benchmarks in the source, track and accumulation zone. Deep displacement was monitored semi-continuously by two in-place inclinometers at 48 m depth in the accumulation zone, across the main deep-seated sliding surface. Results show an acceleration of movements, both at surface and at depth, soon after the massive snow accumulation event of 31st January to 2nd February 2014, which suddenly increased snow thickness from 1 to more than 2 metres. Short time lags between the onset of the acceleration of movements in the source, the track and the accumulation zones were also recorded. The landslide then maintained a relatively constant velocity during the high snow cover period extended to earlyApril and underwent a progressive deceleration during the snowmelt period that lasted until mid-June. The fact that the acceleration of the Corvara earthflow was triggered by a massive and rapid snow accumulation event, provides a quite different perspective from the generally adopted one that considers the destabilizing effect of snow only in relation to the increase of groundwater level during rapid snowmelt. A full explanation of the processes associated to the dynamics observed

  9. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

  10. Intracranial volume and dementia: some evidence in support of the cerebral reserve hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tate, D F; Neeley, E S; Norton, M C; Tschanz, J T; Miller, M J; Wolfson, L; Hulette, C; Leslie, C; Welsh-Bohmer, K A; Plassman, B; Bigler, Erin D

    2011-04-18

    The brain reserve hypothesis has been posited as being one important mediating factor for developing dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence for this hypothesis is mixed though different methodologies have made these findings difficult to interpret. We examined imaging data from a large cohort (N=194) of mixed dementia patients and controls, 65years old and older from the Cache County, Utah Study of Memory and Aging for evidence of the brain reserve hypothesis using total intracranial volume (TICV) as a quantitative measure of pre-morbid brain size and a vicarious indicator of reserve. A broader spectrum of non-demented elderly control subjects from previous studies was also included for comparison (N=423). In addition, non-parametric Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analyses were performed to model group heterogeneity and identify any subgroups of patients where TICV might be an important predictor of dementia. Parametrically, no main effect was found for TICV when predicting a dementia diagnosis; however, the CART analysis did reveal important TICV subgroups, including a sex differential wherein ε4 APOE allele presence in males and low TICV predicted AD classification. TICV, APOE, and other potential mediator/moderator variables are discussed in the context of the brain reserve hypothesis.

  11. Evolution of clinical practice guidelines: evidence supporting expanded use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Robert W; Dean, Bonnie B

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the primary factor underlying increased spending on pharmaceuticals has been the rising utilization of medications, rather than increases in unit drug price. This study examined the evolution of clinical practice guidelines to assess possible reasons for the rising drug volume. Clinical practice guidelines from 1970 to the present were reviewed for the six most prevalent treatable medical conditions/risk factors listed as priority areas by the Institute of Medicine. We searched the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, PubMed and Medline databases, and Web sites of relevant national organizations for US clinical practice guidelines published through January 2005. Information pertaining to the therapeutic regimen (eg, the frequency and duration of recommended treatment, when treatment should be initiated, the patient population for whom the guideline was intended) was abstracted and entered into evidence tables. Changes in guidelines were distributed across three themes that recommended evidence-based increases in medication use, including: (1) changes in the size of the treatable population; (2) changes in the number and type of recommended pharmaceutical therapeutic options, including movement from monotherapy to combination therapy, treatment of comorbidities, and use of newer types of medicines; and (3) changes in the therapeutic regimen, including a shift from episodic care to preventive and chronic care. Many of these changes point to an important, but not often noticed, addition of secondary prevention of disease effects to the objectives of medical care. These trends are likely to continue with important economic, clinical, and policy ramifications.

  12. Do Child Development Accounts Promote Account Holding, Saving, and Asset Accumulation for Children's Future? Evidence from a Statewide Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret; Zager, Robert; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of Child Development Accounts (CDAs) on account holding, saving, and asset accumulation for children, using data from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids experiment (SEED OK). SEED OK, a policy test of universal and progressive CDAs, provides a 529 college savings plan account to every infant in the treatment group with…

  13. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-22

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007), and in particular the authors' paper 'The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement'. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  14. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  15. First long-term evidence supporting endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Muhs, Bart E; Dardik, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The traditional method of treating abdominal aortic aneurysms with open surgical repair has been steadily replaced by endovascular repair, thought to be a more minimally invasive approach. It is not known, however, whether the endovascular approach is truly less invasive for operative physiology; in addition, this approach has a different spectrum of complications. As such, it is uncertain whether elective endovascular repair of nonruptured aortic aneurysms reduces long-term morbidity and mortality compared with traditional open approaches. In this article, the authors evaluate a recent publication investigating long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms treated with either endovascular or open repair, and discuss the results in the context of current evidence. PMID:23570352

  16. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. PMID:27412169

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids-Further Evidence Supporting the Relationship Between Cannabinoids and Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of synthetic mind-altering compounds, also known as "new psychoactive substances," is increasing globally at an alarming rate. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are among the most commonly used new psychoactive substances. They are usually purchased as marijuana-like drugs, marketed as herbal blends and perceived as risk-free by inexperienced users. Yet, contrary to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, SCs may lead to severe health consequences, including anxiety, tachycardia, hallucinations, violent behavior, and psychosis. This review focuses on the latest (2010-2015) evidence of psychotic symptoms induced by ingestion of products containing SCs. Reports suggesting that SCs may either exacerbate previously stable psychotic symptoms (in vulnerable individuals) or trigger new-onset psychosis (in individuals with no previous history of psychosis) are reviewed. Pharmacology and toxicology of these compounds are discussed, with particular reference to their psychoactive effects. PMID:26970364

  18. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education.

  19. Skin tears: a review of the evidence to support prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Catherine R; Fletcher, Kathleen R

    2007-03-01

    Physiological changes that occur as part of the aging process put the elderly at risk for developing skin tears. Lack of consistent care in the management of skin tears in the authors' community sparked a literature search to determine best evidence for the management of skin tears. Medline and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies and systematic reviews on skin tear prevention and treatment. The literature suggested that the greatest number of skin tears occurs among the elderly (65 years and older). Factors reported to be associated with the occurrence of skin tears in addition to age include immobility and a history of skin tears. In the absence of systematic risk factor research, clinicians continue to report that all variables that may be associated with these wounds must be considered when assessing the elderly. Several small studies suggest that most skin tears occur on the extremities and seasonal incidence variations also have been reported. Despite consistent sample-size limitations, the results of controlled clinical studies and case series consistently suggest that education and implementation of prevention protocols reduce the incidence of skin tears in extended care facilities by almost 50%. Studies to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skin tear treatments are limited but when appropriate care is provided most skin tears can be expected to heal after 7 to 21 days depending on the severity of the wound. A combination of skin protection, preventive measures, and treatments that facilitate moist wound healing appear to be most effective. Risk factor and epidemiological studies as well as research to validate the existing skin tear classification system and improve clinician ability to provide evidence-based risk assessments, preventive care, and treatment are needed.

  20. Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kawashima, Tatsunori; Kameo, Koji; Minoshima, Kayo; Aguilar, Yolanda M; Wani, Ryoji; Kawahata, Hodaka; Sowa, Kohki; Nagai, Takaya; Kase, Tomoki

    2011-03-10

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 3-5 million years ago) may have existed in a permanent El Niño state with a sharply reduced zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This suggests that during the PWP, when global mean temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were similar to those projected for near-term climate change, ENSO variability--and related global climate teleconnections-could have been radically different from that today. Yet, owing to a lack of observational evidence on seasonal and interannual SST variability from crucial low-latitude sites, this fundamental climate characteristic of the PWP remains controversial. Here we show that permanent El Niño conditions did not exist during the PWP. Our spectral analysis of the δ(18)O SST and salinity proxy, extracted from two 35-year, monthly resolved PWP Porites corals in the Philippines, reveals variability that is similar to present ENSO variation. Although our fossil corals cannot be directly compared with modern ENSO records, two lines of evidence suggest that Philippine corals are appropriate ENSO proxies. First, δ(18)O anomalies from a nearby live Porites coral are correlated with modern records of ENSO variability. Second, negative-δ(18)O events in the fossil corals closely resemble the decreases in δ(18)O seen in the live coral during El Niño events. Prior research advocating a permanent El Niño state may have been limited by the coarse resolution of many SST proxies, whereas our coral-based analysis identifies climate variability at the temporal scale required to resolve ENSO structure firmly.

  1. A Theory of Sex Differences in Technical Aptitude and Some Supporting Evidence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2011-11-01

    In this article, I present a theory that explains the origin of sex differences in technical aptitudes. The theory takes as proven that there are no sex differences in general mental ability (GMA), and it postulates that sex differences in technical aptitude (TA) stem from differences in experience in technical areas, which is in turn based on sex differences in technical interests. Using a large data set, I tested and found support for four predictions made by this theory: (a) the construct level correlation between technical aptitude and GMA is larger for females than males, (b) the observed and true score variability of technical aptitude is greater among males than females, (c) at every level of GMA females have lower levels of technical aptitude, and (d) technical aptitude measures used as estimates of GMA for decision purposes would result in underestimation of GMA levels for girls and women. Given that GMA carries the weight of prediction of job performance, the support found for this last prediction suggests that, for many jobs, technical aptitude tests may underpredict the job performance of female applicants and employees. Future research should examine this question.

  2. What Is the Evidence to Support the Use of Therapeutic Gardens for the Elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Mark B.; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G.; Murphy, Pamela F.; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S.; Halling, Mary H.

    2012-01-01

    Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging. PMID:22707959

  3. High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: evidence from Japanese geminates.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Makiko; McQueen, James M

    2013-08-01

    This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative /s/. Participants were trained with either many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker (low-variability training) or with fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by multiple speakers (high-variability training). Both types of training enhanced identification of speech but not of nonspeech materials, indicating that learning was domain specific. High-variability training led to superior performance in identification but not in discrimination tests, and supported better generalization of learning as shown by transfer from the trained fricatives to the identification of untrained stops and affricates. Variability thus helps nonnative listeners to form abstract categories rather than to enhance early acoustic analysis.

  4. Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C.; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. Edward; Frieman, Matthew B.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

  5. Knowledge brokering: An innovative model for supporting evidence-informed practice in respiratory care

    PubMed Central

    Hoens, Alison M; Reid, W Darlene; Camp, Pat G

    2013-01-01

    The process of adopting research findings in the clinical setting is challenging, regardless of the area of practice. One strategy to facilitate this process is the use of knowledge brokering. Knowledge brokers (KBs) are individuals who work to bridge the gap between researchers and knowledge users. In the health care setting, KBs work closely with clinicians to facilitate enhanced uptake of research findings into clinical practice. They also work with researchers to ensure research findings are translatable and meaningful to clinical practice. The present article discusses a KB’s role in a respiratory care setting. Working closely with both researchers and clinicians, the KB has led teams in the process of conceptualizing, developing, testing, disseminating and evaluating several projects related to respiratory care, including projects related to mobility in critical care settings and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; inspiratory muscle training; and the use of incentive spirometry in postsurgical populations. The KB role has provided an important communication link between researcher and knowledge user that has facilitated evidence-informed practice to improve patient care. PMID:23936885

  6. Does the evidence support the case for mental health courts? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Honegger, Laura N

    2015-10-01

    Mental health courts divert offenders with mental illness away from incarceration in return for participation in monitored mental health treatment. Since their inception in the late 1990 s, the proliferation of these problem-solving courts has outpaced the research on their effectiveness. A review of the literature was conducted, yielding 20 articles from peer-reviewed journals. Mental health courts were evaluated for their ability to improve psychiatric symptoms, connect individuals with behavioral health services, improve overall quality of life, and reduce recidivism rates. A majority of articles reported favorable recidivism outcomes for participants, with few evaluating their impact on therapeutic outcomes. At the present time, mental health courts represent an emerging practice, but have not yet reached the level of an evidence-based model. Existing studies of mental health courts suffer from methodological limitations, specifically, a lack of experimental design, use of nonrepresentative samples, and assessment over short timeframes. Moreover, the inherently idiosyncratic nature of these courts and the variance in reporting of court-specific eligibility criteria make cross-article comparison more difficult. It is recommended that future mental health court research examine the impact of available community services, as well as consider the effect of criminogenic risk factors, on therapeutic and recidivism outcomes.

  7. Evidence supporting radiation hormesis in atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-12-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for a large systematic bias in the measured baseline cancer mortality rate, which can have a major effect on the ERR values. Cancer rates are highly variable from year to year and between adjacent regions and so the likelihood of such a bias is high. Calculations show that a correction for such a bias can lower the ERRs in the atomic bomb survivor data to negative values for intermediate doses. This is consistent with the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, providing a rational explanation for the decreased risk of cancer observed at intermediate doses for which there is no explanation based on the LNT model. The recent atomic bomb survivor data provides additional evidence for radiation hormesis in humans.

  8. Is there sufficient evidence to support intervention to manage shoulder arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Tai Kie, Andrew; Hanusch, Birgit; Kulkarni, Rohit; Rees, Jonathan; Rangan, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Background We explore the nature, extent and validity of research studies concerning the management of shoulder arthritis to identify whether current management recommendations are adequate. Methods A full electronic search for relevant studies published between 2002 and 2012 was performed. The search focused on level 1 and level 2 studies. Full texts of selected articles were retrieved and assessed for quality against validated criteria. Results Four hundred and eleven studies were identified on the initial search and screened. Sixteen studies were selected for inclusion in the review. The studies identified were unable to provide a clear indication of best intervention for shoulder arthritis. The inclusion of a range of shoulder pathologies in some studies and the diversity in outcome measures used made it difficult for systematic reviews to effectively pool data. Better outcomes have been shown with total shoulder replacement over hemiarthroplasty for shoulder osteoarthritis; however, primary studies were often of limited quality. Sparse evidence is available for all other interventions, regardless of whether operative or non-operative. Conclusions The present review highlights the need for standardization of outcome assessment following treatment of shoulder arthritis. More rigorous and robust primary studies are needed to guide clinical practice on the best interventions for arthritis of the shoulder. PMID:27583004

  9. Evidence does not support a role for gallic acid in Phragmites australis invasion success.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Li, Mei; Allman, Joshua; Bergosh, Robert G; Posner, Mason

    2013-02-01

    Gallic acid has been reported to be responsible for the invasive success of nonnative genotypes of Phragmites australis in North America. We have been unable to confirm previous reports of persistent high concentrations of gallic acid in the rhizosphere of invasive P. australis, and of high concentrations of gallic acid and gallotannins in P. australis rhizomes. The half-life of gallic acid in nonsterile P. australis soil was measured by aqueous extraction of soils and found to be less than 1 day at added concentrations up to 10,000 μg g(-1). Furthermore, extraction of P. australis soil collected in North Carolina showed no evidence of gallic acid, and extractions of both rhizomes and leaves of samples of four P. australis populations confirmed to be of invasive genotype show only trace amounts of gallic acid and/or gallotannins. The detection limits were less than 20 μg gallic acid g(-1) FW in the rhizome samples tested, which is approximately 0.015 % of the minimum amount of gallic acid expected based on previous reports. While the occurrence of high concentrations of gallic acid and gallotannins in some local populations of P. australis cannot be ruled out, our results indicate that exudation of gallic acid by P. australis cannot be a primary, general explanation for the invasive success of this species in North America.

  10. Child-rearing and adult leukemia: Epidemiologic evidence in support of competing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.G. ); Severson, R.K. . Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study); Heuser, L. )

    1988-05-01

    The hypothesis that lack of child-rearing increases the risk of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults was examined in a case-control study in western Washington State. Among 159 study subjects over age 50 in 1985, there were 76 cases of ANLL and 83 controls. The crude odds ratio associated with lack of child-rearing was 1.8, with a 95% confidence range of 0.7 to 5.0. The average total number of children ever living with cases was 2.6 and with controls was 3.1 (p = 0.06). The mean total number of years living with a child, or children, under age 18 was 17.6 in cases and 20.2 in controls (p = 0.05). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for age, smoking, race, income, and sex. The data provide evidence that cases of ANLL were less likely to ever have had children and that fewer years were spent rearing children than were spent by controls. The hypothesis was based on the competing stem cell'' theory of hematopoietic ontogeny. If valid, then exposure to children would increase exposure to infection, leading to increased lymphocytic stem cell turnover, and decreased non-lymphocytic stem cell turnover. This, in turn, may reduce risk of ANLL in adults. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Blobs versus bars: psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision.

    PubMed

    Gheiratmand, Mina; Meese, Tim S; Mullen, Kathy T

    2013-01-02

    The classic hypothesis of Livingstone and Hubel (1984, 1987) proposed two types of color pathways in primate visual cortex based on recordings from single cells: a segregated, modular pathway that signals color but provides little information about shape or form and a second pathway that signals color differences and so defines forms without the need to specify their colors. A major problem has been to reconcile this neurophysiological hypothesis with the behavioral data. A wealth of psychophysical studies has demonstrated that color vision has orientation-tuned responses and little impairment on form related tasks, but these have not revealed any direct evidence for nonoriented mechanisms. Here we use a psychophysical method of subthreshold summation across orthogonal orientations for isoluminant red-green gratings in monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions to differentiate between nonoriented and orientation-tuned responses to color contrast. We reveal nonoriented color responses at low spatial frequencies (0.25-0.375 c/deg) under monocular conditions changing to orientation-tuned responses at higher spatial frequencies (1.5 c/deg) and under binocular conditions. We suggest that two distinct pathways coexist in color vision at the behavioral level, revealed at different spatial scales: one is isotropic, monocular, and best equipped for the representation of surface color, and the other is orientation-tuned, binocular, and selective for shape and form. This advances our understanding of the organization of the neural pathways involved in human color vision and provides a strong link between neurophysiological and behavioral data.

  12. The search for early markers of plague: evidence for accumulation of soluble Yersinia pestis LcrV in bubonic and pneumonic mouse models of disease.

    PubMed

    Flashner, Yehuda; Fisher, Morly; Tidhar, Avital; Mechaly, Adva; Gur, David; Halperin, Gideon; Zahavy, Eran; Mamroud, Emanuelle; Cohen, Sara

    2010-07-01

    Markers of the early stages of plague, a rapidly progressing deadly disease, are crucial for enabling the onset of an effective treatment. Here, we show that V-antigen protein (LcrV) is accumulated in the serum of Yersinia pestis-infected mice before bacterial colonization of the spleen and dissemination to blood, in a model of bubonic plague. LcrV accumulation is detected earlier than that of F1 capsular antigen, an established marker of disease. In a mouse model of pneumonic plague, LcrV can be determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid somewhat later than F1, but before dissemination of Y. pestis to the blood. Thus, determination of soluble LcrV is suggested as a potential useful tool for monitoring disease progression in both bubonic and pneumonic plague. Moreover, it may be of particular advantage in cases of infections with F1 nonproducing strains.

  13. Regulation of myofibrillar accumulation in chick muscle cultures - Evidence for the involvement of calcium and lysosomes in non-uniform turnover of contractile proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Geri; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of calcium on the synthesis and the degradation of individual myofibrillar proteins were investigated using primary chick-leg skeletal muscle cultures labeled with S-35-methionine (for protein accumulation experiments) or Ca(2+)-45 (for calcium efflux experiments). It was found that the turnover of individual contractile proteins is regulated nonuniformly by a calcium-dependent mechanism involving lysosomes. The results also indicate that contractile proteins are released from the myofibril before their breakdown to amino acids.

