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Sample records for accumulating high levels

  1. The HSP terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana induces a high level of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kurokawa, Natsuko; Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Kato, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-28

    High-level accumulation of the target recombinant protein is a significant issue in heterologous protein expression using transgenic plants. Miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, was accumulated in transgenic tomatoes using an expression cassette in which the miraculin gene was expressed by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the heat shock protein (HSP) terminator (MIR-HSP). The HSP terminator was derived from heat shock protein 18.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana . Using this HSP-containing cassette, the miraculin concentration in T0 transgenic tomato lines was 1.4-13.9% of the total soluble protein (TSP), and that in the T1 transgenic tomato line homozygous for the miraculin gene reached 17.1% of the TSP. The accumulation level of the target protein was comparable to levels observed with chloroplast transformation. The high-level accumulation of miraculin in T0 transgenic tomato lines achieved by the HSP terminator was maintained in the successive T1 generation, demonstrating the genetic stability of this accumulation system. PMID:21861502

  2. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1). PMID:25056754

  3. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  4. High-Level Accumulation of Triacylglycerol and Starch in Photoautotrophically Grown Chlamydomonas debaryana NIES-2212.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae have the potential to produce triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch, which provide alternative sources of biofuel. A problem in using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model for TAG production has been that this alga lacks phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is thought to be important for TAG synthesis in plants. We found that C. debaryana is one of the rare species of Chlamydomonas having PC. Here we show that this strain, grown under complete photoautotrophic conditions, accumulated TAG and starch up to 20 and 250 pg per cell, respectively, during the stationary phase without nutrient deprivation. Addition of nutrients in this state did not cause loss of TAG, which was found in dilution with fresh medium. The photosynthetically produced TAG contained a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, which is a preferred property as a material for biodiesel. The oil bodies were present in the cytoplasm, either between the cytoplasmic membrane and the chloroplast or between the chloroplast and the nucleus, whereas the starch granules were present within the chloroplast. Oil bodies were also deposited as a broad layer in the peripheral space of the cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, and might be easily released from the cells by genetic, chemical or mechanical manipulation. These results suggest that C. debaryana is a promising seed organism for developing a good biofuel producer. PMID:26542110

  5. Copepods in Turbid Shallow Soda Lakes Accumulate Unexpected High Levels of Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Tobias; Herzig, Alois; Koinig, Karin A.; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are protective pigments present in many aquatic organisms that reduce the photooxidative stress induced by short-wavelenght solar radiation, yet increase their susceptibility to predators. Arctodiaptomus spinosus, a calanoid copepod typically found in many fishless shallow soda lakes, shows large between-lake differences in pigmentation. Here, we attribute these differences to the environmental state of these ecosystems, namely, ‘dark water’ lakes with submersed vegetation and turbid ‘white’ lakes lacking macrophytes. Copepod carotenoid concentration in the turbid ‘white’ lakes was significantly (about 20-fold) higher than in the ‘dark water’ ones, although the latter systems were characterized by higher transparency. In addition, males had on a dry weight basis around three times higher carotenoid concentrations than females. Mycosporine-like amino acids (direct UV screening substances) were found in all cases, but in low concentration. The environmental conditions in these ecosystems were largely shaped by the presence/absence of submersed macrophytes Thus, in the turbid lakes, the strong wind-driven mixis allows for copepods to be brought to the surface and being exposed to solar radiation, whereas in ‘dark water’ ones, macrophytes reduce water turbulence and additionally provide shelter. Our results explain the counter-intuitive notion of strong red pigmentation in copepods from a turbid ecosystem and suggest that factors other than high UV transparency favor carotenoid accumulation in zooplankton. PMID:22916208

  6. Regulatory control of high levels of carotenoid accumulation in potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers contain a wide range of carotenoid content. To decipher the key factors controlling carotenoid levels in tubers, four potato lines (Atlantic, Désirée, 91E22, and POR03) were examined by a combination of biochemical, molecular, and genomics approaches. These lines...

  7. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. )

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  8. A glutathione reductase mutant of yeast accumulates high levels of oxidized glutathione and requires thioredoxin for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, E G

    1996-01-01

    A glutathione reductase null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in a synthetic lethal genetic screen for mutations which confer a requirement for thioredoxin. Yeast mutants that lack glutathione reductase (glr1 delta) accumulate high levels of oxidized glutathione and have a twofold increase in total glutathione. The disulfide form of glutathione increases 200-fold and represents 63% of the total glutathione in a glr1 delta mutant compared with only 6% in wild type. High levels of oxidized glutathione are also observed in a trx1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (22% of total), in a glr1 delta, trx1 delta double mutant (71% of total), and in a glr1 delta, trx2 delta double mutant (69% of total). Despite the exceptionally high ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, the glr1 delta mutant grows with a normal cell cycle. However, either one of the two thioredoxins is essential for growth. Cells lacking both thioredoxins and glutathione reductase are not viable under aerobic conditions and grow poorly anaerobically. In addition, the glr1 delta mutant shows increased sensitivity to the thiol oxidant diamide. The sensitivity to diamide was suppressed by deletion of the TRX2 gene. The genetic analysis of thioredoxin and glutathione reductase in yeast runs counter to previous studies in Escherichia coli and for the first time links thioredoxin with the redox state of glutathione in vivo. Images PMID:8930901

  9. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

  10. High level accumulation of soluble diphtheria toxin mutant (CRM197) with co-expression of chaperones in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mahamad, Pornpimol; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-07-01

    CRM197 is the diphtheria toxin mutant used in many conjugate vaccines. A fusion CRM197 (fCRM197) containing all the tags conferred by the pET32a vector was produced as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli co-expressing several chaperone proteins in conjunction with low temperature cultivation. Trigger factor (Tf) enhanced formation of soluble fCRM197 (150.69 ± 8.95 μg/mL) to a greater degree than other chaperones when fCRM197 expression was induced at 25 °C for 12 h. However, prolonged cultivation resulted in a progressive reduction of fCRM197 accumulation. In contrast, at 15 °C cells, with or without Tf, fCRM197 accumulated to the highest level at 48 h (153.70 ± 13.14 μg/mL and 150.07 ± 8.13 μg/mL, respectively). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the formation of inclusion protein as well as cell lysis was reduced in cultures grown at 15 °C. Cell viability was substantially reduced in cells expressing Tf, compared to cultures without Tf, when fCRM197 was induced at 25 °C. The viability of Tf-expressing cells was enhanced when cultured at 15 °C. Both purified fCRM197 and CRM197 efficiently digested lambda DNA (λDNA) at 37 °C (92.78 and 97.45 %, respectively). Digestion efficiency of fCRM197 and CRM197 was reduced at 25 °C (80.80 and 62.73 %, respectively) and at 15 °C (7.34 and 24.79 %, respectively). These results demonstrating nuclease activity, enhanced cell lysis, and reduced cell viability are consistent with the finding of lower fCRM197 yield when cultivation and induction times were prolonged at 25 °C. The present work provides a procedure for the high-level production of soluble fCRM197 using E. coli as a heterologous host. PMID:27020286

  11. Diabetes accelerates smooth muscle accumulation in lesions of atherosclerosis: lack of direct growth-promoting effects of high glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, L A; Poot, M; Gerrity, R G; Bornfeldt, K E

    2001-04-01

    In combination with other factors, hyperglycemia may cause the accelerated progression of atherosclerosis in people with diabetes. Arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and accumulation contribute to formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on SMC proliferation and accumulation in vivo and in isolated arteries and SMCs by taking advantage of a new porcine model of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, in which diabetic animals are hyperglycemic without receiving exogenous insulin. We show that diabetic animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet, like humans, develop severe lesions of atherosclerosis characterized by SMC accumulation and proliferation, whereas lesions in nondiabetic animals contain fewer SMCs after 20 weeks. However, high glucose (25 mmol/l) does not directly stimulate the proliferation of SMCs in isolated arterial tissue from diabetic or nondiabetic animals, or of cultured SMCs from these animals or from humans. Furthermore, the mitogenic actions of platelet-derived growth factor, IGF-I, or serum are not enhanced by high glucose. High glucose increases SMC glucose metabolism through the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway by 240 and 90%, respectively, but <10% of consumed glucose is metabolized through these pathways. Instead, most of the consumed glucose is converted into lactate and secreted by the SMCs. Thus, diabetes markedly accelerates SMC proliferation and accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. The stimulatory effect of diabetes on SMCs is likely to be mediated by effects secondary to the hyperglycemic state. PMID:11289052

  12. Impaired clearance of accumulated lysosomal glycogen in advanced Pompe disease despite high-level vector-mediated transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) causes death early in childhood from cardiorespiratory failure in absence of effective treatment, whereas late-onset Pompe disease causes a progressive skeletal myopathy. The limitations of enzyme replacement therapy could potentially be addressed with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy. Methods AAV vectors containing tissue-specific regulatory cassettes, either liver-specific or muscle-specific, were administered to 12 and 17 month old Pompe disease mice to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in advanced Pompe disease. Biochemical correction was evaluated through GAA activity and glycogen content analyses of the heart and skeletal muscle. Western blotting, urinary biomarker, and Rotarod performance were evaluated following vector administration. Results The AAV vector containing the liver-specific regulatory cassette secreted high-level hGAA into the blood and corrected glycogen storage in the heart and diaphragm. The biochemical correction of the heart and diaphragm was associated with efficacy, as reflected by increased Rotarod performance; however, the clearance of glycogen from skeletal muscles was relatively impaired, in comparison with younger Pompe disease mice. An alternative vector containing a muscle-specific regulatory cassette transduced skeletal muscle with high efficiency, but also failed to achieve complete clearance of accumulated glycogen. Decreased transduction of the heart and liver in older mice, especially in females, was implicated as a cause for reduced efficacy in advanced Pompe disease. Conclusion The impaired efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in old Pompe disease mice emphasized the need for early treatment to achieve full efficacy. PMID:19621331

  13. ATP production from adenine by a self-coupling enzymatic process: high-level accumulation under ammonium-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, A; Fujio, T

    2001-03-01

    To improve ATP production from adenine, we optimized cultivation and reaction conditions for the ATP producing strain, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes KY13510. In the conventional method, 28% NH4OH has been used both to adjust pH during cultivation and reaction, and to provide nitrogen for cell growth. In the ATP-producing reaction, high concentrations of inorganic phosphate and magnesium ion are needed, which form magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4) precipitate. To keep inorganic phosphate and magnesium ions soluble in the reaction mixture, it was indispensable to add phytic acid as a chelating agent of divalent metal ions. Under such conditions, 37 mg/ml (61.2 mM) ATP was accumulated in 13 h (Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21, 143 1985). If ammonium ion was depleted from the reaction mixture to avoid MgNH4 PO4 formation, we expected that there was no need to add phytic acid and ATP accumulation might be improved. Therefore, we obtained the cultured broth of C. ammoniagenes KY13510 strain with low ammonium ion content (less than 1 mg/ml as NH3) by the method that a part of alkali solution (28% NH4OH) for pH control was replaced with 10 N KOH. Using this culture broth, ATP producing reaction was done in 2-liter jar fermentor, controlling the pH of the reaction mixture with 10 N KOH. Under these conditions, the rate of ATP accumulation improved greatly, and 70.6 mg/ml (117 mM) ATP was accumulated in 28 h. The molar conversion ratio from adenine to ATP was about 82%. Phytic acid was slightly inhibitory to ATP formation under these ammonium-limited conditions. PMID:11330681

  14. Quantification of Maize Fine Streak Virus Genomic and Positive-sense RNAs in Infected Maize Reveals High Level Accumulation of ORF 3 and 4 MFSV Transcripts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of Maize fine streak virus genomic and positive-sense RNAs in infected maize reveals high level accumulation of ORF 3 and 4 MFSV transcripts. We improved methods to analyze RNA produced by Maize fine streak virus (MVSF) within infected maize tissue using real-time RT-qPCR. We designe...

  15. Redirection of metabolic flux for high levels of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid accumulation in camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Park, Hyunwoo; Koster, Karen L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nguyen, Hanh T M; Shanklin, John; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-01-01

    Seed oils enriched in omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid (16:1∆9) and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1∆11), have nutraceutical and industrial value for polyethylene production and biofuels. Existing oilseed crops accumulate only small amounts (<2%) of these novel fatty acids in their seed oils. We demonstrate a strategy for enhanced production of omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids in camelina (Camelina sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) that is dependent on redirection of metabolic flux from the typical ∆9 desaturation of stearoyl (18:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to ∆9 desaturation of palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and coenzyme A (CoA). This was achieved by seed-specific co-expression of a mutant ∆9-acyl-ACP and an acyl-CoA desaturase with high specificity for 16:0-ACP and CoA substrates, respectively. This strategy was most effective in camelina where seed oils with ~17% omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids were obtained. Further increases in omega-7 fatty acid accumulation to 60-65% of the total fatty acids in camelina seeds were achieved by inclusion of seed-specific suppression of 3-keto-acyl-ACP synthase II and the FatB 16:0-ACP thioesterase genes to increase substrate pool sizes of 16:0-ACP for the ∆9-acyl-ACP desaturase and by blocking C18 fatty acid elongation. Seeds from these lines also had total saturated fatty acids reduced to ~5% of the seed oil versus ~12% in seeds of nontransformed plants. Consistent with accumulation of triacylglycerol species with shorter fatty acid chain lengths and increased monounsaturation, seed oils from engineered lines had marked shifts in thermotropic properties that may be of value for biofuel applications. PMID:25065607

  16. The Cauliflower Or Gene Encodes a DnaJ Cysteine-Rich Domain-Containing Protein That Mediates High Levels of β-Carotene Accumulation[W

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Van Eck, Joyce; Zhou, Xiangjun; Lopez, Alex B.; O'Halloran, Diana M.; Cosman, Kelly M.; Conlin, Brian J.; Paolillo, Dominick J.; Garvin, David F.; Vrebalov, Julia; Kochian, Leon V.; Küpper, Hendrik; Earle, Elizabeth D.; Cao, Jun; Li, Li

    2006-01-01

    Despite recent progress in our understanding of carotenogenesis in plants, the mechanisms that govern overall carotenoid accumulation remain largely unknown. The Orange (Or) gene mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis) confers the accumulation of high levels of β-carotene in various tissues normally devoid of carotenoids. Using positional cloning, we isolated the gene representing Or and verified it by functional complementation in wild-type cauliflower. Or encodes a plastid-associated protein containing a DnaJ Cys-rich domain. The Or gene mutation is due to the insertion of a long terminal repeat retrotransposon in the Or allele. Or appears to be plant specific and is highly conserved among divergent plant species. Analyses of the gene, the gene product, and the cytological effects of the Or transgene suggest that the functional role of Or is associated with a cellular process that triggers the differentiation of proplastids or other noncolored plastids into chromoplasts for carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Or can be used as a novel genetic tool to induce carotenoid accumulation in a major staple food crop. We show here that controlling the formation of chromoplasts is an important mechanism by which carotenoid accumulation is regulated in plants. PMID:17172359

  17. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  18. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  19. 7-ketocholesterol accumulates in ocular tissues as a consequence of aging and is present in high levels in drusen

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ignacio R.; Clark, Mark E.; Lee, Jung Wha; Curcio, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed by LCMS lipid extracts of lens, retina (MNR) and RPE/Choroid (MPEC) from macaque monkeys 2–25 yr in age to determine their content of 7-ketocholesterol (7KCh) as function of age. In addition we also analyzed drusen capped with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE, and neural retina from human donors age 72–95 yr. The lowest 7KCh levels were found in monkey lens (<0.5 to 3.5 pmol 7KCh per nmol Ch), the second highest in MNR (1–15 pmol/nmol), and the highest in MPEC (1 to > 60 pmol/nmol). Despite individual variability all three tissues demonstrated a strong age-related increase. In older human donors 7KCh levels were significantly higher. The levels in human neural retina ranged from 8–20 pmol/nmol, similar to the oldest monkeys, but 7-KCh levels in RPE ranged from 200–17,000 pmol/nmol, and in RPE-capped drusen from 200–2,000 pmol/nmol, levels that would be lethal in most cultured cell systems. Most of the 7KCh is sequestered and not readily available to the surrounding tissue, based on published histochemical evidence that extracellular cholesterol (Ch) and cholesteryl fatty acid esters (CEs) are highly concentrated in Bruch’s membrane and drusen. However, adjacent tissues, especially RPE but also choriocapillaris endothelium, could be chronically inflamed and in peril of receiving a lethal exposure. Implications for initiation and progression of age-related macular degeneration are discussed. PMID:25261634

  20. High-sucrose diet increases ROS generation, FFA accumulation, UCP2 level, and proton leak in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; Chávez-Salgado, Monserrath; Peñeda-Flores, José Antonio; Zapata, Estrella; Masso, Felipe; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for insulin resistance, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between increased levels of free fatty acids in the liver mitochondria, mitochondrial function, and ROS generation in rat model of obesity induced by a high-sucrose diet was not sufficiently established. We determined how the bioenergetic functions and ROS generation of the mitochondria respond to a hyperlipidemic environment. Mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats generated H(2)O(2) at a higher rate than the control mitochondria. Adding fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin to mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats significantly reduced the rate of H(2)O(2) generation. In contrast, adding exogenous oleic or linoleic acid exacerbated the rate of H(2)O(2) generation in both sucrose-fed and control mitochondria, and the mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats were more sensitive than the control mitochondria. The increased rate of H(2)O(2) generation in sucrose-fed mitochondria corresponded to decreased levels of reduced GSH and vitamin E and increased levels of Cu/Zn-SOD in the intermembrane space. There was no difference between the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in the two types of mitochondria. In addition to the normal activity of Mn-SOD, GPX and catalase detected an increased activity of complex II, and upregulation of UCP2 was observed in mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats, all of which may accelerate respiration rates and reduce generation of ROS. In turn, these effects may protect the mitochondria of sucrose-fed rats from oxidative stress and preserve their function and integrity. However, in whole liver these adaptive mechanisms of the mitochondria were inefficient at counteracting redox imbalances and inhibiting oxidative stress outside of the mitochondria. PMID:21917631

  1. High propionic acid fermentations and mineral accumulation in the cecum of rats adapted to different levels of inulin.

    PubMed

    Levrat, M A; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    1991-11-01

    The digestive and metabolic effects of inulin (from chicory) were studied in rats adapted to semipurified diets containing 0, 5, 10 or 20% inulin (wt/wt). Moderate levels of inulin (5-10%) did not significantly affect food intake or body weight gain. Dietary inulin resulted in considerably greater cecal fermentation and a significantly greater intraluminal concentration of propionate (peaking at 58.4 mmol/L). A lower concentration of acetate (42.6 mmol/L) was observed in rats fed 20% inulin. Lactic fermentations were observed in rats fed the 10 or 20% inulin diets. The cecal pool of volatile fatty acids tended to reach a plateau in rats fed diets containing more than 10% inulin (up to 600-700 mumol), but volatile fatty acid absorption was a slightly hyperbolic function of the dietary inulin level. Butyrate absorption was proportionally lower than that of propionate. Inulin-containing diets induced an enlargement of the cecal pool of calcium, phosphate and (to a lesser extent) magnesium. There was also an enhanced absorption of these divalent cations. The cecal pool of bile acids was greater in rats fed inulin, and this oligosaccharide displayed a slight hypocholesterolemic effect, even in rats fed the 5% inulin diet. However, plasma triglycerides were depressed only in rats fed the 20% inulin diet. In conclusion, inulin seems very effective in promoting propionic fermentation and in enhancing the calcium content of the large intestine. However, high levels of inulin (greater than 10%) may affect growth in rats and lead to acidic (pH 5.65) cecal fermentation. PMID:1941180

  2. Development of a novel transgenic rice with hypocholesterolemic activity via high-level accumulation of the α' subunit of soybean β-conglycinin.

    PubMed

    Cabanos, Cerrone; Kato, Naoki; Amari, Yoshiki; Fujiwara, Keigo; Ohno, Tomoki; Shimizu, Kousuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Masaya; Kuroda, Masaharu; Masuda, Taro; Takaiwa, Fumio; Utsumi, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Soybean 7S globulin, known as β-conglycinin, has been shown to regulate human plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the α' subunit of β-conglycinin has specifically been shown to possess low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering activity. Therefore, accumulation of the α' subunit of β-conglycinin in rice seeds could lead to the production of new functional rice that could promote human health. Herein, we used the low-glutelin rice mutant 'Koshihikari' (var. a123) and suppressed its glutelins and prolamins, the major seed storage proteins of rice, by RNA interference. The accumulation levels of the α' subunit in the lines with suppressed glutelin and prolamin levels were >20 mg in 1 g of rice seeds, which is considerably higher than those in previous studies. Oral administration of the transgenic rice containing the α' subunit exhibited a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats; the serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly reduced when compared to those of the control rice (var. a123). The cholesterol-lowering action by transgenic rice accumulating the α' subunit induces a significant increase in fecal bile acid excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. This is the first report that transgenic rice exhibits a hypocholesterolemic activity in rats in vivo by using the β-conglycinin α' subunit. PMID:24676962

  3. Successful high-level accumulation of fish oil omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in a transgenic oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Sayanova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 (also called n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (≥C20; LC-PUFAs) are of considerable interest, based on clear evidence of dietary health benefits and the concurrent decline of global sources (fish oils). Generating alternative transgenic plant sources of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA) has previously proved problematic. Here we describe a set of heterologous genes capable of efficiently directing synthesis of these fatty acids in the seed oil of the crop Camelina sativa, while simultaneously avoiding accumulation of undesirable intermediate fatty acids. We describe two iterations: RRes_EPA in which seeds contain EPA levels of up to 31% (mean 24%), and RRes_DHA, in which seeds accumulate up to 12% EPA and 14% DHA (mean 11% EPA and 8% DHA). These omega-3 LC-PUFA levels are equivalent to those in fish oils, and represent a sustainable, terrestrial source of these fatty acids. We also describe the distribution of these non-native fatty acids within C. sativa seed lipids, and consider these data in the context of our current understanding of acyl exchange during seed oil synthesis. PMID:24308505

  4. Cyclic di-AMP homeostasis in bacillus subtilis: both lack and high level accumulation of the nucleotide are detrimental for cell growth.

    PubMed

    Mehne, Felix M P; Gunka, Katrin; Eilers, Hinnerk; Herzberg, Christina; Kaever, Volkhard; Stülke, Jörg

    2013-01-18

    The genome of the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis encodes three potential diadenylate cyclases that may synthesize the signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP). These enzymes are expressed under different conditions in different cell compartments, and they localize to distinct positions in the cell. Here we demonstrate the diadenylate cyclase activity of the so far uncharacterized enzymes CdaA (previously known as YbbP) and CdaS (YojJ). Our work confirms that c-di-AMP is essential for the growth of B. subtilis and shows that an excess of the molecule is also harmful for the bacteria. Several lines of evidence suggest that the diadenylate cyclase CdaA is part of the conserved essential cda-glm module involved in cell wall metabolism. In contrast, the CdaS enzyme seems to provide c-di-AMP for spores. Accumulation of large amounts of c-di-AMP impairs the growth of B. subtilis and results in the formation of aberrant curly cells. This phenotype can be partially suppressed by elevated concentrations of magnesium. These observations suggest that c-di-AMP interferes with the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery. The activity of the diadenylate cyclases is controlled by distinct molecular mechanisms. CdaA is stimulated by a regulatory interaction with the CdaR (YbbR) protein. In contrast, the activity of CdaS seems to be intrinsically restricted, and a single amino acid substitution is sufficient to drastically increase the activity of the enzyme. Taken together, our results support the idea of an important role for c-di-AMP in B. subtilis and suggest that the levels of the nucleotide have to be tightly controlled. PMID:23192352

  5. High-level accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomatoes expressing a synthetic miraculin gene with optimized codon usage terminated by the native miraculin terminator.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Nyarubona, Mpanja; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Ichikawa, Takanari; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a transgenic tomato line that expressed the MIR gene under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS) produced the taste-modifying protein miraculin (MIR). However, the concentration of MIR in the tomatoes was lower than that in the MIR gene's native miracle fruit. To increase MIR production, the native MIR terminator (tMIR) was used and a synthetic gene encoding MIR protein (sMIR) was designed to optimize its codon usage for tomato. Four different combinations of these genes and terminators (MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR) were constructed and used for transformation. The average MIR concentrations in MIR-tNOS, MIR-tMIR, sMIR-tNOS and sMIR-tMIR fruits were 131, 197, 128 and 287 μg/g fresh weight, respectively. The MIR concentrations using tMIR were higher than those using tNOS. The highest MIR accumulation was detected in sMIR-tMIR fruits. On the other hand, the MIR concentration was largely unaffected by sMIR-tNOS. The expression levels of both MIR and sMIR mRNAs terminated by tMIR tended to be higher than those terminated by tNOS. Read-through mRNA transcripts terminated by tNOS were much longer than those terminated by tMIR. These results suggest that tMIR enhances mRNA expression and permits the multiplier effect of optimized codon usage. PMID:21076835

  6. Characterization of oleaginous yeasts accumulating high levels of lipid when cultivated in glycerol and their potential for lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-12-01

    This study attempted to identify oleaginous yeasts and selected the strain that accumulated the largest quantity of lipid for lipid production from glycerol. Two-step screening of 387 yeast strains revealed 23 oleaginous strains that accumulated quantities of lipid higher than 20 % of their biomass when cultivated in glycerol. These strains were identified to be four ascomycetous yeast species i.e. Candida silvae, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma caribbica, and Pichia manshurica, and five basidiomycetous yeast species i.e. Cryptococcus cf. podzolicus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 accumulated the highest quantity of lipid equal to 65.2 % of its biomass (3.9 g L(-1) lipid and 6.0 g L(-1) biomass) by shaking flask cultivation in crude glycerol. The main fatty acids in the accumulated lipid of this strain consisted of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Therefore, R. fluviale DMKU-RK253 has potential for producing lipid for biodiesel manufacturing using crude glycerol as a feedstock. PMID:26615742

  7. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Ushikai, Miharu; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Okutsu, Kayu; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Takamine, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed. PMID:25237599

  8. Sea level controls carbon accumulation in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    How much carbon is stored in the organic soils of tropical wetlands is becoming an important question as erosion, agriculture, and global climate change slowly set into motion a series of processes that could potentially release carbon locked up in these wetlands. In a recent study, Glaser et al. reconstructed a complete, carbon-14 dated 4000-year history of both organic and inorganic matter accumulation in the Everglades of south Florida. The authors found that despite the fact that erosion, fires, and similar processes may have removed as much as 2 meters of soil from the Everglades, there is a remarkable consistency in the accumulation rates of both organic and inorganic matter in the Everglades over the past 4000 years. They speculate that processes such as sea level rise that operate on time scales of centuries or even millennia may be ultimately controlling the rates of formation and accumulation of organic matter in the Everglades.

  9. A Fusion between Domains of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Maize 27 kD γ-Zein Accumulates to High Levels in the Endoplasmic Reticulum without Forming Protein Bodies in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Ceresoli, Valentina; Mainieri, Davide; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Weinstein, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2) is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodeling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD γ-zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad) in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs. PMID:27047526

  10. The association of very high hair manganese accumulation and high oxidative stress in Mongolian people.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Kiyomi; Kawabata, Terue; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative stress induces several diseases and early aging. Previously, we reported that Mongolians are exposed in high oxidative stress, which may cause their early aging. In this study, to know the reason of high oxidative stress, we measured hair metals. This investigation was performed in Murun city, in the northern area of this country, and 469 healthy subjects, ranging from 10 to 82 years of age, were randomly enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Antioxidant capacity (AOC) was estimated by the levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Scalp hair metals were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Murun subjects showed high ROM levels of 394+/-75 Carr U (n=342), compared with Japanese healthy subjects (n=356, 326+/-51 Carr U, p<0.001). MDA-LDL and 8-OHdG levels also showed high levels. While, BAP levels of Murun subjects were 2263+/-203 micromol/L (n=210), Japanese subjects (n=356, 2087+/-215 micromol/L, p<0.001). SOD activities were also high, suggesting that the high oxidative may accelerate the state of AOC. Murun subjects demonstrated high accumulation of several metals in the hairs. In particular, Mn accumulation exhibited from 2 fold to 40 fold increases of Japanese standard. These findings are indicative that the high Mn accumulation may contribute to the high oxidative stress. The mechanism of its high accumulation was not explained by food materials or drinking water. We should further investigate another influence such as sandy wind. In order to suppress the high oxidative stress, elimination of the high Mn accumulation should be urgently studied. PMID:20021397

  11. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may ...

  12. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features on this page, ... called "bad" cholesterol For many people, abnormal cholesterol levels are partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. This ...

  13. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  14. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  15. Impurity accumulation in plasma regimes with high energy confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L. B.; Roberts, D. E.; Yang, H. R.; Dodel, G.; Gentle, K.; Von Goeler, S.; Holzhauer, E.; Hübner, K.; Keilhacker, M.; Korotkov, A.; Luce, T. C.; Miura, Y.; Tsois, N.; Würz, H.; Fussmann, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Krieger, K.; Müller, E. R.; Nolte, R.; Röhr, H.; Steuer, K. H.; Becker, G.; Bomba, B.; Bruhns, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Giannone, L.; Von Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Herrmann, H.; Kaesdorf, S.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lang, R.; Lee, P.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Poschenrieder, W.; Preis, R.; Rapp, H.; Rudyj, A.; Sandmann, W.; Schneider, F.; Schnider, U.; Siller, G.; Simmet, E.; Speth, E.; Söldner, F.; Stäbler, A.; Steinmetz, K.; Stroth, U.; Vollmer, O.; Zasche, D.

    1989-04-01

    Investigations of impurity accumulation phenomena in ASDEX are reviewed. There are four different operating regimes where pronounced accumulation is observed and these regimes are also characterized by improved energy confinement. In particular, medium-Z metallic ions are involved in accumulation processes whereas low-Z ions appear almost unaffected. The rapid accumulation observed in the case of metallic ions may be explained by neoclassical inward drifts if we assume that the anomalous diffusion is sufficiently suppressed, some indication of this being found from laser blow-off studies. The present results, however, can only be partly explained by neoclassical theory, according to which accumulation of low-Z impurities should also occur. The temporal behaviour of accumulation and the retarding effect of proton dilution for collision dominated transport are also discussed. Finally, we conclude that the full benefits of improved energy confinement can be achieved only if the impurity influxes are kept to a sufficiently low level. Expressed in terms of concentrations under low confinement conditions we have to postulate, for ASDEX, concentrations ≲ 10 -4 for metals and ≲ 2% for all light impurities.

  16. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  17. Ultra-High-Speed Image Signal Accumulation Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Son, Dao Vu Truong; Akino, Toshiaki Koike; Akino, Toshiro; Nishi, Kenji; Kureta, Masatoshi; Arai, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Averaging of accumulated data is a standard technique applied to processing data with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), such as image signals captured in ultra-high-speed imaging. The authors propose an architecture layout of an ultra-high-speed image sensor capable of on-chip signal accumulation. The very high frame rate is enabled by employing an image sensor structure with a multi-folded CCD in each pixel, which serves as an in situ image signal storage. The signal accumulation function is achieved by direct connection of the first and the last storage elements of the in situ storage CCD. It has been thought that the multi-folding is achievable only by driving electrodes with complicated and impractical layouts. Simple configurations of the driving electrodes to overcome the difficulty are presented for two-phase and four-phase transfer CCD systems. The in situ storage image sensor with the signal accumulation function is named Image Signal Accumulation Sensor (ISAS). PMID:22319344

  18. Purification and Partial Kinetic and Physical Characterization of Two Chloroplast-Localized NADP-Specific Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Their Preferential Accumulation in Chlorella sorokiniana Cells Cultured at Low or High Ammonium Levels 1

    PubMed Central

    Bascomb, Newell F.; Schmidt, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two ammonium-inducible, chloroplast-localized NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity from Chlorella sorokiniana. These isoenzymes were homopolymers of either α- or β-subunits with molecular weights of 55,500 or 53,000, respectively. The α-isoenzyme was preferentially induced at low ammonium concentrations (2 millimolar or lower), whereas only the β-isoenzyme accumulated after cells were fully induced (120 minutes) at high ammonium concentrations (29 millimolar). Purification of isoenzymes was achieved by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel-filtration, anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, and affinity chromatography. The α- and β-isoenzymes were separated by their differential binding to Type 4 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-Sepharose. Both isoenzymes bound to an antibody affinity column to which purified antibody (prepared against β-isoenzyme) was covalently attached. Peptide mapping of the subunits showed them to have a high degree of sequence homology. Both subunits were synthesized in vitro from precursor protein(s) with a molecular weight of 58,500. Although the subunits have similar chemical, physical, and antigenic properties, their holoenzymes have strikingly different ammonium Km values. The ammonium Km of the β-isoenzyme remained constant at approximately 75 millimolar, whereas this Km of the α-isoenzyme ranged from 0.02 to 3.5 millimolar, depending upon nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16665219

  19. Mechanisms and microbial structure of partial denitrification with high nitrite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-02-01

    Nitrite (NO2 (-)-N) accumulation in denitrification can provide the substrate for anammox, an efficient and cost-saving process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. This batch-mode study aimed at achieving high NO2 (-)-N accumulation over long-term operation with the acetate as sole organic carbon source and elucidating the mechanisms of NO2 (-)-N accumulation. The results showed that the specific nitrate (NO3 (-)-N) reduction rate (59.61 mg N VSS(-1) h(-1) at NO3 (-)-N of 20 mg/L) was much higher than specific NO2 (-)-N reduction rate (7.30 mg N VSS(-1) h(-1) at NO3 (-)-N of 20 mg/L), and the NO2 (-)-N accumulation proceeded well at the NO3 (-)-N to NO2 (-)-N transformation ratio (NTR) as high as 90 %. NO2 (-)-N accumulation was barely affected by the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to NO3 (-)-N concentration (C/N). With the addition of NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N accumulation occurred and the specific NO2 (-)-N reduction rate declined to a much lower level compared with the value in the absence of NO3 (-)-N. This indicated that the denitrifying bacteria in the system preferred to use NO3 (-)-N as electron acceptor rather than use NO2 (-)-N. In addition, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the genus of Thauera bacteria was dominant in the denitrifying community with high NO2 (-)-N accumulation and account for 67.25 % of total microorganism. This bacterium might be functional for high NO2 (-)-N accumulation in the presence of NO3 (-)-N. PMID:26526457

  20. Surface hole accumulation and Fermi level stabilization energy in SnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, Junichi; Detert, Douglas; Beeman, Jeffrey; Yu, Kin Man; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2014-09-01

    SnTe films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The thickness dependence of the sheet hole concentration indicated the presence of a high hole density surface accumulation layer. Irradiation of SnTe by Ne+ ions led to the saturation of the hole concentration corresponding to a Fermi energy that is 0.5 eV below the valence band edge. The stabilized Fermi energy on the surface and in the heavily damaged bulk is in agreement with the amphoteric native defect model. These results show that SnTe is a unique semiconductor with an extremely high valence band edge located at 4.4 eV below the vacuum level.

