Science.gov

Sample records for accumulating research suggests

  1. Research Suggestions for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  2. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  3. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  4. Applications and suggested directions of transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes many of the applications of transition research having significant technological importance and suggests critical general areas for further research. Critical research requirements include identification and quantification of initial disturbance fields, disturbance internalization by inviscid and viscous flow fields and amplification in nonboundary-layer flows, along with elucidation of the roughness-induced destabilization physics.

  5. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  6. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  7. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  8. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  9. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs. PMID:28436478

  10. Linking research to practice: suggestions for reading a research article.

    PubMed

    Crocker, L M

    1977-01-01

    Although researchers and editorial review boards are obligated to communicate research information in readable fashion, journal readers also must assume responsibility for interpreting and evaluating research articles. The general format for reporting research results is described. In addition, seven major questions to be asked by cirtical readers are presented. These questions are designed to help readers identify the purpose of a study; assess its importance; evaluate the research design, sampling and data collecting procedures; interpret the results of data analyses; and form implications for practice.

  11. Practical suggestions for community interventions using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.

  12. Suggested strategies to attract reviewers for soil & tillage research submissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent letter to the editor in Soil and Tillage Research (STILL) entitled "Opportunity and Obligation" prompted a request for follow-up suggestions on how to solve a critical problem associated with securing reviewers for journal submissions. Ten broad suggestions for helping solve the problem of ...

  13. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  14. Research Directions Suggested by the A.C.L.U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1975-01-01

    Translates questions submitted by Alan Reitman, Associate Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union which the practitioners of civil liberties would like behavioral scientists to answer into researchable topics. Reviews some of the literature relevant to each, and suggests the kinds of studies needed to provide some answers.…

  15. Six Suggestions for Research on Games in Cognitive Science.

    PubMed

    Chabris, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education.

  17. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  18. Accumulation of the Drosophila Torso-like protein at the blastoderm plasma membrane suggests that it translocates from the eggshell.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Alessandro; Furriols, Marc; Casanova, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    The eggshell serves as a depository for proteins that play an important role in early embryonic development. In particular, the Drosophila eggshell is responsible for transferring asymmetries from the egg chamber to specify the regions at both ends of the embryo through the uneven activation of the Torso (Tor) receptor in its membrane. This process relies on the restricted expression of the gene torso-like (tsl) in subpopulations of follicle cells during oogenesis and its protein accumulation at both poles of the eggshell, but it is not known how this signal is transmitted to the embryo. Here, we show that Tsl accumulates at the embryonic plasma membrane, even in the absence of the Tor receptor. However, during oogenesis, we detected Tsl accumulation only at the eggshell. These results suggest that there is a two-step mechanism to transfer the asymmetric positional cues from the egg chamber into the early embryo: initial anchoring of Tsl at the eggshell as it is secreted, followed by its later translocation to the egg plasma membrane, where it enables Tor receptor activation. Translocation of anchored determinants from the eggshell might then regulate the spatial and temporal control of early embryonic developmental processes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Suggested drilling research tasks for the Federal Government

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    A brief summary discussion of drilling, drilling research and the role of the government in drilling research is presented. Specific research and development areas recommended for federal consideration are listed. The technical nature of the identified tasks is emphasized. The Appendices present the factual basis for the discussion and recommendations. Numerous references are noted in the Appendices.

  20. Suggestions from Research for Improving Mathematics Instruction for Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Mary Jo

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen suggestions for improving mathematics instruction for bilingual students are discussed. The role of language in learning mathematics and in solving problems is the focus of a number of suggestions. (MNS)

  1. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  2. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  3. Three Personal Theories That Suggest Models for Teacher Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses three theoretical structures (those of Michael Polanyi, Maxine Greene, and Ann Berthoff) which consider the role of personal interpretation central to ultimate meaning-making. The article proposes them as useful frameworks for teachers who are beginning deliberate classroom research. (IAH)

  4. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  5. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  6. Teaching Chemistry in Primary Science: What Does the Research Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…

  7. Teaching Chemistry in Primary Science: What Does the Research Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…

  8. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  9. Three Personal Theories That Suggest Models for Teacher Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses three theoretical structures (those of Michael Polanyi, Maxine Greene, and Ann Berthoff) which consider the role of personal interpretation central to ultimate meaning-making. The article proposes them as useful frameworks for teachers who are beginning deliberate classroom research. (IAH)

  10. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  11. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  12. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  13. Action Research as Instructional Supervision: Suggestions for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Supervision based on collaboration, participative decision making, and reflective practice is the hallmark of a viable school improvement program that is designed to promote teaching and learning. Action research has gradually emerged as an important form of instructional supervision to engage teachers in reflective practice about their teaching…

  14. Economic Literacy and Efficacy: Suggestions for Research. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Donald R.