  14. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  15. Evidence from central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S; Bunch, Ted E; Wittke, James H; Weaver, James C; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Kennett, James P; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K; Kinzie, Charles R; Wolbach, Wendy S

    2012-03-27

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  16. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes.

    PubMed

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote-dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample of coyotes and dogs from southeastern Ontario to assess potential asymmetric dog introgression into coyotes. Analysis of autosomal microsatellite genotypes revealed minimal historical and contemporary admixture between coyotes and dogs. We observed only mutually exclusive mtDNA haplotypes in coyotes and dogs, but we observed Y-chromosome haplotypes (Y-haplotypes) in both historical and contemporary coyotes that were also common in dogs. Species-specific Zfy intron sequences of Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs confirmed their homology and indicated a putative origin from dogs. We compared Y-haplotypes observed in coyotes, wolves, and dogs profiled in multiple studies, and observed that the Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs were either absent or rare in North American wolves, present in eastern coyotes, but absent in western coyotes. We suggest the eastern coyote has experienced asymmetric genetic introgression from dogs, resulting from predominantly historical hybridization with male dogs and subsequent backcrossing of hybrid offspring with coyotes. We discuss the temporal and spatial dynamics of coyote-dog hybridization and the conditions that may have facilitated the introgression of dog Y-chromosomes into coyotes. Our findings clarify the evolutionary history of the eastern coyote.

  17. Evidence from Central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Israde-Alcántaraa, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S.; Bunch, Ted E.; Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Kennett, James P.; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Stanley, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  18. Evidence from central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S.; Bunch, Ted E.; Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Kennett, James P.; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Wolbach, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  19. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote–dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample of coyotes and dogs from southeastern Ontario to assess potential asymmetric dog introgression into coyotes. Analysis of autosomal microsatellite genotypes revealed minimal historical and contemporary admixture between coyotes and dogs. We observed only mutually exclusive mtDNA haplotypes in coyotes and dogs, but we observed Y-chromosome haplotypes (Y-haplotypes) in both historical and contemporary coyotes that were also common in dogs. Species-specific Zfy intron sequences of Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs confirmed their homology and indicated a putative origin from dogs. We compared Y-haplotypes observed in coyotes, wolves, and dogs profiled in multiple studies, and observed that the Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs were either absent or rare in North American wolves, present in eastern coyotes, but absent in western coyotes. We suggest the eastern coyote has experienced asymmetric genetic introgression from dogs, resulting from predominantly historical hybridization with male dogs and subsequent backcrossing of hybrid offspring with coyotes. We discuss the temporal and spatial dynamics of coyote–dog hybridization and the conditions that may have facilitated the introgression of dog Y-chromosomes into coyotes. Our findings clarify the evolutionary history of the eastern coyote. PMID:24101990

  20. Genetic evidence supports a role for the yeast CCR4-NOT complex in transcriptional elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Denis, C L; Chiang, Y C; Cui, Y; Chen, J

    2001-01-01

    The CCR4-NOT complex is involved in the regulation of gene expression both positively and negatively. The repressive effects of the complex appear to result in part from restricting TBP access to noncanonical TATAA binding sites presumably through interaction with multiple TAF proteins. We provide here genetic evidence that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a role in transcriptional elongation. First, defects in CCR4-NOT components as well as overexpression of the NOT4 gene elicited 6-azauracil (6AU) and mycophenolic acid sensitivities, hallmarks of transcriptional elongation defects. A number of other transcription initiation factors known to interact with the CCR4-NOT complex did not elicit these phenotypes nor did defects in factors that reduced mRNA degradation and hence the recycling of NTPs. Second, deletion of ccr4 resulted in severe synthetic effects with mutations or deletions in the known elongation factors RPB2, TFIIS, and SPT16. Third, the ccr4 deletion displayed allele-specific interactions with rpb1 alleles that are thought to be important in the control of elongation. Finally, we found that a ccr4 deletion as well as overexpression of the NOT1 gene specifically suppressed the cold-sensitive phenotype associated with the spt5-242 allele. The only other known suppressors of this spt5-242 allele are factors involved in slowing transcriptional elongation. These genetic results are consistent with the model that the CCR4-NOT complex, in addition to its known effects on initiation, plays a role in aiding the elongation process. PMID:11404327

  1. Evidence to support IL-13 as a risk locus for psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Flynn, Edward; Ho, Pauline; Salah, Salma; Warren, Richard B; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Coates, Laura; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Anthony W; Kane, David; Korendowych, Eleanor; McHugh, Neil; FitzGerald, Oliver; Packham, Jonathan; Morgan, Ann W; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Bruce, Ian N; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is great interest in the identification of genetic factors that differentiate psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), as such discoveries could lead to the identification of distinct underlying aetiological pathways. Recent studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene region as risk factors for PsV. Further investigations in one of these studies found the effect to be primarily restricted to PsA, thus suggesting the discovery of a specific genetic risk factor for PsA. Given this intriguing evidence, association to this gene was investigated in large collections of PsA and PsV patients and healthy controls. Methods Two SNPs (rs20541 and rs1800925) mapping to the IL-13 gene were genotyped in 1057 PsA and 778 type I PsV patients using the Sequenom genotyping platform. Genotype frequencies were compared to those of 5575 healthy controls. Additional analyses were performed in phenotypic subgroups of PsA (type I or II PsV and in those seronegative for rheumatoid factor). Results Both SNPs were found to be highly associated with susceptibility to PsA (rs1800925 ptrend = 6.1×10−5 OR 1.33, rs20541 ptrend = 8.0×10−4 OR 1.27), but neither SNP was significantly associated with susceptibility to PsV. Conclusions This study confirms that the effect of IL-13 risk locus is specific for PsA, thus highlighting a key biological pathway that differentiates PsA from PsV. The identification of markers that differentiate the two diseases raises the possibility in future of allowing screening of PsV patients to identify those at risk of developing PsA. PMID:21349879

  2. Mobile DNA and the TE-Thrust hypothesis: supporting evidence from the primates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are increasingly being recognized as powerful facilitators of evolution. We propose the TE-Thrust hypothesis to encompass TE-facilitated processes by which genomes self-engineer coding, regulatory, karyotypic or other genetic changes. Although TEs are occasionally harmful to some individuals, genomic dynamism caused by TEs can be very beneficial to lineages. This can result in differential survival and differential fecundity of lineages. Lineages with an abundant and suitable repertoire of TEs have enhanced evolutionary potential and, if all else is equal, tend to be fecund, resulting in species-rich adaptive radiations, and/or they tend to undergo major evolutionary transitions. Many other mechanisms of genomic change are also important in evolution, and whether the evolutionary potential of TE-Thrust is realized is heavily dependent on environmental and ecological factors. The large contribution of TEs to evolutionary innovation is particularly well documented in the primate lineage. In this paper, we review numerous cases of beneficial TE-caused modifications to the genomes of higher primates, which strongly support our TE-Thrust hypothesis. PMID:21627776

  3. Evidence-based support for the all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decade there has been a need to respond and recover from various types of emergencies including mass casualty events (MCEs), mass toxicological/chemical events (MTEs), and biological events (pandemics and bio-terror agents). Effective emergency preparedness is more likely to be achieved if an all-hazards response plan is adopted. Objectives To investigate if there is a relationship among hospitals' preparedness for various emergency scenarios, and whether components of one emergency scenario correlate with preparedness for other emergency scenarios. Methods Emergency preparedness levels of all acute-care hospitals for MCEs, MTEs, and biological events were evaluated, utilizing a structured evaluation tool based on measurable parameters. Evaluations were made by professional experts in two phases: evaluation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) followed by a site visit. Relationships among total preparedness and different components' scores for various types of emergencies were analyzed. Results Significant relationships were found among preparedness for different emergencies. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for biological events correlated with preparedness for all investigated emergency scenarios. Strong correlations were found between training and drills with preparedness for all investigated emergency scenarios. Conclusions Fundamental critical building blocks such as SOPs, training, and drill programs improve preparedness for different emergencies including MCEs, MTEs, and biological events, more than other building blocks, such as equipment or knowledge of personnel. SOPs are especially important in unfamiliar emergency scenarios. The findings support the adoption of an all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness. PMID:23098065

  4. Internet Interventions to Support Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cotterez, Alex; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-hour means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Results Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Conclusion Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. PMID:24332469

  5. Field evidence that ecosystem service projects support biodiversity and diversify options

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Rebecca L.; Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem service approaches to conservation are being championed as a new strategy for conservation, under the hypothesis that they will broaden and deepen support for biodiversity protection. Where traditional approaches focus on setting aside land by purchasing property rights, ecosystem service approaches aim to engage a much wider range of places, people, policies, and financial resources in conservation. This is particularly important given projected intensification of human impacts, with rapid growth in population size and individual aspirations. Here we use field research on 34 ecosystem service (ES) projects and 26 traditional biodiversity (BD) projects from the Western Hemisphere to test whether ecosystem service approaches show signs of realizing their putative potential. We find that the ES projects attract on average more than four times as much funding through greater corporate sponsorship and use of a wider variety of finance tools than BD projects. ES projects are also more likely to encompass working landscapes and the people in them. We also show that, despite previous concern, ES projects not only expand opportunities for conservation, but they are no less likely than BD projects to include or create protected areas. Moreover, they do not draw down limited financial resources for conservation but rather engage a more diverse set of funders. We also found, however, that monitoring of conservation outcomes in both cases is so infrequent that it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of either ES or BD approaches. PMID:18591667

  6. Field evidence that ecosystem service projects support biodiversity and diversify options.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Rebecca L; Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-07-01

    Ecosystem service approaches to conservation are being championed as a new strategy for conservation, under the hypothesis that they will broaden and deepen support for biodiversity protection. Where traditional approaches focus on setting aside land by purchasing property rights, ecosystem service approaches aim to engage a much wider range of places, people, policies, and financial resources in conservation. This is particularly important given projected intensification of human impacts, with rapid growth in population size and individual aspirations. Here we use field research on 34 ecosystem service (ES) projects and 26 traditional biodiversity (BD) projects from the Western Hemisphere to test whether ecosystem service approaches show signs of realizing their putative potential. We find that the ES projects attract on average more than four times as much funding through greater corporate sponsorship and use of a wider variety of finance tools than BD projects. ES projects are also more likely to encompass working landscapes and the people in them. We also show that, despite previous concern, ES projects not only expand opportunities for conservation, but they are no less likely than BD projects to include or create protected areas. Moreover, they do not draw down limited financial resources for conservation but rather engage a more diverse set of funders. We also found, however, that monitoring of conservation outcomes in both cases is so infrequent that it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of either ES or BD approaches. PMID:18591667

  7. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes. PMID:24050380

  8. Large scale brain functional networks support sentence comprehension: evidence from both explicit and implicit language tasks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zude; Fan, Yuanyuan; Feng, Gangyi; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Suiping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sentences are comprehended via widespread brain regions in the fronto-temporo-parietal network in explicit language tasks (e.g., semantic congruency judgment tasks), and through restricted temporal or frontal regions in implicit language tasks (e.g., font size judgment tasks). This discrepancy has raised questions regarding a common network for sentence comprehension that acts regardless of task effect and whether different tasks modulate network properties. To this end, we constructed brain functional networks based on 27 subjects' fMRI data that was collected while performing explicit and implicit language tasks. We found that network properties and network hubs corresponding to the implicit language task were similar to those associated with the explicit language task. We also found common hubs in occipital, temporal and frontal regions in both tasks. Compared with the implicit language task, the explicit language task resulted in greater global efficiency and increased integrated betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal gyrus, which is a key region related to sentence comprehension. These results suggest that brain functional networks support both explicit and implicit sentence comprehension; in addition, these two types of language tasks may modulate the properties of brain functional networks.

  9. Evidence to Support Karyotypic Variation of the Mosquito, Anopheles peditaeniatus in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Choochote, Wej

    2011-01-01

    Eight isoline colonies of Anopheles peditaeniatus Leicester (Diptera: Culicidae) were established from wild-caught females collected from buffalo-baited traps at 8 localities in Thailand. They showed 2 types of X (X2, X3) and 4 types of Y (Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5) chromosomes based on the number and amount of major block(s) of heterochromatin present in the heterochromatic arm, and were tentatively designated as Forms B (X2, X3, Y2), C (X3, Y3), D (X3, Y4) and E (X2, X3, Y5). Form B was found in Nan, Ratchaburi, and Chumphon provinces; Form C was obtained in Chon Buri province; Form D was recovered in Kamphaeng Phet province; and Form E was acquired in Chiang Mai, Udon Thani, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. Crossing studies among the 8 isoline colonies, which were representative of 4 karyotypic forms of An. peditaeniatus, revealed genetic compatibility in providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2-generations, thus suggesting the conspecific nature of these karyotypic forms. These results were supported by the very low intraspecific sequence variations (0.0 – 1.1%) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI and COII) of the 4 forms. PMID:21521137

  10. Molecular phylogenetic evidence supports a new family of octocorals and a new genus of Alcyoniidae (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea)

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Catherine S.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular phylogenetic evidence indicates that the octocoral family Alcyoniidae is highly polyphyletic, with genera distributed across Octocorallia in more than 10 separate clades. Most alcyoniid taxa belong to the large and poorly resolved Holaxonia–Alcyoniina clade of octocorals, but members of at least four genera of Alcyoniidae fall outside of that group. As a first step towards revision of the family, we describe a new genus, Parasphaerasclera gen. n., and family, Parasphaerascleridae fam. n., of Alcyonacea to accommodate species of Eleutherobia Pütter, 1900 and Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758 that have digitiform to digitate or lobate growth forms, completely lack sclerites in the polyps, and have radiates or spheroidal sclerites in the colony surface and interior. Parasphaerascleridae fam. n. constitutes a well-supported clade that is phylogenetically distinct from all other octocoral taxa. We also describe a new genus of Alcyoniidae, Sphaerasclera gen. n., for a species of Eleutherobia with a unique capitate growth form. Sphaerasclera gen. n. is a member of the Anthomastus–Corallium clade of octocorals, but is morphologically and genetically distinct from Anthomastus Verrill, 1878 and Paraminabea Williams & Alderslade, 1999, two similar but dimorphic genera of Alcyoniidae that are its sister taxa. In addition, we have re-assigned two species of Eleutherobia that have clavate to capitate growth forms, polyp sclerites arranged to form a collaret and points, and spindles in the colony interior to Alcyonium, a move that is supported by both morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. PMID:24223488

  11. Evidence of a third ADPKD locus is not supported by reanalysis of designated PKD3 families

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Binu M.; Consugar, Mark B.; Lee, Moonnoh Ryan; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Heyer, Christina M.; Rossetti, Sandro; Kubly, Vickie J.; Hopp, Katharina; Torres, Vicente E.; Coto, Eliecer; Clementi, Maurizio; Bogdanova, Nadja; de Almeida, Edgar; Bichet, Daniel G.; Harris, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations to PKD1 and PKD2 are associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The absence of apparent PKD1/PKD2 linkage in five published European or North American families with ADPKD suggested a third locus, designated PKD3. Here we re-evaluated these families by updating clinical information, re-sampling where possible, and mutation screening for PKD1/PKD2. In the French-Canadian family we identified PKD1: p.D3782_V3783insD, with misdiagnoses in two individuals and sample contamination explaining the lack of linkage. In the Portuguese family, PKD1: p.G3818A segregated with the disease in 10 individuals in three generations with likely misdiagnosis in one individual, sample contamination, and use of distant microsatellite markers explaining the linkage discrepancy. The mutation, PKD2: c.213delC, was found in the Bulgarian family, with linkage failure attributed to false positive diagnoses in two individuals. An affected son but not the mother, in the Italian family had the nonsense mutation, PKD1: p.R4228X, which appeared de novo in the son; with simple cysts probably explaining the mother’s phenotype. No likely mutation was found in the Spanish family, but the phenotype was atypical with kidney atrophy in one case. Thus, re-analysis does not support the existence of a PKD3 in ADPKD. False positive diagnoses by ultrasound in all resolved families shows the value of mutation screening, but not linkage, to understand families with discrepant data. PMID:23760289

  12. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 7: Finding systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Systematic reviews are increasingly seen as a key source of information in policymaking, particularly in terms of assisting with descriptions of the impacts of options. Relative to single studies they offer a number of advantages related to understanding impacts and are also seen as a key source of information for clarifying problems and providing complementary perspectives on options. Systematic reviews can be undertaken to place problems in comparative perspective and to describe the likely harms of an option. They also assist with understanding the meanings that individuals or groups attach to a problem, how and why options work, and stakeholder views and experiences related to particular options. A number of constraints have hindered the wider use of systematic reviews in policymaking. These include a lack of awareness of their value and a mismatch between the terms employed by policymakers, when attempting to retrieve systematic reviews, and the terms used by the original authors of those reviews. Mismatches between the types of information that policymakers are seeking, and the way in which authors fail to highlight (or make obvious) such information within systematic reviews have also proved problematic. In this article, we suggest three questions that can be used to guide those searching for systematic reviews, particularly reviews about the impacts of options being considered. These are: 1. Is a systematic review really what is needed? 2. What databases and search strategies can be used to find relevant systematic reviews? 3. What alternatives are available when no relevant review can be found? PMID:20018114

  13. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  14. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  15. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Manzanilla, Linda R.; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco’s history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  16. Mercury accumulation in sediment cores from three Washington state lakes: evidence for local deposition from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Furl, Chad V; Meredith, Callie A

    2011-01-01

    Mercury accumulation rates measured in age-dated sediment cores were compared at three Washington state lakes. Offutt Lake and Lake St. Clair are located immediately downwind (18 and 28 km, respectively) of a coal-fired power plant and Lake Sammamish is located outside of the immediate area of the plant (110 km). The sites immediately downwind of the power plant were expected to receive increased mercury deposition from particulate and reactive mercury not deposited at Lake Sammamish. Mercury accumulation in cores was corrected for variable sedimentation, background, and sediment focusing to estimate the anthropogenic contribution (Hg(A,F)). Results indicated lakes immediately downwind of the power plant contained elevated Hg(A,F) levels with respect to the reference lake. Estimated fluxes to Lake Sammamish were compared to measured values from a nearby mercury wet deposition collector to gauge the efficacy of the core deconstruction techniques. Total deposition calculated through the sediment core (20.7 μg/m²/year) fell just outside of the upper estimate (18.9 μg/m²/year) of total deposition approximated from the wet deposition collector. PMID:20437040

  17. Evidence of various mechanisms of Cd sequestration in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri, the non-accumulator Arabidopsis lyrata, and their progenies by combined synchrotron-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Huguet, Stéphanie; Meyer, Claire-Lise; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Testemale, Denis; Vantelon, Delphine; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-06-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is a model plant for Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the chemical forms of Cd, its distribution in leaves, and Cd accumulation and tolerance. An interspecific cross was carried out between A. halleri and the non-tolerant and non-hyperaccumulating relative A. lyrata providing progenies segregating for Cd tolerance and accumulation. Cd speciation and distribution were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and microfocused X-ray fluorescence. In A. lyrata and non-tolerant progenies, Cd was coordinated by S atoms only or with a small contribution of O groups. Interestingly, the proportion of O ligands increased in A. halleri and tolerant progenies, and they were predominant in most of them, while S ligands were still present. Therefore, the binding of Cd with O ligands was associated with Cd tolerance. In A. halleri, Cd was mainly located in the xylem, phloem, and mesophyll tissue, suggesting a reallocation process for Cd within the plant. The distribution of the metal at the cell level was further discussed. In A. lyrata, the vascular bundles were also Cd enriched, but the epidermis was richer in Cd as compared with the mesophyll. Cd was identified in trichomes of both species. This work demonstrated that both Cd speciation and localization were related to the tolerance character of the plant. PMID:25873676

  18. Neurochemical evidence that the metabolites accumulating in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency induce oxidative damage in cerebral cortex of young rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Ângela; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Knebel, Lisiane Aurélio; Grings, Mateus; Lobato, Vannessa Araújo; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Wajner, Moacir

    2013-01-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine metabolism biochemically characterized by accumulation of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG), 3-methylcrotonic acid (3MCA) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid. A considerable number of affected individuals present neurological symptoms with or without precedent crises of metabolic decompensation and brain abnormalities whose pathogenesis is poorly known. We investigated the in vitro effects of 3MCG and 3MCA on important parameters of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of young rats. 3MCG and 3MCA significantly increased TBA-RS and carbonyl formation, indicating that these compounds provoke lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. In contrast, nitric oxide production was not affected by 3MCG and 3MCA. Furthermore, 3MCG- and 3MCA-induced elevation of TBA-RS values was fully prevented by melatonin, trolox and reduced glutathione, but not by the nitric oxide inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the combination of catalase plus superoxide dismutase, indicating that reactive oxygen species were involved in the oxidative damage caused by these compounds. We also found that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were not altered in vitro by 3MCG and 3MCA. It is therefore presumed that alterations of the cellular redox homeostasis caused by the major metabolites accumulating in 3MCCD may potentially be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction and structural brain alterations found in patients affected by this disorder.