  1. TRMM Version 7 Level 3 Gridded Monthly Accumulations of GPROF Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, E. F.; Kelley, O. A.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2011, improved versions of the retrieval algorithms were approved for TRMM. All data starting with June 2011 are produced only with the version 7 code. At the same time, version 7 reprocessing of all TRMM mission data was started. By the end of August 2011, the 14+ years of the reprocessed mission data became available online to users. This reprocessing provided the opportunity to redo and enhance upon an analysis of V7 impacts on L3 data accumulations that was presented at the 2010 EGU General Assembly. This paper will discuss the impact of algorithm changes made in th GPROF retrieval on the Level 2 swath products. Perhaps the most important change in that retrieval was to replacement of a model based a priori database with one created from Precipitation Radar (PR) and TMI brightness temperature (Tb) data. The radar pays a major role in the V7 GPROF (GPROF2010) in determining existence of rain. The level 2 retrieval algorithm also introduced a field providing the probability of rain. This combined use of the PR has some impact on the retrievals and created areas, particularly over ocean, where many areas of low-probability precipitation are retrieved whereas in version 6, these areas contained zero rain rates. This paper will discuss how these impacts get translated to the space/time averaged monthly products that use the GPROF retrievals. The level 3 products discussed are the gridded text product 3G68 and the standard 3A12 and 3B31 products. The paper provides an overview of the changes and explanation of how the level 3 products dealt with the change in the retrieval approach. Using the .25 deg x .25 degree grid, the paper will show that agreement between the swath product and the level 3 remains very high. It will also present comparisons of V6 and V7 GPROF retrievals as seen both at the swath level and the level 3 time/space gridded accumulations. It will show that the various L3 products based on GPROF level 2 retrievals are in close agreement. The

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    Steps you can take to improve their cholesterol levels, and help prevent heart disease and a heart attack include: Quit smoking. This is the single biggest change you can make to reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. Eat foods ...

  3. Localizing Organomercury Uptake And Accumulation in Zebrafish Larvae at the Tissue And Cellular Level

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, M.; Blechinger, S.R.; Krone, P.H.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-20

    Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping, we have examined the uptake and localization of organic mercury in zebrafish larvae. Strikingly, the greatest accumulation of methyl and ethyl mercury compounds was highly localized in the rapidly dividing lens epithelium, with lower levels going to brain, optic nerve, and various other organs. The data suggest that the reported impairment of visual processes by mercury may arise not only from previously reported neurological effects, but also from direct effects on the ocular tissue. This novel approach is a powerful tool for directly investigating the molecular toxicology of heavy metals, and should be equally applicable to the study of a wide range of elements in developing embryos.

  4. Localizing organomercury uptake and accumulation in zebrafish larvae at the tissue and cellular level

    PubMed Central

    Korbas, Malgorzata; Blechinger, Scott R.; Krone, Patrick H.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.

    2008-01-01

    Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping, we have examined the uptake and localization of organic mercury in zebrafish larvae. Strikingly, the greatest accumulation of methyl and ethyl mercury compounds was highly localized in the rapidly dividing lens epithelium, with lower levels going to brain, optic nerve, and various other organs. The data suggest that the reported impairment of visual processes by mercury may arise not only from previously reported neurological effects, but also from direct effects on the ocular tissue. This novel approach is a powerful tool for directly investigating the molecular toxicology of heavy metals, and should be equally applicable to the study of a wide range of elements in developing embryos. PMID:18719123

  5. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. PMID:15992976

  6. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  7. Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons and Accumulator Rings for High-Intensity Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingyu

    2014-02-01

    Boosted by the needs in high-energy physics and nuclear physics and also multidisciplinary applications, high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulator rings have been developed quickly around the world over the last 30 years. New projects and plans are proposed with even higher beam power. The proton beam power has increased from less than 10 kW in the 1970s to about 1 MW level today, and the required beam power in the coming decade is a few MW. This article reviews the achievements in designing and constructing rapid cycling synchrotrons (RCSs) and accumulator rings (ARs) and the future development trends, principally on proton beams but also including heavy ion beams. It presents the evolution of RCS and AR machines, today's design philosophy, relevant accelerator physics, and also state-of-the-art accelerator technology.

  8. Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T

    2008-06-01

    Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike. PMID:18198937

  9. High-level-waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form.

  10. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  11. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  12. Atlas of Rice Grain Filling-Related Metabolism under High Temperature: Joint Analysis of Metabolome and Transcriptome Demonstrated Inhibition of Starch Accumulation and Induction of Amino Acid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hiromoto; Hakata, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    High temperature impairs grain filling by inhibiting the deposition of storage materials such as starch and protein. To comprehend its impact on grain filling metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa), levels of metabolites and transcripts related to central pathways of metabolism were simultaneously determined in developing caryopses exposed to high temperature (33°C/28°C) and a control temperature (25°C/20°C) during the milky stage. A capillary electrophoresis-based metabolomic analysis revealed that high temperature increased the accumulation of sucrose and pyruvate/ oxaloacetate-derived amino acids and decreased levels of sugar phosphates and organic acids involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, respectively. A transcriptomic analysis using a whole genome-covering microarray unraveled the possible metabolic steps causing the shortage of storage materials under the elevated temperature. Starch deposition might be impaired by down-regulation of sucrose import/degradation and starch biosynthesis, and/or up-regulation of starch degradation as well as inefficient ATP production by an inhibited cytochrome respiration chain, as indicated by the response of gene expression to high temperature. Amino acid accumulation might be attributed to the heat-stable import of amino acids into the caryopsis and/or repression of protein synthesis especially the tRNA charging step under high temperature. An atlas showing the effect of high temperature on levels of metabolites and gene expression in the central metabolic pathways is presented. PMID:20304786

  13. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  14. Low levels of astroglial markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to α-synuclein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Williams, Belinda; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Guttman, Mark; Boileau, Isabelle; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Although gliosis is a normal response to brain injury, reports on the extent of astrogliosis in the degenerating substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) are conflicting. It has also been recently suggested that accumulation of nigral α-synuclein in this disorder might suppress astrocyte activation which in turn could exacerbate the degenerative process. This study examined brain protein levels (intact protein, fragments, and aggregates, if any) of astroglial markers and their relationship to α-synuclein in PD and in the positive control parkinson-plus conditions multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsied brain homogenates of patients with PD (n=10), MSA (n=11), PSP (n=11) and matched controls (n=10) were examined for the astroglial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) by quantitative immunoblotting. As expected, both MSA (putamen>substantia nigra>caudate>frontal cortex) and PSP (substantia nigra>caudate>putamen, frontal cortex) showed widespread but regionally specific pattern of increased immunoreactivity of the markers, in particular for the partially proteolyzed fragments (all three) and aggregates (GFAP). In contrast, immunoreactivity of the three markers was largely normal in PD in brain regions examined with the exception of trends for variably increased levels of cleaved vimentin in substantia nigra and frontal cortex. In patients with PD, GFAP levels in the substantia nigra correlated inversely with α-synuclein accumulation whereas the opposite was true for MSA. Our biochemical findings of generally normal protein levels of astroglial markers in substantia nigra of PD, and negative correlation with α-synuclein concentration, are consistent with some recent neuropathology reports of mild astroglial response and with the speculation that astrogliosis might be suppressed in this disorder by excessive α-synuclein accumulation. Should astrogliosis protect, to

  15. Endogenous salicylic acid levels correlate with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Shulaev, V.; Raskin, I. )

    1993-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be an endogenous regulator of local and systemic disease resistance and an inducer of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins among plants. High levels of PR proteins have been observed in an uninoculated amphidiploid hybrid of Nicotiana glutinosa [times] N. debneyi, which is highly resistant to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Fluoresence, UV, and mass spectral analysis established that the levels of SA in healthy N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi leaves were 30 times greater than in N. tabacum [open quotes]Xanthi-nc[close quotes] tobacco, which does not constitutively express PR proteins and is less resistant to TMV. Upon TMV-inoculation SA levels increased at least 70-fold leaves of Xanthi-nc but role only slightly in the hybrid. Phloem exudates of N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi contained at least 500 times more SA than those of Xanthi-nc. SA treatment caused the appearance of PR-1 protein in Xanthi-nc but did not affect constitutively high levels of PR-1 protein in N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi. In contrast to Xanthi-nc tobacco, TMV-inoculated N. glutinosa [times] N. debneyi kept at 32 C accumulated more than 0.5 [mu]g SA/g fresh weight, maintained high levels of PR proteins, and developed a hypersensitive response to TMV. PR proteins have previously been shown to accumulate in the lower leaves of healthy, flowering Xanthi-nc tobacco, which exhibited increased resistance to TMV. These developmentally induced increases in resistance and PR-1 proteins positively correlated with tissue levels of SA. These results affirm the regulatory role of SA in disease resistance and PR protein production. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Steve A.

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  17. Dissecting the molecular basis of the contribution of source strength to high fructan accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; Kooiker, Maarten; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Fructans represent the major component of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the maturing stem of temperate cereals and are an important temporary carbon reserve for grain filling. To investigate the importance of source carbon availability in fructan accumulation and its molecular basis, we performed comparative analyses of WSC components and the expression profiles of genes involved in major carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis in the flag leaves of recombinant inbred lines from wheat cultivars Seri M82 and Babax (SB lines). High sucrose levels in the mature flag leaf (source organ) were found to be positively associated with WSC and fructan concentrations in both the leaf and stem of SB lines in several field trials. Analysis of Affymetrix expression array data revealed that high leaf sucrose lines grown in abiotic-stress-prone environments had high expression levels of a number of genes in the leaf involved in the sucrose synthetic pathway and photosynthesis, such as Calvin cycle genes, antioxidant genes involved in chloroplast H(2)O(2) removal and genes involved in energy dissipation. The expression of the majority of genes involved in fructan and starch synthetic pathways were positively correlated with sucrose levels in the leaves of SB lines. The high level of leaf fructans in high leaf sucrose lines is likely attributed to the elevated expression levels of fructan synthetic enzymes, as the mRNA levels of three fructosyltransferase families were consistently correlated with leaf sucrose levels among SB lines. These data suggest that high source strength is one of the important genetic factors determining high levels of WSC in wheat. PMID:23114999

  18. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  19. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  20. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  1. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  2. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  3. Airway injury during high-level exercise.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Anderson, Sandra D

    2012-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells act as a physical barrier against environmental toxins and injury, and modulate inflammation and the immune response. As such, maintenance of their integrity is critical. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that exercise can cause injury to the airway epithelium. This seems the case particularly for competitive athletes performing high-level exercise, or when exercise takes place in extreme environmental conditions such as in cold dry air or in polluted air. Dehydration of the small airways and increased forces exerted on to the airway surface during severe hyperpnoea are thought to be key factors in determining the occurrence of injury of the airway epithelium. The injury-repair process of the airway epithelium may contribute to the development of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness that is documented in many elite athletes. PMID:22247295

  4. Proline accumulation protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase from ethanol stress by reducing reactive oxygen species levels.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Junpei; Kaino, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    During fermentation processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to multiple stresses, including a high concentration of ethanol that represents toxicity through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We previously reported that proline protected yeast cells from damage caused by various stresses, such as freezing and ethanol. As an anti-oxidant, proline is suggested to scavenge intracellular ROS. In this study, we examined the role of intracellular proline during ethanol treatment in S. cerevisiae strains that accumulate different concentrations of proline. When cultured in YPD medium, there was a significant accumulation of proline in the put1 mutant strain, which is deficient in proline oxidase, in the stationary phase. Expression of the mutant PRO1 gene, which encodes the γ-glutamyl kinase variant (Asp154Asn or Ile150Thr) with desensitization to feedback inhibition by proline in the put1 mutant strain, showed a prominent increase in proline content as compared with that of the wild-type strain. The oxidation level was clearly increased in wild-type cells after exposure to ethanol, indicating that the generation of ROS occurred. Interestingly, proline accumulation significantly reduces the ROS level and increases the survival rate of yeast cells in the stationary phase under ethanol stress conditions. However, there was not a clear correlation between proline content and survival rate in yeast cells. An appropriate level of intracellular proline in yeast might be important for its stress-protective effect. Hence, the engineering of proline metabolism could be promising for breeding stress-tolerant industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26833688

  5. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks. PMID:24682567

  6. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes. PMID:26503801

  7. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes. PMID:26503801

  8. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-10-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  9. Mineral accumulation by perennial grasses in a high rainfall environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straw produced as a co-product of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed production in the high rainfall area of western Oregon as well as clippings from urban and recr...

  10. Accumulation of metals in GOLD4 COPD lungs is associated with decreased CFTR levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that primarily resides in airway epithelial cells. Decreased CFTR expression and/or function lead to impaired airway surface liquid (ASL) volume homeostasis, resulting in accumulation of mucus, reduced clearance of bacteria, and chronic infection and inflammation. Methods Expression of CFTR and the cigarette smoke metal content were assessed in lung samples of controls and COPD patients with established GOLD stage 4. CFTR protein and mRNA were quantified by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Metals present in lung samples were quantified by ICP-AES. The effect of cigarette smoke on down-regulation of CFTR expression and function was assessed using primary human airway epithelial cells. The role of leading metal(s) found in lung samples of GOLD 4 COPD patients involved in the alteration of CFTR was confirmed by exposing human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE14o- to metal-depleted cigarette smoke extracts. Results We found that CFTR expression is reduced in the lungs of GOLD 4 COPD patients, especially in bronchial epithelial cells. Assessment of metals present in lung samples revealed that cadmium and manganese were significantly higher in GOLD 4 COPD patients when compared to control smokers (GOLD 0). Primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke resulted in decreased expression of CFTR protein and reduced airway surface liquid height. 16HBE14o-cells exposed to cigarette smoke also exhibited reduced levels of CFTR protein and mRNA. Removal and/or addition of metals to cigarette smoke extracts before exposure established their role in decrease of CFTR in airway epithelial cells. Conclusions CFTR expression is reduced in the lungs of patients with severe COPD. This effect is associated with the accumulation of cadmium and manganese suggesting a role for these metals in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:24957904

  11. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  12. Retinoids regulate TGFβ signaling at the level of Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Loretta L.; Burton, Elizabeth G.; O'Neill, Megan L.; Brooks, Bonnie A.; Sreedharan, Shilpa; Dawson, Nineveh A.; Kubalak, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    Indirect regulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling by retinoids occurs on a long-term timescale, secondary to transcriptional events. Studies by our group show loss of retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha results in increased TGFβ2 in the midgestational heart, which may play a role in the cardiac defects seen in this model[1]. Acute and direct interactions between retinoid and TGFβ signaling, however, are not clearly understood. Treatment of dispersed hearts and NIH3T3 cells for one-hour with TGFβ and retinoids (dual treatment) resulted in increased phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 when compared to treatment with TGFβ alone. Of all dual treatments, those with the RXR agonist Bexarotene, resulted in the highest level of phosphorylated Smad2, a 7-fold increase over TGFβ2 alone. Additionally, during dual treatment phosphorylation of Smad2 occurs via the TGFβ type I receptor but not by increased activation of the receptor. As loss of RXRα results in increased levels of Smad2 phosphorylation in response to TGFβ treatment and since nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated Smad2 is decreased during dual treatment, we propose that RXRα directly regulates the activities of Smad2. These data show retinoid signaling influences the TGFβ pathway in an acute and direct manner that has been unappreciated until now. PMID:18773928

  13. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  14. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  15. HIGH INTENSITY EFFECTS IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A; Shishlo, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  16. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  17. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  18. Cadmium accumulation in Panax notoginseng: levels, affecting factors and the non-carcinogenic health risk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meilin; Jiang, Yang; Cui, Bin; Jiang, Yanxue; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination has been reported to be a problem for the safe usage of Panax notoginseng (Sanchi); thus, it is necessary to elucidate the Cd accumulation in Sanchi and to assess its associated health risk. Samples were collected from major producing areas in Yunnan, China. The average concentration of Cd in Sanchi was 0.43 mg/kg, which exceeds the standard level for herbal medicine in China (0.3 mg/kg). A stepwise regression analysis showed that zinc and the pH were the related factors that most significantly impacted Cd in Sanchi roots. The hazard quotient values were estimated as 0.0010 (men) and 0.0012 (women) for consumers taking preparations and were 0.011 (men) and 0.013 (women) for consumers taking health products, implying that there is no non-carcinogenic hazard associated with Sanchi consumption. However, a Monte Carlo simulation showed that approximately 0.80 % of male and 1.02 % of female consumers via drug consumption and 36.28 % of male and 41.87 % of female consumers via health product consumption had an exposure exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of Cd from drugs (1 % of the total oral ADI as suggested by the World Health Organization). These people should control their oral Cd intake from both Sanchi consumption and diet as a whole. PMID:26070861

  19. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  20. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  1. High throughput screens for the identification of compounds that alter the accumulation of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (Abeta).

    PubMed

    Haugabook, S J; Yager, D M; Eckman, E A; Golde, T E; Younkin, S G; Eckman, C B

    2001-07-30

    Evidence gathered over the last two decades suggests that beta amyloid (Abeta), the predominant proteinaceous component of senile plaques, plays an early and critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that compounds capable of reducing the accumulation of Abeta may be of value therapeutically. Additionally, compounds that influence Abeta accumulation may be useful as tools to further dissect the cellular pathways that regulate Abeta production and accumulation. To screen for compounds that affect Abeta levels, we have established high throughput, cell-based assays capable of the sensitive and selective detection of Abeta40 in parallel with the more amyloidogenic form of the peptide, Abeta42. To validate the approach, we examined the effects of several compounds previously identified to influence Abeta accumulation. Analysis of peptide accumulation following treatment with these compounds showed results similar to those previously published. Currently, we are using this assay to screen drugs that have already received FDA approval for the treatment of other diseases and over-the-counter natural product extracts. If compounds such as these can be identified that lower Abeta in the brain, they may represent one of the fastest and most cost effective methods to therapy. PMID:11478976

  2. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at ~ 330 and ~ 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  3. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  4. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and Professional Employees. 630.301 Section 630.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.301 Annual leave...

  5. Regulation of S-like ribonuclease levels in Arabidopsis. Antisense inhibition of RNS1 or RNS2 elevates anthocyanin accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bariola, P.A.; MacIntosh, G.C.; Green, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The S-like ribonucleases (RNases) RNS1 and RNS2 of Arabidopsis are members of the widespread T{sub 2} ribonuclease family, whose members also include the S-RNases, involved in gametophytic self-incompatibility in plants. Both RNS1 and RNS2 mRNAs have been shown previously to be induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. In this study the authors examined this regulation at the protein level and determined the effects of diminishing RNS1 and RNS2 expression using antisense techniques. The Pi-starvation control of RNS1 and RNS2 was confirmed using antibodies specific for each protein. These specific antibodies also demonstrated that RNS1 is secreted, whereas RNS2 is intracellular. By introducing antisense constructs, mRNA accumulation was inhibited by up to 90% for RNS1 and up to 65% for NS2. These plants contained abnormally high levels of anthocyanins, the production of which is often associated with several forms of stress, including Pi starvation. This effect demonstrates that diminishing the amounts of either RNS1 or RNS2 leads to effects that cannot be compensated for by the actions of other RNases, even though Arabidopsis contains a large number of different RNase activities. These results, together with the differential localization of the proteins, imply that RNS1 and RNS2 have distinct functions in the plant.

  6. Snow accumulation of a high alpine catchment derived from LiDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, K.; Schöber, J.; Seiser, B.; Fischer, A.; Stötter, J.; Kuhn, M.

    2012-12-01

    The spatial distribution of snow accumulation substantially affects the seasonal course of water storage and runoff generation in high mountain catchments. Whereas the areal extent of snow cover can be recorded by satellite data, spatial distribution of snow depth and hence snow water equivalent (SWE) is difficult to measure on catchment scale. In this study we present the application of airborne LiDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) data to extract snow depths and accumulation distribution in an alpine catchment. Airborne LiDAR measurements were performed in a glacierized catchment in the Ötztal Alps at the beginning and the end of three accumulation seasons. The resulting digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to calculate surface elevation changes throughout the winter season. These surface elevation changes were primarily referred to as snow depths and are discussed concerning measured precipitation and the spatial characteristics of the accumulation distribution in glacierized and unglacierized areas. To determine the redistribution of catchment precipitation, snow depths were converted into SWE using a simple regression model. Snow accumulation gradients and snow redistribution were evaluated for 100 m elevation bands. Mean surface elevation changes of the whole catchment ranges from 1.97 m to 2.65 m within the analyzed accumulation seasons. By analyzing the distribution of the snow depths, elevation dependent patterns were obtained as a function of the topography in terms of aspect and slope. The high resolution DEMs show clearly the higher variation of snow depths in rough unglacierized areas compared to snow depths on smooth glacier surfaces. Mean snow depths in glacierized areas are higher than in unglacierized areas. Maximum mean snow depths of 100 m elevation bands are found between 2900 m and 3000 m a.s.l. in unglacierized areas and between 2800 m and 2900 m a.s.l. in glacierized areas, respectively. Calculated accumulation gradients range from 8% to

  7. Carotenoid accumulation in orange-pigmented Capsicum annuum fruit, regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Guzman, Ivette; Rajapakse, Wathsala; Richins, Richard D.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The pericarp of Capsicum fruit is a rich dietary source of carotenoids. Accumulation of these compounds may be controlled, in part, by gene transcription of biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid composition in a number of orange-coloured C. annuum cultivars was determined using HPLC and compared with transcript abundances for four carotenogenic enzymes, Psy, LcyB, CrtZ-2, and Ccs determined by qRT-PCR. There were unique carotenoid profiles as well as distinct patterns of transcription of carotenogenic enzymes within the seven orange-coloured cultivars. In one cultivar, ‘Fogo’, carrying the mutant ccs-3 allele, transcripts were detected for this gene, but no CCS protein accumulated. The premature stop termination in ccs-3 prevented expression of the biosynthetic activity to synthesize the capsanthin and capsorubin forms of carotenoids. In two other orange-coloured cultivars, ‘Orange Grande’ and ‘Oriole’, both with wild-type versions of all four carotenogenic enzymes, no transcripts for Ccs were detected and no red pigments accumulated. Finally, in a third case, the orange-coloured cultivar, Canary, transcripts for all four of the wild-type carotenogenic enzymes were readily detected yet no CCS protein appeared to accumulate and no red carotenoids were synthesized. In the past, mutations in Psy and Ccs have been identified as the loci controlling colour in the fruit. Now there is evidence that a non-structural gene may control colour development in Capsicum. PMID:21948863

  8. ISOLATED MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA MUTANTS WITH INCREASED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION HAVE DECREASED ASCORBIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms controlling oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation in plants remains largely unknown. As an initial step toward gaining insight into these regulatory mechanisms we initiated a mutant screen to identify plants that over-accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Four new mut...

  9. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND PARTITIONING OF EASTERN GAMMAGRASS GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND CO2 LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass has been reported to have one of the highest photosynthetic rates of any C4 species but data on temperature x CO2 interactions are lacking. This study was conducted to determine the potential effects of future increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide on growth, biomass accumulation...

  10. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  11. Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

  12. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  13. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, ammonia fiber expansion: AFEX and extractive ammonia: EA). The methodology for large-scale separation of ...

  14. Accumulation of intraepithelial mast cells with a unique protease phenotype in TH2-high asthma

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Ryan H.; Sidhu, Sukhvinder S.; Raman, Kavita; Solon, Margaret; Solberg, Owen D.; Caughey, George H.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Fahy, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previously, we found that mast cell tryptases and carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) are differentially expressed in the airway epithelium in asthmatic subjects. We also found that asthmatic subjects can be divided into 2 subgroups (“TH2 high” and “TH2 low” asthma) based on epithelial cell gene signatures for the activity of TH2 cytokines. Objectives We sought to characterize intraepithelial mast cells (IEMCs) in asthma. Methods We performed gene expression profiling in epithelial brushings and stereology-based quantification of mast cell numbers in endobronchial biopsy specimens from healthy control and asthmatic subjects before and after treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). We also performed gene expression and protein quantification studies in cultured airway epithelial cells and mast cells. Results By means of unsupervised clustering, mast cell gene expression in the airway epithelium related closely to the expression of IL-13 signature genes. The levels of expression of mast cell genes correlate positively with lung function improvements with ICSs. IEMC density was 2-fold higher than normal in subjects with TH2-high asthma compared with that seen in subjects with TH2-low asthma or healthy control subjects (P = .015 for both comparisons), and these cells were characterized by expression of tryptases and CPA3 but not chymase. IL-13 induced expression of stem cell factor in cultured airway epithelial cells, and mast cells exposed to conditioned media from IL-13–activated epithelial cells showed downregulation of chymase but no change in tryptase or CPA3 expression. Conclusion IEMC numbers are increased in subjects with TH2-high asthma, have an unusual protease phenotype (tryptase and CPA3 high and chymase low), and predict responsiveness to ICSs. IL-13–stimulated production of stem cell factor by epithelial cells potentially explains mast cell accumulation in TH2-high asthmatic epithelium. PMID:20451039

  15. High fertility level in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T

    1997-08-01

    This article presents a profile of fertility patterns in Tibet Autonomous Region for 1989. Data were obtained from the 1982 and 1990 China Censuses and from a 1988 fertility and contraception survey. Findings indicate that the total fertility rate (TFR) was 4.36 children/woman in 1989. TFR in Tibet is higher than in other provinces with a Tibetan population. Tibetan TFR was 4.07 among Tibetan women in Qinghai, 3.30 in Sichuan, 3.0 in Yunnan, and 2.8 in Gansu. TFR was 2.16 in Tibet's towns and 1.82 in Lhasa city, compared to 4.57 in counties. In Tibet, the birth rate rose from 31.05/1000 in 1981, to 31.14 in 1989. Ngari prefecture had an even higher birth rate of 35.67 in 1989. Other Tibetan prefectures had lower birth rates. During 1982-89, the birth rate declined to 26.19 in Lhasa City, to 29.36 in Shannan prefecture, and to 27.09 in Nagqu prefecture. Tibet's TFR fluctuated during 1950-57 between 3.20 and 3.80. It rose after 1958, from 4.0 to over 5.0, and remained high at 4.22 in 1989. TFR increased from older to younger women. The average number of live births also increased from older to younger women. This unusual feature is linked with high infertility and the number of women remaining celibate. Infertility was 17.7% among women aged 60-64 years, 14.8% among women aged 55-59, and 12.2% among women aged 50-54. 45.29% of women had parities of 1-2 children, ranging from 85.21% in the city, 77.92% in towns, and 42.20% in rural areas. The percentage of Tibetan women having 4 or more children was 5.82% in the city, 10.14% in towns, and 42.91% in rural areas. TFR was reversely correlated with educational status. TFR was highest among illiterates and semiliterates (4.59) and lowest for college educated women (1.28). Illiterate and semi-literate women comprised 13% of women with 4 children. PMID:12321529

  16. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  17. Modulation of cGMP accumulation by adenosine A1 receptors at the hippocampus: influence of cGMP levels and gender.

    PubMed

    Serpa, André; Sebastião, Ana M; Cascalheira, José F

    2014-12-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor is highly expressed in hippocampus where it inhibits neurotransmitter release and has neuroprotective activity. Similar actions are obtained by increasing cGMP concentration, but a clear link between adenosine A1 receptor and cGMP levels remains to be established. The present work aims to investigate if cGMP formation is modulated by adenosine A1 receptors at the hippocampus and if this effect is gender dependent. cGMP accumulation, induced by phosphodiesterases inhibitors Zaprinast (100 μM) and Bay 60-7550 (10 μM), and cAMP accumulation, induced by Forskolin (20 μM) and Rolipram (50 μM), were quantified in rat hippocampal slices using specific enzymatic immunoassays. N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 100 nM) alone failed to modify basal cGMP accumulation. However, the presence of adenosine deaminase (ADA, 2 U/ml) unmasked a CPA (0.03-300 nM) stimulatory effect on basal cGMP accumulation (EC50: 4.2±1.4 nM; Emax: 17±0.9%). ADA influence on CPA activity was specific for cGMP, since inhibition of cAMP accumulation by CPA was not affected by the presence of ADA, though ADA inhibited cAMP accumulation in the absence of CPA. Increasing cGMP accumulation, by about four-fold, with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 100 μM) abolished the CPA (100 nM) effect on cGMP accumulation in males but did not modify the effect of CPA in female rats. This effect was reversed by 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 100 nM), indicating an adenosine A1 receptor mediated effect on cGMP accumulation. In conclusion, adenosine A1 receptors increase intracellular cGMP formation at hippocampus both in males and females under basal conditions, but only in females when cGMP levels are increased by SNP. PMID:25300679

  18. High hydrostatic pressure leads to free radicals accumulation in yeast cells triggering oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bravim, Fernanda; Mota, Mainã M; Fernandes, A Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular organism that during the fermentative process is exposed to a variable environment; hence, resistance to multiple stress conditions is a desirable trait. The stress caused by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in S. cerevisiae resembles the injuries generated by other industrial stresses. In this study, it was confirmed that gene expression pattern in response to HHP displays an oxidative stress response profile which is expanded upon hydrostatic pressure release. Actually, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration level increased in yeast cells exposed to HHP treatment and an incubation period at room pressure led to a decrease in intracellular ROS concentration. On the other hand, ethylic, thermic and osmotic stresses did not result in any ROS accumulation in yeast cells. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of genes related to methionine metabolism, appearing to be a specific cellular response to HHP, and not related to other stresses, such as heat and osmotic stresses. Next, we investigated whether enhanced oxidative stress tolerance leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. Overexpression of STF2 is known to enhance tolerance to oxidative stress and we show that it also leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. PMID:27388472

  19. A one-dimensional biomorphodynamic model of tidal flats: Sediment sorting, marsh distribution, and carbon accumulation under sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zeng; Ye, Qinghua; Coco, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    We develop a biomorphodynamic model to investigate sediment and vegetation dynamics on a schematic intertidal flat characterized by an initially well-mixed sand-mud mixture. Major interactions between tides, wind waves, salt marshes, sediment transport and sea level rise (SLR) are taken into account. For a bare flat under only tidal action, the model predicts a convex cross-shore profile with the surficial distribution of mud and sand on the upper and lower part of the intertidal flat, respectively. When wind waves are strong, the intertidal flat is highly eroded resulting in a concave profile near the high water mark. This behavior is pronouncedly altered when the intertidal flat is vegetated with the presence of salt marshes. Numerical results suggest that a considerable amount of mud can still remain in the vegetated region even when wave action is strong. A steeper transition zone forms at the boundary between salt marshes and bare flats because of the differential sediment deposition in the two neighboring regions. The inclusion of wind waves is found to considerably enhance the size of the marsh-edge transition zone. For the numerical experiments designed in this study, the profile shape and sediment sorting behavior of tidal flats are not significantly modified by a gradual rising sea level. However, the impacts of SLR on vegetated tidal flats are still manifold: (a) driving the landward migration of intertidal zone and salt marshes; (b) enhancing sediment erosion on intertidal flats; and (c) drowning salt marshes under limited sediment supply with the constrain of seawalls. Finally, model results suggest that organic carbon accumulation on marshlands may be enhanced with an increasing SLR rate provided that salt marshes are not drowned.