    Economic literacy and economic efficacy are addressed by examining basic goals and assumptions of economic education and by suggesting areas that need systematic attention and investigation. To clarify goals, an operational definition of economic literacy must be developed and used in a criterion-referenced testing instrument. A definition of…

  15. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  16. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2017-08-01

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  17. Compensation for Incarcerated Research Participants: Diverse State Policies Suggest a New Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Belt, Brandis

    2009-01-01

    Research with prisoners is essential to understanding the incarceration experience and creating interventions to mediate its effects on individual and community health. Policies on research involving incarcerated participants can influence the extent to which researchers are able or willing to conduct prison studies. We attempted to collect data on inmate compensation policies from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. We found that 44% of these jurisdictions allow compensation for inmates who participate in research, with wide variations in terms of the clarity of and ease of access to policy information. Anecdotal data suggest considerable administrative discretion in the implementation of these policies. Further study is needed on how compensation policies are formulated and enacted and their effects on research with prisoners. PMID:19696389

  18. Every scientist is a memory researcher: Suggestions for making research more memorable

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Independent of the actual results, some scientific articles are more memorable than others. As anyone who has written an article collaboratively knows, there are numerous ways a manuscript can be written to convey the same general ideas. To aid with this, many scientific writing books and editorials provide advice, often anecdotal, on how to make articles more memorable. Here I ground these suggestions with empirical support from memory research. Specifically, I suggest that researchers consider how to emphasize their work’s novelty, strive to describe their work using concrete, easy-to-understand terms, and use caution when attempting to evoke an emotional response in the reader. I also discuss considerations in title selections and conference presentations. PMID:25789161

  19. Every scientist is a memory researcher: Suggestions for making research more memorable.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    Independent of the actual results, some scientific articles are more memorable than others. As anyone who has written an article collaboratively knows, there are numerous ways a manuscript can be written to convey the same general ideas. To aid with this, many scientific writing books and editorials provide advice, often anecdotal, on how to make articles more memorable. Here I ground these suggestions with empirical support from memory research. Specifically, I suggest that researchers consider how to emphasize their work's novelty, strive to describe their work using concrete, easy-to-understand terms, and use caution when attempting to evoke an emotional response in the reader. I also discuss considerations in title selections and conference presentations.

  20. Constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation: suggestion for a high school curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouropatov, Anatoli; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2013-07-01

    Students have a tendency to see integral calculus as a series of procedures with associated algorithms and many do not develop a conceptual grasp giving them the desirable versatility of thought. Thus, instead of a proceptual view of the symbols in integration, they have, at best, a process-oriented view. On the other hand, it is not surprising that many students find concepts such as the integral difficult when they are unable to experience these processes directly in the classroom. With a view towards improving this situation, constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation has been proposed (Educ Stud Math. 1994;26:229-274; Integral as accumulation: a didactical perspective for school mathematics; Thessaloniki: PME; 2009. p. 417-424). In this paper, we discuss a curriculum that is based on this idea and a design for curriculum materials that are intended to develop an improved cognitive base for a flexible proceptual understanding of the integral and integration in high school. The main focus is on how we (mathematics teachers and mathematics educators) might teach the integral concept in order to help high school students to construct meaningful knowledge alongside acquiring technical abilities.

  1. Size, Accumulation and Performance for Research Grants: Examining the Role of Size for Centres of Excellence.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Carter; Schneider, Jesper W; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the relation between size, accumulation and performance for research grants, where we examine the relation between grant size for Centres of Excellence (CoE) funded by the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF) and various ex post research performance measures, including impact and shares of highly cited articles. We examine both the relation between size and performance and also how performance for CoEs evolves over the course of grant periods. In terms of dynamics, it appears that performance over the grant period (i.e. 10 years) is falling for the largest CoEs, while it is increasing for those among the smallest half. Overall, multivariate econometric analysis finds evidence that performance is increasing in grant size and over time. In both cases, the relation appears to be non-linear, suggesting that there is a point at which performance peaks. The CoEs have also been very successful in securing additional funding, which can be viewed as a 'cumulative effect' of center grants. In terms of new personnel, the far majority of additional funding is spent on early career researchers, hence, this accumulation would appear to have a 'generational' dimension, allowing for scientific expertise to be passed on to an increasing number of younger researchers.