  19. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  20. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  1. 20 CFR 418.1250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.1250 Section 418.1250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1250 What evidence will you need to...

  2. 20 CFR 418.1255 - What kind of major life-changing event evidence will you need to support your request for us to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence will you need to support your request for us to use a more recent tax year? 418.1255 Section 418...-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross... for us to use a more recent tax year? (a) If your spouse died and we do not have evidence of the...

  3. 20 CFR 418.1255 - What kind of major life-changing event evidence will you need to support your request for us to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evidence will you need to support your request for us to use a more recent tax year? 418.1255 Section 418...-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross... for us to use a more recent tax year? (a) If your spouse died and we do not have evidence of the...

  4. Effects of Web-Based Support on Early Head Start Home Visitors' Use of Evidence-Based Intervention Decision Making and Growth in Children's Expressive Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Anderson, Rawni; Howard, Waylon; Carta, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the efficacy of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language-promoting…

  5. Ethnography, fidelity, and the evidence that anthropology adds: supplementing the fidelity process in a clinical trial of supported employment.

    PubMed

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings.

  6. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 9: Assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Differences between health systems may often result in a policy or programme option that is used in one setting not being feasible or acceptable in another. Or these differences may result in an option not working in the same way in another setting, or even achieving different impacts in another setting. A key challenge that policymakers and those supporting them must face is therefore the need to understand whether research evidence about an option can be applied to their setting. Systematic reviews make this task easier by summarising the evidence from studies conducted in a variety of different settings. Many systematic reviews, however, do not provide adequate descriptions of the features of the actual settings in which the original studies were conducted. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review to a specific setting. These are: 1. Were the studies included in a systematic review conducted in the same setting or were the findings consistent across settings or time periods? 2. Are there important differences in on-the-ground realities and constraints that might substantially alter the feasibility and acceptability of an option? 3. Are there important differences in health system arrangements that may mean an option could not work in the same way? 4. Are there important differences in the baseline conditions that might yield different absolute effects even if the relative effectiveness was the same? 5. What insights can be drawn about options, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation? Even if there are reasonable grounds for concluding that the impacts of an option might differ in a specific setting, insights can almost always be drawn from a systematic review about possible options, as well as approaches to the

  8. Direct evidence of "damage accumulation" in cement mantles surrounding femoral hip stems retrieved at autopsy: cement damage correlates with duration of use and BMI.

    PubMed

    Race, A; Miller, M A; Izant, T H; Mann, K A

    2011-09-01

    The "damage accumulation" phenomenon has not been quantitatively demonstrated in clinical cement mantles surrounding femoral hip stems. We stained transverse sections of 11 postmortem retrieved femoral hip components fixed with cement using fluorescent dye-penetrant and quantified cement damage, voids, and cement-bone interface gaps in epifluorescence and white light micrographs. Crack density (Cr.Dn), crack length-density (Cr.Ln.Dn), porosity, and cement-bone interface gap fraction (c/b-gap%) were calculated, normalized by mantle area. Multiple regression tests showed that cement damage (Cr.Ln.Dn. & Cr.Dn.) was significantly positively correlated (r(2)=0.98, p<0.001) with "duration of use" and body mass index ("BMI") but not cement mantle "porosity". There were significant interactions: "duration of use"*"BMI" was strongly predictive (p<0.005) of Cr.Dn.; and "duration of use"*"porosity" was predictive (p=0.04) of Cr.Ln.Dn. Stem related cracks accounted for approximately one fifth of Cr.Dn and one third of Cr.Ln.Dn. The mean c/b-gap% was 13.8% but it did not correlate (r(2)=0.01, p=0.8) with duration of use. We concluded that duration-dependent fatigue damage accumulation occurred during in vivo use. BMI strongly influenced cement crack length and the rate of new crack formation over time. Voids did not increase the rate of crack initiation but appeared to have promoted crack growth over time. Although not progressive, substantial bone resorption at the cement-bone interface appeared to be common.

  9. Review of the scientific evidence to support environmental risk assessment of shale gas development in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prpich, George; Coulon, Frédéric; Anthony, Edward J

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the development of shale gas resources using hydraulic fracturing techniques is increasing worldwide despite concerns about the environmental risks associated with this activity. In the United Kingdom (UK), early attempts to hydraulically fracture a shale gas well resulted in a seismic event that led to the suspension of all hydraulic fracturing operations. In response to this occurrence, UK regulators have requested that future shale gas operations that use hydraulic fracturing should be accompanied by a high-level environmental risk assessment (ERA). Completion of an ERA can demonstrate competency, communicate understanding, and ultimately build trust that environmental risks are being managed properly, however, this assessment requires a scientific evidence base. In this paper we discuss how the ERA became a preferred assessment technique to understand the risks related to shale gas development in the UK, and how it can be used to communicate information between stakeholders. We also provide a review of the evidence base that describes the environmental risks related to shale gas operations, which could be used to support an ERA. Finally, we conclude with an update of the current environmental risks associated with shale gas development in the UK and present recommendations for further research. PMID:26627123

  10. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the "Ancient Asexual" Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola.

    PubMed

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of "ancient asexuals". PMID:27608044

  11. Review of the scientific evidence to support environmental risk assessment of shale gas development in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prpich, George; Coulon, Frédéric; Anthony, Edward J

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the development of shale gas resources using hydraulic fracturing techniques is increasing worldwide despite concerns about the environmental risks associated with this activity. In the United Kingdom (UK), early attempts to hydraulically fracture a shale gas well resulted in a seismic event that led to the suspension of all hydraulic fracturing operations. In response to this occurrence, UK regulators have requested that future shale gas operations that use hydraulic fracturing should be accompanied by a high-level environmental risk assessment (ERA). Completion of an ERA can demonstrate competency, communicate understanding, and ultimately build trust that environmental risks are being managed properly, however, this assessment requires a scientific evidence base. In this paper we discuss how the ERA became a preferred assessment technique to understand the risks related to shale gas development in the UK, and how it can be used to communicate information between stakeholders. We also provide a review of the evidence base that describes the environmental risks related to shale gas operations, which could be used to support an ERA. Finally, we conclude with an update of the current environmental risks associated with shale gas development in the UK and present recommendations for further research.

  12. Reach target selection in humans using ambiguous decision cues containing variable amounts of conflicting sensory evidence supporting each target choice.

    PubMed

    Coallier, Émilie; Kalaska, John F

    2014-12-01

    Human subjects chose between two color-coded reach targets using multicolored checkerboard-like decision cues (DCs) that presented variable amounts of conflicting sensory evidence supporting both target choices. Different DCs contained different numbers of small squares of the two target colors. The most ambiguous DCs contained nearly equal numbers of squares of both target colors. The subjects reached as soon as they selected a target after the appearance of the DC ("choose-and-go" task). The choice behavior of the subjects showed many similarities to prior studies using other stimulus properties (e.g., visual motion coherence, brightness), including progressively longer response times and higher target-choice error rates for more ambiguous DCs. However, certain trends in their choice behavior could not be fully captured by simple drift-diffusion models. Allowing the subjects to view the DCs for a period of time before presenting the targets ("match-to-sample" task) resulted in much shorter response times overall, but also revealed a reluctance of subjects to commit to a decision about the predominant color of the more ambiguous DCs during the initial extended observation period. Model processing and simulation analyses suggest that the subjects might adjust the dynamics of their decision-making process on a trial-to-trial basis in response to the variable level of ambiguous and conflicting evidence in different DCs between trials.

  13. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the “Ancient Asexual” Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola

    PubMed Central

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of “ancient asexuals”. PMID:27608044

  14. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the "Ancient Asexual" Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola.

    PubMed

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H

    2016-09-06

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of "ancient asexuals".

  15. Targeting cultural changes supportive of the healthiest lifestyle patterns. A biosocial evidence-base for prevention of obesity.

    PubMed

    Booth, David A; Booth, Phil

    2011-02-01

    This paper argues that the rise in obesity can be slowed only by universal education based on a type of evidence that does not yet exist. On top of literacy and numeracy, people need the ability to preempt the fattening effect of a decrease in habitual physical activity by altering familiar patterns of eating, drinking and exercise in ways that are both maintainable within the individual's social and physical environment and also effective at decreasing weight to the asymptote for each sustained change. Hence the prevention of obesity requires locally valid evidence on which changes to specific customary habits actually do avoid unhealthy fattening. Interventions need to focus on antecedents to individuals' common lapses from the healthy changes in these customs. Yet no research has been funded into the public's descriptions of feasible changes that cause a step down in weight, let alone into the environmental conditions for individuals' maintenance of those changes. As a result, public health policies on obesity lack scientific basis. When will a start be made on systematic identification of cultural supports to readily executed patterns of lifestyle behaviour which improve health to extents that have been directly measured?

  16. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486

  17. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one.

  18. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. (a) When evidence of good cause...

  19. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Carl V

    2015-05-21

    It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of "gateway effects", in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco) cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives) or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product). Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  20. Fluids in the Palaeogene Formation of Gaoyou Sag in the Southern Part of North Jiangsu Basin, China: Evidence for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of the Dongtai Depression in the North Jiangsu basin, China, has a well developed fault system and is characterised by structurally complicated oil and gas fields. Its oil-water relationship is very complicated. In the present study, we present the distribution of formation water chemistry, crude oil density, formation pressures and fluid potential in the Palaeogene formation of the Gaoyou Sag . The purpose of this article is to: (1) analyse the cause of hydrochemical diversity; (2) identify the flow pattern and evolution; and (3) understand the interplay between the flow of formation water and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The results showed that large variances in formation water chemistry occur in different oilfields of the Gaoyou Sag (Figure 1) due to dilution by meteoric water recharge, concentration by membrane filtration and complexity of geological structure. The low salinity (mean values from 8.53 g/L to 9.67 g/L) of the formation water and heavy crude oil density (up to 0.94g/cm3) in the Xuchuang oilfield indicate influence from meteoric water infiltration; the deep depression areas are mainly of connate origin. Geofluids in the Xuchuang, Zhenwu and Yang'an oilfields mainly flow vertically through the Zhenwu and Hanliu faults, while geofluids in the Shanian oilfield mainly migrate laterally through the reservoirs and are adjusted vertically along some cutting faults. Palaeo-hydrodynamic evolution had an affinity with the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In the depositional stages of the Dainan and Sanduo formations, formation water was expelled outward and upward from lacustrine mudstones of the deep depression into shallow sands of nearby oilfields, driven by compaction and overpressure. Hydrocarbon migrated with formation water and gathered in appropriate traps, forming primary reservoirs. During the Zhenwu and Sanduo movements, there were tectonic uplifts and the strata

  1. Late Quaternary sediment-accumulation rates within the inner basins of the California Continental Borderland in support of geologic hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the geologic hazards of the inner California Borderland requires determination of the timing for faulting and mass-movement episodes during the Holocene. Our effort focused on basin slopes and turbidite systems on the basin floors for the area between Santa Barbara and San Diego, California. Dating condensed sections on slopes adjacent to fault zones provides better control on fault history where high-resolution, seismic-reflection data can be used to correlate sediment between the core site and the fault zones. This study reports and interprets 147 radiocarbon dates from 43 U.S. Geological Survey piston cores as well as 11 dates from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1015 on the floor of Santa Monica Basin. One hundred nineteen dates from 39 of the piston cores have not previously been published. Core locations were selected for hazard evaluation, but despite the nonuniform distribution of sample locations, the dates obtained for the late Quaternary deposits are useful for documenting changes in sediment-accumulation rates during the past 30 ka. Cores from basins receiving substantial sediment from rivers, i.e., Santa Monica Basin and the Gulf of Santa Catalina, show a decrease in sediment supply during the middle Holocene, but during the late Holocene after sea level had reached the current highstand condition, rates then increased partly in response to an increase in El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation events during the past 3.5 ka. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Agonist-induced production of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in intact resistance arteries. Evidence that accumulation of diacylglycerol is not a prerequisite for contraction.

    PubMed

    Ohanian, J; Ollerenshaw, J; Collins, P; Heagerty, A

    1990-05-25

    The production of total amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerol as well as those specifically derived from inositol lipid hydrolysis was studied in intact rat resistance arteries stimulated with either noradrenaline, vasopressin, or angiotensin II at 20 s when the onset of contraction would be nearing its maximum, and at 5 min during the sustained phase of contraction. Total amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerol were not altered by any agonist at 20 s, or at 5 min. However, arachidonate-containing species of 1,2-diacylglycerol were differentially influenced being increased at 5 min by noradrenaline, and decreased at 20 s and 5 min by vasopressin. Only angiotensin II produced substantial increases in this class of 1,2-diacylglycerol at both time points. In order to investigate the fate of this second messenger total and inositol lipid derived phosphatidic acids were then measured at both 20 s and 5 min. Noradrenaline induced a rise in both total and arachidonate-containing phosphatidic acid at both times as did vasopressin. Only small increases were induced by angiotensin II at 20 s. These data demonstrate that the accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol generated from inositol lipid breakdown is only observed with activation by angiotensin II. Other agonists produced phosphatidic acids with time and the rate of generation of these lipids is agonist-specific. Thus phosphatidic acid may play a more prominent role during the sustained phase of contraction than previously anticipated.

  3. Trends during a half century in relative squamous cell carcinoma distribution by body site in the Swedish population: support for accumulated sun exposure as the main risk factor.

    PubMed

    Dal, Henrik; Boldemann, Cecilia; Lindelöf, Bernt

    2008-02-01

    There is a strong relationship between squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and exposure to ultraviolet radiation in terms of accumulated exposure. In this study, data from the Swedish Cancer Registry are surveyed to discern a reflection of behavioral and societal changes in relative distribution of SCC by body site. Data for the time period 1960-2004, including a total of 66 221 cases (56 669 people) were analyzed by body site for age and gender cohorts. The age-standardized (European population) incidence per 100 000 of SCC in the year 2004 was 30.4 in males and 15.4 in females. In the year 1960, the corresponding incidences were 7.7 and 3.8; that is, SCC has become four times more frequent in Sweden for both sexes during this period. The standardized incidence of SCC increased on all body sites except eyelids (men and women) and ears (women). Head tumors dominated among patients aged 70 years or more and diagnosed 1960-1964. Among patients less than 70 years old at diagnosis in 2000-2004, tumors of the trunk and limbs dominated. A relative increase of tumors of the scalp and neck was observed in all age groups (men), and of tumors of the trunk and upper limbs in all age groups and both sexes except among patients aged more than 90 years of age. In contrast, a relative decrease of tumors on the face (including the ears) was seen in all age groups. The relative increase of SCC of the trunk and upper limbs is a plausible reflection of intentional tanning.

  4. Argon, oxygen, and boron isotopic evidence documenting 40ArE accumulation in phengite during water-rich high-pressure subduction metasomatism of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menold, Carrie A.; Grove, Marty; Sievers, Natalie E.; Manning, Craig E.; Yin, An; Young, Edward D.; Ziegler, Karen

    2016-07-01

    were even older, exceeding the time of eclogite formation by a factor of 1.7. In contrast, lower pressure retrograde muscovite present within the host gneiss and in discrete shear zones cutting the selvage yield 40Ar/39Ar ages that were younger than the time of HP metamorphism and consistent with regional cooling age patterns. Our observation of high 40ArE concentrations in phengite from schistose rocks infiltrated by regionally extensive fluids at HP conditions runs contrary to widely held expectations. Conventional wisdom dictates that low phengite/fluid partition coefficients for argon (Dphg/fluid Ar =10-3to10-5) coupled with the dry, closed systems conditions that are widely reported to characterize HP metamorphism of continental crust explains why high concentrations of 40ArE partitions are able to accumulate within phengite. We alternatively propose that phengite/fluid partition coefficients for argon increase linearly with pressure to values as high as 10-2 to allow phengites to accumulate large amounts of 40ArE from aqueous fluids under HP to UHP conditions.

  5. Evidence for early intracellular accumulation of volatile compounds during spadix development in Arum italicum L. and preliminary data on some tropical Aroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leguet, Aurélia; Gibernau, Marc; Shintu, Laetitia; Caldarelli, Stefano; Moja, Sandrine; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude

    2014-08-01

    Staining and histochemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed at different inflorescence developmental stages on nine aroid species; one temperate, Arum italicum and eight tropical from the genera Caladium, Dieffenbachia and Philodendron. Moreover, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of VOCs constituting the scent of A. italicum, depending on the stage of development of inflorescences was also conducted. In all nine species, vesicles were observed in the conical cells of either the appendix or the stamens (thecae) and the staminodes. VOCs were localised in intracellular vesicles from the early stages of inflorescence development until their release during receptivity of gynoecium. This localisation was observed by the increase of both number and diameter of the vesicles during 1 week before receptivity. Afterwards, vesicles were fewer and smaller but rarely absent. In A. italicum, staining and gas chromatography analyses confirmed that the vesicles contained terpenes. The quantitatively most important ones were the sesquiterpenes, but monoterpenes were not negligible. Indeed, the quantities of terpenes matched the vesicles' size evolution during 1 week. Furthermore, VOCs from different biosynthetic pathways (sesquiterpenes and alkanes) were at their maximum quantity 2 days before gynoecium receptivity (sesquiterpenes and alkanes) or during receptivity (isobutylamine, monoterpenes, skatole and p-cresol). VOCs seemed to be emitted during gynoecium receptivity and/or during thermogenesis, and FADs are accumulated after thermogenesis in the spadix. These complex dynamics of the different VOCs could indicate specialisation of some VOCs and cell machinery to attract pollinators on the one hand and to repulse/protect against phytophagous organisms and pathogens after pollination on the other hand.