  20. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  1. Genetic suppression of a phosphomimic myosin II identifies system-level factors that promote myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yixin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Surcel, Alexandra; Miller, Christopher; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2014-01-01

    How myosin II localizes to the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium and metazoan cells remains largely unknown despite significant advances in understanding its regulation. We designed a genetic selection using cDNA library suppression of 3xAsp myosin II to identify factors involved in myosin cleavage furrow accumulation. The 3xAsp mutant is deficient in bipolar thick filament assembly, fails to accumulate at the cleavage furrow, cannot rescue myoII-null cytokinesis, and has impaired mechanosensitive accumulation. Eleven genes suppressed this dominant cytokinesis deficiency when 3xAsp was expressed in wild-type cells. 3xAsp myosin II's localization to the cleavage furrow was rescued by constructs encoding rcdBB, mmsdh, RMD1, actin, one novel protein, and a 14-3-3 hairpin. Further characterization showed that RMD1 is required for myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation, acting in parallel with mechanical stress. Analysis of several mutant strains revealed that different thresholds of myosin II activity are required for daughter cell symmetry than for furrow ingression dynamics. Finally, an engineered myosin II with a longer lever arm (2xELC), producing a highly mechanosensitive motor, could also partially suppress the intragenic 3xAsp. Overall, myosin II accumulation is the result of multiple parallel and partially redundant pathways that comprise a cellular contractility control system. PMID:25318674

  2. Identification of Leaf Proteins Differentially Accumulated between Wheat Cultivars Distinct in Their Levels of Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhiwei; Dong, Kun; Ge, Pei; Bian, Yanwei; Dong, Liwei; Deng, Xiong; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    The drought-tolerant 'Ningchun 47' (NC47) and drought-sensitive 'Chinese Spring' (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were treated with different PEG6000 concentrations at the three-leaf stage. An analysis on the physiological and proteomic changes of wheat seedling in response to drought stress was performed. In total, 146 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots were separated and recognised using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, 101 DAP spots representing 77 unique proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These proteins were allocated to 10 groups according to putative functions, which were mainly involved in carbon metabolism (23.4%), photosynthesis/respiration (22.1%) and stress/defence/detoxification (18.2%). Some drought stress-related proteins in NC47, such as enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, fibrillin-like protein, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 and 70-kDa heat shock protein, were more upregulated than those in CS. Multivariate principal components analysis revealed obvious differences between the control and treatments in both NC47 and CS, while cluster analysis showed that the DAPs displayed five and six accumulation patterns in NC47 and CS, respectively. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that some key DAPs, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein, 50S ribosomal protein L1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and 70-kDa heat shock protein, with upregulated accumulation in NC47, had complex interactions with other proteins related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism, energy pathway, signal transduction, stress/defence/detoxification, protein folding and nucleotide metabolism. These proteins could play important roles in drought-stress tolerance and contribute to the relatively stronger drought tolerance of NC47. PMID

  3. Identification of Leaf Proteins Differentially Accumulated between Wheat Cultivars Distinct in Their Levels of Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yanwei; Dong, Liwei; Deng, Xiong; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    The drought-tolerant ‘Ningchun 47’ (NC47) and drought-sensitive ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were treated with different PEG6000 concentrations at the three-leaf stage. An analysis on the physiological and proteomic changes of wheat seedling in response to drought stress was performed. In total, 146 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots were separated and recognised using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, 101 DAP spots representing 77 unique proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These proteins were allocated to 10 groups according to putative functions, which were mainly involved in carbon metabolism (23.4%), photosynthesis/respiration (22.1%) and stress/defence/detoxification (18.2%). Some drought stress-related proteins in NC47, such as enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, fibrillin-like protein, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 and 70-kDa heat shock protein, were more upregulated than those in CS. Multivariate principal components analysis revealed obvious differences between the control and treatments in both NC47 and CS, while cluster analysis showed that the DAPs displayed five and six accumulation patterns in NC47 and CS, respectively. Protein–protein interaction network analysis showed that some key DAPs, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein, 50S ribosomal protein L1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and 70-kDa heat shock protein, with upregulated accumulation in NC47, had complex interactions with other proteins related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism, energy pathway, signal transduction, stress/defence/detoxification, protein folding and nucleotide metabolism. These proteins could play important roles in drought-stress tolerance and contribute to the relatively stronger drought tolerance of NC47

  4. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. PMID:25461561

  5. Demise of reef-flat carbonate accumulation with late Holocene sea-level fall: Evidence from Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engels, M.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Field, M.; Conger, C.L.; Bochicchio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve cores from the protected reef-flat of Molokai revealed that carbonate sediment accumulation, ranging from 3 mm year-1 to less than 1 mm year-1, ended on average 2,500 years ago. Modern sediment is present as a mobile surface veneer but is not trapped within the reef framework. This finding is consistent with the arrest of deposition at the end of the mid-Holocene highstand, known locally as the "Kapapa Stand of the Sea," ???2 m above the present datum ca. 3,500 years ago in the main Hawaiian Islands. Subsequent erosion, non-deposition, and/or a lack of rigid binding were probable factors leading to the lack of reef-flat accumulation during the late Holocene sea-level fall. Given anticipated climate changes, increased sedimentation of reef-flat environments is to be expected as a consequence of higher sea level. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Accumulation of secondary metabolites in healthy and diseased barley, grown under future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, B L; Olsen, C E; Lyngkjær, M F

    2015-10-01

    Plants produce secondary metabolites promoting adaptation to changes in the environment and challenges by pathogenic microorganisms. A future climate with increased temperature and CO2 and ozone levels will likely alter the chemical composition of plants and thereby plant-pathogen interactions. To investigate this, barley was grown at elevated CO2, temperature and ozone levels as single factors or in combination resembling future climatic conditions. Increased basal resistance to the powdery mildew fungus was observed when barley was grown under elevated CO2, temperature and ozone as single factors. However, this effect was neutralized in the combination treatments. Twenty-five secondary metabolites were putatively identified in healthy and diseased barley leaves, including phenylpropanoids, phenolamides and hydroxynitrile glucosides. Accumulation of the compounds was affected by the climatic growth conditions. Especially elevated temperature, but also ozone, showed a strong impact on accumulation of many compounds, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in adaptation to unfavorable growth conditions. Many compounds were found to increase in powdery mildew diseased leaves, in correlation with a strong and specific influence of the climatic growth conditions. The observed disease phenotypes could not be explained by accumulation of single compounds. However, decreased accumulation of the powdery mildew associated defense compound p-coumaroylhydroxyagmatine could be implicated in the increased disease susceptibility observed when barley was grown under combination of elevated CO2, temperature and ozone. The accumulation pattern of the compounds in both healthy and diseased leaves from barley grown in the combination treatments could not be deduced from the individual single factor treatments. This highlights the complex role and regulation of secondary metabolites in plants' adaptation to unfavorable growth conditions. PMID:26343414

  7. Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Bhandari, Uma; Jamadagni, Shrirang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG) on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days+AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) from day 8 to 28), respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)) activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes. PMID:24868532

  8. Enhanced levels of nicotianamine promote iron accumulation and tolerance to calcareous soil in soybean.

    PubMed

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Kim, Suyoen; Kakei, Yusuke; Takahashi, Michiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient in both plants and humans. Fe deficiency on calcareous soil with low Fe availability is a major agricultural problem. Nicotianamine (NA) is one of the Fe chelator in plants, which is involved in metal translocation into seeds, and serves as an antihypertensive substance in humans. In this study, soybean plants overexpressing the barley NA synthase 1 (HvNAS1) gene driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic soybean showed no growth defect and grew normally. The NA content of transgenic soybean seeds was up to four-fold greater than that of non-transgenic (NT) soybean seeds. The level of HvNAS1 expression was positively correlated with the amount of NA, and a high concentration of NA was maintained in the seeds in succeeding generations. The Fe concentration was approximately two-fold greater in transgenic soybean seeds than in NT soybean seeds. Furthermore, the transgenic soybeans showed tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. Our results suggested that increasing the NA content in soybean seeds by the overexpression of HvNAS1 offers potential benefits for both human health and agricultural productivity. PMID:25047240

  9. Enhanced lipid accumulation of photoautotrophic microalgae by high-dose CO2 mimics a heterotrophic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Wu, Jun; He, Bing; Wang, Yuancong; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess higher photosynthetic efficiency and accumulate more neutral lipids when supplied with high-dose CO2. However, the nature of lipid accumulation under conditions of elevated CO2 has not been fully elucidated so far. We now revealed that the enhanced lipid accumulation of Chlorella in high-dose CO2 was as efficient as under heterotrophic conditions and this may be attributed to the driving of enlarged carbon source. Both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures were established by using Chlorella sorokiniana CS-1. A series of changes in the carbon fixation, lipid accumulation, energy conversion, and carbon-lipid conversion under high-dose CO2 (1-10%) treatment were characterized subsequently. The daily carbon fixation rate of C. sorokiniana LS-2 in 10% CO2 aeration was significantly increased compared with air CO2. Correspondingly, double oil content (28%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, close to 32.3% produced under heterotrophic conditions. In addition, with 10% CO2 aeration, the overall energy yield (Ψ) in Chlorella reached 12.4 from 7.3% (with air aeration) because of the enhanced daily carbon fixation rates. This treatment also improved the energetic lipid yield (Ylipid/Es) with 4.7-fold, tending to the heterotrophic parameters. More significantly, 2.2 times of carbon-lipid conversion efficiency (ηClipid/Ctotal, 42.4%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, towards to 53.7% in heterotrophic cultures, suggesting that more fixed carbon might flow into lipid synthesis under both 10% CO2 aeration and heterotrophic conditions. Taken together, all our evidence showed that 10% CO2 may push photoautotrophic Chlorella to display heterotrophic-like efficiency at least in lipid production. It might bring us an efficient model of lipid production based on microalgal cells with high-dose CO2, which is essential to sustain biodiesel production at large scales. PMID:26712624

  10. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  11. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  12. Effects of salicylic acid on thermotolerance and cardenolide accumulation under high temperature stress in Digitalis trojana Ivanina.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    Long periods of high temperature or transitory increased temperature, a widespread agricultural problem, may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield, affecting plant growth and development in many areas of the world. Heat stress causes many anatomical and physiological changes in plants. Its unfavorable effects can be alleviated by thermotolerance induced by exogenous application of plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants or by gradual application of temperature stress. Digitalis trojana Ivanina is an important medicinal plant species well known mainly for its cardenolides. The production of cardenolides via traditional agriculture is commercially inadequate. In this study, elicitation strategies were employed for improving crop thermotolerance and accumulation of cardenolides. For these purposes, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and/or high temperature treatments in inducing cardenolide accumulation and thermotolerance were tested in callus cultures of D. trojana. Considerable increases in the production of cardenolides (up to 472.28 μg.g(-1) dry weight, dw) and induction of thermotolerance capacity were observed when callus cultures were exposed to high temperature for 2 h after pretreating with SA. High temperature treatments (2 h and 4 h) caused a marked reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activities, while SA pretreatment increased their activities. High temperature and/or SA appeared to increase the levels of proline, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. Elevated phenolic accumulation could be associated with increased stress protection. These results indicated that SA treatments induced synthesis of antioxidants and cardenolides, which may play a significant role in resistance to high temperature stress. PMID:27105421

  13. Changes in Metabolite Levels in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and the Regulation of Malic Acid Accumulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, W; McAulay, A

    1977-03-01

    Changes in glucose-6-P, fructose-6-P, fructose-1,6-diP, 6-phospho-gluconate, phosphoenolpyruvate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and pyruvate levels in the leaves of the Crassulacean plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hammet et Perrier were measured enzymically during transitions from CO(2)-free air to air, air to CO(2)-free air, and throughout the course of acid accumulation in darkness. The data are discussed in terms of the involvement of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in malic acid synthesis and in terms of the regulation of the commencement of malic acid synthesis and accumulation through the effects of CO(2) on storage carbohydrate mobilization and its termination through the effects of malic acid on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. PMID:16659872

  14. Reflectance of litter accumulation levels at five wavelengths within the 0.5- to 2.5 micron waveband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Gausman, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance was measured for 1-m2 range grass plots with two canopy treatments (standing and clipped) and four levels of litter accumulation and for grain sorghum with two canopy treatments. Reflectance was significantly higher at the 0.65- to 1.65-, and 2.20-micrometer. Wavelengths for both grass and grain sorghum canopies when the canopies were clipped and the resulting litter was removed. The natural accumulation of litter under the grass canopy did not significantly affect reflectance. The 1.65- and 2.20-micrometer wavelength reflectances of the live grass and the intact litter were 21.8% and 16.2%, respectively, and those of grain sorghum were 21.8% and 16.5%, respectively.

  15. High nitrate to phosphorus ratio attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on net population carbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, S. A.; Eggers, S. L.; Matthiessen, B.

    2011-07-01

    The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and the consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton which potentially translates into altered carbon export. To date it remains unclear first, how nutrient ratio, in particular from coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation. Second, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into a net population response. In this study cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P ratios (Redfield and high N:P) and three different pCO2 levels. Effects on net population particulate inorganic and organic carbon (PIC, POC) were measured after E. huxleyi cultures reached stationary phase. Thereby cell sizes and total cell abundance were taken into account. Corresponding to literature results show a significant negative cellular PIC and POC response which, however, was strongest under high N:P ratio. In contrast, net population PIC and POC accumulation was significantly attenuated under high N:P ratio. We suggest that less cellular nutrient accumulation allowed for higher cell abundances which compensated for the strong negative cellular PIC and POC response to pCO2 on the population level. Moreover, the design of this study also allowed following natural alteration of carbon chemistry through changing DIC and alkalinity. Our results suggest that at high initial pCO2 natural alteration of pCO2 during the experimental runtime was regulated by algal biomass. In contrast, at low initial pCO2 the PIC/POC ratio was responsible for changes in pCO2. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular) PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore recommended to consider effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and translate these to net population carbon

  16. Molecular nitrogen in natural gas accumulations: Generation from sedimentary organic matter at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Littke, R.; Krooss, B.; Frielingsdorf, J.; Idiz, E.

    1995-03-01

    The occurrence of natural gas accumulations with high percentages (up to 100%) of molecular nitrogen in various hydrocarbon provinces represents a largely unresolved problem and a serious exploration risk. In this context, a geochemical and basin modeling study was performed to evaluate the potential of sedimentary organic matter to generate molecular nitrogen. The masses of nitrogen present in coals - if converted into molecular nitrogen - are sufficient to fill commercial gas reservoirs. A calculation for gas accumulations in northern Germany, where percentages of molecular nitrogen range from less than 5 to greater than 90%, reveals that the molecular nitrogen generated in underlying coal-bearing strata is sufficient to account for the nitrogen gas even in the largest fields. In addition, much of the total nitrogen in clay-rich rock types, such as shales and mudstones, is fixed in sedimentary organic matter and may add to the nitrogen generation capacity of the coals.

  17. T1 Relaxation Rate (R1) Indicates Nonlinear Mn Accumulation in Brain Tissue of Welders With Low-Level Exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Young; Flynn, Michael R; Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M; Fry, Rebecca; Herring, Amy H; Van Buren, Eric; Van Buren, Scott; Smeester, Lisa; Kong, Lan; Yang, Qing; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential element manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high doses, the effects of lower exposure are unclear. MRI T1-weighted (TIW) imaging has been used to estimate brain Mn exposure via the pallidal index (PI), defined as the T1W intensity ratio in the globus pallidus (GP) versus frontal white matter (FWM). PI may not, however, be sensitive to Mn in GP because Mn also may accumulate in FWM. This study explored: (1) whether T1 relaxation rate (R1) could quantify brain Mn accumulation more sensitively; and (2) the dose-response relationship between estimated Mn exposure and T1 relaxation rate (R1). Thirty-five active welders and 30 controls were studied. Occupational questionnaires were used to estimate hours welding in the past 90 days (HrsW) and lifetime measures of Mn exposure. T1W imaging and T1-measurement were utilized to generate PI and R1 values in brain regions of interest (ROIs). PI did not show a significant association with any measure of Mn and/or welding-related exposure. Conversely, in several ROIs, R1 showed a nonlinear relationship to HrsW, with R1 signal increasing only after a critical exposure was reached. The GP had the greatest rate of Mn accumulation. Welders with higher exposure showed significantly higher R1 compared either with controls or with welders with lower exposure. Our data are additional evidence that Mn accumulation can be assessed more sensitively by R1 than by PI. Moreover, the nonlinear relationship between welding exposure and Mn brain accumulation should be considered in future studies and policies. PMID:25953701

  18. T1 Relaxation Rate (R1) Indicates Nonlinear Mn Accumulation in Brain Tissue of Welders With Low-Level Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Flynn, Michael R.; Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Fry, Rebecca; Herring, Amy H.; Van Buren, Eric; Van Buren, Scott; Smeester, Lisa; Kong, Lan; Yang, Qing; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Although the essential element manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high doses, the effects of lower exposure are unclear. MRI T1-weighted (TIW) imaging has been used to estimate brain Mn exposure via the pallidal index (PI), defined as the T1W intensity ratio in the globus pallidus (GP) versus frontal white matter (FWM). PI may not, however, be sensitive to Mn in GP because Mn also may accumulate in FWM. This study explored: (1) whether T1 relaxation rate (R1) could quantify brain Mn accumulation more sensitively; and (2) the dose-response relationship between estimated Mn exposure and T1 relaxation rate (R1). Thirty-five active welders and 30 controls were studied. Occupational questionnaires were used to estimate hours welding in the past 90 days (HrsW) and lifetime measures of Mn exposure. T1W imaging and T1-measurement were utilized to generate PI and R1 values in brain regions of interest (ROIs). PI did not show a significant association with any measure of Mn and/or welding-related exposure. Conversely, in several ROIs, R1 showed a nonlinear relationship to HrsW, with R1 signal increasing only after a critical exposure was reached. The GP had the greatest rate of Mn accumulation. Welders with higher exposure showed significantly higher R1 compared either with controls or with welders with lower exposure. Our data are additional evidence that Mn accumulation can be assessed more sensitively by R1 than by PI. Moreover, the nonlinear relationship between welding exposure and Mn brain accumulation should be considered in future studies and policies. PMID:25953701

  19. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1-8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination. PMID:26648137

  20. P accumulation and physiological responses to different high P regimes in Polygonum hydropiper for understanding a P-phytoremediation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xizhou; Zheng, Zicheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) accumulators used for phytoremediation vary in their potential to acquire P from different high P regimes. Growth and P accumulation in Polygonum hydropiper were both dependent on an increasing level of IHP (1–8 mM P) and on a prolonged growth period (3-9 weeks), and those of the mining ecotype (ME) were higher than the non-mining ecotype (NME). Biomass increments in root, stem, and leaf of both ecotypes were significantly greater in IHP relative to other organic P (Po) sources (G1P, AMP, ATP), but lower than those in inorganic P (Pi) treatment (KH2PO4). P accumulation in the ME exceeded the NME from different P regimes. The ME demonstrated higher root activity compared to the NME grown in various P sources. Acid phosphatase (Apase) and phytase activities in root extracts of both ecotypes grown in IHP were comparable to that in Pi, or even higher in IHP. Higher secreted Apase and phytase activities were detected in the ME treated with different P sources relative to the NME. Therefore, the ME demonstrates higher P-uptake efficiency and it is a potential material for phytoextraction from P contaminated areas, irrespective of Pi or Po contamination. PMID:26648137

  1. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Workman, Samantha; Duffield, Kayla; Sprout, Danielle; Berhow, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks the Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis. The mutant is referred as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2 and has an albino phenotype due to its inability to import the photosynthetic proteins. In this study, we measured fatty acid composition and transcript levels of plastid-localized fatty acid desaturases in the wild type and ppi2 mutant. The objective was to evaluate whether the Toc159 receptor was critical in the import of lipid-synthesizing enzymes. The ppi2 mutant accumulated decreased levels of oleic acid (18:1) and α-linolenic acid (18:3). The mutant accumulated drastically reduced amounts of the chloroplast lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which contains more than 80% of 18:3. The expression of genes that encode stearoyl-ACP desaturase and MGD1 synthase were down-regulated in the ppi2 mutant, and this corresponded to decreased levels of 18:1 and MGDG, respectively. We conclude that in the ppi2 mutant the impaired synthesis of MGDG resulted in decreased amounts of 18:3. The mutant however, had a 30-fold increase in fad5 transcript levels; this increase was mirrored by a 16- to 50-fold accumulation of hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3), a fatty acid found exclusively in MGDG. Taken together, these data suggest that the Toc159 receptor is required in the import of stearoyl-ACP desaturase and MGD1 synthase into the chloroplasts. Since the expression of fad5 gene was up-regulated in the ppi2 mutant, we propose that fad5 desaturase is imported into plastids through the atToc132/atToc120 protein import pathway. PMID:24184455

  2. Surface potential due to charge accumulation during vacuum ultraviolet exposure for high-k and low-k dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, H.; Sinha, H.; Sehgal, A.; Nichols, M. T.; Shohet, J. L.; Antonelli, G. A.; Nishi, Y.

    2010-08-16

    The surface potential due to charge accumulation during vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of high-k and low-k thin dielectric films is measured. Measurement of the substrate current, which is the sum of the charge-accumulation and photoinjection currents, allows an in situ monitoring of the charge accumulation during irradiation. The relationship between the substrate current and the calculated in situ surface potential is also found, eliminating the need for a separate surface-potential measurement. With a high photon dose, the surface potential and substrate current reach a steady-state value with no further net charge accumulation.

  3. Rising Level of Public Exposure to Mobile Phones: Accumulation through Additivity and Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    2002-02-01

    A dramatic development occurring in our daily life is the increasing use of mobile equipment including mobile phones and wireless access to the Internet. They enable us to access several types of information more easily than in the past. Simultaneously, the density of mobile users is rapidly increasing. When hundreds of mobile phones emit radiation, their total power is found to be comparable to that of a microwave oven or a satellite broadcasting station. Thus, the question arises: what is the public exposure level in an area with many sources of electromagnetic wave emission? We show that this level can reach the reference level for general public exposure (ICNIRP Guideline) in daily life. This is caused by the fundamental properties of electromagnetic field, namely, reflection and additivity. The level of exposure is found to be much higher than that estimated by the conventional framework of analysis that assumes that the level rapidly decreases with the inverse square distance between the source and the affected person. A simple formula for the exposure level is derived by applying energetics to the electromagnetic field. The formula reveals a potential risk of intensive exposure.

  4. Trehalose accumulation induced during the oxidative stress response is independent of TPS1 mRNA levels in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; González-Párraga, Pilar; Pedreño, Yolanda; Alvarez-Peral, Francisco J; Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Growing cells of the Candida albicans trehalose-deficient mutant tps1/tps1 were extremely sensitive to severe oxidative stress exposure (H2O2). However, their viability was not affected after saline stress or heat-shock treatments, being roughly equivalent to that of the parental strain. In wild-type cells, these adverse conditions induced the intracellular accumulation of trehalose together with activation of trehalose-6P synthase, whereas the endogenous trehalose content and the corresponding biosynthetic activity were barely detectable in the tps1/tps1 mutant. The addition of cycloheximide did not prevent the marked induction of trehalose-6P synthase activity. Furthermore, the presence of H2O2 decreased the level of TPS1 mRNA expression. Hence, the conspicuous trehalose accumulation in response to oxidative stress is not induced by increased transcription of TPS1. Our results are consistent with a specific requirement of trehalose in order to withstand a severe oxidative stress in C. albicans, and suggest that trehalose accumulation observed under these conditions is a complex process that most probably involves post-translational modifications of the trehalose synthase complex. PMID:12783274

  5. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogs regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae. PMID:25741321

  6. Carbon accumulation rate of peatland in the High Arctic, Svalbard: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Uchida, Masaki; Sasaki, Akiko; Kondo, Miyuki; Yoshitake, Shinpei; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Moss tundra that accumulates a thick peat layer is one of the most important ecosystems in the High Arctic, Svalbard. The importance of this ecosystem for carbon sequestration was estimated from the apparent rates of carbon accumulation based on the 14C age and amount of peat in the active layer. The study site at Stuphallet, Brøgger Peninsula, northwestern Svalbard was covered with a thick peat layer dominated by moss species such as Calliergon richardsonii, Paludella squarrosa, Tomenthypnum nitens, and Warnstorfia exannulata. The average thickness of the active layer (brown moss and peat) was approximately 28 cm in 1 August 2011. The calibrated (cal) age of peat from the bottom of the active layer (20-30 cm below the peatland surface) ranged from 81 to 701 cal yr BP (median value of 2σ range). Based on the total carbon (4.5-9.2 kg C m-2), the apparent rate of carbon accumulation in the active layer was 9.0-19.2 (g C m-2 yr-1), which is similar to or greater than the net ecosystem production or net primary production reported for other vegetation types in this area. Our data suggest that moss tundra plays an important role in carbon sequestration in this area.

  7. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Egger, Matthias; Lenstra, Wytze; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip J R; Sapart, Célia J; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands), we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2-0.8 mol m-2 yr-1) during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50-170 nmol cm-3 d-1) both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1) reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years), thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1) allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic) methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments. PMID:27560511

  8. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Lenstra, Wytze; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Sapart, Célia J.; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands), we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2–0.8 mol m-2 yr-1) during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50–170 nmol cm-3 d-1) both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1) reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years), thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1) allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic) methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments. PMID:27560511

  9. An examination of the southern California field test for the systematic accumulation of the optical refraction error in geodetic leveling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Brown, B.W., Jr.; Gilmore, T.D.; Mark, R.K.; Wilson, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Appraisals of the two levelings that formed the southern California field test for the accumulation of the atmospheric refraction error indicate that random error and systematic error unrelated to refraction competed with the systematic refraction error and severely complicate any analysis of the test results. If the fewer than one-third of the sections that met less than second-order, class I standards are dropped, the divergence virtually disappears between the presumably more refraction contaminated long-sight-length survey and the less contaminated short-sight-length survey. -Authors

  10. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. PMID:27329221

  11. Measuring the effects of high CO₂ levels in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zuela, Noam; Friedman, Nurit; Zaslaver, Alon; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2014-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important molecule in cell metabolism. It is also a byproduct of many physiological processes. In humans, impaired lung function and lung diseases disrupt the body's ability to dispose of CO2 and elevate its levels in the body (hypercapnia). Animal models allow further understanding of how CO2 is sensed in the body and what are the physiological responses to high CO2 levels. This information can provide new strategies in the battle against the detrimental effects of CO2 accumulation in lung diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides us with such a model animal due to its natural ability to sense and navigate through varying concentrations of CO2, as well as the fact that it can be genetically manipulated with ease. Here we describe the different methods used to measure the effects elevated levels of CO2 have on the molecular sensing mechanism and physiology of C. elegans. PMID:24650565

  12. Characteristic of nitrous oxide production in partial denitrification process with high nitrite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production during the partial denitrification process with nitrate (NO3(-)-N) to nitrite (NO2(-)-N) transformation ratio of 80% was investigated in this study. Results showed that N2O was seldom observed before complete depletion of NO3(-)-N, but it was closely related to the reduction of NO2(-)-N rather than NO3(-)-N. High COD/NO3(-)-N was in favor of N2O production in partial denitrification with high NO2(-)-N accumulation. It was seriously enhanced at constant acidic pH due to the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. However, the N2O production was much lower at initial pH of 5.5 and 6.5 due to the pH increase during denitrification process. Significantly, the pH turning point could be chosen as a controlled parameter to denote the end of NO3(-)-N reduction, which could not only achieve high NO2(-)-N accumulation but also decrease the N2O production significantly for practical application. PMID:26760756

  13. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly…

  14. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production frommore » cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  15. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. Recalcitrant oligosaccharides in AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate accumulate to the extent of about 18–25 % of the total soluble sugars in the hydrolysate and 12–18 % of the total polysaccharides in the inlet biomass (untreated), equivalent to a yield loss of about 7–9 kg of monomeric sugars per 100 kg of inlet dry biomass (untreated). These oligosaccharides represent a yield loss and also inhibit commercial hydrolytic enzymes, with both being serious bottlenecks for economical biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Very little is understood about the nature of these oligomers and why they are recalcitrant to commercial enzymes. This work presents a robust method for separating recalcitrant oligosaccharides from high solid loading hydrolysate in gramme quantities. Composition analysis, recalcitrance study and enzyme inhibition study were performed to understand their chemical nature. Results indicate that, oligosaccharide accumulation occurs during high solid loading enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover (CS) irrespective of using different pretreated corn stover (dilute acid: DA, ionic liquids: IL, and ammonia fibre expansion: AFEX). The methodology for large-scale separation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides from 25 % solids-loading AFEXcorn stover hydrolysate using charcoal fractionation and size exclusion chromatography is reported for the first time. Oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP) were recalcitrant towards commercial enzyme mixtures [Ctec2, Htec2 and Multifect pectinase (MP)] compared to lower DP oligosaccharides. Enzyme inhibition studies using processed substrates (Avicel and xylan) showed that low DP oligosaccharides also inhibit commercial enzymes. Addition of monomeric sugars to oligosaccharides increases the

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) under nutrient starvation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Duckweed can thrive on anthropogenic wastewater and produce tremendous biomass production. Due to its relatively high starch and low lignin percentage, duckweed is a good candidate for bioethanol fermentation. Previous studies have observed that water devoid of nutrients is good for starch accumulation, but its molecular mechanism remains unrevealed. Results This study globally analyzed the response to nutrient starvation in order to investigate the starch accumulation in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). L. punctata was transferred from nutrient-rich solution to distilled water and sampled at different time points. Physiological measurements demonstrated that the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the key enzyme of starch synthesis, as well as the starch percentage in duckweed, increased continuously under nutrient starvation. Samples collected at 0 h, 2 h and 24 h time points respectively were used for comparative gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq. A comprehensive transcriptome, comprising of 74,797 contigs, was constructed by a de novo assembly of the RNA-Seq reads. Gene expression profiling results showed that the expression of some transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis was up-regulated, while the expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in starch consumption were down-regulated, the expression of some photosynthesis-related transcripts were down-regulated during the first 24 h, and the expression of some transporter transcripts were up-regulated within the first 2 h. Very interestingly, most transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were highly expressed regardless of starvation, while transcripts encoding laccase, the last rate-limiting enzyme of lignifications, exhibited very low expression abundance in all three samples. Conclusion Our study provides a comprehensive expression profiling of L. punctata under nutrient starvation, which indicates that nutrient starvation down

  17. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  18. Low Level Chlorpyrifos Exposure Increases Anandamide Accumulation in Juvenile Rat Brain in the Absence of Brain Cholinesterase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Russell L.; Graves, Casey A.; Mangum, Lee C.; Nail, Carole A.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The prevailing dogma is that chlorpyrifos (CPF) mediates its toxicity through inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE). However, in recent years, the toxicological effects of developmental CPF exposure have been attributed to an unknown non-cholinergic mechanism of action. We hypothesize that the endocannabinoid system may be an important target because of its vital role in nervous system development. We have previously reported that repeated exposure to CPF results in greater inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), than inhibition of either forebrain ChE or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). This exposure resulted in the accumulation of 2-AG and AEA in the forebrain of juvenile rats; however, even at the lowest dosage level used (1.0 mg/kg), forebrain ChE inhibition was still present. Thus, it is not clear if FAAH activity would be inhibited at dosage levels that do not inhibit ChE. To determine this, 10 day old rat pups were exposed daily for 7 days to either corn oil or 0.5 mg/kg CPF by oral gavage. At 4 and 12 h post-exposure on the last day of administration, the activities of serum ChE and carboxylesterase (CES) and forebrain ChE, MAGL, and FAAH were determined as well as the forebrain AEA and 2-AG levels. Significant inhibition of serum ChE and CES was present at both 4 and 12 h. There was no significant inhibition of the activities of forebrain ChE or MAGL and no significant change in the amount of 2-AG at either time point. On the other hand, while no statistically significant effects were observed at 4 h, FAAH activity was significantly inhibited at 12 h resulting in a significant accumulation of AEA. Although it is not clear if this level of accumulation impacts brain maturation, this study demonstrates that developmental CPF exposure at a level that does not inhibit brain ChE can alter components of

  19. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. PMID:26041210

  20. High levan accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase gene.

    PubMed

    Banguela, Alexander; Arrieta, Juan G; Rodríguez, Raisa; Trujillo, Luis E; Menéndez, Carmen; Hernández, Lázaro

    2011-06-10

    Bacterial levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) converts sucrose into non-linear levan consisting of long β(2,6)-linked fructosyl chains with β(2,1) branches. Bacterial levan has wide food and non-food applications, but its production in industrial reactors is costly and low yielding. Here, we report the constitutive expression of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase (LsdA) fused to the vacuolar targeting pre-pro-peptide of onion sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in tobacco, a crop that does not naturally produce fructans. In the transgenic plants, levan with degree of polymerization above 10(4) fructosyl units was detected in leaves, stem, root, and flowers, but not in seeds. High levan accumulation in leaves led to gradual phenotypic alterations that increased with plant age through the flowering stage. In the transgenic lines, the fructan content in mature leaves varied from 10 to 70% of total dry weight. No oligofructans were stored in the plant organs, although the in vitro reaction of transgenic LsdA with sucrose yielded β(2,1)-linked FOS and levan. Transgenic lines with levan representing up to 30mgg(-1) of fresh leaf weight produced viable seeds and the polymer accumulation remained stable in the tested T1 and T2 progenies. The lsdA-expressing tobacco represents an alternative source of highly polymerized levan. PMID:21540065

  1. Image analysis of bioparticles accumulation and diamagnetic alignment in high-gradient magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Norina, Svetlana B; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jungdae; Cho, Sungil; Shalygin, A N; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic properties of biological particles are measured in high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) analysis, revealing the concentrating process of nucleoprotein particles, ferritin, red blood cells, and eggs. A magnetic force acting on micrometer and submicrometer biological particles having diamagnetic or paramagnetic susceptibility with respect to the solution causes their movement and accumulation in gradient magnetic fields dependent on the values of the magnetic moments. The methods developed enable us to obtain the magnetic moments values of single particles and their assembly directly from magnetic separation and image analyses without assuming the detection of sizes. Our precision methods for the measurement of the capture traveling (magnetic diffusion) time and the accumulation (magnetic sedimentation) radius in HGMS show that it is really possible to determine the weak dia- or paramagnetic shifts of magnetic susceptibility up to 0.7x10(-10) (SI units). HGMS analysis of the concentrating process of nucleoprotein granules (microcells, DNA granules, or nucleosome core particles) with polarization microscopy reveals phase transitions for DNA in granules, and separation accumulation of particles enables the determination of the diamagnetic susceptibility and anisotropy properties. Magnetic concentration effects always occur in living systems because micrometer-located gradient magnetic fields inside an organism are strong enough to cause drifts of cellular complexes and organelles of micrometer and submicrometer sizes. We report the appearance of superparamagnetic contamination inside developing shrimp eggs. In the developing shrimps eggs, ferritin aggregates are observed under weak gradient magnetic fields and diaparaferromagnetic changes are detected. A significant interruption of egg development is revealed in such fields. PMID:16292954

  2. Pallidal Index as Biomarker of Manganese Brain Accumulation and Associated with Manganese Levels in Blood: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuang; Huang, Yan-Ni; Li, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Jing-Wen; Li, Yong; Luo, Hai-Lan; Wang, Fang; Ou, Shi-Yan; Jiang, Yue-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity, feasibility, and effectiveness of the pallidal index (PI) serving as a biomarker of brain manganese (Mn) accumulation, which would be used as an early diagnosis criteria for Mn neurotoxicity. Methods The weighted mean difference (WMD) of the PI between control and Mn-exposed groups was estimated by using a random-effects or fixed-effects meta-analysis with 95% confidence interval (CI) performed by STATA software version 12.1. Moreover, the R package “metacor” was used to estimate correlation coefficients between PI and blood Mn (MnB). Results A total of eight studies with 281 occupationally Mn-exposed workers met the inclusion criteria. Results were pooled and performed with the Meta-analysis. Our data indicated that the PI of the exposed group was significantly higher than that of the control (WMD: 7.76; 95% CI: 4.86, 10.65; I2 = 85.7%, p<0.0001). A random effects model was used to perform meta-analysis. These findings were remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis, and publication bias was shown in the included studies. Seven out of the eight studies reported the Pearson correlation (r) values. Significantly positive correlation between PI and MnB was observed (r = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31, 0.52). Conclusions PI can be considered as a sensitive, feasible, effective and semi-quantitative index in evaluating brain Mn accumulation. MnB can also augment the evaluation of brain Mn accumulation levels in the near future. However, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24718592

  3. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  4. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  5. High-level waste processing and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

  6. Contemporary deposition and long-term accumulation of sediment and nutrients by tidal freshwater forested wetlands impacted by sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary deposition (artificial marker horizon, 3.5 years) and long-term accumulation rates (210Pb profiles, ~150 years) of sediment and associated carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were measured in wetlands along the tidal Savannah and Waccamaw rivers in the southeastern USA. Four sites along each river spanned an upstream-to-downstream salinification gradient, from upriver tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW), through moderately and highly salt-impacted forested wetlands, to oligohaline marsh downriver. Contemporary deposition rates (sediment, C, N, and P) were greatest in oligohaline marsh and lowest in TFFW along both rivers. Greater rates of deposition in oligohaline and salt-stressed forested wetlands were associated with a shift to greater clay and metal content that is likely associated with a change from low availability of watershed-derived sediment to TFFW and to greater availability of a coastal sediment source to oligohaline wetlands. Long-term accumulation rates along the Waccamaw River had the opposite spatial pattern compared to contemporary deposition, with greater rates in TFFW that declined to oligohaline marsh. Long-term sediment and elemental mass accumulation rates also were 3–9× lower than contemporary deposition rates. In comparison to other studies, sediment and associated nutrient accumulation in TFFW are lower than downriver/estuarine freshwater, oligohaline, and salt marshes, suggesting a reduced capacity for surface sedimentation (short-term) as well as shallow soil processes (long-term sedimentation) to offset sea level rise in TFFW. Nonetheless, their potentially large spatial extent suggests that TFFW have a large impact on the transport and fate of sediment and nutrients in tidal rivers and estuaries.