  2. Size, Accumulation and Performance for Research Grants: Examining the Role of Size for Centres of Excellence

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Carter; Schneider, Jesper W.; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the relation between size, accumulation and performance for research grants, where we examine the relation between grant size for Centres of Excellence (CoE) funded by the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF) and various ex post research performance measures, including impact and shares of highly cited articles. We examine both the relation between size and performance and also how performance for CoEs evolves over the course of grant periods. In terms of dynamics, it appears that performance over the grant period (i.e. 10 years) is falling for the largest CoEs, while it is increasing for those among the smallest half. Overall, multivariate econometric analysis finds evidence that performance is increasing in grant size and over time. In both cases, the relation appears to be non-linear, suggesting that there is a point at which performance peaks. The CoEs have also been very successful in securing additional funding, which can be viewed as a ‘cumulative effect’ of center grants. In terms of new personnel, the far majority of additional funding is spent on early career researchers, hence, this accumulation would appear to have a ‘generational’ dimension, allowing for scientific expertise to be passed on to an increasing number of younger researchers. PMID:26862907

  3. A Suggested Research Agenda on Treatment-Outcome Research for Female Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resick, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    I appreciate the opportunity to present my opinions on the appropriate course for the research agenda on violence against women. Briere and Jordan (this issue) have done an estimable job in reviewing the research on the psychological impact of violence on women and have concluded that, because psychological symptoms following victimization are…

  4. Spatial gene expression analysis in tomato hypocotyls suggests cysteine as key precursor of vascular sulfur accumulation implicated in Verticillium dahliae defense.

    PubMed

    Klug, Katharina; Hogekamp, Claudia; Specht, André; Myint, San Shwe; Blöink, Dominik; Küster, Helge; Horst, Walter J

    2015-02-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a prominent generator of plant vascular wilting disease and sulfur (S)-enhanced defense (SED) mechanisms contribute to its in-planta elimination. The accumulation of S-containing defense compounds (SDCs) including elemental S (S(0) ) has been described based on the comparison of two near-isogenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines differing in fungal susceptibility. To better understand the effect of S nutrition on V. dahliae resistance both lines were supplied with low, optimal or supraoptimal sulfate-S. An absolute quantification demonstrated a most effective fungal elimination due to luxury plant S nutrition. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed a strong regulation of Cys levels and an S-responsive GSH pool rise in the bulk hypocotyl. High-frequency S peak accumulations were detected in vascular bundles of resistant tomato plants after fungal colonization by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Global transcriptomic analysis suggested that early steps of the primary S metabolism did not promote the SDCs synthesis in the whole hypocotyl as gene expression was downregulated after infection. Enhanced S fertilization mostly alleviated the repressive fungal effect but did not reverse it. Upregulation of glutathione (GSH)-associated genes in bulk hypocotyls but not in vascular bundles indicated a global antioxidative role of GSH. To finally assign the contribution of S metabolism-associated genes to high S(0) accumulations exclusively found in the resistant tomato line, a spatial gene expression approach was applied. Laser microdissection of infected vascular bundles revealed a switch toward transcription of genes connected with cysteine (Cys) synthesis. The upregulation of LeOASTLp1 suggests a role for Cys as key precursor for local S accumulations (possibly S(0) ) in the vascular bundles of the V. dahliae-resistant tomato line. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. VII. REPLICATION, RESEARCH ACCUMULATION, AND META-ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    PubMed

    Card, Noel A

    2017-06-01

    The progression of scientific knowledge requires replication of research results and an orderly accumulation of research knowledge. However, developmental science, like many other sciences, has too often prioritized individual studies at the expense of replication and synthesis efforts. In this chapter, I describe the concepts of replication and research accumulation and consider both their barriers and potentials for developmental science. I emphasize the importance of considering effect sizes rather than statistical significance, and I describe meta-analysis as a powerful tool in facilitating research accumulation and in guiding replication efforts. By considering advancement in terms of research accumulation rather than single studies, developmental science can achieve greater efficiency and precision to guide both future research and applied efforts. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  7. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  8. Community Based Rehabilitation: Information Accumulation & Exchange. South Asian Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This paper reviews research and evaluates information gathered on disabilities and service development in South Asia, especially India and Pakistan. The concept of "community-based rehabilitation" (CBR), which stresses the need for rehabilitation efforts rooted in the context of local cultural concepts, is discussed. The paper emphasizes…

  9. Public Opinion Research as a Basis for Student Learning: A Suggested Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Brian J.