  6. Evidence for early intracellular accumulation of volatile compounds during spadix development in Arum italicum L. and preliminary data on some tropical Aroids.

    PubMed

    Leguet, Aurélia; Gibernau, Marc; Shintu, Laetitia; Caldarelli, Stefano; Moja, Sandrine; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude

    2014-08-01

    Staining and histochemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed at different inflorescence developmental stages on nine aroid species; one temperate, Arum italicum and eight tropical from the genera Caladium, Dieffenbachia and Philodendron. Moreover, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of VOCs constituting the scent of A. italicum, depending on the stage of development of inflorescences was also conducted. In all nine species, vesicles were observed in the conical cells of either the appendix or the stamens (thecae) and the staminodes. VOCs were localised in intracellular vesicles from the early stages of inflorescence development until their release during receptivity of gynoecium. This localisation was observed by the increase of both number and diameter of the vesicles during 1 week before receptivity. Afterwards, vesicles were fewer and smaller but rarely absent. In A. italicum, staining and gas chromatography analyses confirmed that the vesicles contained terpenes. The quantitatively most important ones were the sesquiterpenes, but monoterpenes were not negligible. Indeed, the quantities of terpenes matched the vesicles' size evolution during 1 week. Furthermore, VOCs from different biosynthetic pathways (sesquiterpenes and alkanes) were at their maximum quantity 2 days before gynoecium receptivity (sesquiterpenes and alkanes) or during receptivity (isobutylamine, monoterpenes, skatole and p-cresol). VOCs seemed to be emitted during gynoecium receptivity and/or during thermogenesis, and FADs are accumulated after thermogenesis in the spadix. These complex dynamics of the different VOCs could indicate specialisation of some VOCs and cell machinery to attract pollinators on the one hand and to repulse/protect against phytophagous organisms and pathogens after pollination on the other hand. PMID:24925357

  7. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B. C.; Malterud, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  8. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  9. Diversity of the ectoines biosynthesis genes in the salt tolerant Streptomyces and evidence for inductive effect of ectoines on their accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Akram; Soltani, Bahram M; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Mirzaei, Hossein Hadavand; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces commonly produce ectoines as compatible solutes to prevent osmotic stresses. Fine structure of the genes producing ectoine (ectC) and hydroxyectoine (ectD) enzymes in Streptomyces rimosus C-2012 as a slightly halophilic bacterium is reported in this study. Deduced amino acid sequences of ectC and ectD genes from strain C-2012 and some other related species were compared and 72-90% and 13-81% identities were detected for ectC and ectD, respectively. High similarity of ectC between closely or distantly related Streptomyces to the strain C-2012 may indicate horizontal transfer of this gene. However, phylogenetic relationships of ectD were correlated with phylogenetic affiliation of the strains. It suggests that the ability of Streptomyces to produce hydroxyectoine has been the result of a vertical transfer event. HPLC analysis showed that strain C-2012 was able to produce ectoine and hydroxyectoine both in the presence and absence of external salinity (up to 0.45 M NaCl). Accordingly, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that ectABCD operon in this strain is positively affected by salt. Also, inductive effect of the salt was increased when it was applied with 1 mM of ectoines. Transcription level of ectC was increased 2.7- and 2.9-fold in the medium supplied with salt and ectoine and salt and hydroxyectoine, respectively. The effect of salinity with or without ectoines was more on ectD transcription level than that of ectC. In S. rimosus under salt stress, ectoine and hydroxyectoine biosynthesis primarily depends on the stimulation of ectABCD operon transcription. However, drastic accumulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine without increase in ectC and ectD transcripts was observed in the medium supplied with salt and ectoines and that suggest there might be additional posttranscriptional level of control. Increases in ratio of some intracellular free amino acids in salt stressed to unstressed conditions were observed in cells grown with

  10. New developmental evidence supports a homeotic frameshift of digit identity in the evolution of the bird wing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The homology of the digits in the bird wing is a high-profile controversy in developmental and evolutionary biology. The embryonic position of the digits cartilages with respect to the primary axis (ulnare and ulna) corresponds to 2, 3, 4, but comparative-evolutionary morphology supports 1, 2, 3. A homeotic frameshift of digit identity in evolution could explain how cells in embryonic positions 2, 3, 4 began developing morphologies 1, 2, 3. Another alternative is that no re-patterning of cell fates occurred, and the primary axis shifted its position by some other mechanism. In the wing, only the anterior digit lacks expression of HoxD10 and HoxD12, resembling digit 1 of other limbs, as predicted by 1, 2, 3. However, upon loss of digit 1 in evolution, the most anterior digit 2 could have lost their expression, deceitfully resembling a digit 1. To test this notion, we observed HoxD10 and HoxD12 in a limb where digit 2 is the most anterior digit: The rabbit foot. We also explored whether early inhibition of Shh signalling in the embryonic wing bud induces an experimental homeotic frameshift, or an experimental axis shift. We tested these hypotheses using DiI injections to study the fate of cells in these experimental wings. Results We found strong transcription of HoxD10 and HoxD12 was present in the most anterior digit 2 of the rabbit foot. Thus, we found no evidence to question the use of HoxD expression as support for 1, 2, 3. When Shh signalling in early wing buds is inhibited, our fate maps demonstrate that an experimental homeotic frameshift is induced. Conclusion Along with comparative morphology, HoxD expression provides strong support for 1, 2, 3 identity of wing digits. As an explanation for the offset 2, 3, 4 embryological position, the homeotic frameshift hypothesis is consistent with known mechanisms of limb development, and further proven to be experimentally possible. In contrast, the underlying mechanisms and experimental plausibility of an

  11. Subunit–subunit interactions are critical for proton sensitivity of ROMK: Evidence in support of an intermolecular gating mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Qiang; MacGregor, Gordon G.; Dong, Ke; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The tetrameric K channel ROMK provides an important pathway for K secretion by the mammalian kidney, and the gating of this channel is highly sensitive to changes in cytosolic pH. Although charge–charge interactions have been implicated in pH sensing by this K channel tetramer, the molecular mechanism linking pH sensing and the gating of ion channels is poorly understood. The x-ray crystal structure KirBac1.1, a prokaryotic ortholog of ROMK, has suggested that channel gating involves intermolecular interactions of the N- and C-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. Here we studied channel gating behavior to changes in pH using giant patch clamping of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing WT or mutant ROMK, and we present evidence that no single charged residue provides the pH sensor. Instead, we show that N–C- and C–C-terminal subunit–subunit interactions form salt bridges, which function to stabilize ROMK in the open state and which are modified by protons. We identify a highly conserved C–C-terminal arginine–glutamate (R-E) ion pair that forms an intermolecular salt bridge and responds to changes in proton concentration. Our results support the intermolecular model for pH gating of inward rectifier K channels. PMID:16446432

  12. Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application of compost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulation in soil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas L; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Gäth, Stefan

    2003-07-20

    Two different decision support systems (DSS) for the application of organic wastes on agricultural land were developed. Both DSS calculate the maximum application period of organic waste considering exhaustion of the uptake potential of soils for heavy metals. The definition of the uptake potential differs between the DSS alternatives. In the first DSS (DSS-AR), the uptake potential is derived from the difference of actual total heavy metal concentration in soil (according to aqua regia digestion) and the respective statutory limit value. The other DSS (DSS-SI) calculates the remaining sorption capacity of the soil for a heavy metal, i.e. the difference between the predefined maximum and the actual heavy metal concentration at the sorbent. The concentration of sorbed heavy metal is derived from pedotransfer functions (general purpose Freundlich isotherms) using predefined limit concentrations in soil solution (WHO drinking water quality standards) or the actual concentration of soluble heavy metal (according to neutral salt extraction), respectively. For evaluation of their individual characteristics, both DSS were tested in model scenarios using soil data (basic physicochemical properties; Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations) from various agricultural regions and German guidelines for organic waste application. The DSS-SI showed a better performance than the DSS-AR in this context. The capacity of the soil for heavy metal uptake was used with higher efficiency, i.e. the potential was maximised while environmental limit values were still complied with. Furthermore, the DSS-SI offered a better approximation of the natural variability of soil conditions using an extended set of soil properties in comparison to the DSS-AR. Despite these indications of good DSS-SI performance, the approach requires improvement with regard to the pedotransfer functions implemented in order to consolidate and extend the range of predictions. Furthermore, it should be noted that assessment of

  13. Evidence That G-quadruplex DNA Accumulates in the Cytoplasm and Participates in Stress Granule Assembly in Response to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Alicia K; Zybailov, Boris L; Maddukuri, Leena; Gao, Jun; Marecki, John C; Jaiswal, Mihir; Bell, Matthew R; Griffin, Wezley C; Reed, Megan R; Chib, Shubeena; Mackintosh, Samuel G; MacNicol, Angus M; Baldini, Giulia; Eoff, Robert L; Raney, Kevin D

    2016-08-19

    Cells engage numerous signaling pathways in response to oxidative stress that together repair macromolecular damage or direct the cell toward apoptosis. As a result of DNA damage, mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA has been shown to enter the cytoplasm where it binds to "DNA sensors," which in turn initiate signaling cascades. Here we report data that support a novel signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress mediated by specific guanine-rich sequences that can fold into G-quadruplex DNA (G4DNA). In response to oxidative stress, we demonstrate that sequences capable of forming G4DNA appear at increasing levels in the cytoplasm and participate in assembly of stress granules. Identified proteins that bind to endogenous G4DNA in the cytoplasm are known to modulate mRNA translation and participate in stress granule formation. Consistent with these findings, stress granule formation is known to regulate mRNA translation during oxidative stress. We propose a signaling pathway whereby cells can rapidly respond to DNA damage caused by oxidative stress. Guanine-rich sequences that are excised from damaged genomic DNA are proposed to enter the cytoplasm where they can regulate translation through stress granule formation. This newly proposed role for G4DNA provides an additional molecular explanation for why such sequences are prevalent in the human genome.

  14. Evaluation of Organizational Readiness in Clinical Settings for Social Supporting Evidence-Based Information Seeking Behavior after Introducing IT in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Kahouei, Mehdi; Alaei, Safollah; Panahi, Sohaila Sadat Ghazavi Shariat; Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The health sector of Iran has endeavored to encourage physicians and medical students to use research findings in their practice. Remarkable changes have occurred, including: holding computer skills courses, digital library workshops for physicians and students, and establishing websites in hospitals. The findings showed that a small number of the participants completely agreed that they were supported by supervisors and colleagues to use evidence-based information resources in their clinical decisions. Health care organizations in Iran need other organizational facilitators such as social influences, organizational support, leadership, strong organizational culture, and climate in order to implement evidence-based practice. PMID:25839913

  15. The postnatal accumulation of junctional E-cadherin is inversely correlated with the capacity for supporting cells to convert directly into sensory hair cells in mammalian balance organs.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Sol; Thiede, Benjamin R; Baker, Wendy; Askew, Charles; Igbani, Lisa M; Corwin, Jeffrey T

    2011-08-17

    Mammals experience permanent impairments from hair cell (HC) losses, but birds and other non-mammals quickly recover hearing and balance senses after supporting cells (SCs) give rise to replacement HCs. Avian HC epithelia express little or no E-cadherin, and differences in the thickness of F-actin belts at SC junctions strongly correlate with different species' capacities for HC replacement, so we investigated junctional cadherins in human and murine ears. We found strong E-cadherin expression at SC-SC junctions that increases more than sixfold postnatally in mice. When we cultured utricles from young mice with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), striolar SCs completely internalized their E-cadherin, without affecting N-cadherin. Hes and Hey expression also decreased and the SCs began to express Atoh1. After 48 h, those SCs expressed myosins VI and VIIA, and by 72 h, they developed hair bundles. However, some scattered striolar SCs retained E-cadherin and the SC phenotype. In extrastriolar regions, the vast majority of SCs also retained E-cadherin and failed to convert into HCs even after long GSI treatments. Microscopic measurements revealed that the junctions between extrastriolar SCs were more developed than those between striolar SCs. In GSI-treated utricles as old as P12, differentiated striolar SCs converted into HCs, but such responses declined with age and ceased by P16. Thus, temporal and spatial differences in postnatal SC-to-HC phenotype conversion capacity are linked to the structural attributes of E-cadherin containing SC junctions in mammals, which differ substantially from their counterparts in non-mammalian vertebrates that readily recover from hearing and balance deficits through hair cell regeneration.

  16. The Postnatal Accumulation of Junctional E-cadherin Is Inversely Correlated with the Capacity for Supporting Cells to Convert Directly into Sensory Hair Cells in Mammalian Balance Organs

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Sol; Thiede, Benjamin R.; Baker, Wendy; Askew, Charles; Igbani, Lisa M.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals experience permanent impairments from hair cell (HC) losses, but birds and other non-mammals quickly recover hearing and balance senses after supporting cells (SCs) give rise to replacement HCs. Avian HC epithelia express little or no E-cadherin, and differences in the thickness of F-actin belts at SC junctions strongly correlate with different species’ capacities for HC replacement, so we investigated junctional cadherins in human and murine ears. We found strong E-cadherin expression at SC-SC junctions that increases >6-fold postnatally in mice. When we cultured utricles from young mice with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), striolar SCs completely internalized their E-cadherin, without affecting N-cadherin. Hes and Hey expression also decreased and the SCs began to express Atoh1. After 48 h, those SCs expressed myosins VI and VIIA, and by 72 h they developed hair bundles. However, some scattered striolar SCs retained E-cadherin and the SC phenotype. In extrastriolar regions the vast majority of SCs also retained E-cadherin and failed to convert into HCs even after long GSI treatments. Microscopic measurements revealed that the junctions between extrastriolar SCs were more developed than those between striolar SCs. In GSI-treated utricles as old as P12, differentiated striolar SCs converted into HCs, but such responses declined with age and ceased by P16. Thus, temporal and spatial differences in postnatal SC-to-HC phenotype conversion capacity are linked to the structural attributes of E-cadherin containing SC junctions in mammals, which differ substantially from their counterparts in non-mammalian vertebrates that readily recover from hearing and balance deficits through hair cell regeneration. PMID:21849546

  17. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain.

  18. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  19. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain. PMID:27026717

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics identifies a key role of isocitrate dehydrogenase in bipolar disorder: evidence in support of mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, N; Futamura, T; Bergen, S E; Iwayama, Y; Ishima, T; Sellgren, C; Ekman, C J; Jakobsson, J; Pålsson, E; Kakumoto, K; Ohgi, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Landén, M; Hashimoto, K

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. In this study, we performed metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from male BD patients (n=54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n=40). Subsequently, post-mortem brain analyses, genetic analyses, metabolomics of CSF samples from rats treated with lithium or valproic acid were also performed. After multivariate logistic regression, isocitric acid (isocitrate) levels were significantly higher in the CSF from BD patients than healthy controls. Furthermore, gene expression of two subtypes (IDH3A and IDH3B) of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from BD patients was significantly lower than that of controls, although the expression of other genes including, aconitase (ACO1, ACO2), IDH1, IDH2 and IDH3G, were not altered. Moreover, protein expression of IDH3A in the cerebellum from BD patients was higher than that of controls. Genetic analyses showed that IDH genes (IDH1, IDH2, IDH3A, IDH3B) and ACO genes (ACO1, ACO2) were not associated with BD. Chronic (4 weeks) treatment with lithium or valproic acid in rats did not alter CSF levels of isocitrate, and mRNA levels of Idh3a, Idh3b, Aco1 and Aco2 genes in the rat brain. These findings suggest that abnormality in the metabolism of isocitrate by IDH3A in the mitochondria plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BD, supporting the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of BD. Therefore, IDH3 in the citric acid cycle could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for BD. PMID:26782057

  1. In Vitro Evidence Supports Membrane Alanyl Aminopeptidase N as a Receptor for a Plant Virus in the Pea Aphid Vector

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Lucas B.; Liu, Sijun; Chougule, Nanasaheb P.

    2015-01-01

    rely heavily on the application of chemical insecticides to manage both aphids and aphid-vectored plant viral disease. To increase our understanding of plant virus-aphid vector interaction, we provide in vitro evidence supporting earlier in vivo work for identification of a receptor protein in the aphid gut called aminopeptidase N, which is responsible for entry of the plant virus pea enation mosaic virus into the pea aphid vector. Enrichment of proteins found on the surface of the aphid gut epithelium resulted in identification of this first aphid gut receptor for a plant virus. This discovery is particularly important since the disruption of plant virus binding to such a receptor may enable the development of a nonchemical strategy for controlling aphid-vectored plant viruses to maximize food production. PMID:26311872

  2. Linear Deterministic Accumulator Models of Simple Choice

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Andrew; Love, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    We examine theories of simple choice as a race among evidence accumulation processes. We focus on the class of deterministic race models, which assume that the effects of fluctuations in the parameters of the accumulation processes between-choice trials (between-choice noise) dominate the effects of fluctuations occurring while making a choice (within-choice noise) in behavioral data (i.e., response times and choices). The latter deterministic approximation, when combined with the assumption that accumulation is linear, leads to a class of models that can be readily applied to simple-choice behavior because they are computationally tractable. We develop a new and mathematically simple exemplar within the class of linear deterministic models, the Lognormal race (LNR). We then examine how the LNR, and another widely applied linear deterministic model, Brown and Heathcote’s (2008) LBA, account for a range of benchmark simple-choice effects in lexical-decision task data reported by Wagenmakers et al. (2008). Our results indicate that the LNR provides an accurate description of this data. Although the LBA model provides a slightly better account, both models support similar psychological conclusions. PMID:22936920

  3. Problem-Based Learning and Argumentation: Testing a Scaffolding Framework to Support Middle School Students' Creation of Evidence-Based Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.; Glazewski, Krista D.; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Students engaged in problem-based learning (PBL) units solve ill-structured problems in small groups, and then present arguments in support of their solution. However, middle school students often struggle developing evidence-based arguments (Krajcik et al., "J Learn Sci" 7:313-350, 1998). Using a mixed method design, the researchers examined the…

  4. 20 CFR 418.2250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.2250 Section 418.2250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Premiums Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.2250 What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? We will follow the...

  5. 20 CFR 418.1250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.1250 Section 418.1250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1250 What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? When you request that we use a more recent tax year...

  6. 20 CFR 418.1250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.1250 Section 418.1250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1250 What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? When you request that we use a more recent tax year...

  7. Electronic Clinic Journaling: The Use of Weblogs to Support Evidence-Based Practice in Doctor of Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neldon, Gayle B.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a strategy for the provision of high quality health care. The use of journals to document clinical experiences and reflection has been used in speech-language pathology as well as nursing and psychology. This study uses qualitative analysis to study what AuD students learn about evidence-based practice from writing…

  8. Different models to mobilize peer support to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Much of diabetes care needs to be carried out by patients between office visits with their health care providers. Yet, many patients face difficulties carrying out these tasks. In addition, many adults with diabetes cannot count on effective support from their families and friends to help them with their self-management. Peer support programmes are a promising approach to enhance social and emotional support, assist patients in daily management and living with diabetes and promote linkages to clinical care. This background paper provides a brief overview of different approaches to mobilize peer support for diabetes self-management support, discusses evidence to date on the effectiveness of each of these models, highlights logistical and evaluation issues for each model and concludes with a discussion of directions for future research in this area. PMID:19293400

  9. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme. PMID:25439699

  10. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme.