  7. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-01-01

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4(+) into NO3(-) subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3(-) accumulation and loss. We found that 87-92% of the applied (15)N-labelled NH4(+) was rapidly recovered as NO3(-) since day 3 and only 2-4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3(-) but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between (15)N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn't decrease soil total NO3(-) accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself. PMID:26868028

  8. Inhibitory effect of mineral ion accumulation on high density growth of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Park, C B; Lee, S B

    1999-01-01

    A fed-batch operation for high density cultivation of Sulfolobus solfataricus (DSM 1617) in a bench-top fermentor using a feed medium composed of glucose and yeast extract was investigated. The highest maximal cell density obtained in controlled fed-batch cultures was 21.7 g/l. Although higher yeast extract concentrations in the medium favored greater cell biomass yield, cell growth ceased with low cell densities. It was observed that large amounts of inorganic ions, such as sulfate, ammonium, potassium and phosphate ions, were accumulated in the culture broth at higher yeast extract concentrations. This was due to either the addition of the titrant or feeding of yeast extract during cultivation. Fed-batch cultures with additional mineral salts in the feed medium showed much lower cell biomass, indicating that accumulation of inorganic ions has a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. solfataricus. Inhibition of cell growth by the presence of mineral ions was further confirmed by the batch culture experiments. Some plausible mechanisms which can account for the growth inhibition at higher mineral ion concentrations have been suggested. PMID:16232474

  9. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-02-01

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4+ into NO3- subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3- accumulation and loss. We found that 87-92% of the applied 15N-labelled NH4+ was rapidly recovered as NO3- since day 3 and only 2-4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3- but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between 15N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn’t decrease soil total NO3- accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself.

  10. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-01-01

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4+ into NO3− subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3− accumulation and loss. We found that 87–92% of the applied 15N-labelled NH4+ was rapidly recovered as NO3− since day 3 and only 2–4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3− but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between 15N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn’t decrease soil total NO3− accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself. PMID:26868028

  11. Emodin ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanni; Chang, Shufang; Dong, Jie; Zhu, Shenyin; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Juan; Long, Rui; Zhou, Yuanda; Cui, Jianyu; Zhang, Ye

    2016-06-01

    Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum, has been reported to have promising anti-diabetic activity. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of emodin to ameliorate insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding a high fat diet to Sprague-Dawley rats. The blood glucose and lipid profiles in serum were measured by an enzymatic method, and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was used to evaluate insulin resistance. L6 cells were cultured and treated with palmitic acid and emodin. The lipid content was assayed in the soleus muscle and L6 cells by Oil Red O staining. Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the following in the rat soleus muscle and L6 cells: protein levels, mRNA levels of FATP1, FATP4, transporter fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid protein (FABPpm). We found that blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased in the emodin group. Oil Red O staining and the level of TG in skeletal muscle and L6 cells confirmed that lipid deposition decreased after treatment with emodin. Furthermore, the protein levels and mRNA levels of FATP1 in skeletal muscle and in L6 cells of rats were significantly decreased, yet the protein levels and mRNA levels of FATP4, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm did not drop off significantly. The study suggest that emodin ameliorates insulin resistance by reducing FATP1-mediated skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in rats fed a high fat diet. PMID:27020550

  12. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  13. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  14. Overexpression of UV-DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 links plant development and phytonutrient accumulation in high pigment-1 tomato

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Raviv; Reuveni, Moshe; Evenor, Dalia; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Levin, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    Fruits of tomato plants carrying the high pigment-1 mutations hp-1 and hp-1w are characterized by an increased number of plastids coupled with enhanced levels of functional metabolites. Unfortunately, hp-1 mutant plants are also typified by light-dependent retardation in seedling and whole-plant growth and development, which limits their cultivation. These mutations were mapped to the gene encoding UV-DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (DDB1) and, recently, fruit-specific RNA interference studies have demonstrated an increased number of plastids and enhanced carotenoid accumulation in the transgenic tomato fruits. However, whole-plant overexpression of DDB1, required to substantiate its effects on seedling and plant development and to couple them with fruit phenotypes, has heretofore been unsuccessful. In this study, five transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing normal DDB1 in hp-1 mutant plants were analysed. Eleven-day-old seedlings, representing these lines, displayed up to ∼73- and ∼221-fold overexpression of the gene in hypocotyls and cotyledons, respectively. This overexpression resulted in statistically significant reversion to the non-mutant developmental phenotypes, including more than a full quantitative reversion. This reversion of phenotypes was generally accompanied by correlated responses in chlorophyll accumulation and altered expression of selected light signalling genes: PHYTOCHROME A, CRYPTOCHROME 1, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5, and the gene encoding CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEIN 4. Cumulatively, these results provide the missing link between DDB1 and its effects on tomato plant development. PMID:20566564

  15. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  16. Butyrylcholinesterase Deficiency Promotes Adipose Tissue Growth and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Male Mice on High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Stout, Michael B; Jensen, Michael D; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Despite numerous reports of relationships between weight gain and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), this enzyme's role in the genesis of obesity remains unclear, but recent research points to strong links with ghrelin, the "hunger hormone." The availability of BChE knockout (KO) mice provides an opportunity to clarify the causal relationship between BChE and obesity onset. We now find that young KO mice have abnormally high plasma ghrelin levels that slowly decline during long-term high-fat feeding and ultimately drop below those in wild-type mice. On such a diet, the KO mice gained notably more weight, more white fat, and more hepatic fat than wild-type animals. In addition to a greater burden of hepatic triglycerides, the livers of these KO mice show distinctly higher levels of inflammatory markers. Finally, their energy expenditure proved to be lower than in wild-type mice despite similar activity levels and increased caloric intake. A gene transfer of mouse BChE with adeno-associated virus vector restored nearly all aspects of the normal phenotype. Our results indicate that BChE strongly affects fat metabolism, has an important impact on fat accumulation, and may be a promising tool for combating obesity. PMID:27300766

  17. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae. PMID:22938823

  18. Cinnamaldehyde supplementation prevents fasting-induced hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Jain, Yachna; Baboota, Ritesh K; Mangal, Priyanka; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Sharma, Shyam S; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi K; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive component of cinnamon, is increasingly gaining interest for its preventive and therapeutic effects against metabolic complications like type-2 diabetes. This study is an attempt to understand the effect of cinnamaldehyde in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated increase in fasting-induced hyperphagia and related hormone levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and inflammation, and selected cecal microbial count in mice. Cinnamaldehyde, at 40 µm dose, prevented lipid accumulation and altered gene expression toward lipolytic phenotype in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines. In vivo, cinnamaldehyde coadministration prevented HFD-induced body weight gain, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, as well as circulating leptin and leptin/ghrelin ratio. In addition to that, cinnamaldehyde altered serum biochemical parameters related to lipolysis, that is, glycerol and free fatty acid levels. At transcriptional level, cinnamaldehyde increased anorectic gene expression in hypothalamus and lipolytic gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde also decreased serum IL-1β and inflammatory gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. However, cinnamaldehyde did not modulate the population of selected gut microbial (Lactobacillus, Bifidibaceria, and Roseburia) count in cecal content. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde increased adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, normalized circulating levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio, and reduced inflammation in HFD-fed mice, which augurs well for its antiobesity role. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(2):201-211, 2016. PMID:26893251

  19. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response. PMID:26805879

  20. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response. PMID:26805879

  1. Moderate hypothermia induces marked increase in levels and nuclear accumulation of SUMO2/3-conjugated proteins in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liangli; Ma, Qing; Yang, Wei; Mackensen, G. Burkhard; Paschen, Wulf

    2012-01-01

    Deep hypothermia protects the brain from ischemic damage and is therefore used during major cardiovascular surgeries requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and a period of circulatory arrest. Here, we demonstrated that small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO1-3) conjugation is markedly activated in the brain during deep to moderate hypothermia. Animals were subjected to normothermic (37°C) or deep to moderate (18°C, 24°C, 30°C) hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and the effects of hypothermia on SUMO conjugation were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Exposure to moderate 30°C hypothermia was sufficient to markedly increased levels and nuclear accumulation of SUMO2/3-conjugated proteins in these cells. Deep hypothermia induced nuclear translocation of the SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9, suggesting that the increase in nuclear levels of SUMO2/3-conjugated proteins observed in brains of hypothermic animals is an active process. Exposure of primary neuronal cultures to deep hypothermia induced only a moderate rise in levels of SUMO2/3-conjugated proteins. This suggests that neurons in vivo have a higher capacity than neurons in vitro to activate this endogenous potentially neuroprotective pathway upon exposure to hypothermia. Identifying proteins that are SUMO2/3 conjugated during hypothermia could help to design new strategies for preventive and therapeutic interventions to make neurons more resistant to a transient interruption of blood supply. PMID:22891650

  2. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  3. Elevated Plasma Level of Interferon-λ1 in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Upregulated Expression in CD8+ and Epithelial Cells and Induction of Inflammatory Cell Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. F.; Gao, X. Q.; Xu, Y. N.; Li, D. N.; Wang, H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Interferon- (IFN-) λ1 is regarded as a potent bio-active molecule in innate immunity. However, little is known about its role in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We therefore investigated expression of IFN-λ1 in CSU, its cellular location, and its influence on inflammatory cell accumulation by using flow cytometry analysis, skin tissue dispersion, immunohistochemical stain, and a mouse peritoneal inflammation model. The results showed that level of IFN-λ1 was 2.0-fold higher in plasma of the patients with CSU than the level in healthy control (HC) subjects. Among leukocytes examined, only CD8+ T cells expressed more IFN-λ1 in CSU blood. Double labeling immunohistochemical staining revealed that IFN-λ1+ inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, B cells, neutrophils, and macrophages were mainly located in dermis, whereas epidermis tissue highly expressed IFN-λ1. IFN-λ1 induced a dose-dependent increase in number of eosinophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils in the peritoneum of mice at 6 h following injection, which was inhibited by pretreatment of the animals with anti-intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM-) 1 and/or anti-L-selectin antibodies. In conclusion, IFN-λ1 is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of CSU. Blocking IFN-λ1 production may help to reduce the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the involved CSU skin. PMID:27445435

  4. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  5. Plants tolerant of high boron levels.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Omori, Hiroyuki; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2007-11-30

    Reduced crop productivity due to soils containing toxic levels of boron (B) is a worldwide problem in food production. It is estimated that up to 17% of the barley yield losses in southern Australia are caused by B toxicity. We found that the expression of AtBOR4, an Arabidopsis paralog of BOR1, the first identified boron transporter gene, generates plants that are tolerant of high B levels. BOR4 is a polarly localized borate exporter that enhances B efflux from roots. The present study is a foundation for the improvement of crop productivity in soils containing excess B, which are distributed in arid areas of the world. PMID:18048682

  6. Accumulation of PrLeg, a Perilla legumin protein in potato tuber results in enhanced level of sulphur-containing amino acids.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young-Min; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Min-Kyung; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2013-09-01

    Potato is the fourth staple food in the world, following rice, wheat, and maize, whereas tubers contain high quality of starch, relatively high amounts of vitamin C and many other important substances. It also contains relatively good quality of protein (about 3 to 6% of the dried weight) and patatin, and 11S globulin is a major storage protein with high level of lysine. However, tuber protein contains relatively low amounts of sulphur-containing amino acids, which may result in low nutritional value. Recently, we cloned a gene encoding PrLeg polypeptide, a seed storage protein from Perilla, which contains relatively higher levels of sulphur-containing amino acids. We transformed PrLeg cDNA into a potato plant to over-express under the direction of the tuber-specific promoter, patatin. Most of the transgenic lines identified through PCR and RT-PCR analyses were able to accumulate high amount of prLeg transcript in their tuber tissue, while very little or no transcript that were detected in their leaf tissues. The level of methionine content was elevated up to three-fold compared to non-transgenic parental line, without any significant changes in other amino acids, suggesting that further research is required to get a deeper insight into their nutritional value. PMID:24161240

  7. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  8. Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

  9. An Arabidopsis Mutant Tolerant to Lethal Ultraviolet-B Levels Shows Constitutively Elevated Accumulation of Flavonoids and Other Phenolics1

    PubMed Central

    Bieza, Kim; Lois, Rodrigo

    2001-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants hypersensitive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a powerful tool to learn about the mechanisms that protect plants against UV-induced damage. To increase our understanding of the various mechanisms of defense against UVB radiation, we searched for mutations that would increase the level of tolerance of Arabidopsis plants to UV radiation. We describe a single gene dominant mutation (uvt1) that leads to a remarkable tolerance to UVB radiation conditions that would kill wild-type plants. Pigment analyses show a constitutive increase in accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds in uvt1 that increases the capacity of the leaves to block UVB radiation and therefore is likely to be responsible for the elevated resistance of this mutant to UVB radiation. These increases in absorption in the UV region are due, at least in part, to increases in flavonoid and sinapate accumulation. Expression of chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA was shown to be constitutively elevated in uvt1 plants, suggesting that the increases in absorption may be a consequence of changes in gene expression. Expression of CHS in uvt1 was shown to be still inducible by UV, indicating that the uvt1 lesion may not affect the UV-mediated regulation of CHS gene expression. Our data support an important role for UV screens in the overall protection of plants to UVB radiation. The uvt1 mutant could prove to be an important tool to elucidate further the exact role of UV-absorbing pigments in UV protection as well as the relative contribution of other mechanisms to the overall tolerance of plants to UV radiation. PMID:11457961

  10. High level intelligent control of telerobotics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James

    1988-01-01

    A high level robot command language is proposed for the autonomous mode of an advanced telerobotics system and a predictive display mechanism for the teleoperational model. It is believed that any such system will involve some mixture of these two modes, since, although artificial intelligence can facilitate significant autonomy, a system that can resort to teleoperation will always have the advantage. The high level command language will allow humans to give the robot instructions in a very natural manner. The robot will then analyze these instructions to infer meaning so that is can translate the task into lower level executable primitives. If, however, the robot is unable to perform the task autonomously, it will switch to the teleoperational mode. The time delay between control movement and actual robot movement has always been a problem in teleoperations. The remote operator may not actually see (via a monitor) the results of high actions for several seconds. A computer generated predictive display system is proposed whereby the operator can see a real-time model of the robot's environment and the delayed video picture on the monitor at the same time.

  11. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  12. Transcript level coordination of carbon pathways during silicon starvation-induced lipid accumulation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah R; Glé, Corine; Abbriano, Raffaela M; Traller, Jesse C; Davis, Aubrey; Trentacoste, Emily; Vernet, Maria; Allen, Andrew E; Hildebrand, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. To characterize the transcript level component of metabolic regulation, genome-wide changes in transcript abundance were documented in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana on a time-course of silicon starvation. Growth, cell cycle progression, chloroplast replication, fatty acid composition, pigmentation, and photosynthetic parameters were characterized alongside lipid accumulation. Extensive coordination of large suites of genes was observed, highlighting the existence of clusters of coregulated genes as a key feature of global gene regulation in T. pseudonana. The identity of key enzymes for carbon metabolic pathway inputs (photosynthesis) and outputs (growth and storage) reveals these clusters are organized to synchronize these processes. Coordinated transcript level responses to silicon starvation are probably driven by signals linked to cell cycle progression and shifts in photophysiology. A mechanistic understanding of how this is accomplished will aid efforts to engineer metabolism for development of algal-derived biofuels. PMID:26844818

  13. The effect of dietary curcumin and capsaicin on hepatic fetuin-A expression and fat accumulation in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Öner-İyidoğan, Yıldız; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Koçak, Hikmet; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2016-05-01

    Effects of curcumin (turmeric) and capsaicin (red pepper) on hepatic fat accumulation and fetuin-A expression in rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) is aimed to be investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received HFD (60% of total calories from fat) and 0.15 g capsaicin/kg HFD and/or 1.5 g curcumin/kg HFD for 16 weeks. Hepatic AMPK, p-AMPK and fetuin-A expressions were determined by western blotting, liver lipid levels were measured with colorimetric methods and serum fetuin-A, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels were detected using commercial ELISA kits. HFD increased hepatic lipid levels, fetuin-A expression and serum leptin, insülin and fetuin-A levels. Curcumin and capsaicin treatments significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation and leptin levels; liver fetuin-A expression was decreased significantly by the curcumin treatment. Curcumin and capsaicin treatments attenuated hepatic fat accumulation and increased leptin levels related to inflammation. The suppression of hepatic fetuin-A expression is observed to be especially sensitive to curcumin. PMID:26706937

  14. Application of cyclic damage accumulation life prediction model to high temperature components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A high temperature, low cycle fatigue life prediction method was developed. This method, Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA), was developed for use in predicting the crack initiation lifetime of gas turbine engine materials, but it can be applied to other materials as well. The method is designed to account for the effects on creep-fatigue life of complex loading such as thermomechanical fatigue, hold periods, waveshapes, mean stresses, multiaxiality, cumulative damage, coatings, and environmental attack. Several features of this model were developed to make it practical for application to actual component analysis, such as the ability to handle nonisothermal loading (including TMF), arbitrary cycle paths, and multiple damage modes. The CDA life prediction model was derived from extensive specimen tests conducted on cast nickel-base superalloy B1900 + Hf. These included both monotonic tests (tensile and creep) and strain-controlled fatigue experiments (uniaxial, biaxial, TMF, mixed creep-fatigue, and controlled mean stress). Additional specimen tests were conducted on wrought INCO 718 to verify the applicability of the final CDA model to other high-temperature alloys. The model will be available to potential users in the near future in the form of a FORTRAN-77 computer program.

  15. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-11-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  16. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  17. Hepatic oxidative stress and catalyst metals accumulation in goldfish exposed to carbon nanotubes under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinghao; Qu, Ruijuan; Huang, Qingguo; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three different carbon nanotubes [single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs), and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs)] on antioxidant parameters and metals accumulation in the liver of Carassius auratus. A semi-static test system was used to expose C. auratus to either a freshwater control, 0.1, or 0.5mg/L CNTs at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, and 9.0) for 3 and 12 days. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver on the 3rd and 12th day. The results showed that there was a significant increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in fish exposed to CNTs, indicating that CNTs exposure induces an oxidative stress response in fish. According to integrated biomarker response (IBR) index, the effect of these three CNTs on liver can be ordered as SWCNTs>OH-MWCNTs>COOH-MWCNTs and they are more toxic to fish in an alkaline environment. Moreover, the concentrations of catalyst metals (Co, Ni, and Mo) and bioelements (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se) in liver were changed, depending on the CNTs concentration, the pH level, and the exposure duration. Generally, all CNTs groups showed that catalyst metals could be concentrated significantly into the liver of fish, and changes in hepatic Cu, Zn, Fe, and Se contents are consistent with the activity of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25625523

  18. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. PMID:27136060

  19. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability. PMID:27348198

  20. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  1. Rare Earth Ion Mediated Fluorescence Accumulation on a Single Microbead: An Ultrasensitive Strategy for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity at the Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Chenghui; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Hui; Li, Zhengping

    2015-12-01

    A single microbead-based fluorescence imaging (SBFI) strategy that enables detection of protein kinase activity from single cell lysates is reported. We systematically investigated the ability of various rare earth (RE) ions, immobilized on the microbead, for specific capturing of kinase-induced phosphopeptides, and Dy(3+) was found to be the most prominent one. Through the efficient concentration of kinase-induced fluorescent phosphopeptides on a Dy(3+) -functionalized single microbead, kinase activity can be detected and quantified by reading the fluorescence on the microbead with a confocal fluorescence microscope. Owing to the extremely specific recognition of Dy(3+) towards phosphopeptides and the highly-concentrated fluorescence accumulation on only one microbead, ultrahigh sensitivity has been achieved for the SBFI strategy which allows direct kinase analysis at the single-cell level. PMID:26482714

  2. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26880924

  3. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  4. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  5. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  6. The effects of high level infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

  7. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  8. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  9. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  10. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Alving, Carl R; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+) T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5(+)PD-1(++)) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5(+)PD-1(+)) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer's patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  11. Crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit currents in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Loo, D D; Diamond, J M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a condition in rabbits characterized by CaCO3 crystal accumulation and very high short-circuit current (Isc) in the urinary bladder. The incidence of the condition was high in rabbits kept for 2 mo or more in the vivarium. The crystal mass in the bladder increased with age or time until it occupied up to one-third of the bladder volume and occasionally aggregated as stones, and the urine attained a sludgy consistency. In animals with sludgy urine, the urine excreted had a crystal content 20 times lower than that of urine contained in the bladder at time of death, implying retention of crystals in the bladder. Kidney stones were not detected in rabbits with bladder crystals, and bladder crystals were absent in rabbits with kidney stones induced experimentally by uremia. In old rabbits with sludgy urine the Isc, a measure of Na+ transport, was up to 46 microA/cm2 and averaged 12 microA/cm2, seven times the Isc of rabbits with nonsludgy urine. The increased Isc was entirely amiloride sensitive. Noise analysis showed it to arise entirely from increased channel density, without change in single-channel current. With one possible exception, we could not find bacterial infection or abnormalities in plasma aldosterone, GFR, or urinary [Na+], [Ca2+], pH, or osmolality that could explain the condition. The exception is that some unidentified component accounting for half the osmolality of nonsludgy urine is absent or at low concentration in sludgy urine. It remains unknown why the condition develops and whether CaCO3 crystals cause high Isc or vice versa or whether both result from a third factor. PMID:3970165

  12. Effect of High Temperature on Albumin and Globulin Accumulation in the Endosperm Proteome of the Developing Wheat Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high temperature during grain fill on the accumulation of KCl-soluble/methanol-insoluble albumins and globulins was investigated in the endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. cv. Butte 86) grain. Plants were grown under a moderate (24°C/17°C, day/night) or a high temperat...

  13. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  14. Monitoring of Wet Snow and Accumulations at High Alpine Glaciers Using Radar Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendleder, A.; Heilig, A.; Schmitt, A.; Mayer, C.

    2015-04-01

    Conventional studies to assess the annual mass balance for glaciers rely on single point observations in combination with model and interpolation approaches. Just recently, airborne and spaceborne data is used to support such mass balance determinations. Here, we present an approach to map temporal changes of the snow cover in glaciated regions of Tyrol, Austria, using SAR-based satellite data. Two dual-polarized SAR images are acquired on 22 and 24 September 2014. As X and C-band reveal different backscattering properties of snow, both TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images are analysed and compared to ground truth data. Through application of filter functions and processing steps containing a Kennaugh decomposition, ortho-rectification, radiometric enhancement and normalization, we were able to distinguish between dry and wet parts of the snow surface. The analyses reveal that the wet-snow can be unambiguously classified by applying a threshold of -11 dB. Bare ice at the surface or a dry snowpack does not appear in radar data with such low backscatter values. From the temporal shift of wet-snow, a discrimination of accumulation areas on glaciers is possible for specific observation dates. Such data can reveal a periodic monitoring of glaciers with high spatial coverage independent from weather or glacier conditions.

  15. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m−2 hr−1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  16. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiessen, B.; Eggers, S. L.; Krug, S. A.

    2012-03-01

    The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular) PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of coccolithophores on

  17. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  18. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  19. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  20. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-06-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  1. SU-E-T-315: The Change of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters (OSLDs) Sensitivity by Accumulated Dose and High Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Choi, S; Park, S; Yoo, H; Yi, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate radiation sensitivity of optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) by accumulated dose and high dose. Methods: This study was carried out in Co-60 unit (Theratron 780, AECL, and Canada) and used InLight MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL) for reading. We annealed for 30 min using optical annealing system which contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ∼780 nm). To evaluate change of OSLDs sensitivity by repeated irradiation, the dosimeters were repeatedly irradiated with 1 Gy. And whenever a repeated irradiation, we evaluated OSLDs sensitivity. To evaluate OSLDs sensitivity after accumulated dose with 5 Gy, We irradiated dose accumulatively (from 1 Gy to 5 Gy) without annealing. And OSLDs was also irradiated with 15, 20, 30 Gy to certify change of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation. After annealing them, they were irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly. Results: The OSLDs sensitivity increased up to 3% during irradiating seven times and decreased continuously above 8 times. That dropped by about 0.35 Gy per an irradiation. Finally, after 30 times irradiation, OSLDs sensitivity decreased by about 7%. For accumulated dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy, OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy increased until 4.4% after second times accumulated dose compared with before that. OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy decreased by 1.6% in five times irradiation. When OSLDs were irradiated ten times with 1Gy after irradiating high dose (10, 15, 20 Gy), OSLDs sensitivity decreased until 6%, 9%, 12% compared with it before high dose irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: This study certified OSLDs sensitivity by accumulated dose and high dose. When irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly, OSLDs sensitivity decreased linearly and the reduction rate of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation had dependence on irradiated dose.

  2. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  3. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    PubMed

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  4. Accumulated metal speciation in earthworm populations with multigenerational exposure to metalliferous soils: cell fractionation and high-energy synchrotron analyses.

    PubMed

    Andre, Jane; Charnock, John; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Hodson, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Predicting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soil organisms is complicated by site-specific biotic and abiotic parameters. In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. Our main findings were (i) earthworms were resident in soils with concentrations of Pb and Zn ranging from 1200 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) and 200 to 34,000 mg kg(-1), respectively; (ii) Pb and Zn primarily accumulated in the posterior alimentary canal in nonsoluble subcellular fractions of earthworms; (iii) site-specific differences in the tissue and subcellular partitioning profiles of populations were observed, with earthworms from a calcareous site partitioning proportionally more Pb to their anterior body segments and Zn to the chloragosome-rich subcellular fraction than their acidic-soil inhabiting counterparts; (iv) XAS indicated that the interpopulation differences in metal partitioning between organs were not accompanied by qualitative differences in ligand-binding speciation, because crystalline phosphate-containing pyromorphite was a predominant chemical species in the whole-worm tissues of all mine soil residents. Differences in metal (Pb, Zn) partitioning at both organ and cellular levels displayed by field populations with protracted histories of metal exposures may reflect theirinnate ecophysiological responses to essential edaphic variables, such as Ca2+ status. These observations are highly significant in the challenging exercise of interpreting holistic biomarker data delivered by "omic" technologies. PMID:19764255

  5. Convergent synthesis and in vivo inhibitory effect on fat accumulation of (-)-ternatin, a highly N-methylated cyclic peptide.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Kenichiro; Yamada, Kaoru; Kita, Masaki; Uemura, Daisuke

    2007-08-15

    (-)-Ternatin (1), a highly N-methylated cyclic heptapeptide, is a potent inhibitor of fat accumulation against 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes (EC50 = 0.14 microg/mL) [Shimokawa, K.; Mashima, I.; Asai, A.; Yamada, K.; Kita, M.; Uemura, D. Tetrahedron Lett. 2006, 47, 4445]. Compound 1 was synthesized from Boc-protected amino acids in solution. Upon treatment with 1 at 5 mg/kg/day, increases in body weight and fat accumulation in high-fat-fed mice were both significantly suppressed. PMID:17590333

  6. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  7. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  8. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic–inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic–inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  9. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. PMID:26975552

  10. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 {mu}m ({sigma}) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 {mu}m over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Reusable and Extensible High Level Data Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Chamberlain, Bradford; James, Mark L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a reusable design of a data distribution framework for data parallel high performance applications. We are implementing the design in the context of the Chapel high productivity programming language. Distributions in Chapel are a means to express locality in systems composed of large numbers of processor and memory components connected by a network. Since distributions have a great effect on,the performance of applications, it is important that the distribution strategy can be chosen by a user. At the same time, high productivity concerns require that the user is shielded from error-prone, tedious details such as communication and synchronization. We propose an approach to distributions that enables the user to refine a language-provided distribution type and adjust it to optimize the performance of the application. Additionally, we conceal from the user low-level communication and synchronization details to increase productivity. To emphasize the generality of our distribution machinery, we present its abstract design in the form of a design pattern, which is independent of a concrete implementation. To illustrate the applicability of our distribution framework design, we outline the implementation of data distributions in terms of the Chapel language.

  12. Phytic Acid Synthesis and Vacuolar Accumulation in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus Induced by High Concentration of Inorganic Phosphate and Cations1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Naoto; Ohnishi, Miwa; Sekiguchi, Yoko; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chang, Young-Tae; Chung, Sung-Kee; Inoue, Yoshinori; Reid, Robert J.; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    We have established a new system for studying phytic acid, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) synthesis in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus. InsP6 and other intermediates of myo-inositol (Ins) phosphate metabolism were measured using an ion chromatography method. The detection limit for InsP6 was less than 50 nm, which was sufficient to analyze Ins phosphates in living cells. Synthesis of Ins phosphates was induced by incubation in high inorganic phosphate medium. InsP6 was mainly accumulated in vacuoles and was enhanced when cells were grown in high concentration of inorganic phosphates with the cations K+, Ca2+, or Zn2+. However, there was a strong tendency for InsP6 to accumulate in the vacuole in the presence of Ca2+ and in nonvacuolar compartments when supplied with Zn2+, possibly due to precipitation of InsP6 with Zn2+ in the cytosol. A vesicle transport inhibitor, brefeldin A, stimulated InsP6 accumulation. The amounts of both Ins(3)P1 myo-inositol monophosphate synthase, a key enzyme for InsP6 synthesis, and Ins(1,4,5)P3 kinase were unrelated to the level of accumulation of InsP6. The mechanisms for InsP6 synthesis and localization into vacuoles in plant cells are discussed. PMID:15965017

  13. High-level connectionist models. Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The major achievement of this semiannum was the significant revision and extension of the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM) work for publication in the journal Artificial Intelligence. Included as an appendix to this report, the article includes several new elements: (1) Background - The work was more clearly set into the area of recursive distributed representations, machine learning, and the adequacy of the connectionist approach for high-level cognitive modeling; (2) New Experiment - RAAM was applied to finding compact representations for sequences of letters; (3) Analysis - The developed representations were analyzed as features which range from categorical to distinctive. Categorical features distinguish between conceptual categories while distinctive features vary within categories and discriminate or label the members. The representations were also analyzed geometrically; and (4) Applications - Feasibility studies were performed and described on inference by association, and on using RAAM-generated patterns along with cascaded networks for natural language parsing. Both of these remain long-term goals of the project.

  14. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  15. Dielectric Interface Effects on Surface Charge Accumulation and Collection towards High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Che; Zang, Huidong; Ivanov, Ilia; Xu, Tao; Lu, Luyao; Yu, Luping; Hu, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the experimental studies on the effects of dielectric thin-film on surface-charge accumulation and collection by using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements under photoexcitation. The dielectric thin-films with different surface polarizations are used with inverted device architecture based on the common photovoltaic PTB7:PC71BM film. In the C-V measurements, the peak-voltage shift with light intensity, namely, Vpeak shift, is particularly used to determine the surface-charge accumulation. We find that the Vpeak shows a smaller shift with light intensity when a higher surface polarization of dielectric thin-film is used. This means that a higher surface polarization of dielectric thin-film can decrease the surface-charge accumulation at electrode interface. However, a lower surface polarization of dielectric thin-film leads to a larger shift with light intensity. This implies that a lower surface polarization of dielectric thin-film corresponds to a larger surface-charge accumulation. This experimental finding indicates that dielectric thin-film plays an important role in the surface-charge accumulation and collection in the generation of photocurrent in organic solar cells. We demonstrate that the device performance can reach the power conversion efficiency of 8.7% when a higher dielectric PFN is used to enhance the surface-charge collection based on the inverted design of ITO/PFN/PTB7:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag.

  16. Linked gene networks involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism and levels of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in wheat stems.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Rattey, Allan; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Kam, Jason W; van Herwaarden, Anthony F; Shorter, Ray; Xue, Gang Ping

    2011-12-01

    High levels of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) provide an important source of stored assimilate for grain filling in wheat. To better understand the interaction between carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with the WSC trait, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed using eight field-grown lines from the high and low phenotypic tails of a wheat population segregating for WSC and the Affymetrix wheat genome array. The 259 differentially expressed probe sets could be assigned to 26 functional category bins, as defined using MapMan software. There were major differences in the categories to which the differentially expressed probe sets were assigned; for example, probe sets upregulated in high relative to low WSC lines were assigned to category bins such as amino acid metabolism, protein degradation and transport and to be involved in starch synthesis-related processes (carbohydrate metabolism bin), whereas downregulated probe sets were assigned to cell wall-related bins, amino acid synthesis and stress and were involved in sucrose breakdown. Using the set of differentially expressed genes as input, chemical-protein network analyses demonstrated a linkage between starch and N metabolism via pyridoxal phosphate. Twelve C and N metabolism-related genes were selected for analysis of their expression response to varying N and water treatments in the field in the four high and four low WSC progeny lines; the two nitrogen/amino acid metabolism genes demonstrated a consistent negative association between their level of expression and level of WSC. Our results suggest that the assimilation of nitrogen into amino acids is an important factor that influences the levels of WSC in the stems of field-grown wheat. PMID:21789636

  17. Effect of High Temperature on Albumin and Globulin Accumulation in the Endosperm Proteome of the Developing Wheat Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high temperature during grain fill on albumin and globulin accumulation profiles was investigated in the endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. cv. Butte 86) grain. Albumins and globulins were isolated from endosperm of grain grown under a moderate (24°C/17°C, day/night) ...