    This paper provides a suggested teaching model enabling students to conduct extensive, hands-on survey research as the basis of part or all of a political science class. The model emphasizes active student learning and development of applied skills. The components of this model can be modified for use in a broad array of undergraduate political…

  10. Bereaved parents' intentions and suggestions about research autopsies in children with lethal brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Justin Nathaniel; Windham, Jennifer A; Hinds, Pamela S; Gattuso, Jami S; Mandrell, Belinda; Gajjar, Poorna; West, Nancy K; Hammarback, Teresa; Broniscer, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    To determine bereaved parents' perceptions about participating in autopsy-related research and to elucidate their suggestions about how to improve the process. A prospective multicenter study was conducted to collect tumor tissue by autopsy of children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. In the study, parents completed a questionnaire after their child's death to describe the purpose for, hopes (ie, desired outcomes of), and regrets about their participation in autopsy-related research. Parents also suggested ways to improve autopsy-related discussions. A semantic content analytic method was used to analyze responses and identify themes within and across parent responses. Responses from 33 parents indicated that the main reasons for participating in this study were to advance medical knowledge or find a cure, a desire to help others, and choosing as their child would want. Parents hoped that participation would help others or help find a cure as well as provide closure. Providing education/anticipatory guidance and having a trusted professional sensitively broach the topic of autopsy were suggestions to improve autopsy discussions. All parents felt that study participation was the right decision, and none regretted it; 91% agreed that they would make the choice again. Because autopsy can help advance scientific understanding of the disease itself and because parents reported having no regret and even cited benefits, researchers should be encouraged to continue autopsy-related research. Parental perceptions about such studies should be evaluated in other types of pediatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research - suggestion for an operational tool.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, L V; Dagnæs-Hansen, F; Herskin, M S

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been done on pigs, hardly any studies include systematic welfare assessment. Still, it is essential to assess welfare of laboratory pigs, both domestic pig breeds and smaller purpose-bred breeds, as (1) scientific obligations entail responsibility to ensure and document a fair welfare standard for animals used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest a method for monitoring the welfare status of individual laboratory pigs, intended to relieve the practical scoring of the welfare of individual pigs as well as the interpretation of the findings.

  12. Quality of Life and Military Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework and Suggestions for Planned Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a conceptual framework and suggestions for a planned study of quality of life (QOL) and military outcomes among Navy personnel...The conceptual framework links individual variables (e.g., age, marital status, and Navy paygrade) and contextual Navy variables (e.g., command) with...fit. One section of the report lists expectations derived from the conceptual framework ; another presents specific research recommendations.

  13. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  14. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: A literature review with suggestions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David L.; Mead, Kenneth R.; Lynch, Robert A.; Hirst, Deborah V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential risks associated with “toilet plume” aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission. Methods The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks. Results The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized. Conclusion Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities. PMID:23040490

  15. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David L; Mead, Kenneth R; Lynch, Robert A; Hirst, Deborah V L

    2013-03-01

    The potential risks associated with "toilet plume" aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission. The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks. The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized. Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  17. Calorie Restriction: What Recent Results Suggest for the Future of Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Calorie Restriction (CR) research has expanded rapidly over the past few decades and CR remains the most highly reproducible, environmental intervention to improve health and extend lifespan in animal studies. Although many model organisms have consistently demonstrated positive responses to CR, it remains to be shown whether CR will extend lifespan in humans. Additionally, the current environment of excess caloric consumption and high incidence of overweight/obesity illustrate the improbable nature of the long-term adoption of a CR lifestyle by a significant proportion of the human population. Thus, the search for substances that can reproduce the beneficial physiologic responses of CR without a requisite calorie intake reduction, termed CR mimetics (CRMs), has gained momentum. Material & Methods Recent articles describing health and lifespan results of CR in nonhuman primates and short-term human studies are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the rapidly expanding search for CRMs. Results The first results from a long-term, randomized, controlled CR study in nonhuman primates showing statistically significant benefits on longevity have now been reported. Additionally, positive results from short-term, randomized, controlled CR studies in humans are suggestive of potential health and longevity gains, while test of proposed CRMs (including rapamycin, resveratrol, 2-deoxyglucose and metformin) have shown both positive and mixed results in rodents. Conclusion Whether current positive results will translate into longevity gains for humans remains an open question. However, the apparent health benefits that have been observed with CR suggest that regardless of longevity gains, the promotion of healthy aging and disease prevention may be attainable. PMID:20534066