  11. High Biomass Polar Forests During the Permian: Evidence from the Buckley Formation, Beardmore Glacier Area, Antarctica Supports Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.

    2006-12-01

    Newly discovered fossil forests in the Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTM) are composed of 74 in situ stumps. They are surrounded by impressions of leaves of the gymnosperm Glossopteris and record monospecific stands of glossopterids. The stumps allow reconstruction of the height, density, and basal area of trees growing at 75 degrees S and provide a unique glimpse of a high latitude forest flourishing less than a million years before the end-Permian extinction event. The forests occur in two closely spaced beds (LP1, LP2) of the upper Buckley Formation at Lamping Peak (LP); the wood has been replaced by magnetite. Roots extending outward from the stumps and leaf mats recorded by densely packed impressions of Glossopteris leaves indicate that the stumps are in growth position. Stumps exposed in cross section have radiating roots than penetrate shallowly beneath the stump-bearing horizons. Both LP1 and LP2 contain stumps of diverse sizes, ranging from a few to 75 cm in diameter, reflecting young to old trees. Mean diameters at ground line (dgl) are 20.9cm (LP1) and 39.2cm (LP2). These mean diameters correspond to maximum tree heights of 15.4m (LP1) and 24.6m and are comparable to or greater than other high latitude fossil forests. Tree densities (trees/hectare; t/ha) are 2505 t/ha (LP1 and 1185 (LP2), which are within the range of densities of stands of old growth in deepwater swamps of the southeastern US and of old growth in the Smokies and greater than densities of trees in forests in Costa Rica. Basal areas (m2/ha), a measure of tree abundance that is independent of forest maturity, are 65 m2/ha (LP1) and 85 m2/ha (LP2), which are within the range of some modern forests and greater than others. Although fossil forest biomasses are not known, trend of basal area vs biomass of modern forests suggest high biomass given the basal areas of the fossil forests. The forests support with geologic evidence climate models indicating high temperatures and high CO2 levels

  12. Working group reports: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    PubMed

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Carlson, Susan E; Griffin, Ian; Anderson, Diane; Hay, William W; Robins, Sandra; Neu, Josef; Georgieff, Michael K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Fenton, Tanis R

    2016-02-01

    The "Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Practice Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: The Pre-B Project" is the first phase in a process to present the current state of knowledge and to support the development of evidence-informed guidance for the nutritional care of preterm and high-risk newborn infants. The future systematic reviews that will ultimately provide the underpinning for guideline development will be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL). To accomplish the objectives of this first phase, the Pre-B Project organizers established 4 working groups (WGs) to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications for preterm infants, 2) clinical and practical issues in enteral feeding of preterm infants, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards of infant feeding. Each WG was asked to 1) develop a series of topics relevant to their respective themes, 2) identify questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process conducted by the EAL, and 3) develop a research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This article is a summary of the reports from the 4 Pre-B WGs. PMID:26791182

  13. The Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Chinese Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Yanjie; ZHU, Lili; YUAN, Fang; KANG, Lixia; JIA, Zhen; CHEN, Dongming; ZHANG, Ping; FENG, Zhanchun

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the levels of social support in patients with postoperative esophageal carcinoma and potential effect of social support on generic and EC-specific quality of life. Methods: Overall, 803 Chinese patients with EC were recruited in the high-incidence region- Linzhou in Henan, China for the observation study. We obtained data on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), disease-specific score of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-OES18 (The QLQ-OES18), and social support evaluation score at home visits by a specially trained research team. Results: Aging and low education were negatively predicted total social support scores. A significant correlation (P = 0.000, 9 = 0.000) was found between QOL physical function and either the subjective or the objective dimensions in social supportive system. OES18 eating difficulty was significantly associated with objective support including family intimacy, friendship and community support (P = 0.016, P = 0.001). Conclusions: The social support team should endorse quality care as integrating community-care management in post-esophagus recovery and meet the need of individual health quality of life. The elders, educational levels and rural farmers are significant to challenge the social supportive delivery in the current model of esophagus cancer care. PMID:26811811

  14. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... and must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain...

  15. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain are...

  16. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... and must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain...

  17. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain are...

  18. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... and must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain...

  19. Evidence-based and occupational perspective of effective interventions for older clients that remediate or support improved driving performance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda A; Arbesman, Marian

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of person-related interventions on driving ability in older adults, this literature review was completed as a part of the Evidence-Based Literature Review Project of the American Occupational Therapy Association. Nineteen articles were incorporated into the systematic review and include interventions in the following areas: visual, cognitive, and motor; educational; passengers; and medical. The results provide inconclusive evidence for the use of interventions such as the Useful Field of View training, home exercise programs, and passenger interactions. Conclusive evidence shows that older adults respond positively to programs stressing self-awareness of driving skills and that some medical interventions affect the ability to drive. Despite limitations, the studies reviewed provide useful information that deserves further exploration. Reading the literature provides therapists with knowledge that might improve client care. Learning about cutting-edge interventions and educating peers and students about evidence-based interventions may lead to safer community mobility for older adults.

  20. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  1. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, K A; Shikany, J M; Keating, K D; Allison, D B

    2013-08-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: (i) human trials, (ii) ≥ 3 weeks duration, (iii) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs and (iv) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons' diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  2. Regulators as agents: modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Davies, G J; Kendall, G; Soane, E; Li, J; Rocks, S A; Jude, S R; Pollard, S J T

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with 'aggressor' personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with 'avoider' personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the 'aggressor' personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the 'avoider' personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power.

  3. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    PubMed

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  4. Current Evidence for Extracorporeal Liver Support Systems in Acute Liver Failure and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Subramanian, Ram M

    2016-07-01

    Artificial (nonbiological) extracorporeal liver support devices aim to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins to restore and preserve hepatic function and mitigate or limit the progression of multiorgan failure while hepatic recovery or liver transplant occurs. The following beneficial effects have been documented: improvement of jaundice, amelioration of hemodynamic instability, reduction of portal hypertension, and improvement of hepatic encephalopathy. The only randomized prospective multicenter controlled trial to show an improvement in transplant-free survival was for high-volume plasmapheresis. Biological (cell-based) extracorporeal liver support systems aim to support the failing liver through detoxification and synthetic function and warrant further study for safety and benefit. PMID:27339682

  5. The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and work-family conflict on exhaustion: evidence from physicians.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Ozge; Arslan, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion, argued to be burnout's core dimension, can manifest itself as decreased productivity and job dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine how lack of reciprocity, lack of supervisory support, high workload, and work-family conflict affect emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 295 physicians working at private and public hospitals in Antalya and İstanbul, Turkey. The survey included lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload, WFC items, and exhaustion subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventrory: General Survey (MBI:GS). The proposed model was tested using AMOS 17, which enables assessment of hypothesized relations and degree of fit between data and model. Workload and lack reciprocity were found to increase emotional exhaustion, while supervisory support alleviated the exhaustion physicians experienced. As expected, workload increased work-family conflict. Quite unexpectedly, workload was associated with lack of reciprocity; meaning, physicians more likely perceive their efforts go unappreciated and their patient relationships are inequitable (i.e. investing more than receiving) when they perceive a high workload. In addition, supervisory support was also associated with lack of reciprocity. Physicians experiencing inadequate supervisory support tend to describe their patient relationships in negative terms and perceive inequitable relations. Physicians who do not receive either adequate supervisory support or patient appreciation tend to feel emotionally exhausted. Moreover, both workload and work-family conflict increase physicians' exhaustion. Suggestions to reduce workload and social problems in hospitals are offered to reduce exhaustion. PMID:23330970

  6. The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and work-family conflict on exhaustion: evidence from physicians.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Ozge; Arslan, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion, argued to be burnout's core dimension, can manifest itself as decreased productivity and job dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine how lack of reciprocity, lack of supervisory support, high workload, and work-family conflict affect emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 295 physicians working at private and public hospitals in Antalya and İstanbul, Turkey. The survey included lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload, WFC items, and exhaustion subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventrory: General Survey (MBI:GS). The proposed model was tested using AMOS 17, which enables assessment of hypothesized relations and degree of fit between data and model. Workload and lack reciprocity were found to increase emotional exhaustion, while supervisory support alleviated the exhaustion physicians experienced. As expected, workload increased work-family conflict. Quite unexpectedly, workload was associated with lack of reciprocity; meaning, physicians more likely perceive their efforts go unappreciated and their patient relationships are inequitable (i.e. investing more than receiving) when they perceive a high workload. In addition, supervisory support was also associated with lack of reciprocity. Physicians experiencing inadequate supervisory support tend to describe their patient relationships in negative terms and perceive inequitable relations. Physicians who do not receive either adequate supervisory support or patient appreciation tend to feel emotionally exhausted. Moreover, both workload and work-family conflict increase physicians' exhaustion. Suggestions to reduce workload and social problems in hospitals are offered to reduce exhaustion.

  7. Evidence-based development and evaluation of mobile cognitive support apps for people on the autism spectrum: methodological conclusions from two R+D projects.

    PubMed

    Gyori, Miklos; Stefanik, Krisztina; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence confirms that mobile digital devices have key potentials as assistive/educational tools for people with autism spectrum disorders. The aim of this paper is to outline key aspects of development and evaluation methodologies that build on, and provide systematic evidence on effects of using such apps. We rely on the results of two R+D projects, both using quantitative and qualitative methods to support development and to evaluate developed apps (n=54 and n=22). Analyzing methodological conclusions from these studies we outline some guidelines for an 'ideal' R+D methodology but we also point to important trade-offs between the need for best systematic evidence and the limitations on development time and costs. We see these trade-offs as a key issue to be resolved in this field. PMID:26294453

  8. An experimental study of damage accumulation in cemented hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    McCormack, B A O; Prendergast, P J; Gallagher, D G

    1996-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology to characterize the pattern of crack initiation and damage accumulation in intramedullary fixated cemented prostheses. DESIGN: An experimental physical model of intramedullary fixation was developed which both represents the implant structure and permits monitoring of fatigue crack growth. BACKGROUND: Many joint replacement prostheses are fixed into the medullary cavity of bones using a poly(methylmethacrylate) 'bone cement', which forms a mantle around the prosthesis and locks it to the bone. The endurance of the replacement is, to a great extent, determined by the mechanical durability of the cement and the implant interfaces under cyclic stresses generated by dynamic loading. The cement mantle is subjected to complex multiaxial stresses which vary in particular distribution depending on the prosthesis design. METHODS: Damage accumulation is reported in terms of the number of cracks, the location of cracks, and the rate of crack growth. RESULTS: The results clearly show the nature of damage accumulation in the cement mantle, and that many of the cracks which propagate within the cement mantle are related to cement porosity. CONCLUSION: This study gives experimental evidence to support the hypothesis of a damage accumulation failure scenario in cemented hip reconstructions. RELEVANCE: Cementing is the most popular technique for the fixation of joint replacement prosthesis. However, the sequence of events leading to the failure of cemented fixation is not fully understood. In this paper it is shown that damage accumulation can be directly monitored in an experimental model of cemented intramedullary fixation.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for a mimetic radiation in Peruvian poison frogs supports a Müllerian mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Symula, R; Schulte, R; Summers, K

    2001-01-01

    Examples of Müllerian mimicry, in which resemblance between unpalatable species confers mutual benefit, are rare in vertebrates. Strong comparative evidence for mimicry is found when the colour and pattern of a single species closely resemble several different model species simultaneously in different geographical regions. Todemonstrate this, it is necessary to provide compelling evidence that the putative mimics do, in fact, form a monophyletic group. We present molecular phylogenetic evidence that the poison frog Dendrobates imitator mimics three different poison frogs in different geographical regions in Peru. DNA sequences from four different mitochondrial gene regions in putative members of a single species are analysed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. The resulting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that the different populations of D.imitator form a monophyletic group. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for a Müllerian mimetic radiation in amphibians in which a single species mimics different sympatric species in different geographical regions. PMID:11747559

  10. Evaluating the Evidence Base of Shared Story Reading to Promote Literacy for Students with Extensive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Melissa E.; Test, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed published literature to determine the level of evidence for using shared story reading to promote literacy. Shared story reading was defined as a practice used to access age-appropriate literature through reader-listener interaction in which a story is read aloud and student interaction with the reader and the story is…

  11. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  12. Supporting Use of Evidence in Argumentation through Practice in Argumentation and Reflection in the Context of SOCRATES Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanou, Kalypso; Constantinou, Costas P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how students used evidence in argumentation while they engaged in argumentive and reflective activities in the context of a designed learning environment. A Web-based learning environment, SOCRATES, was developed, which included a rich data base on the topic of climate change. Sixteen 11th graders, working with…

  13. Beyond ROC Curvature: Strength Effects and Response Time Data Support Continuous-Evidence Models of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Chad; Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    A classic question in the recognition memory literature is whether retrieval is best described as a continuous-evidence process consistent with signal detection theory (SDT), or a threshold process consistent with many multinomial processing tree (MPT) models. Because receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) based on confidence ratings are…

  14. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  15. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  16. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  17. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  18. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  19. Evidence on Inclusion and Support for Learners with Disabilities in Mainstream Schools in South Africa: Off the Policy Radar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pather, Sulochini

    2011-01-01

    Since the move towards inclusion in line with international trends and South Africa's attempts to address issues of marginalisation and discrimination amongst all learners, including those with special needs and disabilities, it has become evident on perusal of various research studies and reviews that there is an obsession with how far we have…

  20. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for a mimetic radiation in Peruvian poison frogs supports a Müllerian mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Symula, R; Schulte, R; Summers, K

    2001-12-01

    Examples of Müllerian mimicry, in which resemblance between unpalatable species confers mutual benefit, are rare in vertebrates. Strong comparative evidence for mimicry is found when the colour and pattern of a single species closely resemble several different model species simultaneously in different geographical regions. Todemonstrate this, it is necessary to provide compelling evidence that the putative mimics do, in fact, form a monophyletic group. We present molecular phylogenetic evidence that the poison frog Dendrobates imitator mimics three different poison frogs in different geographical regions in Peru. DNA sequences from four different mitochondrial gene regions in putative members of a single species are analysed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. The resulting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that the different populations of D.imitator form a monophyletic group. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for a Müllerian mimetic radiation in amphibians in which a single species mimics different sympatric species in different geographical regions.

  1. Rhizolith evidence in support of a late Holocene sea-level highstand at least 0.5 m higher than present at Key Biscayne, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froede, Carl R., Jr.

    2002-03-01

    R. Fairbridge and F. Shepard proposed different sea-level curves for the late Holocene. South Florida, as a tectonically stable platform, provides a key locale from which late Quaternary sea-level measurements have been attempted. Previous studies supporting Holocene sea-level curves have focused on mangrove peat deposits, barrier ridges, and archaeological sites. However, in situ biological indicators provide the best evidence in support of varying sea-level positions during the late Holocene. The northeastern side of Key Biscayne, Florida, has two areas of rock reef where rhizoliths (i.e., fossilized root casts) are exposed within the intertidal zone. They have previously been interpreted as the fossilized roots of a former black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest. However, the morphology, size, orientation, and areal extent of the rhizoliths is best understood if they are interpreted as the former root casts of turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum). This interpretation would constitute in situ biological evidence of a late Holocene sea-level position at least 0.5 m higher than at present. Previously published 14C dating of the calcareous paste inside the rhizoliths suggests that they formed 1 2 k.y. before present. This corresponds to a higher than present sea-level highstand supported by independent evidence from other areas in south Florida.

  2. Supporting employees' work-family needs improves health care quality: Longitudinal evidence from long-term care.

    PubMed

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Kelly, Erin L; Bacic, Janine; DePasquale, Nicole; Hurtado, David; Kossek, Ellen; Sembajwe, Grace

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from U.S.-based employees in 30 long-term care facilities. Analysis of semi-structured interviews from 154 managers informed quantitative analyses. Quantitative data include 1214 employees' scoring of their supervisors and their organizations on family supportiveness (individual scores and aggregated to facility level), and three outcomes: (1), care quality indicators assessed at facility level (n = 30) and collected monthly for six months after employees' data collection; (2), employees' dichotomous survey response on having additional off-site jobs; and (3), proportion of employees with additional jobs at each facility. Thematic analyses revealed that managers operate within the constraints of an industry that simultaneously: (a) employs low-wage employees with multiple work-family challenges, and (b) has firmly institutionalized goals of prioritizing quality of care and minimizing labor costs. Managers universally described providing work-family support and prioritizing care quality as antithetical to each other. Concerns surfaced that family-supportiveness encouraged employees to work additional jobs off-site, compromising care quality. Multivariable linear regression analysis of facility-level data revealed that higher family-supportive supervision was associated with significant decreases in residents' incidence of all pressure ulcers (-2.62%) and other injuries (-9.79%). Higher family-supportive organizational climate was associated with significant decreases in all falls (-17.94%) and falls with injuries (-7.57%). Managers' concerns about additional jobs were not entirely unwarranted: multivariable logistic regression of employee-level data revealed that among employees with children, having family-supportive supervision was associated with significantly higher likelihood of additional off-site jobs (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.08-1.99), but family-supportive organizational climate was associated with lower likelihood

  3. SUPPORT Tools for Evidence-informed Policymaking in health 6: Using research evidence to address how an option will be implemented

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. After a policy decision has been made, the next key challenge is transforming this stated policy position into practical actions. What strategies, for instance, are available to facilitate effective implementation, and what is known about the effectiveness of such strategies? We suggest five questions that can be considered by policymakers when implementing a health policy or programme. These are: 1. What are the potential barriers to the successful implementation of a new policy? 2. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary behavioural changes among healthcare recipients and citizens? 3. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary behavioural changes in healthcare professionals? 4. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary organisational changes? 5. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary systems changes? PMID:20018113

  4. A Learning Collaborative Supporting the Implementation of an Evidence-Informed Program, the “4Rs and 2Ss for Children with Conduct Difficulties and their Families”

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Tricia N.; McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Rotko, Lauren; Fuss, Ashley; McKay, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study the authors examine factors associated with the successful implementation and plans for continued use of an evidence-informed intervention, the 4Rs and 2Ss Program for Strengthening Families, in a sample of 29 New York State, Office of Mental Health licensed child mental health clinics. A learning collaborative (LC) approach was used as a vehicle for supporting training and implementation of the program. The PRISM theoretical framework (Feldstein & Glasgow, 2008) was used to guide the data analysis. Data were analyzed using a multi-phase iterative process, identifying influences on implementation at multiple levels: the program (intervention), the external environment, implementation and sustainability infrastructure, and recipient characteristics. Clinics that were more proactive evidenced staff with advanced organizational skills were able to take advantage of the trainings and supports offered by the LC and fared better in their ability to adopt the intervention. The ability to adapt the intervention to the specific constraints of the clinics was a strong influence on continued use following the end of the LC. These preliminary results suggest that the supports provided by the LC are useful in consolidating information about the process of implementing evidence-informed interventions in community mental health settings. The impact of these supports is also based on their interactions with specific clinic contextual factors. PMID:25491005

  5. Supportive housing: an evidence-based intervention for reducing relapse among low income adults in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Collard, Carol S; Lewinson, Terri; Watkins, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Within the ranks of the homeless are individuals coping with substance addiction and/or chronic physical or mental disability. Their special needs often pose significant barriers to successfully re-integrate into society. For these individuals, simply securing a roof overhead may not be an adequate solution. Supportive housing combines housing with access to on-site social services to assist persons coping with disabling physical and behavioral health conditions. This study examined whether an association could be found between length of residency in supportive housing and subjective well-being. For the purposes of this study, subjective well-being was measured by length of sobriety, self-efficacy, and employment.