  18. Stochastic Analysis and Forecasts of the Patterns of Speed, Acceleration, and Levels of Material Stock Accumulation in Society.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    The recent acceleration of urbanization and industrialization of many parts of the developing world, most notably in Asia, has resulted in a fast-increasing demand for and accumulation of construction materials in society. Despite the importance of physical stocks in society, the empirical assessment of total material stock of buildings and infrastructure and reasons for its growth have been underexplored in the sustainability literature. We propose an innovative approach for explaining material stock dynamics in society and create a country typology for stock accumulation trajectories using the ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) methodology, a stochastic approach commonly used in business studies and economics to inspect and forecast time series. This enables us to create scenarios for future demand and accumulation of building materials in society, including uncertainty estimates. We find that the so-far overlooked aspect of acceleration trends of material stock accumulation holds the key to explaining material stock growth, and that despite tremendous variability in country characteristics, stock accumulation is limited to only four archetypal growth patterns. The ability of nations to change their pattern will be a determining factor for global sustainability. PMID:26927731

  19. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD. PMID:25994136

  20. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  1. High Rates of Species Accumulation in Animals with Bioluminescent Courtship Displays.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Emily A; Oakley, Todd H

    2016-07-25

    One of the great mysteries of evolutionary biology is why closely related lineages accumulate species at different rates. Theory predicts that populations undergoing strong sexual selection will more quickly differentiate because of increased potential for genetic isolation [1-6]. Whether or not these population genetic processes translate to more species at macroevolutionary scales remains contentious [7]. Here we show that lineages with bioluminescent courtship, almost certainly a sexually selected trait, have more species and faster rates of species accumulation than their non-luminous relatives. In each of ten distantly related animal lineages from insects, crustaceans, annelid worms, and fishes, we find more species in lineages with bioluminescent courtship compared to their sister groups. Furthermore, we find under a Yule model that lineages with bioluminescent courtship displays have significantly higher rates of species accumulation compared to a larger clade that includes them plus non-luminous relatives. In contrast, we do not find more species or higher rates in lineages that use bioluminescence for defense, a function presumably not under sexual selection. These results document an association between the origin of bioluminescent courtship and increased accumulation of species, supporting theory predicting sexual selection increases rates of speciation at macroevolutionary scales to influence global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:27345160

  2. Phytoene desaturase is localized exclusively in the chloroplast and up-regulated at the mRNA level during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales, chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Grünewald, K; Eckert, M; Hirschberg, J; Hagen, C

    2000-04-01

    The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is known for its massive accumulation of ketocarotenoids under various stress conditions. Therefore, this microalga is one of the favored organisms for biotechnological production of these antioxidative compounds. Astaxanthin makes up the main part of the secondary carotenoids and is accumulated mostly in an esterified form in extraplastidic lipid vesicles. We have studied phytoene desaturase, an early enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. The increase in the phytoene desaturase protein levels that occurs following induction is accompanied by a corresponding increase of its mRNA during the accumulation period, indicating that phytoene desaturase is regulated at the mRNA level. We also investigated the localization of the enzyme by western-blot analysis of cell fractions and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections for electron microscopy. In spite of the fact that secondary carotenoids accumulate outside the chloroplast, no extra pathway specific for secondary carotenoid biosynthesis in H. pluvialis was found, at least at this early stage in the biosynthesis. A transport process of carotenoids from the site of biosynthesis (chloroplast) to the site of accumulation (cytoplasmatic located lipid vesicles) is implicated. PMID:10759523

  3. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  4. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  5. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  6. Effect of metal accumulation on metallothionein level and condition of the periwinkle Littorina littorea along the Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands).

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Heidi; De Wolf, Hans; Backeljau, Thierry; Blust, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Metal (i.e. Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in the soft tissue of Littorina littorea were measured along the heavily polluted Western Scheldt (WS) and relatively clean Eastern Scheldt (ES) estuary. Along the WS metal and MT levels in periwinkles reflected the known downstream decreasing pollution gradient. Surprisingly in ES animals As, Mn and Zn concentrations decreased from east to west reflecting past pollution. Compared to the WS metal concentrations of ES periwinkles were significantly lower and both estuaries were maximally discriminated from each other based on their Cd soft tissue concentration using a canonical discriminant analysis. Furthermore, no overall difference was found in MT levels among animals from both estuaries. Using previously obtained condition data (i.e. dry/wet weight ratio and lipid content) the relation between soft tissue metal concentration (i.e. Cd, Cu and Zn) and fitness indicators (i.e. MT and condition data) was examined using a canonical correlation analysis. Periwinkles with a high metal load (i.e. Cd and Zn) also had high MT levels but were in a relatively poor condition. PMID:19948373

  7. Diabetes and Elevated HbA1c levels are Associated with Brain Hypometabolism but not Amyloid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Cha, Ruth H.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Boeve, Bradley F.; Kantarci, Kejal; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lowe, Val J.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional insulin signaling may affect brain metabolism or amyloid deposition. We investigated the associations of type 2 diabetes with amyloid accumulation measured using 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and brain hypometabolism measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods We studied a sample of non-demented participants from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. All subjects underwent MRI, amyloid PET and FDG PET. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) signature and region of interest (ROI) measures for PiB retention ratio and FDG ratio were measured. Diabetes was assessed from the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system. Results Among 749 participants (median age 79.0 years; 56.5% male, 81.0% cognitively normal; 20.6% diabetics), FDG hypometabolism (FDG ratio < 1.31) in the AD signature meta-ROI was more common in diabetics (48.1%) than in non-diabetics (28.9%; p <0.001). The median FDG ratio was lower in diabetics vs. non-diabetics in the AD signature meta-ROI (1.32 vs. 1.40, p < 0.001), and in the angular (1.40 vs. 1.48, p < 0.001) and posterior cingulate gyri ROIs (1.63 vs. 1.72, p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) for abnormal AD signature FDG hypometabolism was elevated (OR, 2.28 [1.56, 3.33]) in diabetics vs. non-diabetics after adjustment for age, sex, and education, and after additional adjustment for Apolipoprotein ε4 allele, glycemic level, and cognitive status (OR, 1.69 [1.10, 2.60]). However, AD signature PiB retention ratio was similar in diabetics vs. non-diabetics (OR, 1.03 [0.71, 1.51]; p = 0.87). In post-hoc analyses in non-diabetics, a 1% increase in HBA1c was associated with greater AD signature hypometabolism in cognitively normal subjects (OR, 1.93 [1.03, 3.62; p = 0.04]) and in the total cohort (OR 1.59 [0.92, 2.75; p = 0.10). Conclusion Diabetes and poor glycemic control in non-diabetics may enhance glucose hypometabolism in AD signature regions

  8. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ebert

    2001-09-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  9. Fermilab tevatron high level RF accelerating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Reid, J.; Tawzer, S.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1985-10-01

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer. A cavity consists of two quarter-wave resonators placed back to back with a coaxial drift tube separating the two accelerating gaps by ..pi.. radians. The cavities are very similar to the prototype which has been previously described/sup 3/ and is operating as Station 8 in the Tevatron. Only additional water cooling around the high current region of the drift tube supports and a double loop used to monitor the unbalance current through the Hipernom mode damping resistor have been added. Each cavity has a Q of about7100, a shunt impedance of 1.2 M..cap omega.., and is capable of running cw with a peak accelerating voltage of 360

  10. High-field penning-malmberg trap: confinement properties and use in positron accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of the 60 kG cryogenic positron trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and compares the trap`s confinement properties with other nonneutral plasma devices. The device is designed for the accumulation of up to 2{times}10{sup 9} positrons from a linear-accelerator source. This positron plasma could then be used in Bhabha scattering experiments. Initial efforts at time-of-flight accumulation of positrons from the accelerator show rapid ({approximately}100 ms) deconfinement, inconsistent with the long electron lifetimes. Several possible deconfinement mechanisms have been explored, including annihilation on residual gas, injection heating, rf noise from the accelerator, magnet field curvature, and stray fields. Detailed studies of electron confinement demonstrate that the empirical scaling law used to design the trap cannot be extrapolated into the parameter regime of this device. Several possible methods for overcoming these limitations are presented.

  11. Transverse Emittance Growth in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator with High-Current Antiproton Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Steven J.; Peterson, David W.; Zhou, Ping

    1992-01-01

    Transverse emittance growth due to coherent instabilities in the Fermilab antiproton accumulator imposes a limit on the number of antiprotons which can be stacked and subsequently transferred to the collider. Consequences, the diagnosis and control of these phenomena has been required to further increase the luminosity of the collider. In this paper they present an overview of the techniques by which these instabilities have been studied and the methods by which they are controlled.

  12. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  13. Response of nitrite accumulation and microbial community to free ammonia and dissolved oxygen treatment of high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Junya; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Wang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of free ammonia (FA) and dissolved oxygen (DO) on nitrite accumulation in the treatment of high ammonium wastewater and on the evolution of the microbial community were investigated. Under high DO conditions (3.75 ± 0.49 mg/L), FA as high as 10.61 ± 2.89 mg NH3/L maintained stable nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) of 84 % with NH4 (+)-N load of 2.05 kg N/(m(3) day) at sludge retention time (SRT) of 15-18 days. After 56 days of operation, Proteobacteria and Nitrosomonas were the dominant phylum and genus, respectively; Nitrosomonas increased from 21.14 to 54.57 %. By contrast, under relative low DO and low FA, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were nearly eliminated (NOB/AOB of 0; ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)), and NAR of 94 % was achieved with lower NH4 (+)-N load of 0.48 kg N/(m(3) day). DO correlated with AOB and NOB abundance, and FA decreased NOB activity and the NOB/AOB ratio. In conclusion, high FA and high DO conditions are optimal for efficient nitrite accumulation. PMID:26743659

  14. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  15. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  16. Argonaute Proteins Affect siRNA Levels and Accumulation of a Novel Extrachromosomal DNA from the Dictyostelium Retrotransposon DIRS-1*

    PubMed Central

    Boesler, Benjamin; Meier, Doreen; Förstner, Konrad U.; Friedrich, Michael; Hammann, Christian; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Nellen, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The retrotransposon DIRS-1 is the most abundant retroelement in Dictyostelium discoideum and constitutes the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the six chromosomes in D. discoideum. The vast majority of cellular siRNAs is derived from DIRS-1, suggesting that the element is controlled by RNAi-related mechanisms. We investigated the role of two of the five Argonaute proteins of D. discoideum, AgnA and AgnB, in DIRS-1 silencing. Deletion of agnA resulted in the accumulation of DIRS-1 transcripts, the expression of DIRS-1-encoded proteins, and the loss of most DIRS-1-derived secondary siRNAs. Simultaneously, extrachromosomal single-stranded DIRS-1 DNA accumulated in the cytoplasm of agnA− strains. These DNA molecules appear to be products of reverse transcription and thus could represent intermediate structures before transposition. We further show that transitivity of endogenous siRNAs is impaired in agnA− strains. The deletion of agnB alone had no strong effect on DIRS-1 transposon regulation. However, in agnA−/agnB− double mutant strains strongly reduced accumulation of extrachromosomal DNA compared with the single agnA− strains was observed. PMID:25352599

  17. [Pigment accumulation and functional activity of chloroplasts in common Pisum sativum L. mutants with low chlorophyll level (chlorotica)].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 with a low content of chlorophyll were studied. The mutant 2004 has light green leaves and stem, and the mutant 2014 has yellow green leaves and stem. They accumulate approximately 80 and 50% chlorophylls of the parent form of pea Torsdag cv. The content of carotene in carotenoids of the mutant 2004 was much lower, and the accumulation of lutein and violaxanthine was increased. The accumulation of all carotenoids in the mutant 2014 decreased almost proportionally to a decrease in the chlorophyll content. The rate of CO2 evolution in mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 was established to be lower. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants was 29-30% lower as compared to the control, and in hybrid plants it was 1.5-2-fold higher. It is assumed that the increase in the activity of the night-time respiration in gas exchange of chlorotica mutants and the drop of photosynthesis lead to a decrease in biomass increment. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the mutation of chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affects the genes controlling the formation and functioning of different components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:12723346

  18. A model for the frequency dispersion of the high-k metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitance in accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B.; Fang, Z. B.; Zhu, Y. Y.; Ji, T.; He, G.

    2012-05-01

    High-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements have been made on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors by using single crystalline Er2O3 high-k gate dielectrics. Based on our analysis, it has been found that frequency dispersion of Er2O3 capacitance in accumulation decreases consistently with the increase of the frequency. A correction model is proposed to explain these frequency dispersion phenomena and the capacitance-frequency equations are obtained from the impedance expression of the equivalent circuit. Based on the simulated capacitance-frequency, it can be concluded that frequency dispersion of Er2O3 capacitance in accumulation originates from the existence of the parasitic resistances, the series resistances, and the formed SiOx interfacial layer.

  19. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  20. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. R.; Hollister, C. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  1. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by

  2. Suppression of hepatic fat accumulation by highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid prevents the progression of d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in mice fed with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Satoshi; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Akiko; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the importance of hepatic fat accumulation on the progression of hepatitis. BALB/cA mice were fed with a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 14 days followed by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine (DGalN) or vehicle. After 20-21 h, plasma and liver tissue were collected and analyzed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in plasma were increased significantly in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN compared to STD-fed mice treated with DGalN. This exacerbation by the HFHSD was also observed in the plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) levels, and hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the fibrogenic gene expression, such as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and osteopontin (OPN) in HFHSD-fed mice treated with DGalN. The triglyceride contents of the liver were significantly increased by the HFHSD. When eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a suppressor of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), was administered to HFHSD-fed mice, the sensitivity of DGalN, as a result of plasma ALT and AST levels, was suppressed accompanied by reduced plasma sTNFR2 level and hepatic levels of triglyceride, ROS, and fibrogenic parameters, and by increased plasma adiponectin levels. These data suggest that the progression of steatotic liver injury closely depends on the accumulation of fat in the liver and is prevented by EPA through the suppression of the fatty liver change. PMID:19416647

  3. Nitrogen Accumulation and Partitioning in High Arctic Tundra from Extreme Atmospheric N Deposition Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, G. K.; Osborn, A.; Blaud, A.; Press, M. C.; Choudhary, S.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events. These events occur from the long-range transport of reactive N from pollution sources at lower latitudes and can deposit up to 80% of the annual N deposition in just a few days. To date, the fate and impacts of these extreme pollutant events has remained unknown. Using a field simulation study, we undertook the first assessment of the fate of acutely deposited N on arctic tundra. Extreme N deposition events were simulated on field plots at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79oN) at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 applied as NH4NO3 solution over 4 days, with 15N tracers used in the second year to quantify the fate of the deposited N in the plant, soil, microbial and leachate pools. Separate applications of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in the fate of N. Recovery of the 15N tracer at the end of the first growing season approached 100% of the 15N applied irrespective of treatment level, demonstrating the considerable capacity of High Arctic tundra to capture pollutant N from extreme deposition events. Most incorporation of the 15N was found in bryophytes, followed by the dominant vascular plant (Salix polaris) and the microbial biomass of the soil organic layer. Total recovery remained high in the second growing season (average of 90%), indicating highly conservative N retention. Between the two N forms, recovery of 15NO3- and 15NH4+ were equal in the non-vascular plants, whereas in the vascular plants (particularly Salix polaris) recovery of 15NO3- was four times higher than of 15NH4+. Overall, these findings show that High Arctic tundra has considerable capacity to capture and retain the pollutant N deposited in acute extreme deposition events. Given they can represent much of the annual N deposition, extreme deposition events may be more important than increased chronic N deposition as a pollution source. Furthermore

  4. Vitamin d deficiency attenuates high-fat diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Bi-Wei; Zhang, Cheng; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Hu, Chun-Qiu; Wang, Hua; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly recognized that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risks of metabolic disorders among overweight children. A recent study showed that vitamin D deficiency exacerbated inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through activating toll-like receptor 4 in a high-fat diet (HFD) rat model. The present study aimed to further investigate the effects of vitamin D deficiency on HFD-induced insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation. Male ICR mice (35 d old) were randomly assigned into 4 groups as follows. In control diet and vitamin D deficiency diet (VDD) groups, mice were fed with purified diets. In HFD and VDD+HFD groups, mice were fed with HFD. In VDD and VDD+HFD groups, vitamin D in feed was depleted. Feeding mice with vitamin D deficiency diet did not induce obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipid accumulation. By contrary, vitamin D deficiency markedly alleviated HFD-induced overweight, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency significantly attenuated HFD-induced up-regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which promoted hepatic lipid uptake and lipid droplet formation, and its target gene cluster of differentiation 36. In addition, vitamin D deficiency up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltrans 2, the key enzyme for fatty acid β-oxidation, and uncoupling protein 3, which separated oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production, in adipose tissue. These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency is not a direct risk factor for obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipid accumulation. Vitamin D deficiency alleviates HFD-induced overweight, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation through promoting fatty acid β-oxidation and elevating energy expenditure in adipose tissue. PMID:25774554

  5. High School Accounting at Two Instructional Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Rebecca E.

    1980-01-01

    Offering two levels of accounting results in a broader base of student enrollment. Reiterating theory, giving practical examples, and stressing "why" as well as "how" enable the instructor to foster the environment the students need. The teacher must also instill self-confidence in the students. (JOW)

  6. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management. PMID:26900108

  7. Hyaluronan Accumulates With High-Fat Feeding and Contributes to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Li; Lantier, Louise; Kennedy, Arion; Bonner, Jeffrey S.; Mayes, Wesley H.; Bracy, Deanna P.; Bookbinder, Louis H.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Thompson, Curtis B.; Wasserman, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased deposition of specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a characteristic of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major constituent of the ECM. The hypotheses that 1) HA content is increased in the ECM of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle and 2) reduction of HA in the muscle ECM by long-acting pegylated human recombinant PH20 hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) reverses high-fat (HF) diet–induced muscle insulin resistance were tested. We show that muscle HA was increased in HF diet–induced obese (DIO) mice and that treatment of PEGPH20, which dose-dependently reduced HA in muscle ECM, decreased fat mass, adipocyte size, and hepatic and muscle insulin resistance in DIO mice at 10 mg/kg. Reduced muscle insulin resistance was associated with increased insulin signaling, muscle vascularization, and percent cardiac output to muscle rather than insulin sensitization of muscle per se. Dose-response studies revealed that PEGPH20 dose-dependently increased insulin sensitivity in DIO mice with a minimally effective dose of 0.01 mg/kg. PEGPH20 at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg reduced muscle HA to levels seen in chow-fed mice, decreased fat mass, and increased muscle glucose uptake. These findings suggest that ECM HA is a target for treatment of insulin resistance. PMID:23349492

  8. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. PMID:27289059

  9. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Lele, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25°C), strong light intensity (6 klux) and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v) induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA) constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria. PMID:24031291

  10. Period analysis at high noise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-05-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of three types of periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data: the conventional Fourier spectrum, the method of Warner and Robinson (1972), and Jurkevich's method (1971). The equivalence of the Jurkevich method and that of Warner and Robinson is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner-Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form, and noise level. Results are illustrated by the analysis of two typical forms of light curves: an eclipsing type light curve and an RRa curve.

  11. Effects of high Zn and Pb concentrations on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel: Photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation capacity under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, A; Salvatori, E; Guerrini, V; Fusaro, L; Canepari, S; Manes, F

    2016-01-01

    The response of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel to zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) was studied separately in two hydroponic tests, during a three weeks experiment. The effects on ecophysiology and biomass partitioning were evaluated during the metal treatments and at the recovery, and total metal content and accumulation capacity in different plant organs were assessed. Zn and Pb had different effects on the overall measured parameters, highlighting different mechanism of action. In particular, Zn concentration was higher in roots and, being a micronutrient, it was translocated into leaves, producing a reduction of assimilation rate, stomatal conductance (-71.9 and -81.3% respect to the control plant respectively), and a strong down regulation of photosystems functionality both at PSII and PSI level. Otherwise, Pb was accumulated mainly in the more lignified tissue such as rhizomes, with slightly effect on gas exchange. Chlorophyll a fluorescence highlighted that Pb inhibits the electron transfer process at the PSI donor side, without recovery after the removal of the metal stress. Despite these physiological limitations, P. australis showed a high capacity to accumulate both metals, and only slight reduction of biomass, being therefore a suitable species for phytoremediation interventions. PMID:26114607

  12. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a waveguide harmonic filter included.

  13. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  14. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  17. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  19. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  1. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  3. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-06-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  4. Nitrogen-deprivation elevates lipid levels in Symbiodinium spp. by lipid droplet accumulation: morphological and compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  5. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin

  6. Fermilab Tevatron high level rf accelerating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; Kerns, C.; Miller, H.; Tawser, S.; Reid, J.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer.

  7. Observations on dietary aluminum level, time duration exposure to dietary aluminum, and the influence of specific dietary blocking agents on tissue aluminum accumulation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kettleson, K.C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to observe the association of dietary aluminum (Al) with tissue Al accumulation. Other objectives included: to determine if alginic acid (AA) and pectin (P) in the diet could inhibit Al accumulation in tissues, and to relate time of exposure of dietary Al to Al tissue accumulation. The first experiment was conducted with a test diet feeding period of 35 days in a factorial arrangement of treatments with 24 rats, six rats per treatment. The dietary treatments were: groups 0 and 1, no added dietary Al (Al < 20 ppm) with or without 5% AA; groups 2 and 3, 400 ppm additional dietary Al with or without 5% AA. Kidney tissue analyzed by neutron activation showed no significant Al accumulation, or influence of the blocking agent. The second experiment was conducted over two time intervals (phase I with 24 rats for 28 days, and phase II with 26 rats for 56 days) and was done with 7 different diets. The diets included a control (basal with no added Al or blocking agent), the basal with 425 or 640 ppm Al added, with 5% AA or 5% P added to each Al test level. The Al source for both experiments was aluminum dibasic acetate. Tissues collected and pooled for analyses by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy included bone, brain, and kidney. The addition of 425 ppm Al to the diets stimulated body weight gain by about 10% relative to the controls. The blocking agents suppressed Al-induced weight gain, although AA stimulated feed intake (P < 0.05). Trends in Al accumulation appeared to occur in bone and brain tissues associated with dietary Al; but independent of blocking agents and independent of time exposure to the dietary Al.

  8. Differential mRNA Accumulation upon Early Arabidopsis thaliana Infection with ORMV and TMV-Cg Is Associated with Distinct Endogenous Small RNAs Level

    PubMed Central

    Zavallo, Diego; Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in plant development and host-pathogen interactions. Several studies have highlighted the relationship between viral infections, endogenous sRNA accumulation and transcriptional changes associated with symptoms. However, few studies have described a global analysis of endogenous sRNAs by comparing related viruses at early stages of infection, especially before viral accumulation reaches systemic tissues. An sRNA high-throughput sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf samples infected either with Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) or crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-Cg) with slightly different symptomatology at two early stages of infection (2 and 4dpi) was performed. At early stages, both viral infections strongly alter the patterns of several types of endogenous sRNA species in distal tissues with no virus accumulation suggesting a systemic signaling process foregoing to virus spread. A correlation between sRNAs derived from protein coding genes and the associated mRNA transcripts was also detected, indicating that an unknown recursive mechanism is involved in a regulatory circuit encompassing this sRNA/mRNA equilibrium. This work represents the initial step in uncovering how differential accumulation of endogenous sRNAs contributes to explain the massive alteration of the transcriptome associated with plant-virus interactions. PMID:26237414

  9. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method. PMID:23702571

  10. Highly specific ubiquitin-competing molecules effectively promote frataxin accumulation and partially rescue the aconitase defect in Friedreich ataxia cells

    PubMed Central

    Rufini, Alessandra; Cavallo, Francesca; Condò, Ivano; Fortuni, Silvia; De Martino, Gabriella; Incani, Ottaviano; Di Venere, Almerinda; Benini, Monica; Massaro, Damiano Sergio; Arcuri, Gaetano; Serio, Dario; Malisan, Florence; Testi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive disability. There is currently no effective treatment and patients die prematurely. The underlying genetic defect leads to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin insufficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell death, particularly in peripheral sensory ganglia. There is an inverse correlation between the amount of residual frataxin and the severity of disease progression; therefore, therapeutic approaches aiming at increasing frataxin levels are expected to improve patients' conditions. We previously discovered that a significant amount of frataxin precursor is degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome system before its functional mitochondrial maturation. We also provided evidence for the therapeutic potential of small molecules that increase frataxin levels by docking on the frataxin ubiquitination site, thus preventing frataxin ubiquitination and degradation. We called these compounds ubiquitin-competing molecules (UCM). By extending our search for effective UCM, we identified a set of new and more potent compounds that more efficiently promote frataxin accumulation. Here we show that these compounds directly interact with frataxin and prevent its ubiquitination. Interestingly, these UCM are not effective on the ubiquitin-resistant frataxin mutant, indicating their specific action on preventing frataxin ubiquitination. Most importantly, these compounds are able to promote frataxin accumulation and aconitase rescue in cells derived from patients, strongly supporting their therapeutic potential. PMID:25549872

  11. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  12. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  13. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26595097

  14. Benthic invertebrate metals exposure, accumulation, and community-level effects downstream from a hard-rock mine site

    SciTech Connect

    Beltman, D.J.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D.; Clements, W.H.

    1999-02-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the relationships among As, Co, and Cu concentrations in exposure media (surface water, sediment, and aufwuchs), As, Co, and Cu concentrations in aquatic macroinvertebrates, and invertebrate community structure in a mine-affected stream. Concentrations of As, Co, and Cu were significantly elevated in both exposure media and invertebrate tissue downstream from the mine. Copper in invertebrates was significantly correlated only with Cu in aufwuchs, and Co in invertebrates was significantly correlated only with dissolved Co in water, suggesting different mechanisms of invertebrate accumulation for these two metals. The invertebrate community was severely affected downstream from the mine, with a loss of metals-sensitive species and reductions in both total biomass and number of species. Total abundance was not affected. Principal components analysis was performed on the invertebrate community data to develop a simplified description of community response to mine inputs. Based on this index, metal concentrations in invertebrates were poor predictors of community structure. Copper concentrations in water, combined with an estimate of invertebrate drift from clean tributaries, were statistically significant predictors of community structure.

  15. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  16. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  17. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  18. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  19. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2). Results The serum triglyceride (TG) levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA. PMID:26616395

  20. Zinc-induced modulation of some biochemical parameters in a high- and a low-zinc-accumulating genotype of Cicer arietinum L. grown under Zn-deficient condition.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shadab Naseer; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comparative account of biochemical responses evoked by a high-zinc-accumulating (HZnG) and a low-zinc-accumulating (LZnG) genotype of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under conditions of zinc deficiency (0 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil) and on exogenous zinc supply (2.5, 5, and 10 mg ZnSO4 kg(-1) soil), at different growth stages (pre-flowering, flowering, and post-flowering) of the crop. Both the genotypes exhibited significant variation in contents of chlorophyll, protein, nitrate, and leghemoglobin, and in the activity of enzymes (nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase), under zinc-limiting condition. The HZnG maintained a significantly higher level of biochemical parameters at deficient zinc levels, while LZnG was more affected by Zn deficiency (with reduced biochemical attributes), compared to HZnG. However, application of soil zinc alleviated the Zn-induced disturbance and improved the biochemical parameters in both genotypes. The differential biochemical response of plants to Zn deficiency indicated existence of genotypic variation in efficient utilization of the available Zn. The HZnG was more effective in overcoming Zn deficiency than the LZnG. This study suggests that metal-dependent biochemical parameters can be used as reliable indices for selection of genotypes with a better Zn utilization capacity, i.e., the Zn-efficient genotypes. PMID:25673554

  1. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  2. Temporal characterization of mercury accumulation at different trophic levels and implications for metal biomagnification along a coastal food web.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, P G; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Azeiteiro, U M

    2014-10-15

    The main goal of this study was to assess temporal mercury variations along an estuarine food web to evaluate the mercury contamination level of the system and the risks that humans are exposed to, due to mercury biomagnification. The highest mercury concentrations in the sediments and primary producers (macrophytes) were observed during winter sampling. Instead, the highest mercury concentrations in the water, suspended particulate matter as well as in the zooplanktonic and suprabenthic communities were observed during summer sampling. Evidences of mercury biomagnification along the food web were corroborated by the positive biomagnification factors, particularly for omnivorous macrobenthic species. Comparing the mercury levels at distinct components with several environmental quality criteria it suggests that sediments, water and edible species (e.g., bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the crustacean Carcinus maenas) presented higher mercury levels than the values accepted by legislation which represent a matter of concern for the environment and human health. PMID:25172612

  3. Variation in the accumulation levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in micropropagated trees and in in vitro cultures of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Nicasio, María Del Pilar; Villarreal, María Luisa; Gillet, Françoise; Bensaddek, Lamine; Fliniaux, Marc-André

    2005-01-01

    The present article reports the accumulation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and its metabolic precursors (tryptophan, tryptamine) in different organs of micropropagated Mimosa tenuiflora trees (leaves, flowers and bark) subjected to seasonal variations (January and June), as well as in in vitro cultures (plantlets and calluses) of this plant species. The accumulation of all the tested compounds varied according to the organ, the month of collection, and age of the plant material. In all cases, the neurotoxic compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) was detected with the lowest concentration 0.01% dry weight (DW) in flowers, and the highest 0.33% DW in bark. For the in vitro cultures, DMT was present in high yields in plantlets (0.1-0.2% DW), while in calluses this compound was initially detected but its concentration decreased significantly in the subsequent subcultures. PMID:15700647

  4. Constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation: suggestion for a high school curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouropatov, Anatoli; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2013-07-01

    Students have a tendency to see integral calculus as a series of procedures with associated algorithms and many do not develop a conceptual grasp giving them the desirable versatility of thought. Thus, instead of a proceptual view of the symbols in integration, they have, at best, a process-oriented view. On the other hand, it is not surprising that many students find concepts such as the integral difficult when they are unable to experience these processes directly in the classroom. With a view towards improving this situation, constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation has been proposed (Educ Stud Math. 1994;26:229-274; Integral as accumulation: a didactical perspective for school mathematics; Thessaloniki: PME; 2009. p. 417-424). In this paper, we discuss a curriculum that is based on this idea and a design for curriculum materials that are intended to develop an improved cognitive base for a flexible proceptual understanding of the integral and integration in high school. The main focus is on how we (mathematics teachers and mathematics educators) might teach the integral concept in order to help high school students to construct meaningful knowledge alongside acquiring technical abilities.

  5. Annual Sea Level Variability Induced by Changes in Sea Ice Extent and Accumulation on Ice Sheets: An Assessment Based on Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Giovinetto, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes of mean annual net accumulation at the surface on the grounded ice sheets of East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and Greenland in response to variations in sea ice extent are estimated using grid-point values 100 km apart. The data bases are assembled principally by bilinear interpolation of remotely sensed brightness temperature (Nimbus-5 ESMR, Nimbus-7 SMMR), surface temperature (Nimbus-7 THIR), and surface elevation (ERS-1 radar altimeter). These data, complemented by field data where remotely sensed data are not available, are used in multivariate analyses in which mean annual accumulation (derived from firn emissivity) is the dependent variable; the independent variables are latitude, surface elevation, mean annual surface temperature, and mean annual distance to open ocean (as a source of energy and moisture). The last is the shortest distance measured between a grid point and the mean annual position of the 10% sea ice concentration boundary, and is used as an index of changes in sea ice extent as well as of mean concentration. Stepwise correlation analyses indicate that variations in sea ice extent of +/-50 km would lead to changes in accumulation inversely of +/-4% on East Antarctica, +/- 10% on West Antarctica, and +4% on Greenland. These results are compared with those obtained in a previous study using visually interpolated values from contoured compilations of field data; they substantiate the findings for the Antarctic ice sheets (+/-4% on East Antarctica, +/-9% in West Antarctica), and suggest a reduction by one half of the probable change of accumulation on Greenland (from +/-8%). The results also suggest a reduction of the combined contribution to sea level variability to +/- 0.19 mm/a (from +/- 0.22 mm/a).

  6. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  7. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  8. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  9. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system established under 5 U.S.C. chapter 43 and 5 CFR part 430, subparts B and C, or other applicable... subject to 5 U.S.C. 5383; or (2) Holds a senior-level (SL) or scientific or professional (ST) position... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and...

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  11. 1-FFT amino acids involved in high DP inulin accumulation in Viguiera discolor

    PubMed Central

    De Sadeleer, Emerik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Struyf, Tom; Le Roy, Katrien; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are important vacuolar reserve carbohydrates with drought, cold, ROS and general abiotic stress mediating properties. They occur in 15% of all flowering plants and are believed to display health benefits as a prebiotic and dietary fiber. Fructans are synthesized by specific fructosyltransferases and classified based on the linkage type between fructosyl units. Inulins, one of these fructan types with β(2-1) linkages, are elongated by fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases (1-FFT) using a fructosyl unit from a donor inulin to elongate the acceptor inulin molecule. The sequence identity of the 1-FFT of Viguiera discolor (Vd) and Helianthus tuberosus (Ht) is 91% although these enzymes produce distinct fructans. The Vd 1-FFT produces high degree of polymerization (DP) inulins by preferring the elongation of long chain inulins, in contrast to the Ht 1-FFT which prefers small molecules (DP3 or 4) as acceptor. Since higher DP inulins have interesting properties for industrial, food and medical applications, we report here on the influence of two amino acids on the high DP inulin production capacity of the Vd 1-FFT. Introducing the M19F and H308T mutations in the active site of the Vd 1-FFT greatly reduces its capacity to produce high DP inulin molecules. Both amino acids can be considered important to this capacity, although the double mutation had a much higher impact than the single mutations. PMID:26322058

  12. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidity (RH) may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an “Fe-efficient” (EF) and an “Fe-inefficient” (INF) soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60%) and high (90%) RH, evaluating morphological, and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight (DW), increased plant height, root length, and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH. PMID:25566297

  13. 1-FFT amino acids involved in high DP inulin accumulation in Viguiera discolor.