  18. Ground-breaking research into Ghanaian sex-workers suggests high awareness. Country surveys.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    The first nationwide research into prostitution in Ghana has been completed by Dr. Matilida Pappoe. She has found that there has been exponential growth in prostitution over the past three years in the country. While 10 years ago, people would not openly talk about prostitution, now that people's friends are increasingly entering the trade, people freely discuss prostitution. The research indicates that this growth is linked to the negative effects of macroeconomic policies aimed at economic growth, such as structural adjustment. For example, 39 of 121 sex workers studied claimed to have begun working as a prostitute after their trading businesses collapsed. Study findings suggest a high level of AIDS awareness among Ghanaian prostitutes. Prostitutes in Ghana are considered to be either seaters or roamers. Seaters are a loosely organized group of women who tend to work from a common compound, attracting customers by sitting in the doorway of their rooms. They typically report to an older retired sex worker who settles disputes and raises credit if one of the women must pay a police fine. Seaters are largely 30-45 years old and work in industrial centers. Roamers, however, tend to be 20-30 years old, work in coastal towns, and are usually better educated. They move from place to place and are probably at lower risk of contracting HIV due to the higher rates they charge and the correspondingly lower number of clients they entertain. Roamers seem to have higher rates of condom use and clients who are aware of the dangers. Roamers, too, are not organized as a group and may even often be highly competitive. Their work in the isolation of hotels makes them particularly vulnerable. Economic necessity has therefore increasingly drawn Ghanaian women into the sex trade, while Ghanaian men who typically support two or three women in exchange for sex, but can no longer do so due to current economic conditions, turn to occasional sex with prostitutes. This paper notes that

  19. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  20. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  1. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  2. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  3. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  4. A Culture of Understanding: Reflections and Suggestions from a Genomics Research Community Board.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Benjamin; Caddle-Steele, Carolyn; Chisholm, Gregory; Esmond, Warria A; Ferryman, Kadija; Gertner, Melvin; Goytia, Crispin; Hauser, Diane; Richardson, Lynne D; Robinson, Mimsie; Horowitz, Carol R

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited community engagement in the burgeoning field of genomics research. In the wake of a new discovery of genetic variants that increase the risk of kidney failure and are almost unique to people of African ancestry, community and clinical leaders in Harlem, New York, formed a community board to inform the direction of related research. The board advised all aspects of a study to assess the impact of testing for these genetic variants at primary care sites that serve diverse populations, including explaining genetic risk to participants. By reflecting on the board's experiences, we found that community voices can have tangible impact on research that navigates the controversial intersection of race, ancestry, and genomics by heightening vigilance, fostering clear communication between researchers and the community, and encouraging researchers to cede some control. Our reflections and work provide a strong justification for longitudinal community partnerships in genomics research.

  5. Accumulating Evidence and Research Organization (AERO) model: a new tool for representing, analyzing, and planning a translational research program.

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Heilig, Charles M; Weijer, Charles

    2013-05-30

    Maximizing efficiency in drug development is important for drug developers, policymakers, and human subjects. Limited funds and the ethical imperative of risk minimization demand that researchers maximize the knowledge gained per patient-subject enrolled. Yet, despite a common perception that the current system of drug development is beset by inefficiencies, there remain few approaches for systematically representing, analyzing, and communicating the efficiency and coordination of the research enterprise. In this paper, we present the first steps toward developing such an approach: a graph-theoretic tool for representing the Accumulating Evidence and Research Organization (AERO) across a translational trajectory. This initial version of the AERO model focuses on elucidating two dimensions of robustness: (1) the consistency of results among studies with an identical or similar outcome metric; and (2) the concordance of results among studies with qualitatively different outcome metrics. The visual structure of the model is a directed acyclic graph, designed to capture these two dimensions of robustness and their relationship to three basic questions that underlie the planning of a translational research program: What is the accumulating state of total evidence? What has been the translational trajectory? What studies should be done next? We demonstrate the utility of the AERO model with an application to a case study involving the antibacterial agent, moxifloxacin, for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. We then consider some possible elaborations for the AERO model and propose a number of ways in which the tool could be used to enhance the planning, reporting, and analysis of clinical trials. The AERO model provides an immediate visual representation of the number of studies done at any stage of research, depicting both the robustness of evidence and the relationship of each study to the larger translational trajectory. In so doing, it makes some of the

  6. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions.

    PubMed

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article.