  6. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence

  7. Clinical and radiological evidence to support superficial parotidectomy as the treatment of choice for chronic parotid sialadenitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Amin, M A; Bailey, B M; Patel, S R

    2001-10-01

    We present a retrospective series of 23 consecutive parotidectomies, over a 10-year period (1989-1999) for 22 patients with chronic sialadenitis unresponsive to conservative measures. There were 10 male and 12 female patients. Mean age was 52 years (range 12-72), and mean duration of symptoms 4.5 years (range 8 months-30 years). All patients had preoperative sialography and 2 had computed tomography to exclude a neoplasm. A complete superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was done in all cases. Fifteen patients developed temporary facial nerve weakness postoperatively and 7 developed Frey's syndrome. There were no cases of permanent facial nerve palsy. Nineteen patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms and 3 patients had mild persisting symptoms that did not necessitate any further treatment. Histologically there was evidence of sialadenosis in one case and benign lymphoepithelial lesion in another; the others showed evidence of chronic sialadenitis of varying degrees of severity. Fifteen patients had postoperative sialograms, of which 11 showed evidence of some filling of residual parotid gland parenchyma and in 8 patients there was filling of a normal-looking accessory lobe. In this series, superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was safe and effective, with minimal long-term complications, for most patients with chronic parotid sialadenitis that was unresponsive to conservative measures and, in some patients, it allowed some preservation of function. The potential damage to the facial nerve and the cosmetic problems associated with a total or near-total parotidectomy were avoided.

  8. The Consequences of International Comparisons for Public Support of K-12 Education: Evidence from a National Survey Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Poppe, Emily S. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Candidates for public office in the United States frequently justify their positions on education policy priorities by stating the need to strengthen the nation's economic competitiveness against new global challengers. In this article, the authors investigate the consequences of this form of policy motivation for attitudes toward and support of…

  9. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  10. Living kidney donors and their family caregivers: developing an evidence-based educational and social support website

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura A.; Bahreman, Nasreen; Hayat, Matthew J.; Hoey, Frank; Rajasekaran, Geetha; Segev, Dorry L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Although graft and patient survival rates for living kidney donation are improved, some healthcare providers question whether volunteer donors and their informal caregivers are fully informed of the donation process and the risks involved. Donors and their family caregivers have reported that they receive limited information about the predonation and donor recovery process. Offering web-based information and social support is one way to address this gap. Strategy Living kidney donor candidates and their family caregivers participating in the Living Donor Information Network for Caregiving (LINC) have access to a variety of online informational resources and a social support discussion forum throughout their living kidney donation experience. Strategies in the development and implementation of an online information and social-support resource are presented. Conclusions Use of the LINC website for information and support may assist health care providers in identifying potential barriers in the current donation process and provide direction for enhancing knowledge and confidence among donors and family caregivers. PMID:22878067

  11. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  12. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  13. The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

  14. Evidence of the Need To Support the Development of On-Line Collaborative Skills: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Laura April; Sclater, Jennifer

    This study examined the relationship between the quality of intra-group online collaboration among groups of undergraduate learners on the quality of products produced. The quality of online collaboration was assessed by the instructor and Teaching Assistant with the computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) process assessment tool. The…

  15. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  16. Nurture Growth: Professional Development Rooted in Evidence Supports Teaching and Learning. NCREL's Learning Point. Volume 6, Number 4, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Michele, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This issue focuses attention on research-based tools and professional development, illustrating how they come together in ways that support better teaching and improved learning. In the feature article, "Bringing the Picture of Classroom Instruction into Focus," author Jessica Johnson introduces a new classroom survey tool developed in partnership…

  17. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program. Working Paper #09-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This paper examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  18. Identifying Conditions That Support Causal Inference in Observational Studies in Education: Empirical Evidence from within Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallberg, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three papers that employ empirical within study comparisons (WSCs) to identify conditions that support causal inference in observational studies. WSC studies empirically estimate the extent to which a given observational study reproduces the result of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) when both share the same…

  19. The Importance of Social Interaction and Support for Women Learners: Evidence from Family Literacy Programs. Research Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Although many women value and benefit from social interaction in adult education and family literacy, these social dimensions are often treated as tangential or inconsequential. Utilizing data from two studies of family literacy programs in Pennsylvania, this study examined how family literacy programs provide a supportive social space for women…

  20. Young Infants' Actions Reveal Their Developing Knowledge of Support Variables: Converging Evidence for Violation-of-Expectation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Violation-of-expectation (VOE) tasks have revealed substantial developments in young infants' knowledge about support events: by 5.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released against but not on a surface; and by 6.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released with 15% but not 100% of its bottom on a surface. Here we…

  1. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dolan, James G

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers.Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine "hard data" with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings.The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  2. Evidence supporting primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statins: Gaps between updated clinical results and actual practice.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Eric; Ferrières, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The use of pharmacological lipid-lowering intervention in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia and known cardiovascular disease or diabetes/chronic kidney disease is well established. Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend immediate initiation of drugs in adjunct to lifestyle intervention in these patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. In these clinical settings, statins are generally chosen as the first-choice drug intervention, in consideration of the robust evidence showing a reduction in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In contrast, primary prevention with statins, even in the subset of patients at high-risk of cardiovascular events, is not well implemented. This might be related to a lack of public awareness regarding the actual risk associated with prolonged exposure to high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and uncertainties in the clinical evidence coming from the earliest trials in this patient subset. However, recent observational studies suggest that lowering LDL-C earlier in life and for a longer duration can substantially decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Moreover, results from recent well-conducted large meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed that primary prevention with statins reduced all-cause mortality by 14% and MACE by > 20% - findings similar to those observed for the use of statins in secondary prevention. Recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol emphasize that primary prevention using high-dose statins in individuals with LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL induces a benefit in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction that clearly exceeds the potential for adverse effects. We aim in this review to discuss the new data that advocate the use of statins in primary prevention earlier and more frequently, putting the efficacy evidence into

  3. Narrative and evidence. How can case studies from the history of science support claims in the philosophy of science?

    PubMed

    Kinzel, Katherina

    2015-02-01

    A common method for warranting the historical adequacy of philosophical claims is that of relying on historical case studies. This paper addresses the question as to what evidential support historical case studies can provide to philosophical claims and doctrines. It argues that in order to assess the evidential functions of historical case studies, we first need to understand the methodology involved in producing them. To this end, an account of historical reconstruction that emphasizes the narrative character of historical accounts and the theory-laden character of historical facts is introduced. The main conclusion of this paper is that historical case studies are able to provide philosophical claims with some evidential support, but that, due to theory-ladenness, their evidential import is restricted.

  4. The impact of mental health evidence on support for capital punishment: are defendants labeled psychopathic considered more deserving of death?

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Colwell, Lori H; Desforges, Donna M; Fernandez, Krissie

    2005-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (Hare, 1991, 2003) in capital murder cases, where it has been introduced to support prosecution claims that a defendant represents a "continuing threat to society". Although widely presumed to have a prejudicial impact (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2004), little is known about how the lay public reacts to data derived from ostensibly stigmatizing assessment instruments such as the PCL-R. The present study examined the effect of psychopathy data on layperson attitudes by having 203 undergraduates review a capital murder case where the results of the defendant's psychological evaluation were experimentally manipulated. When expert testimony described the defendant as psychopathic, a much larger percentage of participants supported a death sentence (60%) than when testimony indicated that he was psychotic (30%) or not mentally disordered (38%). Interestingly, participant ratings of how psychopathic they perceived the defendant to be--regardless of the testimony condition to which they had been assigned--also predicted support for a death sentence. Given the limited probative value of the PCL-R in capital cases and the prejudicial nature of the effects noted in this study, we recommend that forensic examiners avoid using it in these trials.

  5. Transcriptome-derived evidence supports recent polyploidization and a major phylogeographic division in Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales).

    PubMed

    Marques, Isabel; Montgomery, Sean A; Barker, Michael S; Macfarlane, Terry D; Conran, John G; Catalán, Pilar; Rieseberg, Loren H; Rudall, Paula J; Graham, Sean W

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about species-level genetic diversity in flowering plants outside the eudicots and monocots, and it is often unclear how to interpret genetic patterns in lineages with whole-genome duplications. We addressed these issues in a polyploid representative of Hydatellaceae, part of the water-lily order Nymphaeales. We examined a transcriptome of Trithuria submersa for evidence of recent whole-genome duplication, and applied transcriptome-derived microsatellite (expressed-sequence tag simple-sequence repeat (EST-SSR)) primers to survey genetic variation in populations across its range in mainland Australia. A transcriptome-based Ks plot revealed at least one recent polyploidization event, consistent with fixed heterozygous genotypes representing underlying sets of homeologous loci. A strong genetic division coincides with a trans-Nullarbor biogeographic boundary. Patterns of 'allelic' variation (no more than two variants per EST-SSR genotype) and recently published chromosomal evidence are consistent with the predicted polyploidization event and substantial homozygosity underlying fixed heterozygote SSR genotypes, which in turn reflect a selfing mating system. The Nullarbor Plain is a barrier to gene flow between two deep lineages of T. submersa that may represent cryptic species. The markers developed here should also be useful for further disentangling species relationships, and provide a first step towards future genomic studies in Trithuria. PMID:26612464

  6. Transcriptome-derived evidence supports recent polyploidization and a major phylogeographic division in Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales).

    PubMed

    Marques, Isabel; Montgomery, Sean A; Barker, Michael S; Macfarlane, Terry D; Conran, John G; Catalán, Pilar; Rieseberg, Loren H; Rudall, Paula J; Graham, Sean W

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about species-level genetic diversity in flowering plants outside the eudicots and monocots, and it is often unclear how to interpret genetic patterns in lineages with whole-genome duplications. We addressed these issues in a polyploid representative of Hydatellaceae, part of the water-lily order Nymphaeales. We examined a transcriptome of Trithuria submersa for evidence of recent whole-genome duplication, and applied transcriptome-derived microsatellite (expressed-sequence tag simple-sequence repeat (EST-SSR)) primers to survey genetic variation in populations across its range in mainland Australia. A transcriptome-based Ks plot revealed at least one recent polyploidization event, consistent with fixed heterozygous genotypes representing underlying sets of homeologous loci. A strong genetic division coincides with a trans-Nullarbor biogeographic boundary. Patterns of 'allelic' variation (no more than two variants per EST-SSR genotype) and recently published chromosomal evidence are consistent with the predicted polyploidization event and substantial homozygosity underlying fixed heterozygote SSR genotypes, which in turn reflect a selfing mating system. The Nullarbor Plain is a barrier to gene flow between two deep lineages of T. submersa that may represent cryptic species. The markers developed here should also be useful for further disentangling species relationships, and provide a first step towards future genomic studies in Trithuria.

  7. Empirical evidence supporting frequent cryptic speciation in epiphyllous liverworts: a case study of the Cololejeunea lanciloba complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Heinrichs, Jochen; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Schneider, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic species are frequently recovered in plant lineages, and considered an important cause for divergent of morphological disparity and species diversity. The identification of cryptic species has important implications for the assessment of conservation needs of species aggregates. The mechanisms and processes of the origin of cryptic species diversity are still poorly understand based on the lack of studies especially in context of environment factors. Here we explored evidence for cryptic species within the epiphyllous liverworts Cololejeunea lanciloba complex based on two loci, the plastid trnL-F region and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. Several analytic approaches were employed to delimit species based on DNA sequence variation including phylogenetic reconstruction, statistical parsimony networks analysis and two recently introduced species delimitation criteria: Rosenberg's reciprocal monophyly and Rodrigo's randomly distinct. We found evidence for thirteen genetically distinct putative species, each consisting of more than one haplotype, rather than four morphologically-circumscribed species. The results implied that the highly conserved phenotypes are not congruent with the genetic differentiation, contributing to incorrect assessments of the biodiversity of epiphyllous liverworts. We hypothesize that evolution of cryptic species recovered may be caused by selection of traits critical to the survival in epiphyllous habitats combined with limited developmental options designed in the small body.

  8. How do living arrangements and intergenerational support matter for psychological health of elderly parents? Evidence from Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Long, Giang Thanh

    2015-07-01

    Living arrangements and family support for older persons have become an increasingly important policy concern in developing and rapidly aging Asia. Formulating a sound elderly care policy for the region will benefit from empirically examining how living arrangements, particularly coresidence, and intergenerational exchanges of financial, instrumental, and emotional support are associated with old-age psychological health. This study analyzes data from nationally representative aging surveys in Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand for 2011-2012 to offer a comparative perspective from Southeast Asia where various kinship systems coexist. Results suggest that coresidence with a child of culturally preferred gender significantly improves the emotional health of Vietnamese and Thai elders but with different implications. In Vietnam, living with a married son is more beneficial to parents' psychological wellbeing than living with other children. In Thailand, coresidence regardless of the child's gender improves old-age psychological wellbeing but living with a daughter brings greater benefits than living only with son. Evidence points to the importance of understanding the dominant kinship system that may shape normative filial expectations and gender role expectations within the family. In Vietnam and Thailand, the positive association holds even after intergenerational support is controlled, suggesting that the value of culturally preferred coresidence goes beyond practical functions. In Myanmar, there are almost no significant differences in psychological wellbeing among elderly across various living arrangements, except between coresidence and network living arrangements. For all settings, we do not find evidence in support of network family arrangements as a complete substitute for coresidence in terms of promoting old-age psychological wellbeing after filial support is controlled. Our study highlights important cultural nuances for theorizing the nature of the

  9. A.T. Still's Osteopathic Lesion Theory and Evidence-Based Models Supporting the Emerged Concept of Somatic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liem, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, coined the original idea of lesion based on the obstruction of flow of body fluids, but primarily referring to bony structures and more precisely to the spine. Throughout the 20th century, this idea was shaped and developed into the concept of somatic dysfunction, a term that is familiar to both US-trained osteopathic physicians and foreign-trained osteopaths and has been an essential cornerstone of osteopathic practice and teaching. The present historical narrative review offers an overview of the evolution of Still's original lesion concept, major evidence-based models of somatic dysfunction that attempt to explain the clinical findings, and a critique of the concept. PMID:27669069

  10. Is EBE theory supported by the evidence? Is it androcentric? A reply to Peplau et al. (1998)

    PubMed

    Bem, D J

    1998-04-01

    In their critique of the author's Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (D. J. Bem, 1996), L. A. Peplau, L. D. Garnets, L. R. Spalding, T. D. Conley, and R. C. Veniegas (1998) challenge his reading of the evidence concerning the antecedents of sexual orientation; they also contend that the theory neglects women's experiences. In reply, the author argues that L. A. Peplau et al. have misunderstood the critical antecedent variable of the theory and, hence, have misidentified the particular empirical findings that would serve to confirm or disconfirm its central contentions. The author also argues that the sex differences they cite are not relevant to the theory, whereas an important sex difference they do not cite is actually anticipated by it. PMID:9577244

  11. Medication errors in paediatric care: a systematic review of epidemiology and an evaluation of evidence supporting reduction strategy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marlene R; Robinson, Karen A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Rinke, Michael L; Pronovost, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background Although children are at the greatest risk for medication errors, little is known about the overall epidemiology of these errors, where the gaps are in our knowledge, and to what extent national medication error reduction strategies focus on children. Objective To synthesise peer reviewed knowledge on children's medication errors and on recommendations to improve paediatric medication safety by a systematic literature review. Data sources PubMed, Embase and Cinahl from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2005, and 11 national entities that have disseminated recommendations to improve medication safety. Study selection Inclusion criteria were peer reviewed original data in English language. Studies that did not separately report paediatric data were excluded. Data extraction Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and for data extraction, and screened all national medication error reduction strategies for relevance to children. Data synthesis From 358 articles identified, 31 were included for data extraction. The definition of medication error was non‐uniform across the studies. Dispensing and administering errors were the most poorly and non‐uniformly evaluated. Overall, the distributional epidemiological estimates of the relative percentages of paediatric error types were: prescribing 3–37%, dispensing 5–58%, administering 72–75%, and documentation 17–21%. 26 unique recommendations for strategies to reduce medication errors were identified; none were based on paediatric evidence. Conclusions Medication errors occur across the entire spectrum of prescribing, dispensing, and administering, are common, and have a myriad of non‐evidence based potential reduction strategies. Further research in this area needs a firmer standardisation for items such as dose ranges and definitions of medication errors, broader scope beyond inpatient prescribing errors, and prioritisation of implementation of medication error reduction strategies. PMID:17403758

  12. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  13. A Review of the Evidence to Support Influenza Vaccine Introduction in Countries and Areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Gina; McPherson, Michelle; Partridge, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a) public health priority, (b) disease burden, (c) efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d) other inventions, (e) economic and financial issues, (f) vaccine presentation, (g) supply availability and (h) programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. Methodology/Principal Findings Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90%) coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34), vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27) and public health priority (n = 27) were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%), in the elderly (24%) and in children (17%). Few studies (2%) addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. Conclusions/Significance The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies

  14. Scientific Evidence Supporting Policy Change: A Study on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Areas of PC Rooms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Yeol; Lim, Min Kyung; Yun, E Hwa; Park, Eun Young; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to measure secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in personal computer (PC) rooms with the purpose of determining the strength of scientific evidence supporting the legislative ban on smoking in PC rooms located in the Republic of Korea. Materials and Methods From June to September 2012, particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine concentration (ANC) were measured in the smoking and non-smoking areas of PC rooms in Goyang City, Korea. In 28 randomly sampled PC rooms, field investigators completed an observational questionnaire on building characteristics, smoking policies, and evidence of smoking. The geometric means (GM) of PM2.5 and ANC in smoking and non-smoking areas were compared. Results Evidence of smoking was identified in both the smoking and non-smoking areas of all PC rooms. The GMs of PM2.5 and ANC in both areas were high and did not differ significantly (174.77 μg/m3 and 48.95 μg/m3 in smoking areas; 93.38 μg/m3 and 41.30 μg/m3 in non-smoking areas). Overall PM2.5 concentrations were 5.5-fold higher than those listed in the World Health Organization guidelines. Conclusion This study supported previous reports that a partial smoking ban did not protect individuals from SHS exposure. Furthermore, the results from our study suggest how research can support policy. Countries in which smoke-free policies are not yet comprehensive may find our results useful. PMID:26323638

  15. An investigation into drug products withdrawn from the EU market between 2002 and 2011 for safety reasons and the evidence used to support the decision-making

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Rhian; Huet, Gwenaël; Shakir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the nature of evidence used to support the withdrawal of marketing authorisations of drug products for safety reasons throughout the European Union (EU) between 2002 and 2011. Setting Products withdrawn, either by a medicines agency or a marketing authorisation holder, during the period 2002–2011 were identified by conducting detailed searches of the WHO, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national medicines agency websites throughout the EU plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. The scientific evidence used to support the decision was identified from a search within PubMed, the EMA and national medicines agencies websites. Information about spontaneous case reports entered into EudraVigilance and unavailable on the EMA website was received by email from the EMA. Results 19 drugs were withdrawn from the market, throughout the EU, for safety reasons from 2002 to 2011. Case reports were cited in 95% of withdrawals (18/19) and case–control studies (4/19), cohort studies (4/19), randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (12/19) or meta-analysis (5/19) were cited in 63% of withdrawals (12/19). Cardiovascular events or disorders were the main reason for withdrawal (9/19), followed by hepatic disorders (4/19) and neurological or psychiatric disorders (4/19). Conclusions This study has shown that the level of evidence used to support drug withdrawal has improved during the past 10 years, with an increased use of case–control studies, cohort studies, RCTs and meta-analyses. This research has demonstrated that such studies have contributed to decision-making in almost two-thirds of cases. PMID:24435895

  16. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread.