    PubMed

    De Sadeleer, Emerik; Vergauwen, Rudy; Struyf, Tom; Le Roy, Katrien; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are important vacuolar reserve carbohydrates with drought, cold, ROS and general abiotic stress mediating properties. They occur in 15% of all flowering plants and are believed to display health benefits as a prebiotic and dietary fiber. Fructans are synthesized by specific fructosyltransferases and classified based on the linkage type between fructosyl units. Inulins, one of these fructan types with β(2-1) linkages, are elongated by fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases (1-FFT) using a fructosyl unit from a donor inulin to elongate the acceptor inulin molecule. The sequence identity of the 1-FFT of Viguiera discolor (Vd) and Helianthus tuberosus (Ht) is 91% although these enzymes produce distinct fructans. The Vd 1-FFT produces high degree of polymerization (DP) inulins by preferring the elongation of long chain inulins, in contrast to the Ht 1-FFT which prefers small molecules (DP3 or 4) as acceptor. Since higher DP inulins have interesting properties for industrial, food and medical applications, we report here on the influence of two amino acids on the high DP inulin production capacity of the Vd 1-FFT. Introducing the M19F and H308T mutations in the active site of the Vd 1-FFT greatly reduces its capacity to produce high DP inulin molecules. Both amino acids can be considered important to this capacity, although the double mutation had a much higher impact than the single mutations. PMID:26322058

  14. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the X-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the photon beam ion source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. An overview of the field, current plans, and future possibilities will be presented.

  15. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  16. A Framework for Translating a High Level Security Policy into Low Level Security Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Bahgat, Waleed M.

    2010-01-01

    Security policies have different components; firewall, active directory, and IDS are some examples of these components. Enforcement of network security policies to low level security mechanisms faces some essential difficulties. Consistency, verification, and maintenance are the major ones of these difficulties. One approach to overcome these difficulties is to automate the process of translation of high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. This paper introduces a framework of an automation process that translates a high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. The framework is described in terms of three phases; in the first phase all network assets are categorized according to their roles in the network security and relations between them are identified to constitute the network security model. This proposed model is based on organization based access control (OrBAC). However, the proposed model extend the OrBAC model to include not only access control policy but also some other administrative security policies like auditing policy. Besides, the proposed model enables matching of each rule of the high level security policy with the corresponding ones of the low level security policy. Through the second phase of the proposed framework, the high level security policy is mapped into the network security model. The second phase could be considered as a translation of the high level security policy into an intermediate model level. Finally, the intermediate model level is translated automatically into low level security mechanism. The paper illustrates the applicability of proposed approach through an application example.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of high-quality PbI2 nanopowders from depleted SLA accumulator anode and cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.; Fernandez, C.

    2016-07-01

    High-quality lead iodide (PbI2) nanoparticles were synthesized from both anode and cathode of a discarded sealed lead-acid accumulator as starting materials. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of washed PbI2 were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The XRD measurements indicated the presence of pure hexagonal PbI2 nanoparticles. Application of the Scherrer equation indicates crystal sizes between 13.703 and 14.320 nm. SEM indicated the presence of spherical particle agglomerations between 1.5 and 3.5 \\upmum in diameter. The measured band gap using two methods was consistent at 2.75 eV. EDS results suggest the absence of impurities in the synthesized nanoparticles. The overall results suggest that discarded sealed lead-acid accumulators can source pure hexagonal-phase lead iodide nanoparticles with potential applications in perovskite solar cells. The novelty aspect is that this approach has not been previously reported.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of high-quality PbI2 nanopowders from depleted SLA accumulator anode and cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.; Fernandez, C.

    2016-07-01

    High-quality lead iodide (PbI2) nanoparticles were synthesized from both anode and cathode of a discarded sealed lead-acid accumulator as starting materials. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of washed PbI2 were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The XRD measurements indicated the presence of pure hexagonal PbI2 nanoparticles. Application of the Scherrer equation indicates crystal sizes between 13.703 and 14.320 nm. SEM indicated the presence of spherical particle agglomerations between 1.5 and 3.5 μm in diameter. The measured band gap using two methods was consistent at 2.75 eV. EDS results suggest the absence of impurities in the synthesized nanoparticles. The overall results suggest that discarded sealed lead-acid accumulators can source pure hexagonal-phase lead iodide nanoparticles with potential applications in perovskite solar cells. The novelty aspect is that this approach has not been previously reported.

  19. Fall armyworm and corn earworm resistance in the breeding crosses of maize inbreds with high levels of phytoalexins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop maize germplasm with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of reciprocal breeding crosses was made using maize inbred lines with high levels of kauralexins or zealexins. The evaluation of the breeding crosses for insect resistance utilized the rand...

  20. Rapid transport and high accumulation of amorphous silica in the Congo deep-sea fan: A preliminary budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Ragueneau, Olivier; Jacques, Vincent; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Moriceau, Brivaëla; Khripounoff, Alexis; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the transfer and retention of silicon (Si) along continental margins are poorly understood, but play a major role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the oceanic biological pump of carbon. Deep-sea fans are well recognized as carbon sink spots, but we lack knowledge about the importance of the fans in the global Si cycle. Here, we provide a first estimate of the role played by the Congo deep-sea fan, one of the biggest in the world, in the Si cycle. Sediment cores sampled in the deep-sea fan were analyzed to build a Si mass balance. An exceptionally high accumulation rate of amorphous silica aSiO2 (2.29 ± 0.58 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) was found, due to a high sedimentation rate and the presence of aluminum in the sediments. Although favored by bioirrigation, recycling fluxes remained low (0.3 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) and reconstructed input fluxes could only be explained by lateral inputs coming from the canyon. Preliminary calculations show that the rapid transport of aSiO2 through the canyon and the excellent preservation efficiency in the sediments imply that 50% of aSiO2 river inputs from the Congo River accumulate annually in the deep-sea fan. Si:C ratios in deep-sea fan sediments were very low (0.2) and only three times as high as those measured in the river itself, which suggests that material from the river and the continental shelf was delivered directly through the canyon, with very little time for Si and C cycle decoupling to take place.

  1. Elevated CO2-Mitigation of High Temperature Stress Associated with Maintenance of Positive Carbon Balance and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Kentucky Bluegrass

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol−1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism. PMID:24662768

  2. The accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Huiqiao; Pang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Rongrong; Shen, Lu; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-15

    The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2α. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1α degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1α by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells. -- Highlights: ► Biphasic effects induced by different concentrations of arsenite. ► Different regulation of ERK or JNK signal pathway by arsenite. ► Different regulation of HIF1α or HIF 2α by arsenite.

  3. Low-level awareness accompanies "unconscious" high-level processing during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a matter of ongoing debate. Lately, continuous flash suppression (CFS), a technique for suppressing visual stimuli, has been widely used to demonstrate surprisingly high-level processing of invisible stimuli. Yet, recent studies showed that CFS might actually allow low-level features of the stimulus to escape suppression and be consciously perceived. The influence of such low-level awareness on high-level processing might easily go unnoticed, as studies usually only probe the visibility of the feature of interest, and not that of lower-level features. For instance, face identity is held to be processed unconsciously since subjects who fail to judge the identity of suppressed faces still show identity priming effects. Here we challenge these results, showing that such high-level priming effects are indeed induced by faces whose identity is invisible, but critically, only when a lower-level feature, such as color or location, is visible. No evidence for identity processing was found when subjects had no conscious access to any feature of the suppressed face. These results suggest that high-level processing of an image might be enabled by-or co-occur with-conscious access to some of its low-level features, even when these features are not relevant to the processed dimension. Accordingly, they call for further investigation of lower-level awareness during CFS, and reevaluation of other unconscious high-level processing findings. PMID:26756173

  4. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  5. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table...

  6. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  7. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  8. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. PMID:26956177

  9. The role of topoisomerase I in suppressing genome instability associated with a highly transcribed guanine-rich sequence is not restricted to preventing RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Puja; Owiti, Norah; Kim, Nayun

    2016-01-01

    Highly transcribed guanine-run containing sequences, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, become unstable when topoisomerase I (Top1) is disrupted. Topological changes, such as the formation of extended RNA:DNA hybrids or R-loops or non-canonical DNA structures including G-quadruplexes has been proposed as the major underlying cause of the transcription-linked genome instability. Here, we report that R-loop accumulation at a guanine-rich sequence, which is capable of assembling into the four-stranded G4 DNA structure, is dependent on the level and the orientation of transcription. In the absence of Top1 or RNase Hs, R-loops accumulated to substantially higher extent when guanine-runs were located on the non-transcribed strand. This coincides with the orientation where higher genome instability was observed. However, we further report that there are significant differences between the disruption of RNase Hs and Top1 in regards to the orientation-specific elevation in genome instability at the guanine-rich sequence. Additionally, genome instability in Top1-deficient yeasts is not completely suppressed by removal of negative supercoils and further aggravated by expression of mutant Top1. Together, our data provide a strong support for a function of Top1 in suppressing genome instability at the guanine-run containing sequence that goes beyond preventing the transcription-associated RNA:DNA hybrid formation. PMID:26527723

  10. Exogenous spermine ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytic apoptosis via decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation through inhibiting p38/JNK and JAK2 pathways

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuqin; Yang, Jinxia; Li, Hongzhu; Shao, Hongjiang; Wei, Can; Wang, Yuehong; Li, Meixiu; Xu, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been suggested to play a vital role in the initiation and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies reveal that spermine possesses proliferative, antiaging and antioxidative properties. Thus, we hypothesized that spermine could decrease apoptosis via suppressing ROS accumulation induced by high glucose (HG) in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG) (5 mM) or HG (25 mM) in the presence or absence of spermine for 48 h. The cell activity, apoptosis, ROS production, T-SOD and GSH activities, MDA content and GSSG level were assessed. The results showed that HG induced lipid peroxidation and the increase of intracellular ROS formation and apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Spermine could obviously improve the above-mentioned changes. Western blot analysis revealed that spermine markedly inhibited HG-induced the phosphorylation of p38/JNK MAPKs and JAK2. Moreover, spermine had better antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects than N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, the present data suggested that spermine could suppress ROS accumulation to decrease cardiomyocytes apoptosis in HG condition, which may be attributed to the inhibition of p38/JNK and JAK2 activation and its natural antioxidative property. Our findings may highlight a new therapeutic intervention for the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26884823

  11. The role of topoisomerase I in suppressing genome instability associated with a highly transcribed guanine-rich sequence is not restricted to preventing RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Puja; Owiti, Norah; Kim, Nayun

    2016-01-29

    Highly transcribed guanine-run containing sequences, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, become unstable when topoisomerase I (Top1) is disrupted. Topological changes, such as the formation of extended RNA:DNA hybrids or R-loops or non-canonical DNA structures including G-quadruplexes has been proposed as the major underlying cause of the transcription-linked genome instability. Here, we report that R-loop accumulation at a guanine-rich sequence, which is capable of assembling into the four-stranded G4 DNA structure, is dependent on the level and the orientation of transcription. In the absence of Top1 or RNase Hs, R-loops accumulated to substantially higher extent when guanine-runs were located on the non-transcribed strand. This coincides with the orientation where higher genome instability was observed. However, we further report that there are significant differences between the disruption of RNase Hs and Top1 in regards to the orientation-specific elevation in genome instability at the guanine-rich sequence. Additionally, genome instability in Top1-deficient yeasts is not completely suppressed by removal of negative supercoils and further aggravated by expression of mutant Top1. Together, our data provide a strong support for a function of Top1 in suppressing genome instability at the guanine-run containing sequence that goes beyond preventing the transcription-associated RNA:DNA hybrid formation. PMID:26527723

  12. A comparison of the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on parathyroid hormone release, 3',5'-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate accumulation, and the levels of inositol phosphates in bovine parathyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, E M; Fuleihan G el-H; Chen, C J; Kifor, O

    1990-09-01

    We compared the effects of a series of di- and trivalent cations on various aspects of parathyroid function to investigate whether these polyvalent cations act on the parathyroid cell through a similar mechanism. Like high extracellular concentrations of Ca2+, high levels of barium (Ba2+), strontium (Sr2+), gadolinium (Gd3+), europium (Eu3+), terbium (Tb3+), and ytterbium (Yb3+) [corrected] each inhibited low calcium-stimulated PTH release and showed IC50 values (the concentration producing half of the maximal inhibitory effect) of 1.12 mM, 1.18 mM, 2.2 microM, 2.5 microM, 0.89 microM, and 15 microM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of both divalent (Ca2+ and Ba2+) and trivalent (Gd3+) cations were reversible by 76-100% after removal of the cation, suggesting that the polyvalent cation-mediated reduction in PTH release was not due to nonspecific toxicity. The same di- and trivalent cations produced an 80-90% decrease in agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation with a similar order of potency as for their effects on PTH release. Preincubation overnight with pertussis toxin totally prevented the inhibitory effects of the trivalent cations on cAMP accumulation. The same di- and trivalent cations also increased the accumulation of inositol monophosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and inositol trisphosphate. Their effects on this parameter differed from those on PTH release and cAMP accumulation in several respects. First, Ba2+ and Sr2+, rather than being equipotent with Ca2+, were about 2-fold less potent in increasing the levels of inositol phosphates. Second, the trivalent cations were 5-50-fold less potent in raising inositol phosphates than in modulating PTH release and cAMP accumulation, and all were nearly equipotent. These results show that trivalent cations of the lanthanide series mimic the actions of divalent cations on several aspects of parathyroid function, and likely do so by interacting with the cell surface "Ca2(+)-receptor-like mechanism" through which

  13. Copper uptake by Eichhornia crassipes exposed at high level concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melignani, Eliana; de Cabo, Laura Isabel; Faggi, Ana María

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its ability to accumulate Cu from polluted water with high Cu concentrations and a mixture of other contaminants under short-term exposure, in order to use this species for the remediation of highly contaminated sites. Two hydroponic experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions for 7 days. One of them consisted of growing water hyacinth in Hoagland solution supplemented with 15 or 25 mg Cu/L and a control. The other one contained water hyacinth growing in polluted river water supplemented with 15 mg Cu/L and a control. Cu was accumulated principally in roots. The maximum Cu concentration was 23,387.2 mg/kg dw in the treatment of 25 mg Cu/L in Hoagland solution. Cu translocation from roots to leaves was low. The mixture of 15 mg Cu/L with polluted water did not appear to have toxic effects on the water hyacinth. This plant showed a remarkable uptake capacity under elevated Cu concentrations in a mixture of pollutants similar to pure industrial effluents in a short time of exposure. This result has not been reported before, to our knowledge. This species is suitable for phytoremediation of waters subject to discharge of mixed industrial effluents containing elevated Cu concentrations (≥15 mg Cu/L), as well as nutrient-rich domestic wastewaters. PMID:25529492

  14. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  15. Early-life exposure to high-fat diet may predispose rats to gender-specific hepatic fat accumulation by programming Pepck expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Huan; Cui, Hemiao; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) produces phosphoenolpyruvate during glyceroneogenesis. We previously demonstrated that a high-fat diet during pregnancy induced Pepck mRNA expression in neonatal rat pups, which is characterized by histone modifications in specific regions of the gene (Strakovsky RS, Zhang X, Zhou D, Pan YX. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats. The Journal of Physiology 2011;589:2707-17). In the present study, we investigated whether these alterations persistent in adult offspring. Dams were fed either control or high-fat diet throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring were placed on control diet after weaning, generating C/C and HF/C groups. Liver was collected at 12 weeks of age. Hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) level was increased in both genders, but fat accumulation occurred only in liver of female offspring in HF/C group. This was accompanied by a significant increase of Pepck and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) mRNA expression in only female liver. The induction of Pepck gene expression in females was associated with increased dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 level in multiple regions of the gene. Meanwhile, acetylated histone H3 and trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 were induced at a specific coding region in HF/C, accompanied by decreased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 level at the promoter of female offspring. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet programs Pepck expression through histone modifications in adult female offspring. Persistent Pepck induction in females may contribute to increased triglyceride synthesis, together with induced Fasn expression and NADH levels, which may lead to increased fat deposition in a gender-specific manner. PMID:25716581

  16. The Role of Sea Level Rise and in Situ Carbonate Accumulation on the Morphodynamic Evolution of a Carbonate Tidal Channel. The Case of the Bahamas Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhani, S.; Viparelli, E.; Imran, J.; Mahjabeen, N.; Abdo, K.; Kendall, C.; Rankey, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the problem of morphodynamic evolution of carbonate tidal channels, bounded seaward by the ocean and shoaling landward, as observed in coastal lagoons and estuaries. Governing model equations are the conservation of mass and momentum for the flow, and the conservation of sediment mass in the water column and in the bed deposit. We model carbonate accumulation in terms of a specified depth-dependent carbonate "production rate" based on modern rates of carbonate accumulation rate. We further assume that 1) there is no input of clastic sediments to the system, 2) cementation processes are slow when compared to carbonate accumulation, 3) there is an absence of particles in the silt/mud range, and 4) we treat the carbonate sediments as non-cohesive particles. Governing equations are integrated with finite volume for unsteady, two-dimensional, depth averaged shallow-water flow over arbitrary topography. This method is known to capture sharp fronts accurately. We use Roe's approximate Riemann solver for the computation of fluxes at the interfaces between one finite volume and the other. For second order accuracy we implement MUSCL (Monotone Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws) and a predictor-corrector time stepping scheme. We validate the model at field scale by comparing the numerical results with field data collected in the Bahamas channels. The comparison is presented in terms of flow velocities, bed profiles and grain size distributions of the bed surface. Finally, we use the validated model to explore how different rates of sea level rise will affect the morphodynamic evolution of the tidal channels under different "production rate" scenarios, e.g. constant, depth dependent.

  17. Sucrose Transporter AtSUC9 Mediated by a Low Sucrose Level is Involved in Arabidopsis Abiotic Stress Resistance by Regulating Sucrose Distribution and ABA Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wanqiu; Zhang, Lijun; Wu, Di; Liu, Shan; Gong, Xue; Cui, Zhenhai; Cui, Na; Cao, Huiying; Rao, Longbing; Wang, Che

    2015-08-01

    Sucrose (Suc) transporters (SUCs or SUTs) are important regulators in plant growth and stress tolerance. However, the mechanism of SUCs in plant abiotic stress resistance remains to be dietermined. Here, we found that AtSUC9 expression was induced by abiotic stress, including salt, osmotic and cold stress conditions. Disruption of AtSUC9 led to sensitive responses to abiotic stress during seed germination and seedling growth. Further analyses indicated that the sensitivity phenotype of Atsuc9 mutants resulted from higher Suc content in shoots and lower Suc content in roots, as compared with that in wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, we found that the expression of AtSUC9 is induced in particular by low levels of exogenous and endogenous Suc, and deletion of AtSUC9 affected the expression of the low Suc level-responsive genes. AtSUC9 also showed an obvious response to treatments with low concentrations of exogenous Suc during seed germination, seedling growth and Suc distribution, and Atsuc9 mutants hardly grew in abiotic stress treatments without exogenous Suc. Moreover, our results illustrated not only that deletion of AtSUC9 blocks abiotic stress-inducible ABA accumulation but also that Atsuc9 mutants had a lower content of endogenous ABA in stress conditions than in normal conditions. Deletion of AtSUC9 also inhibited the expression of many ABA-inducible genes (SnRk2.2/3/6, ABF2/3/4, ABI1/3/4, RD29A, KIN1 and KIN2). These results indicate that AtSUC9 is induced in particular by low Suc levels then mediates the balance of Suc distribution and promotes ABA accumulation to enhance Arabidopsis abiotic stress resistance. PMID:26063392

  18. Cellular cholesterol accumulation modulates high fat high sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced ER stress and hepatic inflammasome activation in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Amir; Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Sue-Chue-Lam, Ian; Chien, Kevin; Maguire, Graham F; Naples, Mark; Zhang, Jing; Magomedova, Lilia; Adeli, Khosrow; Cummins, Carolyn L; Ng, Dominic S

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is the form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease posing risk to progress into serious long term complications. Human and pre-clinical models implicate cellular cholesterol dysregulation playing important role in its development. Mouse model studies suggest synergism between dietary cholesterol and fat in contributing to NASH but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our laboratory previously reported the primary importance of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol (ER-Chol) in regulating hepatic ER stress by comparing the responses of wild type, Ldlr-/-xLcat+/+ and Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice, to a 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD). Here we further investigated the roles of ER-Chol and ER stress in HFHS diet-induced NASH using the same strains. With HFHS diet feeding, both WT and Ldlr-/-xLcat+/+ accumulate ER-Chol in association with ER stress and inflammasome activation but the Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice are protected. By contrast, all three strains accumulate cholesterol crystal, in correlation with ER-Chol, albeit less so in Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice. By comparison, HCD feeding per se (i) is sufficient to promote steatosis and activate inflammasomes, and (ii) results in dramatic accumulation of cholesterol crystal which is linked to inflammasome activation in Ldlr-/-xLcat-/- mice, independent of ER-Chol. Our data suggest that both dietary fat and cholesterol each independently promote steatosis, cholesterol crystal accumulation and inflammasome activation through distinct but complementary pathways. In vitro studies using palmitate-induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells confirm the key roles by cellular cholesterol in the induction of steatosis and inflammasome activations. These novel findings provide opportunities for exploring a cellular cholesterol-focused strategy for treatment of NASH. PMID:27090939

  19. The chromium accumulation and its physiological effects in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.7±1.7 cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8 g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg. The profile of chromium in the tissues of rockfish is dependent on the exposure periods and chromium concentration. After 4 weeks, the order of chromium accumulation in tissues was liver>kidney>spleen>intestine>gill>muscle. The dietary chromium exposure decreased the growth rate and hepatosomatic index of rockfish. The major hematological findings were significant decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration exposed to ≥120 mg/kg chromium concentrations. The dietary chromium exposure (≥120 mg/kg) led to notable increase in glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in plasma, whereas there was no considerable change in calcium, magnesium, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results indicated that the dietary chromium exposure to rockfish can induce significant chromium accumulation in the specific tissues, inhibition of growth, and hematological alterations. PMID:26705966

  20. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  1. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging. PMID:27498120

  2. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production. PMID:26744805

  3. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  4. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage within a mixed-culture biomass with simultaneous growth as a function of accumulation substrate nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesco; Karabegovic, Lamija; Majone, Mauro; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Werker, Alan

    2015-06-15

    PHA content was attributed to interpreted differences in the biomass initial physiological state and not due to changes in feedstock nutrient loading. We found that the accumulation process production rates for mixed cultures can be sustained long after the maximum PHA content of the biomass was reached. Within the specific context of the applied fed-batch feed-on-demand methods, active biomass growth was interpreted to have been largely restricted to the PHA-storing phenotypic fraction of the biomass. This study suggests practical prospects for mixed culture PHA production using a wide range of volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich feedstocks. Such VFA sources derived from residual industrial or municipal organic wastes often naturally contain associated nutrients ranging in levels from limitation to excess. PMID:25846983

  5. Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuation on mercury accumulation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Knights, Brent C.; Gray, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fisheries is a major concern for resource managers of many temperate lakes. Anthropogenic Hg contamination is largely derived from atmospheric deposition within a lake’s watershed, but its incorporation into the food web is facilitated by bacterial activity in sediments. Temporal variation in Hg content of fish (young-of-year yellow perch) in the regulated lakes of the Rainy–Namakan complex (on the border of the United States and Canada) has been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, presumably through variation in sediment inundation. As a result, Hg contamination of fish has been linked to international regulations of WL fluctuation. Here we assess the relationship between WL fluctuations and fish Hg content using a 10-year dataset covering six lakes. Within-year WL rise did not appear in strongly supported models of fish Hg, but year-to-year variation in maximum water levels (∆maxWL) was positively associated with fish Hg content. This WL effect varied in magnitude among lakes: In Crane Lake, a 1 m increase in ∆maxWL from the previous year was associated with a 108 ng increase in fish Hg content (per gram wet weight), while the same WL change in Kabetogama was associated with only a 5 ng increase in fish Hg content. In half the lakes sampled here, effect sizes could not be distinguished from zero. Given the persistent and wide-ranging extent of Hg contamination and the large number of regulated waterways, future research is needed to identify the conditions in which WL fluctuations influence fish Hg content.

  6. Exceptionally high heterologous protein levels in transgenic dicotyledonous seeds using Phaseolus vulgaris regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Geert; Angenon, Geert; Depicker, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Seeds are concentrated sources of protein and thus may be ideal 'bioreactors' for the production of heterologous proteins. For this application, strong seed-specific expression signals are required. A set of expression cassettes were designed using 5' and 3' regulatory sequences of the seed storage protein gene arcelin 5-I (arc5-I) from Phaseolus vulgaris, and evaluated for the production of heterologous proteins in dicotyledonous plant species. A murine single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was chosen as model protein because of the current industrial interest to produce antibodies and derived fragments in crops. Because the highest scFv accumulation in seed had previously been achieved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the scFv-encoding sequence was provided with signal sequences for accumulation in the ER. Transgenic Arabidopsis seed stocks, expressing the scFv under control of the 35S promoter, contained scFv accumulation levels in the range of 1% of total soluble protein (TSP). However, the seed storage promoter constructs boosted the scFv to exceptionally high levels. Maximum scFv levels were obtained in homozygous seed stocks, being 12.5% of TSP under control of the arc5-I regulatory sequences and even up to 36.5% of TSP upon replacing the arc5-I promoter by the beta-phaseolin promoter of Phaseolus vulgaris. Even at such very high levels, the scFv proteins retain their full antigen-binding activity. Moreover, the presence of very high scFv levels has only minory effects on seed germination and no effect on seed production. These results demonstrate that the expression levels of arcelin 5-I and beta-phaseolin seed storage protein genes can be transferred to heterologous proteins, giving exceptionally high levels of heterologous proteins, which can be of great value for the molecular farming industry by raising production yield and lowering bio-mass production and purification costs. Finally, the feasibility of heterologous protein production using the

  7. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  8. HIGH-LEVEL OZONE DISINFECTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 20 month operating experimental program was conducted at Marlborough, Massachusetts to evaluate the feasibility, engineering, and economic aspects of achieving high levels of effluent disinfection with ozone. The ozone research pilot facility was designed to operate at a consta...

  9. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved. PMID:26697490

  10. Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

  11. Decision Document for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-07-31

    This document establishes the combination of design and operational configurations that will be used to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. The chosen method--to use the primary and annulus ventilation systems to remove heat from the high-level waste tanks--is documented herein.

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at least 7.9 meters (26 feet) in...

  13. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  14. Accumulation of High-Value Lipids in Single-Cell Microorganisms: A Mechanistic Approach and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years attention has been focused on the utilization of microorganisms as alternatives for industrial and nutritional applications. Considerable research has been devoted to techniques for growth, extraction, and purification of high-value lipids for their use as biofuels and biosurfactants as well as high-value metabolites for nutrition and health. These successes argue that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the microbial biosynthesis of such molecules, which are far from being completely understood, now will yield spectacular opportunities for industrial scale biomolecular production. There are important additional questions to be solved to optimize the processing strategies to take advantage of the assets of microbial lipids. The present review describes the current state of knowledge regarding lipid biosynthesis, accumulation, and transport mechanisms present in single-cell organisms, specifically yeasts, microalgae, bacteria, and archaea. Similarities and differences in biochemical pathways and strategies of different microorganisms provide a diverse toolset to the expansion of biotechnologies for lipid production. This paper is intended to inspire a generation of lipid scientists to insights that will drive the biotechnologies of microbial production as uniquely enabling players of lipid biotherapeutics, biofuels, biomaterials, and other opportunity areas into the 21st century. PMID:24628496

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytotoxicity Is Attenuated at High Cell Density and Associated with the Accumulation of Phenylacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhe; Dong, Yihu; Zhou, Tielin; Liu, Xiaoling; Deng, Yinyue; Wang, Chao; Lee, Jasmine; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background P. aeruginosa is known to cause acute cytotoxicity against various human and animal cells and tissues. Methodology/Findings Intriguingly, however, in this study we noticed that while a low cell density inoculum of P. aeruginosa caused severe cytotoxicity against human lung tissue cell line A549, increasing the cell density of bacterial inoculum led to decreased cytotoxicity. Addition of the supernatants from high density bacterial culture to low cell density inoculum protected the human cells from bacterial cytotoxic damage, suggesting that P. aeruginosa may produce and accumulate an inhibitory molecule(s) counteracting its pathogenic infection. The inhibitor was purified from the stationary-phase culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 using bioassay-guided high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and characterized to be phenylacetic acid (PAA) by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microarray analysis revealed that treatment of P. aeruginosa with PAA down-regulated the transcriptional expression of Type III secretion system (T3SS) genes and related regulatory genes including rsmA and vfr, which were confirmed by transcriptional and translational analysis. Conclusions Identification of bacterial metabolite PAA as a T3SS-specific inhibitor explains this intriguing inverse cell-density-dependent-cytotoxicity phenomenon as T3SS is known to be a key virulence factor associated with cytotoxicity and acute infection. The findings may provide useful clues for design and development of new strategies to combat this formidable bacterial pathogen. PMID:23555919

  16. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  17. High Resolution Quantification of Crystalline Cellulose Accumulation in Arabidopsis Roots to Monitor Tissue-specific Cell Wall Modifications.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Yulia; Holland, Neta; Elbaum, Rivka; Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall, the composition of which determines their final size and shape. The cell wall is composed of a complex matrix containing polysaccharides that include cellulose microfibrils that form both crystalline structures and cellulose chains of amorphous organization. The orientation of the cellulose fibers and their concentrations dictate the mechanical properties of the cell. Several methods are used to determine the levels of crystalline cellulose, each bringing both advantages and limitations. Some can distinguish the proportion of crystalline regions within the total cellulose. However, they are limited to whole-organ analyses that are deficient in spatiotemporal information. Others relying on live imaging, are limited by the use of imprecise dyes. Here, we report a sensitive polarized light-based system for specific quantification of relative light retardance, representing crystalline cellulose accumulation in cross sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. In this method, the cellular resolution and anatomical data are maintained, enabling direct comparisons between the different tissues composing the growing root. This approach opens a new analytical dimension, shedding light on the link between cell wall composition, cellular behavior and whole-organ growth. PMID:27214583

  18. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The current investigation showed that nNO levels were decreased at high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind. PMID:24972544

  19. Arsenic accumulation in root and shoot vis-a-vis its effects on growth and level of phytochelatins in seedlings of Cicer arietinum L.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Tripathi, R D; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Rai, U N; Yang, X E; Huanji, H; Inouhe, M

    2008-05-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water and soil has become a subject of prime interest due to its direct effect on human health through drinking water and food. In present study two varieties (CSG-8962 and C-235) of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L., which is a major supplementary food in many parts of India and a valuable source of protein, has been selected to estimate the level of arsenate in root and shoot of five day old seedlings vis-à-vis effect of arsenate on seedling growth and induction of thiols including glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) and their homologues. Both varieties accumulated arsenate to similar levels and most of the metalloid was confined to roots, only about 2.5% was translocated to shoot. Plant growth was also not affected significantly in both the varieties. Arsenate exposure significantly induced the levels of thiols including PCs and homophytochelatins (hPCs). The induction of thiols was much higher in roots than shoots and was greater in var C-235 between the two tested ones. Thus, both varieties tolerated and detoxified arsenic through chelation with GSH, PCs and hPCs, primarily in roots, however var C-235 performed better PMID:18972678

  20. High-throughput imaging method for direct assessment of GM1 ganglioside levels in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Walter; Martin, Reid; Radin, David N.; Cramer, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene GLB1, which encodes acid β-galactosidase (β-gal). The lack of activity in this lysosomal enzyme leads to accumulation of GM1 gangliosides (GM1) in cells. We have developed a high-content-imaging method to assess GM1 levels in fibroblasts that can be used to evaluate substrate reduction in treated GLB1−/− cells [1]. This assay allows fluorescent quantification in a multi-well system which generates unbiased and statistically significant data. Fluorescently labeled Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTXB), which specifically binds to GM1 gangliosides, was used to detect in situ GM1 levels in a fixed monolayer of fibroblasts. This sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive method facilitates in vitro drug screening in a format that allows a high number of replicates using low working volumes. PMID:26958633

  1. High-throughput imaging method for direct assessment of GM1 ganglioside levels in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Walter; Martin, Reid; Radin, David N; Cramer, Carole L

    2016-03-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene GLB1, which encodes acid β-galactosidase (β-gal). The lack of activity in this lysosomal enzyme leads to accumulation of GM1 gangliosides (GM1) in cells. We have developed a high-content-imaging method to assess GM1 levels in fibroblasts that can be used to evaluate substrate reduction in treated GLB1(-/-) cells [1]. This assay allows fluorescent quantification in a multi-well system which generates unbiased and statistically significant data. Fluorescently labeled Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTXB), which specifically binds to GM1 gangliosides, was used to detect in situ GM1 levels in a fixed monolayer of fibroblasts. This sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive method facilitates in vitro drug screening in a format that allows a high number of replicates using low working volumes. PMID:26958633

  2. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  3. [Effects of plant species combination and water body nutrient level on the biomass accumulation and allocation of three kinds functional plants].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Fang; Sun, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Chang-Fang; An, Shu-Qing

    2009-10-01

    Four nutrient levels, i.e., 0.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.1 mg P x L(-1) (I), 1.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.3 mg P x L(-1) (II), 4.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.9 mg P x L(-1) (III), and 13.5 mg N x L(-1) and 2.7 mg P x L(-1) (IV), were installed to study the effects of water body's nutrient level, plant species combination, and their interactions on the biomass accumulation and allocation of invasive floating species Eichhornia crassipes, native rooted leaf-floating species Jussiaea stipulacea, and submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis. The total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea, either in monoculture or in mixed-culture, increased with increasing water body's nutrient level, their total biomass in treatments III and IV being averagely 54.47% and 102.63% higher than that in treatments I and II, respectively. Under different plant species combination, the total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of V. spiralis showed a declining trend with the increase of nutrient level, and the total biomass of V. spiralis in treatments III and IV was averagely 45.88% lower than that in treatments I and II. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that water body's nutrient level had significant positive effects on the biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea but negative effects on that of V. spiralis, and the effects of plant species combination varied with target plant species. PMID:20077692

  4. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  5. Student Achievement Levels Raised at Chandler High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Chandler (Arizona) High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a number of management, curriculum, and discipline policy changes. Among the program changes that contributed to these gains are: (1) creation of a positive school environment, with high expectations for teachers, emphasis on high…

  6. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  7. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H; Maloney, Christopher A; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13-14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  8. Accumulated Metabolites of Hydroxybutyric Acid Serve as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hilvo, Mika; de Santiago, Ines; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Schmitt, Wolfgang D; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Aittokallio, Tero; Markowetz, Florian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Frezza, Christian; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Braicu, Elena Ioana

    2016-02-15

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease of low prevalence, but poor survival. Early diagnosis is critical for survival, but it is often challenging because the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle and become apparent only during advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the identification of robust biomarkers of early disease is a clinical priority. Metabolomic profiling is an emerging diagnostic tool enabling the detection of biomarkers reflecting alterations in tumor metabolism, a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue from 158 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and 100 control patients with benign or non-neoplastic lesions. We report metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with tumor burden and patient survival. The accumulation of HBA metabolites caused by HGSOC was also associated with reduced expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by ALDH5A1), and with the presence of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition gene signature, implying a role for these metabolic alterations in cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our findings represent the first comprehensive metabolomics analysis in HGSOC and propose a new set of metabolites as biomarkers of disease with diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. PMID:26685161

  9. Accumulated metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hilvo, Mika; de Santiago, Ines; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Schmitt, Wolfgang D.; Budczies, Jan; Kuhberg, Marc; Dietel, Manfred; Aittokallio, Tero; Markowetz, Florian; Denkert, Carsten; Sehouli, Jalid; Frezza, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease of low prevalence, but poor survival. Early diagnosis is critical for survival, but is often challenging because the symptoms of ovarian cancer are subtle and become apparent only during advanced stages of the disease. Therefore, the identification of robust biomarkers of early disease is a clinical priority. Metabolomic profiling is an emerging diagnostic tool enabling the detection of biomarkers reflecting alterations in tumor metabolism, a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling of serum and tumor tissue from 158 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and 100 control patients with benign or non-neoplastic lesions. We report metabolites of hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with tumor burden and patient survival. The accumulation of HBA metabolites caused by HGSOC was also associated with reduced expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by ALDH5A1), and with the presence of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature, implying a role for these metabolic alterations in cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our findings represent the first comprehensive metabolomics analysis in HGSOC and propose a new set of metabolites as biomarkers of disease with diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. PMID:26685161

  10. Potential accumulation of contaminated sediments in a reservoir of a high-Andean watershed: Morphodynamic connections with geochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, María. Teresa; Müllendorff, Daniel; Pastén, Pablo; Pizarro, Gonzalo E.; Paola, Chris; Escauriaza, Cristián.