  7. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions

    PubMed Central

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article. PMID:26629463

  8. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  9. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-02-24

    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  10. [Scientific Research Policy for Health in Portugal: II - Facts and Suggestions].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Cátia Sá; Hartz, Zulmira; Sambo, Luís; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault, Gilles; Russo, Giuliano; Viveiros, Miguel; Silveira, Henrique; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2017-03-31

    After more than 40 years of democracy and 30 years of European integration, Portugal has bridged the research gap it had previously. However, when compared to global and European research policies, Portugal still has a long way go regarding investment in research and development. Health Research in Portugal has been managed by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and the National Health Institute Doctor Ricardo Jorge, and it has not been a political priority, emphasized by the absence of a national scientific research plan for health, resulting in a weak coordination of actors in the field. The strategic guidelines of the 2004 - 2010 National Health Plan are what comes closest to a health research policy, but these were not implemented by the institutions responsible for scientific research for the health sector. Trusting that adopting a strategy of incentives to stimulate health research is an added-value for the Portuguese health system, the authors present five strategic proposals for research in health in Portugal.

  11. Ethics Reporting in Biospecimen and Genetic Research: Current Practice and Suggestions for Changes.

    PubMed

    Chin, William Wei Lim; Wieschowski, Susanne; Prokein, Jana; Illig, Thomas; Strech, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Modern approaches for research with human biospecimens employ a variety of substantially different types of ethics approval and informed consent. In most cases, standard ethics reporting such as "consent and approval was obtained" is no longer meaningful. A structured analysis of 120 biospecimen studies recently published in top journals revealed that more than 85% reported on consent and approval, but in more than 90% of cases, this reporting was insufficient and thus potentially misleading. Editorial policies, reporting guidelines, and material transfer agreements should include recommendations for meaningful ethics reporting in biospecimen research. Meaningful ethics reporting is possible without higher word counts and could support public trust as well as networked research.

  12. Evaluation/Research: A Suggested Move toward Scientific and Community Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Deitchman, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between research and evaluation. Presents several evaluation models currently used and discusses considerations for each of them. Categorizes arguments representing skepticism surrounding evaluation as psychological, academic, political, and even irrelevant. (JOW)

  13. Applying Bayesian statistics to the study of psychological trauma: A suggestion for future research.

    PubMed

    Yalch, Matthew M

    2016-03-01

    Several contemporary researchers have noted the virtues of Bayesian methods of data analysis. Although debates continue about whether conventional or Bayesian statistics is the "better" approach for researchers in general, there are reasons why Bayesian methods may be well suited to the study of psychological trauma in particular. This article describes how Bayesian statistics offers practical solutions to the problems of data non-normality, small sample size, and missing data common in research on psychological trauma. After a discussion of these problems and the effects they have on trauma research, this article explains the basic philosophical and statistical foundations of Bayesian statistics and how it provides solutions to these problems using an applied example. Results of the literature review and the accompanying example indicates the utility of Bayesian statistics in addressing problems common in trauma research. Bayesian statistics provides a set of methodological tools and a broader philosophical framework that is useful for trauma researchers. Methodological resources are also provided so that interested readers can learn more. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Ethics Reporting in Biospecimen and Genetic Research: Current Practice and Suggestions for Changes

    PubMed Central

    Chin, William Wei Lim; Wieschowski, Susanne; Prokein, Jana; Illig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Modern approaches for research with human biospecimens employ a variety of substantially different types of ethics approval and informed consent. In most cases, standard ethics reporting such as “consent and approval was obtained” is no longer meaningful. A structured analysis of 120 biospecimen studies recently published in top journals revealed that more than 85% reported on consent and approval, but in more than 90% of cases, this reporting was insufficient and thus potentially misleading. Editorial policies, reporting guidelines, and material transfer agreements should include recommendations for meaningful ethics reporting in biospecimen research. Meaningful ethics reporting is possible without higher word counts and could support public trust as well as networked research. PMID:27483445

  15. Sleep-Related Leg Cramps: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Terry M

    2015-09-01

    Various medications and behavioral treatments for sleep-related leg cramps have been tried, but the quality of the evidence is low. Quinine seems to be effective, but dangerous. β-Agonists may be one of the more common causes of secondary leg cramps. Statins may not be implicated in leg cramps as much as has been believed. Potassium-sparing diuretics may have a higher incidence of sleep-related leg cramps than potassium-depleting diuretics. Plantar flexion of the feet may elicit most sleep-related leg cramps. More research into behavioral treatments is needed. A standardized sleep-related leg cramp questionnaire would be useful to expand research.