  17. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jonathan J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Kitchell, Jim; Pace, Michael L.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ≈20–40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread. PMID:21245299

  18. Evidence to support church-based health promotion programmes for African Canadians at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sherldine

    2011-12-01

    High quality management of cardiovascular disease is a critical health issue for people of African descent as this group is more likely than the general population to have greater coexisting cardiovascular comorbidities. The higher than average rates of cardiovascular conditions among Black populations are a cause for concern. In an effort to combat the disproportionate number of African Americans experiencing cardiovascular conditions a significant number of churches within the African American community have initiated health promotion programmes and/or services. Health organisations and agencies in the United States are keen to support and encourage these programmes for cardiovascular disease risk populations (i.e. African Americans and other minority groups, such as the Hispanic community). Indeed these health organisations and agencies recognise the need to promote healthier habits among African Americans and other minority groups as statistics continue to show health disparities among these populations within the US health care system. This paper attempts to encourage Canadian health agencies, organizations and practitioners to support similar CBHPPs initiatives for the African Canadian population. The historical significance of the church in Black Canadian communities is also examined.

  19. Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.

  20. Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns—specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients. PMID:24910602

  1. Searching for Evidence to Support the Use of Ginger in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Paolo; Cortinovis, Diego; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Roila, Fausto; Seminara, Patrizia; Fabi, Alessandra; Canova, Stefania; Verri, Elena; Fatigoni, Sonia; Iannace, Alessandro; Macchi, Fabio; Ripamonti, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Patients with cancer frequently use dietary supplementation and herbal therapies to control symptoms of disease and adverse effects of cancer therapy. Despite the widespread use of dietary supplementation and herbal therapies in oncology, robust scientific evidence in this area is lacking. Not only do these products need to be tested in large and well-designed observational or randomized studies, but their manufacturing process must be improved to achieve higher levels of standardization in product quality. Ginger is frequently used to counteract chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and some suggestions that it might be effective against CINV come from randomized and/or crossover clinical trials. However, several limitations in the methods of these studies limit their power and generalizability. The authors are conducting a randomized, double-blind study with a large sample size and homogeneous inclusion criteria in order to evaluate the efficacy of a well-standardized ginger extract in reducing nausea in patients with cancer. The widespread use of standardized herbal therapies and natural components among patients requires that scientific and rigorous research strategies are applied in this field to guide the physicians and the patients in safer use. PMID:27115042

  2. Genetic evidence supports larval retention in the Western Caribbean for an invertebrate with high dispersal capability ( Ophiothrix suensonii: Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, V. P.; DeBiasse, M. B.; Shivji, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    The brittle star Ophiothrix suensonii is a common coral reef sponge commensal with high dispersal potential. Here, we utilize COI sequence data from 264 O. suensonii individuals collected from 10 locations throughout Florida and the Caribbean to investigate dispersal dynamics and demographic history. Locations separated by up to 1,700 km lacked genetic differentiation, confirming the ability for long-range dispersal. However, significant differentiation was detected among other regions. Samples from Utila, Honduras showed the greatest differentiation, suggesting that the circulation of the Mesoamerican gyre could be a significant factor restricting gene flow in this region. Demographic analyses provided strong evidence for a population expansion, possibly out of Florida, through the Caribbean, and into Honduras, which commenced in the early Pleistocene. However, the presence of a clade of rare haplotypes, which split much earlier (mid-Pliocene), indicates that O. suensonii persisted long before its recent expansion, suggesting a cyclic history of population contraction and expansion. Finally, patterns of gene flow are not concordant with contemporary surface currents; rather, they reflect historical movements possibly linked with changes in circulation during periods of Pleistocene climate change.

  3. Increased 5-HT release mediates the anxiogenic response during benzodiazepine withdrawal: a review of supporting neurochemical and behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Andrews, N; File, S E

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the biochemical and behavioural evidence that the increased anxiety that occurs during benzodiazepine withdrawal is caused by increased 5-HT activity. In hippocampal slices taken from rats withdrawn for 24 h from chronic diazepam treatment (2 mg/kg/day for 21 days) there was a significant increase in K(+)-evoked release of [3H]5-HT and in 45Ca2+ uptake and both of these changes were reversed by the GABAB agonist, baclofen. Baclofen also reversed the anxiogenic response that is detected on withdrawal from chronic diazepam treatment. Other drugs that reduce 5-HT function (tianeptine which increases 5-HT uptake; buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/partial agonist; zacopride, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) also reversed this anxiogenic response. Finally, we present data from a group of rats that did not develop tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam (2 mg/kg), even after 5 weeks treatment. This group failed to show an anxiogenic response on withdrawal from diazepam, nor was there an increase in hippocampal 5-HT release. We discuss the extent to which increased hippocampal 5-HT release can be causally linked to the increased anxiety during benzodiazepine withdrawal.

  4. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  5. Evidence in duck for supporting alteration of incubation temperature may have influence on methylation of genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Ping; Liu, He-He; Liu, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Wang, Guo-Song; Li, Qing-Qing; Wang, Ding-Min-Cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Incubation temperature has an immediate and long-term influence on the embryonic development in birds. DNA methylation as an important environment-induced mechanism could serve as a potential link between embryos' phenotypic variability and temperature variation, which reprogrammed by DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTS) and Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBPS) 3&5 (MBD3&5). Five genes in DNMTS and MBPS gene families were selected as target genes, given their important role in epigenetic modification. In this study, we aimed to test whether raising incubation temperature from 37.8°C to 38.8°C between embryonic days (ED) 1-10, ED10-20 and ED20-27 have effect on DNA methylation and whether DNMTS, MBPS play roles in thermal epigenetic regulation of early development in duck. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that increased incubation temperature by 1°C has remarkably dynamic effect on gene expression levels of DNMTS and MBPS. Slight changes in incubation temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of target genes in breast muscle tissue during ED1-10, especially for DNMT1, DNMT3A and MBD5. In addition, higher temperature significantly increased enzyme activities of DNMT1 in leg muscle during ED10-20, liver tissue during ED1-10, ED20-27 and DNMT3A in leg muscle and breast muscle tissue during ED10-20. These results suggest that incubation temperature has an extended effect on gene expression levels and enzyme activities of DNMTS and MBPS, which provides evidence that incubation temperature may influence DNA methylation in duck during early developmental stages. Our data indicated that DNMTS and MBPS may involved in thermal epigenetice regulation of embryos during the early development in duck. The potential links between embryonic temperature and epigenetic modification need further investigation.

  6. Evidence in duck for supporting alteration of incubation temperature may have influence on methylation of genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Ping; Liu, He-He; Liu, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Wang, Guo-Song; Li, Qing-Qing; Wang, Ding-Min-Cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Incubation temperature has an immediate and long-term influence on the embryonic development in birds. DNA methylation as an important environment-induced mechanism could serve as a potential link between embryos' phenotypic variability and temperature variation, which reprogrammed by DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTS) and Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBPS) 3&5 (MBD3&5). Five genes in DNMTS and MBPS gene families were selected as target genes, given their important role in epigenetic modification. In this study, we aimed to test whether raising incubation temperature from 37.8°C to 38.8°C between embryonic days (ED) 1-10, ED10-20 and ED20-27 have effect on DNA methylation and whether DNMTS, MBPS play roles in thermal epigenetic regulation of early development in duck. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that increased incubation temperature by 1°C has remarkably dynamic effect on gene expression levels of DNMTS and MBPS. Slight changes in incubation temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of target genes in breast muscle tissue during ED1-10, especially for DNMT1, DNMT3A and MBD5. In addition, higher temperature significantly increased enzyme activities of DNMT1 in leg muscle during ED10-20, liver tissue during ED1-10, ED20-27 and DNMT3A in leg muscle and breast muscle tissue during ED10-20. These results suggest that incubation temperature has an extended effect on gene expression levels and enzyme activities of DNMTS and MBPS, which provides evidence that incubation temperature may influence DNA methylation in duck during early developmental stages. Our data indicated that DNMTS and MBPS may involved in thermal epigenetice regulation of embryos during the early development in duck. The potential links between embryonic temperature and epigenetic modification need further investigation. PMID:26354761

  7. Evidence in duck for supporting alteration of incubation temperature may have influence on methylation of genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xi-ping; Liu, He-he; Liu, Jun-ying; Zhang, Rong-ping; Wang, Guo-song; Li, Qing-qing; Wang, Ding-min-cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-wen

    2015-01-01

    Incubation temperature has an immediate and long-term influence on the embryonic development in birds. DNA methylation as an important environment-induced mechanism could serve as a potential link between embryos’ phenotypic variability and temperature variation, which reprogrammed by DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTS) and Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBPS) 3&5 (MBD3&5). Five genes in DNMTS and MBPS gene families were selected as target genes, given their important role in epigenetic modification. In this study, we aimed to test whether raising incubation temperature from 37.8°C to 38.8°C between embryonic days (ED) 1–10, ED10–20 and ED20–27 have effect on DNA methylation and whether DNMTS, MBPS play roles in thermal epigenetic regulation of early development in duck. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that increased incubation temperature by 1°C has remarkably dynamic effect on gene expression levels of DNMTS and MBPS. Slight changes in incubation temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of target genes in breast muscle tissue during ED1–10, especially for DNMT1, DNMT3A and MBD5. In addition, higher temperature significantly increased enzyme activities of DNMT1 in leg muscle during ED10–20, liver tissue during ED1–10, ED20–27 and DNMT3A in leg muscle and breast muscle tissue during ED10–20. These results suggest that incubation temperature has an extended effect on gene expression levels and enzyme activities of DNMTS and MBPS, which provides evidence that incubation temperature may influence DNA methylation in duck during early developmental stages. Our data indicated that DNMTS and MBPS may involved in thermal epigenetice regulation of embryos during the early development in duck. The potential links between embryonic temperature and epigenetic modification need further investigation PMID:26354761

  8. Intravenous versus Oral Acetaminophen for Pain: Systematic Review of Current Evidence to Support Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Jibril, Farah; Sharaby, Sherif; Mohamed, Ahmed; Wilby, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) acetaminophen is increasingly used around the world for pain control for a variety of indications. However, it is unclear whether IV administration offers advantages over oral administration. Objective: To identify, summarize, and critically evaluate the literature comparing analgesic efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics for IV and oral dosage forms of acetaminophen. Data Sources: A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases was supplemented with keyword searches of Science Direct, Wiley Library Online, and Springer Link databases for the period 1948 to November 2014. The reference lists of identified studies were searched manually. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Randomized controlled trials comparing IV and oral dosage forms of acetaminophen were included if they assessed an efficacy, safety, or pharmacokinetic outcome. For each study, 2 investigators independently extracted data (study design, population, interventions, follow-up, efficacy outcomes, safety outcomes, pharmacokinetic outcomes, and any other pertinent information) and completed risk-of-bias assessments. Data Synthesis: Six randomized clinical trials were included. Three of the studies reported outcomes pertaining to efficacy, 4 to safety, and 4 to pharmacokinetics. No clinically significant differences in efficacy were found between the 2 dosage forms. Safety outcomes were not reported consistently enough to allow adequate assessment. No evidence was found to suggest that increased bioavailability of the IV formulation enhances efficacy outcomes. For studies reporting clinical outcomes, the results of risk-of-bias assessments were largely unclear. Conclusions: For patients who can take an oral dosage form, no clear indication exists for preferential prescribing of IV acetaminophen. Decision-making must take into account the known adverse effects of each dosage form and other considerations such as convenience and

  9. Curcumin Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evidences in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats Support the Antidiabetic Activity to Be via Metabolite(s)

    PubMed Central

    Gutierres, Vânia Ortega; Campos, Michel Leandro; Arcaro, Carlos Alberto; Assis, Renata Pires; Baldan-Cimatti, Helen Mariana; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Kettelhut, Isis Carmo; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the curcumin concentration in rat plasma by liquid chromatography and investigates the changes in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with curcumin-enriched yoghurt. The analytical method for curcumin detection was linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL. The Cmax⁡ and the time to reach Cmax⁡ (tmax⁡) of curcumin in plasma were 3.14 ± 0.9 μg/mL and 5 minutes (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and 0.06 ± 0.01 μg/mL and 14 minutes (500 mg/kg, p.o.). The elimination half-time was 8.64 ± 2.31 (i.v.) and 32.70 ± 12.92 (p.o.) minutes. The oral bioavailability was about 0.47%. Changes in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were investigated in four groups: normal and diabetic rats treated with yoghurt (NYOG and DYOG, resp.) and treated with 90 mg/kg/day curcumin incorporated in yoghurt (NC90 and DC90, resp.). After 15 days of treatment, the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity were significantly improved in DC90 rats in comparison with DYOG, which can be associated with an increase in the AKT phosphorylation levels and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscles. These findings can explain, at least in part, the benefits of curcumin-enriched yoghurt to diabetes and substantiate evidences for the curcumin metabolite(s) as being responsible for the antidiabetic activity. PMID:26064170

  10. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area's involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity. PMID:26885405

  11. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Martha M.; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area's involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity. PMID:26885405

  12. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Förger, Klaus; Mäkäräinen, Meeri; Takala, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial–human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself. PMID:25914661

  13. Using the ECD Framework to Support Evidentiary Reasoning in the Context of a Simulation Study for Detecting Learner Differences in Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Shauna J.; Rupp, Andre A.

    2012-01-01

    The "evidence-centered design" (ECD) framework is a powerful tool that supports careful and critical thinking about the identification and accumulation of evidence in assessment contexts. In this paper, we demonstrate how the ECD framework provides critical support for designing simulation studies to investigate statistical methods…

  14. Adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for Appalachian women: new STEPS (Strength Through Education, Physical fitness and Support) for breast health.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Nancy R; Corbin, Marilyn; Bencivenga, Marcyann M; Farnan, Michelle; Wiker, Nancy; Bressler, Andrea; Camacho, Fabian; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2013-06-01

    Appalachia is characterized by a high prevalence of individual-level risks for breast cancer, including physical inactivity and postmenopausal obesity. The availability of local, evidence-based programs to improve physical fitness is limited. We adapted an evidence-based intervention, StrongWomen, to improve physical fitness and increase breast cancer knowledge among women 40 years and older in Appalachian Pennsylvania. Utilizing a multi-site, community-based design, we tested the adapted 12-week, supervised program-New STEPS (Strength Through Education, Physical fitness and Support)-among 139 women. The completion rate was 67.6 %. Pre/post scores improved for each of six fitness assessments (P<0.01). We found differences in overall fitness by study site (P<0.001), but no differences by age (P=0.13) or by previous breast cancer diagnosis (P=0.73). New STEPS is an adapted, evidence-based program that can improve physical fitness and breast cancer awareness among women in Appalachian Pennsylvania. New STEPS may help fill a void in local fitness programs for Appalachian women at risk for breast cancer or breast cancer recurrence.

  15. Patient Portals as a Means of Information and Communication Technology Support to Patient-Centric Care Coordination – the Missing Evidence and the Challenges of Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Andrew; Hyppönen, Hannele; Ammenwerth, Elske; de Keizer, Nicolette; Magrabi, Farah; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To review the potential contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enable patient-centric and coordinated care, and in particular to explore the role of patient portals as a developing ICT tool, to assess the available evidence, and to describe the evaluation challenges. Methods Reviews of IMIA, EFMI, and other initiatives, together with literature reviews. Results We present the progression from care coordination to care integration, and from patient-centric to person-centric approaches. We describe the different roles of ICT as an enabler of the effective presentation of information as and when needed. We focus on the patient’s role as a co-producer of health as well as the focus and purpose of care. We discuss the need for changing organisational processes as well as the current mixed evidence regarding patient portals as a logical tool, and the reasons for this dichotomy, together with the evaluation principles supported by theoretical frameworks so as to yield robust evidence. Conclusions There is expressed commitment to coordinated care and to putting the patient in the centre. However to achieve this, new interactive patient portals will be needed to enable peer communication by all stakeholders including patients and professionals. Few portals capable of this exist to date. The evaluation of these portals as enablers of system change, rather than as simple windows into electronic records, is at an early stage and novel evaluation approaches are needed. PMID:26123909

  16. Supporting middle school students' construction of evidence-based arguments: Impact of and student interactions with computer-based argumentation scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belland, Brian Robert

    Middle school students have difficulty creating evidence-based arguments (EBAs) during problem-based learning (PBL) units due to challenges (a) adequately representing the unit's central problem (Ge & Land, 2004; Liu & Bera, 2005), (b) determining and obtaining the most relevant evidence (Pedersen & Liu, 2002-2003), and (c) synthesizing gathered information to construct a sound argument (Cho & Jonassen, 2002). I designed and developed the Connection Log to support middle school students in this process. This study addressed (1) the Connection Log's impact on (a) argument evaluation ability, and (b) group argument quality and (2) how and why middle school science students used the Connection Log. Four sections of a 7th-grade science class participated. Student groups selected a stakeholder position related to the Human Genome Project (HGP) and needed to decide on and promote a plan to use $3 million to further their position as pertains to the HGP. I randomly assigned one higher-achieving and one lower-achieving class to Connection Log or no Connection Log conditions. Students completed an argument evaluation test, and impact on argument evaluation ability was determined using nested ANOVA. Two graduate students, blind to treatment conditions, rated group arguments, and impact on group argument quality was determined using nested MANOVA. To determine how and why students used the Connection Log, I videotaped and interviewed one small group from each class in the experimental condition. I coded transcripts and generated themes, triangulating the two data sources with informal observations during all class sessions and what students wrote in the Connection Log. I detected no significant differences on claim, evidence, or connection of claim to evidence ratings of debate performances. However, students used the Connection Log to counter different difficulties, and I found a significant main effect of the Connection Log on argument evaluation ability, as well as a

  17. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Susan G; Iverson, Sara J; Bowen, W Don; James, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83-100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1) but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1) corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1) (up to 840 kg • d(-1)) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish • d(-1). Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1) equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  18. Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria driven by arsenite and sulfide with evidence for the support of nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) over geologic time is attributed to the evolution and widespread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. In the environment, cyanobacteria may use a variety of alternative electron donors rather than water that are known to be used by other anoxygenic phototrophs (eg. purple sulfur bacteria) including reduced forms of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, and arsenic. Recent evidence suggests cyanobacteria actively take advantage of at least a few of these alternatives. We used a classical Winogradsky approach to enrich for cyanobacteria from the high salinity, elevated pH and arsenic-enriched waters of Mono Lake (CA). Experiments, optimized for cyanobacteria, revealed light-dependent, anaerobic arsenite-oxidation in sub-cultured sediment-free enrichments dominated by a filamentous cyanobacteria. We isolated and identified the dominant member of this enrichment to be a member of the Oscillatoriales by 16S rDNA. Addition of 1 mM arsenite induced facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis under continuous and circadian light. This isolate also oxidized sulfide under the same light-based conditions. Aerobic conditions elicited no arsenite oxidation in the light or dark and the isolate grew as a typical cyanobacterium using oxygenic photosynthesis. Under near-infrared light (700 nm) there was a direct correlation of enhanced growth with an increase in the rate arsenite or sulfide oxidation suggesting the use of photosystem I. Additionally, to test the wide-spread nature of this metabolism in the Oscillatoriales, we followed similar arsenite- and sulfide-driven facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) in the axenic isolate Oscillatoria sp. CCMP 1731. Future characterization includes axenic isolation of the Mono Lake Oscillatoria sp. as well as the arsenite oxidase responsible for electron

  19. In vitro evidence in rainbow trout supporting glucosensing mediated by sweet taste receptor, LXR, and mitochondrial activity in Brockmann bodies, and sweet taste receptor in liver.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout peripheral tissues such as liver and Brockmann bodies (BB) for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms others than that mediated by glucokinase (GK). There were based on mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in liver and BB, and on liver X receptor (LXR) and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in BB. We aimed in the present study to obtain further in vitro evidence for the presence and functioning of these systems. In a first experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4, or 8mM d-glucose, and we assessed the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms. In a second experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8mM d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1mM phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20μM genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1μM trolox (ROS scavenger), 100μM bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor), and 50μM geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The results obtained in both experiments support the presence and functioning of glucosensor mechanisms in liver based on sweet taste receptor whereas in BB the evidence support those based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor.