    2015-05-01

    Rapid changes due to anthropic interventions in high-altitude environments, such as the Altiplano region in South America, require new approaches to understand the connections between physical and geochemical processes. Alterations of the water quality linked to the river morphology can affect the ecosystems and human development in the long term. The future construction of a reservoir in the Lluta River, located in northern Chile, will change the spatial distribution of arsenic-rich sediments, which can have significant effects on the lower parts of the watershed. In this investigation, we develop a coupled numerical model to predict and evaluate the interactions between morphodynamic changes in the Lluta reservoir, and conditions that can potentially desorb arsenic from the sediments. Assuming that contaminants are mobilized under anaerobic conditions, we calculate the oxygen concentration within the sediments to study the interactions of the delta progradation with the potential arsenic release. This work provides a framework for future studies aimed to analyze the complex connections between morphodynamics and water quality, when contaminant-rich sediments accumulate in a reservoir. The tool can also help to design effective risk management and remediation strategies in these extreme environments. This article was corrected on 15 JUNE 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  11. High variability of stress accumulation, seismic and aseismic release mode along the Peru-Ecuador subduction zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.; Villegas, J. C.; Chlieh, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Rolandone, F.; Jarrín, P.; Cisneros, D.; Vallee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Most geodetic measurements of interseismic strain along subduction zones have led to the view of coupled asperities of variable size usually separated by narrower zones of low coupling. Along the western margin of South America, fast convergence of the oceanic Nazca plate has repeatedly produced M>8 earthquakes and three of the ten largest megathrust earthquakes since 1900. Contrasting with this behavior, the segment comprised between central Peru and central Ecuador has not experienced any great earthquake for at least five centuries. New GPS measurements in Peru and Ecuador first highlight that a along a ~1000km long segment, convergence is predominantly accommodated by aseismic creep along the plate interface, with possible coupling occurring at shallow depth, close to the trench. This area is bounded by highly locked segments, which produced M>8.5 earthquakes in central Peru and northern Ecuador. While the observed low interseismic coupling explains the lack of great earthquakes, this area has experienced two earthquakes that share the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes, indicating a correlation between the mode of stress accumulation along the plate interface and its release. Finally, we have observed several episodes of slow slip, sometimes associated with intense, micro to moderate seismicity. These observations suggest a specific behavior for this segment, which contrasts with the behavior of the neighboring segments.

  12. Seasonal variation of Sarpa salpa fish toxicity, as related to phytoplankton consumption, accumulation of heavy metals, lipids peroxidation level in fish tissues and toxicity upon mice.

    PubMed

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfatteh

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate for Sarpa salpa the seasonal trend in the food sources, heavy metals bioaccumulation and the oxidative stress in the organs. In addition, the toxicity was assessed by mouse bioassay of extract of the fish's organs collected in autumn, the peak of occurrence of hallucinatory syndrome. The toxicity was further studied for compounds present in epiphyte collected from the sea at the end of spring and in summer that are digested by the S. salpa in these seasons. We observed a higher lipid peroxydation in different tissues of S. salpa compared to the control fish Diplodus annularis. Furthermore, heavy metals accumulation in organs of these fish showed a significant variation between the two species (P < 0.05). The lethal dose (LD50%) determined for crude ciguatoxin (neurotoxins) extracts of viscera, liver, brain and muscle of S. salpa were as follows: 1.217, 2.195, 14.395, 18.645 g/kg mouse, respectively. We noticed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the total amount of toxic dinoflagellates and the level of TBARS in the liver, the brain and the muscle, this for all seasons and all sizes. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect observed for epiphytes extract confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates, which live as epiphytes on P. oceanica leaves, to the fish by grazing. Our work indicates that, toxic phytoplanktons and heavy metals accumulation are responsible for the increase of oxidative stress in the organs of S. salpa. Hence, the edible part of S. salpa, especially the viscera and liver, can cause a threat to human health, and consumption should, for this reason, be dissuaded. PMID:22535366

  13. Determination of the nuclear level density at high excitation energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chbihi, A.; Sobotka, L.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z. ); Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Evaporation simulations are presented to illustrate the problems associated with the determination of the nuclear level density constant at high excitation energy from evaporation spectra. The methods of using either the total (whole chain) spectra or the difference (from two different initial excitation energies) spectra are discussed. Data from the study of the reaction 701 MeV {sup 28}Si+{sup 100}Mo are presented and both methods are used to extract the level density constant. We find that in order to reproduce the slopes of the light particle spectra the level density constant must have a value near 1/10{ital A}-- 1 / 11 {ital A} for excited nuclei with statistical temperatures in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 MeV. This presumes that the only parameter adjustment required to treat the decay of highly exited nuclei is the level density constant. If this is so, the shapes of the evaporation spectra imply a reduction in the level density constant from the value required to explain the decay of less highly excited nuclei, a conclusion reached by others. However, the reduced level density constant leads to an overproduction of deuterons and tritons. This suggests that a more complicated set of parameter adjustments may be required to treat the decay of highly excited nuclei.

  14. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to <30% in its presence. Some of the contaminants, notably copper, chromium, zinc and nickel retained on the surface of iron coupons in the presence of DOC largely retained their mobility and were released readily when ambient water chemistry changed. Vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium retained by the scales were largely unsusceptible to changes of NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. PMID:23863395

  15. Transient proliferation of proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells on the epidermal apex contributes to highly aluminum-resistant root elongation in camphor tree.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  16. A loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 associated with high cadmium accumulation in shoots and grain of Japonica rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiali; Wang, Peitong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Meng; Lian, Xingming; Tang, Zhong; Huang, Chao-Feng; Salt, David E; Zhao, Fang Jie

    2016-09-01

    Excessive cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice poses a risk to food safety. OsHMA3 plays an important role in restricting Cd translocation from roots to shoots. A non-functional allele of OsHMA3 has been reported in some Indica rice cultivars with high Cd accumulation, but it is not known if OsHMA3 allelic variation is associated with Cd accumulation in Japonica cultivars. In this study, we identified a Japonica cultivar with consistently high Cd accumulation in shoots and grain in both field and greenhouse experiments. The cultivar possesses an OsHMA3 allele with a predicted amino acid mutation at the 380(th) position from Ser to Arg. The haplotype had no Cd transport activity when the gene was expressed in yeast, and the allele did not complement a known nonfunctional allele of OsHMA3 in F1 test. The allele is present only in temperate Japonica cultivars among diversity panels of 1483 rice cultivars. Different cultivars possessing this allele showed greatly increased root-to-shoot Cd translocation and a shift in root Cd speciation from Cd-S to Cd-O bonding determined by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our study has identified a new loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 in Japonica rice cultivars leading to high Cd accumulation in shoots and grain. PMID:27038090

  17. An Investigation of Source and Receiver Apprehension at the Junior High, Senior High and College Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.; McDowell, Carlene E.

    1978-01-01

    The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Receiver Apprehension Test are used to determine the relationship between speech and listening apprehension at each educational level (junior high, senior high, and college); differences among educational levels and between sexes; and the interaction effect of educational level and sex. (JF)

  18. Oxidative Stress Levels in Aqueous Humor from High Myopic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bi; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare oxidative stress status in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes and control eyes. Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 15 highly myopic eyes (high myopia group) and 23 cataractous eyes (control group) during cataract surgery. Central corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality of corneal endothelial cells, and cell area of corneal endothelial cells were measured using specular microscopy. Axial length was measured using ultrasound biometry. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results 8-OHdG level was lower in the aqueous humor of myopic patients than in that of control group (p = 0.014) and was positively correlated with central corneal thickness and negatively correlated with axial length (r = 0.511, p = 0.02; r = -0.382, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between 8-OHdG level and corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality, or cell area. Malondialdehyde level did not show any correlation with any parameters evaluated. Conclusions 8-OHdG might be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating oxidative stress status in the eye. Oxidative stress level was lower in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes compared to that in control eyes, which indicates lower metabolic activity in these eyes. PMID:27247516

  19. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  20. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  1. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  2. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. PMID:21315994

  3. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  4. The Use of ARTEMIS with High-Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Bowling; H. Shoaee; S. Witherspoon

    1995-10-01

    ARTEMIS is an online accelerator modeling server developed at CEBAF. One of the design goals of ARTEMIS was to provide an integrated modeling environment for high- level accelerator diagnostic and control applications such as automated beam steering, Linac Energy management (LEM) and the fast feedback system. This report illustrates the use of ARTEMIS in these applications as well as the application interface using the EPICS cdev device support API. Concentration is placed on the design and implementation aspects of high- level applications which utilize the ARTEMIS server for information on beam dynamics. Performance benchmarks for various model operations provided by ARTEMIS are also discussed.

  5. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  6. Relaxin Inhibits High Glucose-Induced Matrix Accumulation in Human Mesangial Cells by Interfering with TGF-β1 Production and Mesangial Cells Phenotypic Transition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangcheng; Xia, Wenkai; Fei, Xiao; Xu, Qunhong; Yang, Xiu; Qiu, Donghao; Wang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). DN is characterized by glomerular extracellular matrix accumulation, mesangial expansion, basement membrane thickening, and renal interstitial fibrosis. To date, mounting evidence has shown that H2 relaxin possesses powerful antifibrosis properties; however, the mechanisms of H2 relaxin on diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. Here, we aimed to explore whether H2 relaxin can reduce production of extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by human mesangial cells (HMC). HMC were exposed to 5.5 mM glucose (NG) or 30 mM glucose (HG) with or without H2 relaxin. Fibronectin (FN) and collagen type IV levels in the culture supernatants were examined by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was employed to analyze transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mRNA expression. Compared with the normal glucose group, the levels of fibronectin and collagen type were markedly increased after being cultured in high glucose medium. Compared with the high glucose group, remarkable decreases of fibronectin, collagen type IV, α-smooth muscle actin, and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were observed in the H2 relaxin-treated group. The mechanism by which H2 relaxin reduced high glucose-induced overproduction of ECM may be associated with inhibition of TGF-β1 mRNA expression and mesangial cells' phenotypic transition. H2 relaxin is a potentially effective modality for the treatment of DN. PMID:26424011

  7. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  8. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  9. Modeling future high-resolution dynamic sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kliphuis, Michael A.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Bal, Henri E.; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Seinstra, Frank; Maassen, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Different studies have shown that resolving ocean eddies and representing boundary currents are of major importance when simulating changes in dynamic sea level on regional scale. Therefore, we use the strongly eddying global model version of the Parallel Ocean Program to simulate high-resolution future (up to the year 2100) sea surface height variations (SSH) under the SRES-A1B atmospheric forcing scenario. Results show dynamic sea level changes in the Southern Ocean that are caused by the southward shift in the westerly winds. The warming ocean (global mean sea surface temperature rises by about 2°C over the period 2000-2100) leads to a strong reduction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The magnitude of this reduction is affected by a feedback involving the heat transport to the sub-polar gyre region and evaporation over the North Atlantic region. The ocean circulation changes cause regional deviations from global mean sea level change in the North Atlantic. At coastal regions of eastern North America, dynamic sea level change leads to a positive deviation from global mean sea level change in the order of several decimeters. In the sub-polar gyre region a negative deviation from global mean sea level occurs. In the western North Atlantic, not only mean regional sea level is changed but also its variability, caused by shifted eddy pathways. This leads to a change in the frequency distribution of SSH anomalies, which has important consequences for regional sea level extremes.

  10. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  11. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  12. Plasma lipoprotein composition in alcoholic hepatitis: accumulation of apolipoprotein E-rich high density lipoprotein and preferential reappearance of "light'-HDL during partial recovery.

    PubMed

    Weidman, S W; Ragland, J B; Sabesin, S M

    1982-05-01

    Abnormal lipoproteins accumulate in the plasma of alcoholic hepatitis patients in association with a deficiency of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyl-transferase. Most of these abnormal lipoproteins are found in the d > 1.006 g/ml density fraction. To investigate the composition and morphology of the lipoproteins at various times during the illness in four patients, we have employed density gradient ultracentrifugation combined with analyses of gradient fractions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroimmunoassay, and electron microscopy. At the onset of the illness, plasma cholesteryl esters ranged from 19-34% of total cholesterol; high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apoA-I, the major HDL apoprotein, were <10% of normal; and most of the d > 1.006 g/ml triglycerides and phospholipids were found in the LDL density region. A linear correlation (r = 0.964, P < 0.001) was found between the d > 1.006 g/ml apoB concentration and the summation of the triglyceride and esterified cholesterol for that fraction, indicating a constant ratio of apoB to the summation of these two "core lipids". ApoA-I was primarily found in the fraction d > 1.18 g/ml (HDL(3) and VHDL) but not at all in the HDL(2) density range of the gradient. No cholesteryl esters were present in the apoA-I containing fractions. In contrast to normal, large amounts of apoE accumulated in lipoproteins isolated at d 1.055-1.114 g/ml. The apoE-rich fractions contained primarily phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol; they appeared by electron microscopy to be mixtures of spherical particles, vesicular particles, and chains of bilamellar discs. Analyses of the density gradient fractions by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions indicated that apoA-II levels and distribution paralleled apoA-I, not apoE, providing evidence against appreciable concentrations of apoE-apoA-II complexes. During partial recovery from alcoholic hepatitis in three

  13. Satellites to Delta n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels of multiply ionized atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, R.; Kolk, K.-H.; Koshelev, K. N.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1989-04-01

    In a theta pinch discharge satellites to Delta n = 1 transitions between high-lying levels are observed for the ions Si IX, Si X, and Si XI, but not for Si XII. They are identified as Delta n = 1 transitions between the corresponding levels of doubly excited systems. At high densities, the series of Rydberg levels above their respective thermal limit are collisionally coupled to their ionization limit. The intensity ratio of a transition to that of its satellite thus offers the unique possibility of measuring the ratio of the population density in the ground energy level of the next ionization stage to that in the lowest excited levels of this ion.

  14. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  15. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  16. Student Achievement Levels Climb at Ribault Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Profiles, Programs & Products, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ribault (Florida) Senior High School has reported a dramatic increase in student achievement levels since implementing a comprehensive college preparation curriculum. Among the program changes that contributed to those gains are: (1) the establishment and consistent enforcement of a strong discipline program, including rules for student conduct, a…

  17. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently about 1055 million curies of high-level waste with a thermal output of about 2950 kilowatts (KW) at four sites in the United States: West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HANF), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These quantities are expected to increase to about 1200 million curies and 3570 kw by the end of year 2020. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, this high-level waste must ultimately be disposed of in a geologic repository. Accordingly, canisters of high-level waste immobilized in borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic mixtures are to be produced at the four sites and stored there until a repository becomes available. Data on the estimated production schedules and on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the canisters of immobilized high-level waste have been collected in OCRWM's Waste Characteristics Data Base, including recent updates an revisions. Comparisons of some of these data for the four sites are presented in this report. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.30...

  19. A Preview of High School Level Economic Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincade, Jeannine H.

    The purpose of this study was to locate and evaluate high-school-level economic software compatible with an Apple II or IIe computer. To identify software, computer searches were run, bibliographies were scanned, and reviews were collected. Only software that was recommended by some outside source was included in the evaluation. The following…

  20. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  1. MIXING PROCESSES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and...

  2. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  3. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  4. Rice lines with high leaf mineral nutrient levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), and sometimes other mineral nutrients are often applied as fertilizer, in addition to Nitrogen, to help achieve high yields in Texas rice production. For some mineral nutrients, total levels in soil would be sufficient to support the desired rice crop growth, but th...

  5. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  6. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  7. The Politics of High-Level Manpower Supply in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke-Smith, Robin

    1978-01-01

    In its policies related to high-level manpower, the Tanzanian Government attaches great importance to the university, viewing it as a key institution in its policies for national development. Describes the difficulties the administration of President Nyerere has had in using the university as a political tool and analyzes various instances of…

  8. STRESS HORMONES COLLABORATE TO INDUCE LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS AFTER HIGH LEVEL SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Lucin, Kurt M.; Sanders, Virginia M.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic immune suppression renders individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) susceptible to infection. Normally, proper immune function is regulated by collaboration between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and involves the controlled release of glucocorticoids (GCs) and norepinephrine (NE). Recently, we showed that after high thoracic (T3) SCI, aberrant levels of GCs and NE accumulate in the blood and spleen, respectively. These changes are associated with splenic atrophy, splenic leucopenia, increased intrasplenic caspase-3 levels and suppressed B lymphocyte function. Since GCs boost SNS function, in part by increasing the expression and affinity of beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) while simultaneously preventing β2AR down-regulation, we predicted that surges in stress hormones (i.e., GCs and NE) in the blood and spleen of mice with high-level SCI would act concurrently to adversely affect lymphocyte function and survival. Here, we show that post-SCI concentrations of GCs enhance the sensitivity of lymphocytes to β2AR stimulation causing an increase in intracellular Bim (Bcl2-Interacting Mediator of Cell Death) and subsequent apoptosis. In vivo, the combined antagonism of GC receptors and β2ARs significantly diminished lymphocyte Bim levels and SCI-induced splenic lymphopenia. Together, these data suggest that pharmacological antagonists of the HPA/SNS axes should be considered as adjunct therapies for ameliorating post-traumatic immune suppression in quadriplegics and high paraplegics. PMID:19545280

  9. Reduced cytosolic carboxypeptidase 6 (CCP6) level leads to accumulation of serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 protein: A potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma early detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Ding, Juan; Ren, Shuangchun; Zhao, Heping; Wu, Song; Tian, Yong; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages of disease, although early diagnosis has much favorable prognosis. This study assessed aberrant expression of cytosolic carboxypeptidase 6 (CCP6) leading to accumulation of serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 as a biomarker for early RCC detection. A total of 835 RCCs, 143 chronic nephritis, 170 kidney stones and 415 health controls were collected for qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of CCP6 expression and mass spectrometry of DNAJC7 and polyglutamylated DNAJC7. The data showed that CCP6 expression was significantly decreased in 30 RCC tissues and that mass spectrometric and pull-down analysis identified DNAJC7 as a substrate of CCP6 and showed upregulated polyglutamylated-DNAJC7 (polyE-DNAJC7) in sera of RCC patients. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of large-scale serum samples from multi-institutes further confirmed the remarkable increase of polyE-DNAJC7 in 805 RCCs compared to that of 385 healthy controls (p < 0.001), 128 patients with chronic nephritis (p < 0.001), and 153 with kidney stone (p < 0.001). Serum level of DNAJC7-polyE protein was also associated with advanced RCC stage and grade in 805 patients. The data from the current study for the first time demonstrated increased serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 as a potential biomarker for RCC early detection and association with advanced tumor stages and grade, which provides support of further polyglutamylation research in RCC. PMID:26993597

  10. Reduced cytosolic carboxypeptidase 6 (CCP6) level leads to accumulation of serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 protein: A potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma early detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Wang, Jihan; Hao, Junfeng; Dong, Baijun; Li, Yi; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Ding, Juan; Ren, Shuangchun; Zhao, Heping; Wu, Song; Tian, Yong; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2016-04-19

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages of disease, although early diagnosis has much favorable prognosis. This study assessed aberrant expression of cytosolic carboxypeptidase 6 (CCP6) leading to accumulation of serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 as a biomarker for early RCC detection. A total of 835 RCCs, 143 chronic nephritis, 170 kidney stones and 415 health controls were collected for qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of CCP6 expression and mass spectrometry of DNAJC7 and polyglutamylated DNAJC7. The data showed that CCP6 expression was significantly decreased in 30 RCC tissues and that mass spectrometric and pull-down analysis identified DNAJC7 as a substrate of CCP6 and showed upregulated polyglutamylated-DNAJC7 (polyE-DNAJC7) in sera of RCC patients. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of large-scale serum samples from multi-institutes further confirmed the remarkable increase of polyE-DNAJC7 in 805 RCCs compared to that of 385 healthy controls (p < 0.001), 128 patients with chronic nephritis (p < 0.001), and 153 with kidney stone (p < 0.001). Serum level of DNAJC7-polyE protein was also associated with advanced RCC stage and grade in 805 patients. The data from the current study for the first time demonstrated increased serum polyglutamylated DNAJC7 as a potential biomarker for RCC early detection and association with advanced tumor stages and grade, which provides support of further polyglutamylation research in RCC. PMID:26993597

  11. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts. PMID:26865376

  12. Effective Communication: High-Level Management Receptive to Low-Level Management Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chressanthis, June D.; Janousek, Kelly

    Based on the premise that senior staff or high-level managers have the knowledge and experience required to make daily decisions and also have a degree of power and respect, this document proposes that these managers are in a position to be effective leaders who can and should foster an atmosphere of receptiveness for innovation and positive…

  13. Age-related changes in amino acid pool sizes in the adult silkmoth, Bombyx mori, reared at low and high temperature; a biochemical examination of the rate-of-living theory and urea accumulation when reared at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Osanai, M; Yonezawa, Y

    1984-01-01

    To examine the rate-of-living theory, age-related changes in amino acid pool sizes were investigated in the adult silkmoth, Bombyx mori, reared at low and high temperature. At either temperature concentrations of free amino acids contained in silkmoths revealed a great sexual difference. Those in females were generally much higher than in males and the former changed much more dynamically than the latter. Major amino acids or ninhydrin-positive compounds inclusive of some essential amino acids such as Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Arg, Phe, Met, Ala, Tyr, Gln, Aspn , Lan , Cysta , GABA and PEA accumulated in 4 degrees C-moths. However, the levels of these amino changed irregularly with advanced age. Inhibition of protein synthesis may occur generally at low temperature, while protein degradation may be promoted at high temperature. High concentrations of MSO and Tau in the moths reared at high temperature than in the normal moths suggested also catabolism of amino acids proceeding together with protein degradation at high temperature. Amino acid metabolism seems to be complicated under various temperature conditions. When reared at the optimal temperature of 25 degrees C, urea is not present in the body of the silkmoth except for a slight amount in the secreted meconium. In silkmoths reared at the higher temperature of 35 degrees C, however, an extraordinary accumulation of urea occurs accompanied by a reduction in lifespan by one half. Undoubtedly, urea is produced in this terrestrial insect, although the accumulation mechanism is not clear: in silkmoths reared at various temperatures, arginase is found, but urease is not detected. Arginase activity was found to be higher in male moths than in female moths regardless of the rearing temperature. High temperature rearing also did not induce activity and female activity never exceeded that in males at either 25 degrees C or 35 degrees C rearing. Protein degradation accelerated by rearing at high temperatures may result in

  14. The influence of climate change on recent peat accumulation patterns of Distichia muscoides cushion bogs in the high-elevation tropical Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Juan C.; Vitt, Dale H.; Wieder, R. Kelman

    2013-12-01

    Extensive cushions of Distichia muscoides found at high elevations in the Andes form deep deposits of peat and function as peatland. The location of Distichia peatlands at the highest elevations makes them susceptible to the effects of global change including global warming. Accumulation rates of organic matter are the key function of peatland ecosystems and are highly susceptible to changes in climate. This study used 210Pb chronologies to infer the recent dynamics of three Distichia muscoides peatlands located above 4000 m in elevation. Chronological markers from dated volcanic eruptions were correlated to the 210Pb chronologies of Distichia peat and validated the 210Pb chronologies. Changes in 210Pb activity with depth indicated rapid accumulation in recent times. Organic matter had a mean accumulation rate of 1400 g m-2 yr-1 during the past 10 years, with values well above the observed regional accumulation rate of 300-400 g m-2 yr-1. The same pattern was observed in peat accretion rates, with growth rates of 1-2 cm per year during the last 10 years. Cushion plants engineer their own environment, allowing the system to be less susceptible to direct changes in climate. However, the high rates of peat accretion in recent times may be originated from increasing temperatures and excess water from nearby glacier melt. However, glaciers are predicted to disappear during the next 20 years in the northern Andes, reducing water inputs in tropical high-elevation ecosystems.

  15. Sustained high levels of neuroprotective, high molecular weight, phosphorylated tau in the longest-lived rodent

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Miranda E.; Garbarino, Valentina R.; Salinas, Angelica; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Tau protein is primarily expressed in neuronal axons and modulates microtubule stability. Tau phosphorylation, aggregation and subcellular mislocalization coincide with neurodegeneration in numerous diseases, including Alzheimer's disease [AD]. During AD pathogenesis, tau misprocessing accompanies Aß accumulation; however, AD animal models, despite elevated Aß, fail to develop tauopathy. To assess whether lack of tau pathology is linked to short lifespan common to most AD models, we examined tau processing in extraordinarily long-lived, mouse-sized naked mole-rats (NMR; ~32 years), which express appreciable levels of Aß throughout life. NMRs, like other mammals, displayed highest tau phosphorylation during brain development. While tau phosphorylation decreased with aging, unexpectedly adult NMRs had higher levels than transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human tau. However, in sharp contrast with the somatodendritic accumulation of misprocessed tau in the transgenic mice, NMRs maintain axonal tau localization. Intriguingly, the adult NMR tau protein is 88kDa, much larger than 45-68kDa tau expressed in other mammals. We propose that this 88kDa tau protein may offer exceptional microtubule stability and neuroprotection against lifelong elevated Aß. PMID:25576082

  16. Uptake of manganese in potatoes tolerant of high tissue manganese levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    Observations on the accumulations of Mn in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Norland) focused on factors which enabled plants in field studies to withstand high concentrations of Mn in their foliage. A microculture method for assessing nutrient uptake was introduced and applied to studies of the effects of P and temperature on Mn toxicity. Potato plants in microculture behaved similarly in the symptomatology of Mn toxicity to those grown in solution culture but were more responsive to P. The effects of both P and temperature on Mn toxicity in microculture correlated with changes in Mn uptake and with growth reductions due to low P or temperature stress. The uptake of Mn from solution culture increased with increasing P level in solution. This increase was attributed to an increased health and vitality of potato plants under high P and to changes in pH and nutrient solution concentration as plants matured at different rates. When limited control over solution pH and nutrient concentration was provided the effects of P on Mn uptake were largely eliminated. The well-documented time dependence of Mn accumulation was confirmed in a fractionation experiment.

  17. Understanding sugar yield loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharides accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolisis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, polysaccharides are cleaved by glycosyl hydrolases to soluble oligosaccharides and further hydrolyzed by ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase and other enzymes to monomeric sugars. However, not all oligosaccharides can be fully hydrolyzed and they may accumulate to 18-...

  18. High levels of plasma protein C in nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pabinger-Fasching, I; Lechner, K; Niessner, H; Schmidt, P; Balzar, E; Mannhalter, C

    1985-02-18

    In patients with severe nephrotic syndrome determinations of plasma protein C: Ag levels (8 patients: 5 adults, 3 children) and protein C activity (3 out of 8 patients) revealed significantly elevated plasma protein C concentrations. Furthermore we observed a significant inverse correlation of protein C: Ag to AT III: Ag levels. No protein C: Ag could be detected in the urine of two patients studied. We conclude from our data, that changes of plasma protein C do not contribute to the high thrombotic tendency in nephrotic syndrome. PMID:3838827

  19. Biocontrol of Potato Common Scab is Associated with High Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Populations and Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Biosynthetic Transcript Accumulation in the Potato Geocaulosphere.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonads are often used as biocontrol agents because they display a broad range of mechanisms to control diseases. Common scab of potato, caused by Streptomyces scabies, was previously reported to be controlled by Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 through phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) production. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the population dynamics of LBUM223 and the expression of phzC, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of PCA, in the rhizosphere and geocaulosphere of potato plants grown under controlled and field conditions. Results obtained from controlled experiments showed that soil populations of LBUM223 significantly declined over a 15-week period. However, at week 15, the presence of S. scabies in the geocaulosphere was associated with significantly higher populations of LBUM223 than when the pathogen was absent. It also led to the detection of significantly higher phzC gene transcript numbers. Under field conditions, soil populations of LBUM223 followed a similar decline in time when a single inoculation was applied in spring but remained stable when reinoculated biweekly, which also led to greater phzC gene transcripts accumulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LBUM223 must colonize the potato geocaulosphere at high levels (10(7) bacteria/g of soil) in order to achieve biocontrol of common scab through increased PCA production. PMID:27088392

  20. Systemic high-mobility group box 1 administration suppresses skin inflammation by inducing an accumulation of PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, Eriko; Fujita, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Tamai, Katsuto

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mobilizes platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) mesenchymal cells from bone marrow (BM) into circulation. However, whether HMGB1-induced endogenous PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells stimulate skin regeneration has been unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of the HMGB1/BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cell axis in the regeneration of mouse skin grafts. We found that intravenous HMGB1 administration induced an accumulation of endogenous BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells followed by significant inflammatory suppression in the grafts. In contrast, mice with reduced BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells showed massive inflammation of the grafts compared to mice that had normal levels of these cells even after HMGB1 administration, suggesting that BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells contribute to the HMGB1-induced anti-inflammatory effect. We also found that intravenously administered HMGB1 augmented the local migration of BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells from circulation to skin graft by inducing the expression of CXCR4, an SDF-1 receptor, on these cells. Finally, we showed the therapeutic activity of the HMGB1/BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cell axis in an allergic contact dermatitis model. The results illustrated the contribution of the HMGB1/BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cell axis in suppressing the inflammation of injured/inflamed skin. These findings may provide future perspectives on the use of HMGB1-based medicines for intractable diseases. PMID:26046579

  1. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawroski, H; Berreth, J R; Freeby, W A

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle.

  2. High levels of molecular chlorine in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Gregory; Liu, Zhen; Tanner, David J.; Cantrell, Chris A.; Orlando, John J.; Flocke, Frank M.; Shepson, Paul B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Beine, Harry J.; Wang, Yuhang; Ingall, Ellery D.; Stephens, Chelsea R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Riemer, Daniel; Fried, Alan; Mauldin, Roy L.; Smith, James N.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.

    2014-02-01

    Chlorine radicals can function as a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions, where levels of hydroxyl radicals are low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone, and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We report high levels of molecular chlorine, of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon, and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimate that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals, on average, and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyses mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. We therefore suggest that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic.

  3. Impact of high dietary zinc on zinc accumulation, enzyme activity and proteomic profiles in the pancreas of piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Martin, L; Schunter, N; Villodre Tudela, C; Weise, C; Klopfleisch, R; Zentek, J; Einspanier, R; Bondzio, A

    2015-04-01

    The exocrine pancreas plays an important role in zinc homeostasis. Feeding very high (2000-3000mgzinc/kg diet) levels of zinc oxide to piglets for short periods is a common practice in the swine industry to improve performance and prevent diseases. The impact on pancreatic function and possible side effects during long-term feeding of high dietary zinc levels are still poorly understood. A total of 54 weaned piglets were either fed with low (57mg/kg, LZn), normal (164mg/kg, NZn) or high (2425mg/kg, HZn) zinc concentration in the diets. After 4 weeks of feeding, ten piglets per treatment were euthanized and pancreas samples were taken. Tissue zinc concentration and metallothionein abundance was greater with HZn compared with NZn and LZn (P<0.05). Similarly, activity of α-amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin was higher with HZn as compared with NZn and LZn diets (P<0.05), whereas elastase activity was unchanged. Total trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity of pancreas tissue was higher with HZn diets compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Pancreatic protein profiles of NZn and HZn fed piglets were obtained by 2D-DIGE technique and revealed 15 differentially expressed proteins out of 2100 detected spots (P<0.05). The differentially expressed proteins aldose reductase, eukaryotic elongation factor II and peroxiredoxin III were confirmed by immunoblotting. Identified proteins include zinc finger-containing transcription factors and proteins mainly associated with oxidative stress response and signal transduction in HZn compared with NZn pigs. Histologic examination however showed no morphologic changes. The results suggest that long-term supply of very high dietary zinc increases zinc and metallothionein concentration, and digestive enzyme activity, but also triggers oxidative stress reactions in the pancreas of young pigs. The data provide new insights into pancreatic function under outbalanced zinc homeostasis. PMID:25744507

  4. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of α-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of α-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of α-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

  5. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  7. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  8. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  9. Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

    Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

  10. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  11. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  12. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  13. [How large is the tocopherol accumulation capacity of organs? Long term trials with various high oral alpha-tocopherol doses administered to rats and guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, I; Walter, A

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of Tocopherol in Various Organs. 1. The influence of different doses of vitamin E on the absorption and accumulation of tocopherol in blood and various organs was studied in long time feeding experiments with male guinea pigs (Pirbright White W 58) and male Sprague Dawley rats. The experiment with guinea pigs lasted 32 weeks, that with rats 46 weeks. Three groups of 20 animals of each species were fed semisynthetic diets containing 0.003 g (Gr. I = control), 0.203 g (Gr. II) and 1.009 g (Gr. III) D, L-alpha-tocopherol acetate per 100 g diet. The ratio of tocopherol contents in the diets was 1:100:500. 2. The tocopherol excretion in the faeces increased significantly according to the vitamin E intake; the absorption rate of tocopherol behaves inversely proportional to the level of supply. 3. The tocopherol concentration in blood serum, liver, heart and adrenals of animals of the Groups II and III increased significantly in comparison with the control animals. The tocopherol accumulation in blood and the analysed organs depends on species and is organ specific: Organs of rats of the control group contain higher levels of alpha-tocopherol compared with those of the corresponding group of guinea pigs. According to the relative accumulation capacity of the organs for vitamin E (I:II:III) following sequences can be considered: Guinea pigs: adrenals and heart, liver, blood; rats: liver, heart, blood, adrenals. 4. The tocopherol accumulating organs are of limited capacity. The ratio of the tocopherol intake (1:100:500) could not be found in any of the analysed organs. PMID:7319728

  14. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  16. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  17. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  18. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  19. [Corrosion testing of high level radioactive waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Alloys under consideration as candidates for the high level nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain were exposed to a range of corrosion conditions and their performance measured. The alloys tested were Incoloy 825, 70/30 Copper-Nickel, Monel 400, Hastelloy C- 22, and low carbon steel. The test conditions varied were: temperature, concentration, agitation, and crevice simulation. Only in the case of carbon steel was significant attack noted. This attack appeared to be transport limited.