  16. Advances in research on the accumulation, redox behavior, and function of vanadium in ascidians.

    PubMed

    Michibata, Hitoshi; Ueki, Tatsuya

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of high levels of vanadium-containing compounds in ascidian blood cells goes back to 1911. Ascidians, which are also known as tunicates or sea squirts, belong to a subphylum of the Chordata, between the vertebrates and invertebrates. This discovery attracted the attention of an interdisciplinary group of chemists, physiologists, and biochemists, in part because of interest in the possible role of vanadium in oxygen transport as a prosthetic group in respiratory pigments, which was later shown not to be such a role, and in part because of the fact that high levels of vanadium were unknown in other organisms. The intracellular concentration of vanadium in some ascidian species can be as high as 350 mm, which is 107 times that in seawater. Vanadium ions, which are thought to be present in the +5 oxidation state in seawater, are reduced to the +3 oxidation state via the +4 oxidation state and are stored in the vacuoles of vanadium-containing cells called vanadocytes, where high levels of protons and sulfate ions are also found. Recently, many proteins and genes that might be involved in the accumulation and reduction of vanadium have been isolated. In this review, we not only trace the history of vanadium research but also describe recent advances in our understanding of the field from several viewpoints: (i) vanadium-accumulating blood cells, (ii) the energetics of vanadium accumulation, (iii) the redox mechanism of vanadium, (iv) the possible role of sulfate, and (v) the physiological roles of vanadium.

  17. Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Shean, Glenn D

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed.

  18. Future Directions in Adventure-based Therapy Research: Methodological Considerations and Design Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newes, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    More methodologically sound research in adventure therapy is needed if the field is to claim empirically-based efficacy as a treatment modality. Some considerations for conducting outcome studies in adventure therapy relate to standardization, multiple domain assessment, regression techniques, objective assessment of participant change, client and…

  19. A suggested approach for design of oak (Quercus L.) regeneration research considering regional differences

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Martin A. Spetich; Dale R. Wiegel; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney; John M. Kabrick

    2009-01-01

    Research on oak (Quercus L.) regeneration has generally consisted of smallscale studies of treatments designed to favor oak, including consideration of site quality and topographic effects on oak regeneration. However, these experiments have not consistently factored in broader-scale ecological differences found in the eastern United States. Oak...

  20. School Turnaround Principals: What Does Initial Research Literature Suggest They Are Doing to Be Successful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby V.; Hambrick Hitt, Dallas

    2017-01-01

    As the research literature on principals leading school turnaround grows, determining whether or not real differences between good, even effective, principals and turnaround principals becomes increasingly important. Recent federal government policy and investment established turnaround models that emphasize the role of the school principal,…

  1. Research and Theory Driven Insights: Ten Suggestions for L2 Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Ghiretti, Gabriela; White, Violaine; Berg, Bartell; Quintana, Rubén Domínguez; Grayson, Brandan L.; Weng, Miaowei

    2007-01-01

    Research and theory on second language reading has reached heightened dimensions in recent years. It is through reading that learners access much information concerning the target language and culture, and consequently reading is an important part of almost all language programs across stages of acquisition. The purpose of this article is to offer…

  2. Research Suggestions in the Design of a Global Graduate Business Program Delivered by Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puderbaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…

  3. School Turnaround Principals: What Does Initial Research Literature Suggest They Are Doing to Be Successful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby V.; Hambrick Hitt, Dallas

    2017-01-01

    As the research literature on principals leading school turnaround grows, determining whether or not real differences between good, even effective, principals and turnaround principals becomes increasingly important. Recent federal government policy and investment established turnaround models that emphasize the role of the school principal,…

  4. Dissemination with Impact: What Research Suggests for Practice in Career and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Jones, Lisa M.

    Dissemination in career and technical education does not simply disperse information, new products, new practices and materials, and new ideas designed to stimulate local change but does so in ways that promote its use. Federal efforts to promote dissemination of research-based information in education are: (1) deeply indebted to the agricultural…

  5. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education,…

  6. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education,…

  7. Research-Practice Integration in Real Practice Settings: Issues and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny K.; Thyer, Bruce A.; Webb, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    At the National Bridging the Research and Practice Gap Symposium to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work, 150 participants attended five breakout groups to address real practice setting applications. These participants from social work academia and practice communities addressed issues and looked for solutions to promote…

  8. Research-Practice Integration in Real Practice Settings: Issues and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny K.; Thyer, Bruce A.; Webb, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    At the National Bridging the Research and Practice Gap Symposium to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work, 150 participants attended five breakout groups to address real practice setting applications. These participants from social work academia and practice communities addressed issues and looked for solutions to promote…