  20. Executive summary: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    PubMed

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Hand, Rosa K

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (infants born at <37 wk of gestational age) is a significant clinical and public health challenge in the United States and globally. No universally accepted practice guidelines exist for the nutritional care of preterm infants. To address the current state of knowledge and to support systematic reviews that will be used to develop evidence-informed guidance, a consortium consisting of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the ASN, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Food and Drug Administration, the CDC, the USDA/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS), and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/NIH initiated the Pre-B Project. The project included the constitution of 4 thematic working groups charged with the following tasks: 1) develop a series of topics/questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL), leading to the development of new guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants, and 2) develop a targeted research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in the health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This review consists of a project overview including a summary of a workshop hosted by the USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center and summary reports of the 4 working groups established to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications, 2) clinical/practical issues in enteral feeding, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards for assessing infant feeding outcomes. These reports will serve as the basis for the ultimate guideline development process to be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' EAL. PMID:26791179

  1. In vitro evidence in rainbow trout supporting glucosensing mediated by sweet taste receptor, LXR, and mitochondrial activity in Brockmann bodies, and sweet taste receptor in liver.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout peripheral tissues such as liver and Brockmann bodies (BB) for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms others than that mediated by glucokinase (GK). There were based on mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in liver and BB, and on liver X receptor (LXR) and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in BB. We aimed in the present study to obtain further in vitro evidence for the presence and functioning of these systems. In a first experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4, or 8mM d-glucose, and we assessed the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms. In a second experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8mM d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1mM phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20μM genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1μM trolox (ROS scavenger), 100μM bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor), and 50μM geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The results obtained in both experiments support the presence and functioning of glucosensor mechanisms in liver based on sweet taste receptor whereas in BB the evidence support those based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor. PMID:27139261

  2. Altered γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission in major depressive disorder: a critical review of the supporting evidence and the influence of serotonergic antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been present since at least 1980, and this idea has recently gained support from more recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. These observations have led to the assumption that MDD’s underlying etiology is tied to an overall reduction in GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. In this paper, we review the mechanisms that govern GABA and glutamate concentrations in the brain, and provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the clinical data supporting reduced GABA neurotransmission in MDD. This review includes an evaluation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy data, as well as data on the expression and function of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA neuron-specific cell markers, such as parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin, and the GABAA and GABAB receptors in clinical MDD populations. We explore a potential role for glial pathology in MDD-related reductions in GABA concentrations, and evidence of a connection between neurosteroids, GABA neurotransmission, and hormone-related mood disorders. Additionally, we investigate the effects of GABAergic pharmacological agents on mood, and demonstrate that these compounds have complex effects that do not universally support the idea that reduced GABA neurotransmission is at the root of MDD. Finally, we discuss the connections between serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and show that two serotonin-focused antidepressants – the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine – modulate GABA neurotransmission in opposing ways, despite both being effective MDD treatments. Altogether, this review demonstrates that there are large gaps in our understanding of the relationship between GABA physiology and MDD, which must be remedied with more data from well

  3. Altered γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission in major depressive disorder: a critical review of the supporting evidence and the influence of serotonergic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been present since at least 1980, and this idea has recently gained support from more recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. These observations have led to the assumption that MDD's underlying etiology is tied to an overall reduction in GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. In this paper, we review the mechanisms that govern GABA and glutamate concentrations in the brain, and provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the clinical data supporting reduced GABA neurotransmission in MDD. This review includes an evaluation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy data, as well as data on the expression and function of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA neuron-specific cell markers, such as parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin, and the GABAA and GABAB receptors in clinical MDD populations. We explore a potential role for glial pathology in MDD-related reductions in GABA concentrations, and evidence of a connection between neurosteroids, GABA neurotransmission, and hormone-related mood disorders. Additionally, we investigate the effects of GABAergic pharmacological agents on mood, and demonstrate that these compounds have complex effects that do not universally support the idea that reduced GABA neurotransmission is at the root of MDD. Finally, we discuss the connections between serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and show that two serotonin-focused antidepressants - the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine - modulate GABA neurotransmission in opposing ways, despite both being effective MDD treatments. Altogether, this review demonstrates that there are large gaps in our understanding of the relationship between GABA physiology and MDD, which must be remedied with more data from well-controlled empirical

  4. The Chlorine Abundance of Earth: Evidence for Early Atmospheric Loss and Creation of a Life-Supporting Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Z. D.; Draper, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth abundance of the heavier halogens, Cl, Br and I, are significantly depleted relative to expected values based on CI chondrites and solar abundances. The cause of these ‘selective’ depletions may be related to 1) far greater volatility than previously assumed; 2) a hidden reservoir on Earth; 3) selective loss of the halogens during planetary accretion. The volatility of an element is related to its temperature of condensation from the cooling solar nebula. The high condensation temperature of Cl is based on sodalite crystallization at ~800 K (10-4 bar), but even if sodalite formation is kinetically impeded at such low pressures, NaCl (g) should condense to NaCl (s) at only slightly lower temperatures. An unreasonably low condensation temperature of ~200 K would be needed to explain Earth’s concentration of halogens. A second possibility for the apparent Earth depletion is that Cl is strongly partitioned into the core. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally measuring Cl partitioning between basalt and Fe (and Fe95.5S4.5) at high pressures and temperatures. Samples were doped with trace FeCl2 as a Cl source. The measured D (Cl) metal-basalt is less than 0.01 under all conditions, ruling out the possibility of a Cl sink in the core. We propose instead that the halogens were lost during the late giant bombardment stage of planetary accretion. The selective loss of the halogens relative to other elements with similar condensation temperatures is explained by their unique hydrophilic character. Early in Earth’s history, halogens were strongly partitioned into the ocean/surficial environment. They were then removed by atmospheric erosion associated with giant impacts towards the end of planetary accretion. Our results provide independent evidence for multiple atmospheric-loss events, a controversial conclusion that is at odds with some geophysical studies. Over 90% of Cl was lost in early Earth history. Today, the oceans host nearly half of Earth

  5. Reframing Family Involvement in Education: Supporting Families to Support Educational Equity. Equity Matters. Research Review No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Heather B.; Bouffard, Suzanne M.; Bridglall, Beatrice L.; Gordon, Edmund W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most powerful but neglected supports for children's learning and development is family involvement both in and out of school. Over 40 years of steadily accumulating evidence show that family involvement is one of the strongest predictors of children's school success, and that families play pivotal roles in their children's cognitive,…

  6. Human and animal spongiform encephalopathies are the result of chronic autoimmune attack in the CNS: a novel medical theory supported by overwhelming experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B T

    2005-04-01

    Spongiform encephalopathies, also called "prion diseases", are fatal degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which can occur in animals (such as the "mad cow disease" in cattle) and also in humans. This paper presents a novel medical theory concerning the pathogenic mechanisms for various human and animal spongiform encephalopathies. It is hypothesized that various forms of prion diseases are essentially autoimmune diseases, resulting from chronic autoimmune attack of the central nervous system. A key step in the pathogenic process leading towards the development of spongiform encephalopathies involves the production of specific autoimmune antibodies against the disease-causing prion protein (PrPsc) and possibly other immunogenic macromolecules present in the brain. As precisely explained in this paper, the autoimmune antibodies produced against PrPsc are responsible for the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) to PrPsc, for the accumulation of PrPsc in the brain and other peripheral tissues, and also for the initiation of an antibody-mediated chronic autoimmune attack of the central nervous system neurons, which would contribute to the development of characteristic pathological changes and clinical symptoms associated with spongiform encephalopathies. The validity and correctness of the proposed theory is supported by an overwhelming body of experimental observations that are scattered in the biomedical literature. In addition, the theory also offers practical new strategies for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various human and animal prion diseases. PMID:15736062

  7. Further evidence from SSCP and ITS DNA sequencing support Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum as subspecies or even strains of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yan-Zi; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua

    2016-07-01

    The subgenus Trypanozoon includes three species Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum, which are morphologically identical and indistinguishable even using some molecular methods. In this study, PCR-based single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to analyze the ribosomal DNA of the Trypanozoon species. Data indicate different patterns of ITS2 fragments between T. brucei, T. evansi and T. equiperdum by SSCP. Furthermore, analysis of total ITS sequences within these three members of the subgenus Trypanozoon showed a high degree of homology using phylogenetic analysis but were polyphyletic in haplotype networks. These data provide novel nuclear evidence to further support the notion that T. evansi and T. equiperdum should be subspecies or even strains of T. brucei. PMID:27016375

  8. EBMPracticeNet: A Bilingual National Electronic Point-Of-Care Project for Retrieval of Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline Information and Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Belgium, the construction of a national electronic point-of-care information service, EBMPracticeNet, was initiated in 2011 to optimize quality of care by promoting evidence-based decision-making. The collaboration of the government, health care providers, evidence-based medicine (EBM) partners, and vendors of electronic health records (EHR) is unique to this project. All Belgian health care professionals get free access to an up-to-date database of validated Belgian and nearly 1000 international guidelines, incorporated in a portal that also provides EBM information from other sources than guidelines, including computerized clinical decision support that is integrated in the EHRs. Objective The objective of this paper was to describe the development strategy, the overall content, and the management of EBMPracticeNet which may be of relevance to other health organizations creating national or regional electronic point-of-care information services. Methods Several candidate providers of comprehensive guideline solutions were evaluated and one database was selected. Translation of the guidelines to Dutch and French was done with translation software, post-editing by translators and medical proofreading. A strategy is determined to adapt the guideline content to the Belgian context. Acceptance of the computerized clinical decision support tool has been tested and a randomized controlled trial is planned to evaluate the effect on process and patient outcomes. Results Currently, EBMPracticeNet is in "work in progress" state. Reference is made to the results of a pilot study and to further planned research including a randomized controlled trial. Conclusions The collaboration of government, health care providers, EBM partners, and vendors of EHRs is unique. The potential value of the project is great. The link between all the EHRs from different vendors and a national database held on a single platform that is controlled by all EBM organizations in Belgium

  9. Evidence that the hexose-to-sucrose ratio does not control the switch to storage product accumulation in oilseeds: analysis of tobacco seed development and effects of overexpressing apoplastic invertase.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Kim L; McHugh, Sylvia; Labbe, Helene; Grainger, John L; James, Lisa E; Pomeroy, Keith M; Mullin, John W; Miller, Shea S; Dennis, David T; Miki, Brian L A

    2004-10-01

    Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed development was characterized with respect to architecture and carbohydrate metabolism. Tobacco seeds accumulate oil and protein in the embryo, cellular endosperm and inner layer of the seed coat. They have high cell wall invertase (INV) and hexoses in early development which is typical of seeds. INV and the ratio of hexose to sucrose decline during development, switching from high hex to high suc, but not until most oil and all protein accumulation has occurred. The oil synthesis which coincides with the switch is mostly within the embryo. INV activity is greater than sucrose synthase activity throughout development, and both activities exceed the demand for carbohydrate for dry matter accumulation. To investigate the role of INV-mediated suc metabolism in oilseeds, genes for yeast INV and/or hexokinase (HK) were expressed under a seed-specific napin promoter, targeting activity to the apoplast and cytosol, respectively. Manipulating the INV pathway in an oilseed could either increase oil accumulation and sink strength, or disrupt carbohydrate metabolism, possibly through sugar-sensing, and decrease the storage function. Neither effect was found: transgenics with INV and/or HK increased 30-fold and 10-fold above wild-type levels had normal seed size and composition. This contrasted with dramatic effects on sugar contents in the INV lines.

  10. Stress-induced accumulation of glycerol in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata: evidence indicating anti-desiccant and cryoprotectant functions of this polyol and a role for the brain in coordinating the response.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L; Rivers, David B

    2006-02-01

    Nondiapausing larvae of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, responded to several forms of short-term environmental stress (low temperature, anoxia and desiccation) by accumulating glycerol. Elevation of this polyol, regardless of the type of stress that induced accumulation, conferred cold resistance: larvae with high glycerol levels were 3-4 times more tolerant of a 2h exposure to -10 degrees C than unstressed larvae. Protection against low temperature injury, as well as dehydration, was also attained by injection of exogenous glycerol into third instar larvae. This artificially induced cold hardiness was only temporary: when glycerol-injected larvae were exposed to -10 degrees C immediately after injection, survival was high, but none survived if they were injected and then held at 25 degrees C for 2 days before the -10 degrees C exposure. Larvae ligated behind the brain immediately after low temperature exposure failed to accumulate glycerol, but glycerol did accumulate in larvae ligated 6-24h after cold treatment, thus implying a critical role for the brain in initiating glycerol production. Interestingly, a much shorter exposure (2h) to low temperature was sufficient to reduce the maximum rate of water loss. Collectively, these observations suggest that multiple pathways may be exploited in response to stress: one pathway is most likely associated with rapid cold hardening (RCH) which generates immediate protection, and a second pathway remains activated for a longer period to enhance the initial protection afforded by glycerol.

  11. Facilitators and Barriers to Employment Among Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury Receiving 12 Months of Evidence-Based Supported Employment Services

    PubMed Central

    Njoh, Eni N.; Trainor, John K.; O’Connor, Danielle R.; Barnett, Scott D.; Ottomanelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Return to work is associated with positive rehabilitation outcomes for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, more research is needed on vocational support for persons with disabilities seeking employment. Objective: The association between facilitators and barriers of employment and employment outcome was examined among Veterans with SCI who participated in an evidence-based supported employment (EBSE) program. Methods: Using a mixed-methods, nested case-control design, data on facilitators and barriers to employment were extracted from qualitative interviews and quantitative measures administered in person to 34 Veterans with SCI who completed 12 months of an EBSE program. Participants who did (case) and did not (control) obtain competitive employment were matched on time since SCI. Facilitators and barriers to employment were compared between the groups. Results: Self-report measures administered at baseline were examined; there were no statistically significant factors that predicted employment outcomes after 12 months of EBSE program participation. Qualitative interview data revealed program-specific facilitators and Veteran characteristics that were associated with employment outcomes. Conclusions: Qualitative data illustrate how the integration of the vocational rehabilitation specialist on the medical team is helpful for addressing identified disability-specific barriers, including practical matters such as transportation and caregiving schedules, to facilitate employment outcomes. PMID:25762857

  12. Copper accumulation in the crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the crayfish, O. rusticus could fulfill Nehring's (1976) criteria for a good biological monitor of heavy metal pollution. Since there is some evidence that the cupric ion is the most toxic form of aqueous copper, crayfish-accumulated copper was compared to both total and cupric copper in the culture water.

  13. Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (R-CBM): a diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis of evidence supporting use in universal screening.

    PubMed

    Kilgus, Stephen P; Methe, Scott A; Maggin, Daniel M; Tomasula, Jessica L

    2014-08-01

    A great deal of research over the past decade has examined the appropriateness of curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (R-CBM) in universal screening. Multiple researchers have meta-analyzed available correlational evidence, yielding support for the interpretation of R-CBM as an indicator of general reading proficiency. In contrast, researchers have yet to synthesize diagnostic accuracy evidence, which pertains to the defensibility of the use of R-CBM for screening purposes. The overall purpose of this research was to therefore conduct the first meta-analysis of R-CBM diagnostic accuracy research. A systematic search of the literature resulted in the identification of 34 studies, including 20 peer-reviewed articles, 7 dissertations, and 7 technical reports. Bivariate hierarchical linear models yielded generalized estimates of diagnostic accuracy statistics, which predominantly exceeded standards for acceptable universal screener performance. For instance, when predicting criterion outcomes within a school year (≤9 months), R-CBM sensitivity ranged between .80 and .83 and specificity ranged between .71 and .73. Multiple moderators of R-CBM diagnostic accuracy were identified, including the (a) R-CBM cut score used to define risk, (b) lag in time between R-CBM and criterion test administration, and (c) percentile rank corresponding to the criterion test cut score through which students were identified as either truly at risk or not at risk. Follow-up analyses revealed substantial variability of extracted cut scores within grade and time of year (i.e., fall, winter, and spring). This result called into question the inflexible application of a single cut score across contexts and suggested the potential necessity of local cut scores. Implications for practices, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed. PMID:25107410

  14. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  15. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  16. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  17. New Mitochondrial and Nuclear Evidences Support Recent Demographic Expansion and an Atypical Phylogeographic Pattern in the Spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana S. B.; Silva, Sara E.; Marabuto, Eduardo; Silva, Diogo N.; Wilson, Mike R.; Thompson, Vinton; Yurtsever, Selçuk; Halkka, Antti; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Quartau, José A.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Seabra, Sofia G.

    2014-01-01

    Philaenus spumarius is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region. Here, by focusing on the mtDNA gene COI but also using the COII and Cyt b genes and the nuclear gene EF-1α, we tried to explain how and when its current biogeographic pattern evolved by providing time estimates of the main demographic and evolutionary events and investigating its colonization patterns in and out of Eurasia. Evidence of recent divergence and expansion events at less than 0.5 Ma ago indicate that climate fluctuations in the Mid-Late Pleistocene were important in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of the species. Data support a first split and differentiation of P. spumarius into two main mitochondrial lineages: the “western”, in the Mediterranean region and the “eastern”, in Anatolia/Caucasus. It also supports a following differentiation of the “western” lineage into two sub-lineages: the “western-Mediterranean”, in Iberia and the “eastern-Mediterranean” in the Balkans. The recent pattern seems to result from postglacial range expansion from Iberia and Caucasus/Anatolia, thus not following one of the four common paradigms. Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found. The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting. The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations. A probable British origin for the populations of the Azores and New Zealand was revealed, however, for the Azores the distribution of populations in high altitude native forests is somewhat puzzling and may imply a

  18. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  19. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  20. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684