  20. GUN1 Controls Accumulation of the Plastid Ribosomal Protein S1 at the Protein Level and Interacts with Proteins Involved in Plastid Protein Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tadini, Luca; Pesaresi, Paolo; Kleine, Tatjana; Rossi, Fabio; Guljamow, Arthur; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Schroda, Michael; Masiero, Simona; Pribil, Mathias; Rothbart, Maxi; Hedtke, Boris; Grimm, Bernhard; Leister, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Developmental or metabolic changes in chloroplasts can have profound effects on the rest of the plant cell. Such intracellular responses are associated with signals that originate in chloroplasts and convey information on their physiological status to the nucleus, which leads to large-scale changes in gene expression (retrograde signaling). A screen designed to identify components of retrograde signaling resulted in the discovery of the so-called genomes uncoupled (gun) mutants. Genetic evidence suggests that the chloroplast protein GUN1 integrates signals derived from perturbations in plastid redox state, plastid gene expression, and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TPB) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, exerting biogenic control of chloroplast functions. However, the molecular mechanism by which GUN1 integrates retrograde signaling in the chloroplast is unclear. Here we show that GUN1 also operates in adult plants, contributing to operational control of chloroplasts. The gun1 mutation genetically interacts with mutations of genes for the chloroplast ribosomal proteins S1 (PRPS1) and L11. Analysis of gun1 prps1 lines indicates that GUN1 controls PRPS1 accumulation at the protein level. The GUN1 protein physically interacts with proteins involved in chloroplast protein homeostasis based on coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments suggest that GUN1 might transiently interact with several TPB enzymes, including Mg-chelatase subunit D (CHLD) and two other TPB enzymes known to activate retrograde signaling. Moreover, the association of PRPS1 and CHLD with protein complexes is modulated by GUN1. These findings allow us to speculate that retrograde signaling might involve GUN1-dependent formation of protein complexes. PMID:26823545

  1. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  2. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  3. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  4. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  5. Dual regulation of root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporins by plant nitrate accumulation and high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The water status and mineral nutrition of plants critically determine their growth and development. Nitrate (NO3(-)), the primary nitrogen source of higher plants, is known to impact the water transport capacity of roots (root hydraulic conductivity, Lpr). To explore the effects and mode of action of NO3(-) on Lpr, we used an extended set of NO3(-) transport (nrt1.1, nrt1.2, nrt1.5 and nrt2.1), signaling (nrt1.1 and nrt2.1) and metabolism (nia) mutants in Arabidopsis, grown under various NO3(-) conditions. First, a strong positive relationship between Lpr and NO3(-) accumulation, in shoots rather than in roots, was revealed. Secondly, a specific 30% reduction of Lpr in nrt2.1 plants unraveled a major role for the high-affinity NO3(-) transporter NRT2.1 in increasing Lpr These results indicate that NO3(-)signaling rather than nitrogen assimilation products governs Lpr in Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to investigate the effects of NO3(-) availability on plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic protein; PIP) expression. Whereas PIP regulation mostly occurs at the post-translational level in wild-type plants, a regulation of PIPs at both the transcriptional and translational levels was uncovered in nrt2.1 plants. In conclusion, this work reveals that control of Arabidopsis Lpr and PIP functions by NO3(-) involves novel shoot to root signaling and NRT2.1-dependent functions. PMID:26823528

  6. High accumulation of dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-beta-D: -glucoside in free and immobilized Linum usitatissimum cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Attoumbré, Jacques; Charlet, Stéphane; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie; Hano, Christophe; Raynaud-Le Grandic, Sophie; Gillet, Françoise; Bensaddek, Lamine; Mesnard, François; Fliniaux, Marc-André

    2006-08-01

    As flaxseed mainly accumulates lignans (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and matairesinol), these compounds were barely or not detected in plant cell suspensions initiated from Linum usitatissimum. In contrast, these cell suspensions were shown to accumulate substantial amounts of a neolignan identified as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-beta-D: -glucoside (DCG) (up to 47.7 mg g(-1) DW). The formation of this pharmacologically active compound was evaluated as a function of cell growth and in relation to phytohormone balance of the culture media. After establishment of efficient culture conditions, production of DCG was investigated in immobilized plant cell suspensions initiated from plantlet roots of L. usitatissimum. The results indicate that immobilization enhances the DCG production up to 60.0 mg g(-1) DW but depresses the cell growth resulting in no improvement of the total DCG yield. Nevertheless, with immobilized cell suspensions, a release of DCG into the medium is observed allowing an easier recovery. PMID:16523286

  7. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  8. CKA2 functions in H2O2-induced apoptosis and high-temperature stress tolerance by regulating NO accumulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Li, Yun-Hui; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in yeast responses to various environmental factors, such as H2O2 and high temperature. However, the gene encoding NO synthase (NOS) in yeast has not yet been identified, and the mechanism underlying the regulation of NOS-like activity is poorly understood. Here, we report on the involvement of CKA2 in H2O2-induced yeast apoptosis and yeast high-temperature stress tolerance. Our results showed that although Δcka2 mutant had reduced NO accumulation with decreased apoptosis after H2O2 exposure, treatment with a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, resulted in similar survival rate of Δcka2 mutant compared to that of wild-type yeast when subjected to H2O2 stress. This finding occurred because H2O2-enhanced NOS-like activity in wild-type yeast was significantly repressed in Δcka2. Our additional experiments indicated that both high-temperature-enhanced NO accumulation and NOS-like activity were also suppressed in Δcka2, leading to the hypersensitivity of the mutant to high temperature in terms of changes in survival rate. Thus, our results showed that CKA2 functioned in H2O2-induced apoptosis and high-temperature stress tolerance by regulating NOS-like-dependent NO accumulation in yeast. PMID:26100262

  9. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  10. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  11. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  12. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  13. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo. PMID:27533934

  14. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  15. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI2 nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI2 that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5-5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor-acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  16. Understanding the paradox of selenium contamination in mercury mining areas: high soil content and low accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Chengxin; Li, Qiuhua; Liu, Yi; Gu, Chunhao; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Rice is an important source of Se for billions of people throughout the world. The Wanshan area can be categorized as a seleniferous region due to its high soil Se content, but the Se content in the rice in Wanshan is much lower than that from typical seleniferous regions with an equivalent soil Se level. To investigate why the Se bioaccumulation in Wanshan is low, we measured the soil Se speciation using a sequential partial dissolution technique. The results demonstrated that the bioavailable species only accounted for a small proportion of the total Se in the soils from Wanshan, a much lower quantity than that found in the seleniferous regions. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the existence of Hg contamination, which is likely related to the formation of an inert Hg-Se insoluble precipitate in soils in Wanshan. PMID:24531269

  17. No effect of glycogen level on glycogen metabolism during high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, K; Hespel, P; Vanden Eynde, B; Lysens, R; Richter, E A

    1995-09-01

    This study examined the effect of glycogen supercompensation on glycogen breakdown, muscle and blood lactate accumulation, blood-pH, and performance during short-term high-intensity exercise. Young healthy volunteers performed two supramaximal (125% of VO2max) exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer, either for 1 min 45 s (protocol 1; N = 18) or to exhaustion (protocol 2; N = 14). The exercise tests were preceded by either 5 d on a controlled normal (N) diet, or by 2 d of glycogen-depleting exercise accompanied by the normal diet followed by 3 d on a carbohydrate-rich (CHR) diet. In protocol 1, preexercise muscle glycogen concentrations were 364 +/- 23 and 568 +/- 35 mumol.g-1 d.w. in the N and CHR condition, respectively (P < 0.05). During the exertion, glycogen concentration in the M. quadriceps decreased to the same extent in both groups. Accordingly, the exercise-induced increases in muscle and blood-lactate, and the fall in blood-pH were similar during N and CHR. In protocol 2, time to exhaustion was identical for N and CHR. It is concluded that during short-term intense exercise during which muscle glycogen availability exceeds glycogen demand, rate of glycogen breakdown, lactate accumulation, and performance are regulated irrespective of the preexercise muscle glycogen level. PMID:8531626

  18. Acetylshikonin from Zicao Prevents Obesity in Rats on a High-Fat Diet by Inhibiting Lipid Accumulation and Inducing Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Banghao

    2016-01-01

    Various drugs have been developed to treat obesity, but these have undesirable secondary effects, and an efficient but non-toxic anti-obesity drug from natural sources is desired. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin (AS)—which is used in traditional Chinese medicine—in rats on a high-fat diet (HFD). Rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD; the latter group was received no treatment or were treated with 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg AS extract by intragastric administration for 6 weeks. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AS and the effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis were evaluated by western blot analysis of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid-metabolizing enzyme levels and the phosphorylation status of protein kinase (PK) A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). AS prevented HFD-induced obesity including reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue content, liver mass, and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in rats. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic differentiation transcription factors and decreased the expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Furthermore, AS treatment induced lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and increased in PKA and HSL phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that AS has anti-obesity effects in a rat model and may be a safe treatment for obesity in humans. PMID:26771185

  19. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT. PMID:27109264

  20. Characterization of Transducers and Resonators under High Drive Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, X.; Sigel, D. A.; Gradziel, M. J.; Askins, S. A.; Dolgin, B. P.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In many applications, piezoelectric transducers are driven at AC voltage levels well beyond the level for which the material was nominally characterized. In this paper we describe an experimental setup that allows for the determination of the main transducer or resonator properties under large AC drive. A sinusoidal voltage from a waveform generator is amplified and applied across the transducer/resonator in series with a known high power resistor. The amplitude of applied voltage and the amplitude and the relative phase of the current through the resistor are monitored on a digital scope. The frequency of the applied signal is swept through resonance and the voltage/current signals are recorded. After corrections for the series resistance and parasitic elements the technique allows for the determination of the complex impedance spectra of the sample as a function of frequency. In addition, access to the current signal allows for the direct investigation of non-linear effects through the application of Fourier transform techniques on the current signal. Our results indicate that care is required when interpreting impedance data at high drive level due to the frequency dependence of the dissipated power. Although the transducer/resonator at a single frequency and after many cycles may reach thermal equilibrium, the spectra as a whole cannot be considered an isothermal measurement due to the temperature change with frequency. Methods to correct for this effect will be discussed. Results determined from resonators of both soft and hard PZT and a ultrasonic horn transducer are presented.

  1. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  2. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  3. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-09-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  4. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  5. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  6. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  7. High level expression of peptides and proteins using cytochrome b5 as a fusion host.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ashima; Chakrabarti, Kalyan Sundar; Shahul Hameed, M S; Srinivas, Kalyan V; Senthil Kumar, Ganesan; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2005-05-01

    A novel fusion protein system based on the highly soluble heme-binding domain of cytochrome b5 has been designed. The ability of cytochrome b5 to increase the levels of expression and solubility of target proteins has been tested by expressing several proteins and peptides, viz., alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein, the regulatory subunits of acetohydroxy acid synthase I (ilvM) and II (ilvN), the carboxy terminal domains of mouse neuronal kinesin and pantothenate synthatase, two peptide toxins from cone snails, and the inactivation gate from the brain voltage gated sodium channel, NaV1.2. The fusion protein system has been designed to incorporate protease cleavage sites for commonly used proteases, viz., enterokinase, Factor Xa, and Tobacco etch virus protease. Accumulation of expressed protein as a function of time may be visually ascertained by the fact that the cells take on a bright red color during the course of induction. In all the cases tested so far, the fusion protein accumulates in the soluble fraction to high levels. A novel purification protocol has been designed to purify the fusion proteins using metal affinity chromatography, without the need of a hexahistidine-tag. Mass spectral analysis has shown that the fusion proteins are of full length. CD studies have shown that the solubilized fusion proteins are structured. The proteins of interest may be cleaved from the parent protein by either chemical or enzymatic means. The results presented here demonstrate the versatility of the cytochrome b5 based fusion system for the production of peptides and small proteins (<15 kDa). PMID:15802225

  8. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  9. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition. PMID:26985979

  10. Alternate methods for high level pyrotechnic shock simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Phillip J., Sr.

    Two effective methods to recreate a realistic pyrotechnic shock are presented. The first method employs a resonant beam and is used for SRS levels of 12,000 G or more. The test unit is at one end of the beam and a hammer strikes the opposite end causing a shock to be transmitted to the other end of the fixture. The second method is based on a standard shaker system with a resonant beam to amplify the input signal. The engineer defines the duration of the shock signal induced to the vibration amplifier using the GenRad 2514 controller. The shock signal is then input via the shaker to the resonant beam, which amplifies the signal to produce the desired response at the end of the fixture. The shock response spectrum stays within a +/-6 dB tolerance with levels as high as 3000 G peak. These methods are repeatable, reliable, cost-effective, and consistent with a real pyroevent.

  11. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  12. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  13. High docosahexaenoic acid levels in both neutral and polar lipids of a highly migratory fish: Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker).

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Seike, Yutaka; Ioka, Hisashi; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Mikiko; Takashima, Akihito; Keriko, Joseph M; Kose, Sevim; Rodriguez Souza, Juan C

    2005-09-01

    The lipid and FA compositions of various organs (light muscle, dark muscle, liver, pyloric cecum, and the orbital region) and of the stomach contents of a highly migratory fish species Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker) were analyzed. TAG and phospholipids (PE and PC) were the major lipid classes in the total lipids of T. tonggol. DHA was characteristically the major FA of all the major classes of all its organs except for only one case of liver TAG. The mean DHA contents of the various organs accounted for more than 20% of the total FA (TFA), even though it is a neutral depot lipid. However, DHA in the stomach contents, originating from their prey, fluctuated and was generally low. DHA levels were generally higher in a year (2000) when water temperatures were colder than in one when it was warmer (1998). Furthermore, DHA levels in muscle TAG were consistently high in spite of the fluctuation of those in the visceral TAG, which might be directly influenced by the prey lipids. This phenomenon suggests the physiological selective accumulation of DHA in the muscle, after the migration of the digested FA in the vascular system and absorption of the prey lipids in the intestine. In contrast, the FA composition of other species is generally variable and their DHA contents of TAG are usually less than 20% of TFA. PMID:16329467

  14. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  15. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  16. Pleistocene carbonate stratigraphy of South Florida: Evidence for high-frequency sea-level cyclicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Todd D.; Hine, Albert C.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Kruse, Sarah E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2010-01-01

    Pleistocene carbonates of south Florida and islands of the Florida Keys are currently divided into five marine sequences designated, from oldest to youngest, the Q1–Q5 units. The units include a mosaic of freshwater and shallow marine deposits that accumulated on the Florida platform during high sea-level stands. The units are separated by regional-scale subaerial-exposure surfaces that formed during glacioeustatic lowstands. Analyses of cores recovered at Grossman Ridge Rock Reef and Joe Ree Rock Reef in the Florida Everglades reveal additional subaerial-exposure surfaces that are used to delineate subdivisions within units Q1 (Q1a–Q1b), Q2 (Q2a–Q2d), and Q4 (Q4a–Q4b). Units Q1–Q5 preserve evidence of at least 10 separate sea-level highstands, rather than 5 as indicated by previous studies. Compilation of available uranium-series dates on corals recovered from the Florida Keys indicates that the Q4 unit accreted during sea-level maxima associated with marine oxygen-isotope Stage 9 (Q4a) and isotope Stage 7 (Q4b). The Q5 unit formed during isotope Stage 5. No reliable dates are available for units Q1–Q3. We infer that unit Q3 was formed during the extended sea-level highstand of isotope Stage 11 and that units Q2 and Q1 predate isotope Stage 11.

  17. Airborne laser scan measurements of winter snow accumulation in high alpine catchments - hydrological implications and verification by ground penetrating radar at glacier surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, K.; Keuschnig, M.; Heilig, A.; Mayer, C.; Kuhn, M.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover as storage of winter precipitation is a substantial source for runoff generation in high mountain catchments. Redistribution of solid precipitation, caused by wind and gravity, leads to a characteristic spatial distribution of snow accumulation which differs from simple model assumption of a homogenous snowpack increasing with altitude. Both, the distinct distribution of snow accumulation and the total amount of SWE stored in the snow cover, affect the magnitude and seasonality of melt water runoff. Complex relations exist between the spatial pattern of snow accumulation and the presence of glaciers and vice versa. For proper hydrological modeling in high mountain catchments, knowledge about snow cover distribution is an important requirement. To date, to evaluate modeling results, spatially insufficient point data on snow depths and SWE are usually available. On catchment scale, optical space-borne remote sensing techniques deliver areal extent of snow cover, but no snow depths and hence no volume of snow cover. Multi-temporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing method to obtain elevation changes extensively even in inaccessible alpine terrain. Before the start and at the end of accumulation season of winter 2010/2011, two airborne laser scan acquisitions were performed in the Ötztal Alps (Tirol, Austria). Differences of the respective digital elevation models were interpreted as snow depths and converted into SWE using a simple regression method between snow depths and snow density. Preferred snow accumulation areas were determined, e.g. wind sheltered depressions, the base of steep mountain walls and flat glacier surfaces. At catchment scale, solid precipitation is obviously redistributed from wind exposed mountain ridges to lower elevations, inducing characteristic elevations of maximum snow accumulation. Overall, catchment precipitation derived from snow accumulation is a valuable reference for precipitation approaches in

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Low- and High-Cadmium-Accumulating Genotypes of Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) in Response to Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Guo, Jing-Jie; He, Chun-Tao; Shen, Chuang; Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Jing-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-21

    To reduce cadmium (Cd) pollution of food chains, screening and breeding of low-Cd-accumulating cultivars are the focus of much study. Two previously identified genotypes, a low-Cd-accumulating genotype (LAJK) and a high-Cd-accumulating genotype (HAJS) of pakchoi (Brassica chinesis L.), were stressed by Cd (12.5 μM) for 0 h (T0), 3 h (T3) and 24 h (T24). By comparative transcriptome analysis for root tissue, 3005 and 4343 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in LAJK at T3 (vs T0) and T24 (vs T3), respectively, whereas 8677 and 5081 DEGs were detected in HAJS. Gene expression pattern analysis suggested a delay of Cd responded transcriptional changes in LAJK compared to HAJS. DEG functional enrichments proposed genotype-specific biological processes coped with Cd stress. Cell wall biosynthesis and glutathione (GSH) metabolism were found to involve in Cd resistance in HAJS, whereas DNA repair and abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction pathways played important roles in LAJK. Furthermore, the genes participating in Cd efflux such as PDR8 were overexpressed in LAJK, whereas those responsible for Cd transport such as YSL1 were more enhanced in HAJS, exhibiting different Cd transport processes between two genotypes. These novel findings should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of low-Cd-accumulating genotypes for pakchoi. PMID:27228483

  19. Lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and low plasma levels of acquired antibodies against oxidized lipids associate with degeneration and rupture of the intracranial aneurysm wall

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) causes an often fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Why some sIAs rupture remains unknown. Since sIA walls bear some histological similarities with early atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that accumulation and oxidation of lipids might occur in the sIA wall and might associate with sIA wall degeneration. Tissue samples from sIA fundi (n = 54) were studied with histochemistry and a panel of previously characterized antibodies for epitopes of oxidized LDL (OxLDL). Plasma samples from sIA carriers (n = 125) were studied with ELISA and EIA for IgG and IgM -antibodies against a panel of OxLDL epitopes. Results Lipid accumulation, foam cells, and oxidized lipids were found both in unruptured and ruptured sIA walls. Lipid accumulation associated with wall degeneration (P < 0.001), as did the expression of adipophilin, a marker of lipid ingestion by cells. Lipid accumulation associated also with loss of mural cells (P < 0.001), as did the accumulation of OxLDL (P < 0.001). Plasma IgG antibody titers against OxLDL or malondialdehyde modified LDL were higher in patients with unruptured sIAs than in patients with aneurysmal SAH (P ≤ 0.001). A trend but not statistically significant differences were found in plasma IgM antibodies against oxidized lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipids and their oxidation in the sIA wall associates with the degeneration of the sIA wall. Acquired immunity against oxidized lipid epitopes may be protective of lipid associated sIA wall degeneration, but warrants further studies. PMID:24252658

  20. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure

  1. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  3. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  4. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) μg/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) μg/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9) μg/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) μg/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) μg/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) μg/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) μg/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 μg/L; range <0.01-57 μg/L, with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 μg/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  5. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  6. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTIANER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  9. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, R; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures.

  10. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  11. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  12. [High-level production of neutral endoglucanase 1 in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shao-Jun; Song, Mei-Jing; Yang, Hong-Jun; Xing, Zeng-Tao; Zhou, Rui; Cao, Jie

    2006-01-01

    The gene (eg1) encoding for novel endoglucanase 1 was cloned previously from Chinese straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea. EG1 has high thermal stability and optimal pH at neutral and shows great potential in textile and paper industry applications. To improve the expression level of EG1 in Pichia pastoris, the increasing copy number of clone, and its high cell density fermentation in 3.2L fermenter for its high-level expression were investigated in this work. By electro-transformation of pPICZalphaB-egl into GS115EG11 integrated with single copy of eg1 gene, A resistant transformant with 3.8 times higher level expression than GS115EG11 was screened from YPDSZ plate containing 2000 microg/mL of Zeocin. The effect of initial cell density, pH and methanol on its expression and biomass accumulation was evaluated in shaking culture. Optimal EG1 production was observed when initial cell density OD600 was 5.0. EG1 production and biomass accumulation did not seem to vary when cells were induced at different pH values. Both of EG1 and cell density were found to increase with higher methanol concentrations, reaching 62.48 IU/mL and 31.7 (OD600) respectively after 120 h induction with 2.0% (V/V) methanol compared to 30.24 IU/mL and 17.79 (OD60) with 0.25% methanol induction. EG1 expression was further increased by 6.4 times higher than shaking culture after 95.5 hours induction with methanol in fed-batch fermentation, so totally 34 times higher than that for GS115EG11 was achieved by screening of high Zeocin resistant clone and high cell density fermentation. The production of EG1 with 543.36IU/mL CMC activity and 8.80mg/mL protein expression was obtained in Pichia pastoris. PMID:16572843

  13. Highly selective fusion and accumulation of hybrid liposomes into primary effusion lymphoma cells along with induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Towata, Tomomi; Komizu, Yuji; Suzu, Shinya; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Okada, Seiji

    2010-03-12

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpes virus-8 infection, and is generally resistant to chemotherapy. Hybrid liposomes, composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}(EO){sub 21}) (HL-21), were rapidly accumulated in the membrane of PEL cells. HL-21 also increased membrane fluidity of PEL cells, and induced caspase-3 activation along with cell death. These results suggest that HL-21 should be an effective and attractive regent for PEL treatment.

  14. Linearization of the Fermilab recycler high level RF

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph E Dey; Tom Kubicki; John Reid

    2003-05-28

    In studying the Recycler high level RF, it was found that at 89 kHz, the lowest frequency required by the system, some nonlinearities in magnitude and phase were discovered. The visible evidence of this was that beam injected in a barrier bucket had a definite slope at the top. Using a network analyzer, the S-parameter S{sub 21} was realized for the overall system and from mathematical modeling a second order numerator and denominator transfer function was found. The inverse of this transfer function gives their linearization transfer function. The linearization transfer function was realized in hardware by summing a high pass, band pass and low pass filter together. The resulting magnitude and phase plots, along with actual beam response will be shown.

  15. Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

  16. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  17. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  18. Attenuation of high-level impulses by earmuffs.

    PubMed

    Zera, Jan; Mlynski, Rafal

    2007-10-01

    Attenuation of high-level acoustic impulses (noise reduction) by various types of earmuffs was measured using a laboratory source of type A impulses and an artificial test fixture compatible with the ISO 4869-3 standard. The measurements were made for impulses of peak sound-pressure levels (SPLs) from 150 to 170 dB. The rise time and A duration of the impulses depended on their SPL and were within a range of 12-400 mus (rise time) and 0.4-1.1 ms (A duration). The results showed that earmuff peak level attenuation increases by about 10 dB when the impulse's rise time and the A duration are reduced. The results also demonstrated that the signals under the earmuff cup have a longer rise and A duration than the original impulses recorded outside the earmuff. Results of the measurements were used to check the validity of various hearing damage risk criteria that specify the maximum permissible exposure to impulse noise. The present data lead to the conclusion that procedures in which hearing damage risk is assessed only from signal attenuation, without taking into consideration changes in the signal waveform under the earmuff, tend to underestimate the risk of hearing damage. PMID:17902846

  19. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Behrens, U.; Bowen, M.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dobson, M.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Flossdorf, A.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hartl, C.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Polese, G.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, S.; Spataru, A. C.; Sumorok, K.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  20. Historical high-resolution dynamic sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kliphuis, Michael; van Werkhoven, Ben; Bal, Henri E.; Maassen, Jason; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Seinstra, Frank

    2014-05-01

    To investigate future changes in the dynamics of the ocean and therefore in dynamic sea level, ocean models need to be able to adequately represent oceanic dynamical processes. Therefore, resolving ocean eddies and representing boundary currents is of major importance. In this study, we investigate historical variations in dynamical sea surface height using the strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP). First, differences in high and low-resolution ocean model results (0.1 vs. 1.0 degree) were analyzed using a climatological atmospheric forcing dataset. Second, we forced the high-resolution model by atmospheric conditions over the period from 1950 to 2000 that are derived from a simulation using the ECHAM5-OM1 model (within the ESSENCE project, see www.knmi.nl/~sterl/Essence/). In general, the large-scale ocean fields of the POP model simulation agree well with those of the low-resolution ocean model (MPI-OM) results. Variations occur due to the different models used and, especially, due to the capability of the high-resolution POP model to resolve eddies. A comparison of high-resolution ocean model results with in-situ measurements, such as dynamic topography provided by altimetry, and salinity and temperature provided by the WOA2013, also show good agreement.

  1. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  2. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  3. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  4. Unexpectedly high mercury level in pelleted commercial fish feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.H.; Cech, J.J. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    An unexpectedly high mercury (Hg) level was found in a pelleted commercial fish feed used to feed fish in laboratory and fish farm settings. Mean total Hg (T-Hg) concentration in the commercial fish pellets was 66 ppb. Mean total selenium (T-Se) concentration in the pellets was 1,120 ppb (ranging from 790 to 1,360 ppb). Total Hg and Se in the whole blood of Sacramento blackfish and in the fish feed were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). During a 10-week sampling period T-Hg in blood fluctuated between 35 and 56 ppb. A highly significant, positive correlation was found between T-Hg in the fish blood and in the fish feed through the sampling period. On the other hand, no correlation was found between T-Se in the fish feed and T-Hg or T-Se blood level. Researchers working with fish in Hg studies need to know that fish pellets may contain Hg and to consider the influence of these pellets in their results.

  5. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  6. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  7. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  8. Multi-Level High School Classes: Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, R.; Hufnagel, B.

    2001-12-01

    A content survey, the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) designed for undergraduate non-science astronomy courses, was administered as a post-course survey to five senior high classes in a Maryland high school. In 2001, the five classes chosen included all three levels of physics and an astronomy class. Each class had an even distribution of male and female students, with a total of 115 girls and 104 boys as subjects. Results of the survey include: (1) The Advanced Placement (AP) physics class scored highest and general physics lowest. (2) The AP class, most of whom will major in engineering or computer sciences, had a mean ADT score similar to post-course undergraduate non-science astronomy classes. (3) For all five classes, the girls had lower mean scores than the boys. (4) In two classes the girls' self-reported mean confidence was 40% lower than the boys' confidence; in the other three classes the confidence levels were the same. Additional detailed research was done on the three cosmology and ten physics questions in the ADT; girls outperformed the boys in only two of these thirteen questions.

  9. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  10. High-level hepatitis B virus replication in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Matzke, B; Schaller, H; Chisari, F V

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice whose hepatocytes replicate the virus at levels comparable to that in the infected livers of patients with chronic hepatitis have been produced, without any evidence of cytopathology. High-level viral gene expression was obtained in the liver and kidney tissues in three independent lineages. These animals were produced with a terminally redundant viral DNA construct (HBV 1.3) that starts just upstream of HBV enhancer I, extends completely around the circular viral genome, and ends just downstream of the unique polyadenylation site in HBV. In these animals, the viral mRNA is more abundant in centrilobular hepatocytes than elsewhere in the hepatic lobule. High-level viral DNA replication occurs inside viral nucleocapsid particles that preferentially form in the cytoplasm of these centrilobular hepatocytes, suggesting that an expression threshold must be reached for nucleocapsid assembly and viral replication to occur. Despite the restricted distribution of the viral replication machinery in centrilobular cytoplasmic nucleocapsids, nucleocapsid particles are detectable in the vast majority of hepatocyte nuclei throughout the hepatic lobule. The intranuclear nucleocapsid particles are empty, however, suggesting that viral nucleocapsid particle assembly occurs independently in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte and implying that cytoplasmic nucleocapsid particles do not transport the viral genome across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus during the viral life cycle. This model creates the opportunity to examine the influence of viral and host factors on HBV pathogenesis and replication and to assess the antiviral potential of pharmacological agents and physiological processes, including the immune response. PMID:7666518

  11. The accumulation of glutamate is necessary for optimal growth of Salmonella typhimurium in media of high osmolality but not induction of the proU operon.

    PubMed

    Csonka, L N; Ikeda, T P; Fletcher, S A; Kustu, S

    1994-10-01

    Synthesis of glutamate can be limited in bacterial strains carrying mutations to loss of function of glutamate synthase (2-oxoglutarate:glutamine aminotransferase) by using low concentrations of NH4+ in the growth medium. By using such gltB/D mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium, we demonstrated that: (i) a large glutamate pool, previously observed to correlate with growth at high external osmolality, is actually required for optimal growth under these conditions; (ii) the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) apparently cannot substitute for glutamate; and (iii) accumulation of glutamate is not necessary for high levels of induction of the proU operon in vivo. Expression of the proU operon, which encodes a transport system for the osmoprotectants proline and glycine betaine, is induced > 100-fold in the wild-type strain under conditions of high external osmolality. Ramirez et al. (R. M. Ramirez, W. S. Prince, E. Bremer, and M. Villarejo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1153-1157, 1989) observed and we confirmed that in vitro expression of the lacZ gene from the wild-type proU promoter is stimulated by 0.2 to 0.3 M K glutamate. However, we observed a very similar stimulation for lacZ expressed from the lacUV5 promoter and from the proU promoter when an important negative regulatory element downstream of this promoter (the silencer) was deleted. Since the lacUV5 promoter is not osmotically regulated in vivo and osmotic regulation of the proU promoter is largely lost as a result of deletion of the silencer, we conclude that stimulation of proU expression by K glutamate in vitro is not a specific osmoregulatory response but probably a manifestation of the optimization of in vitro transcription-translation at high concentrations of this solute. Our in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that glutamate is not an obligatory component of the transcriptional regulation of the proU operon. PMID:7929004

  12. Mechanism of the hepatic lipase induced accumulation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, M.; Lund-Katz, S.; Phillips, M.C.; Rothblat, G.H.

    1985-07-02

    Hepatic lipase can enhance the delivery of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to cells by a process which does not involve apoprotein catabolism. The incorporation of HDL-free (unesterified) cholesterol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester by cells has been compared to establish the mechanism of this delivery process. Human HDL was reconstituted with /sup 3/H-free cholesterol and (/sup 14/C)sphingomyelin, treated with hepatic lipase in the presence of albumin to remove the products of lipolysis, reisolated, and then incubated with cultured rat hepatoma cells. Relative to control HDL, modification of HDL with hepatic lipase stimulated both the amount of HDL-free cholesterol taken up by the cell and the esterification of HDL-free cholesterol but did not affect the delivery of sphingomyelin. Experiments utilizing HDL reconstituted with /sup 14/C-free cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl oleoyl ether suggest that hepatic lipase enhances the incorporation of HDL-esterified cholesterol. However, the amount of free cholesterol delivered as a result of treatment with hepatic lipase was 4-fold that of esterified cholesterol. On the basis of HDL composition, the cellular incorporation of free cholesterol was about 10 times that which would occur by the uptake and degradation of intact particles. The preferential incorporation of HDL-free cholesterol did not require the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine. To correlate the events observed at the cellular level with alterations in lipoprotein structure, high-resolution, proton-decoupled /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (90.55 MHz) was performed on HDL3 in which the cholesterol molecules were replaced with (4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol by particle reconstitution.

  13. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  14. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  15. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  16. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  17. Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  19. LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE AND PRIMARY CRYSTALLIZATION PHASES IN HIGH-ZIRCONIA HIGH-LEVEL WASTE BOROSILICATE GLASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquidus temperature (TL) studies of high-Zr high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasseshave identified three primary phases: baddelyite (ZrO2), zircon (ZrSiO4), and alkali-zirconiumsilicates, such as parakeldyshite (Na2ZrSi2O7). Using published TL data for HLW glasses withthe...

  20. Do Highly Effective Principals Also Have High Levels of Cultural Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Whitney Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if elementary school principals who exhibit characteristics of highly effective principals also possess high levels of cultural intelligence. Methodology: Three instruments were used in this study, combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the collection of data. The first…