  9. Psychopharmacology Research for Individuals with Mental Retardation: Methodological Issues and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bielecki, JoAnne; Mayville, Stephen B.; Matson, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    A review found many of the studies that have assessed the efficacy of psychotropic medications with individuals with mental retardation (MR) are methodologically flawed. It details suggestions to improve the quality of medication studies and avoid methodological problems that prevent the scientific advancement of psychopharmacological research…

  10. Composition Classroom Anthologies: Some Exploratory Thoughts and Suggestions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, David

    A writing instructor, who informally surveyed 11 current essay anthologies to determine why such anthologies discourage students from reading and writing, suggests problems relating to three aspects of physical design. First, many anthologies alienate composition students by their distinctive textbook-styled covers. These covers do not suggest…

  11. The Prosaics of Figurative Language in Preschool: Some Observations and Suggestions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2009-01-01

    In a significant book, Cameron suggested that we study metaphor as "prosaics" (i.e. as a feature of mundane talk). In this article, by means of a few brief examples, we point to instances of such talk in the setting of preschool. We also discuss some opportunities for learning that such talk could offer children, and what the…

  12. The Prosaics of Figurative Language in Preschool: Some Observations and Suggestions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2007-01-01

    In a significant work, "Metaphor in educational discourse", Cameron has suggested that we study metaphor as "prosaics" (i.e. as a feature of mundane talk). In this paper, by means of some brief examples, we point to instances of such talk in the setting of preschool. We also discuss opportunities for learning that such talk could offer children,…

  13. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  14. Parent education for adults with intellectual disability: A review and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Christen; Machalicek, Wendy; Van Norman, Renée

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates research regarding parent education interventions for adults with an intellectual disability (ID). Electronic database and ancestral searches identified 13 studies published between 1994 and 2012. The results of these studies are discussed in relation to (a) participants and settings; (b) general intervention procedures, (c) programmed antecedent stimuli to occasion parent behaviour; (d) targeted behaviours; (e) programmed consequence(s) for parent behaviour; and (f) the presence of generalization and maintenance strategies. In the majority of reviewed studies, intervention components lacked operational definitions appropriate for replication and direct observation of child outcomes were often not included as a dependent variable. Also, most interventions did not include steps to promote the generalization of skills to different stimuli or settings although the majority assessed the maintenance of targeted skills. In consideration of these findings, several relevant areas for future research are proposed.

  15. Sophorolipid production by yeasts: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Claus, Silke; Van Bogaert, Inge N A

    2017-09-19

    Sophorolipids are well-known biosurfactants produced by yeasts, having potential applications ranging from nanomaterials, medicine, and cosmetics to large-volume applications such as cleaning and soil remediation. Because of their environmentally friendly nature, they attained much interest during the past decades as a sustainable and ecological alternative to petroleum-derived surfactants. Stronger yet, research activities and scientific publications on the topic are ever increasing. However, often these studies lack proper producer strain identification and detailed structural product characterization. Flaws regarding strain identity can have huge consequences when moving to valorization and moreover tend to persist quite long in scientific literature. Furthermore, too often sophorolipid production is proposed where other biosurfactant structures cannot be ruled out based on the chemical analysis. Finally, absolute quantitative yield determination frequently occurs with variable product purity and without proper calibration standards. This review aims to highlight and discuss these discrepancies and proposes some guidelines for good practice in future sophorolipid research.

  16. Publication of Research in Psychology Journals: Some Suggestions of New Authors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    sation Hour "New-or Inexperienced in Publishing?" Conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association , Anaheim, California, August 1983...submitted to Journals, and most of them are rejected. According to an APA monograph on understanding the manuscript review process ( American Psychological Association , 1982...emphasize too strongly the researcher’s need to have and use a copy of the latest APA Publications Manual ( American Psychological Association , 1983

  17. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  18. Responding to the Challenge of Co-Occurring Disorders: Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    SACKS, STANLEY; CHANDLER, REDONNA; GONZALES, JUNIUS

    2008-01-01

    This special issue consolidates some recent research findings and scientific thought on co-occurring disorders from both the substance abuse and mental health fields. This summary article recaps and synthesizes the main findings and themes, then considers additional issues in the field today to arrive at an agenda for future co-occurring disorders research. Future plans must: (1) encourage and assist further development of treatment programs that respond to the array of types and severities of co-occurring disorders, while taking into account the limited resources typically available; (2) continue development and testing of continuing care models, exploring strategies that will sustain the recovery of treated individuals who remain vulnerable to relapse; and (3) contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that enable new interventions and practices to be adopted, implemented, and sustained. Co-occurring disorders is a relatively new area of research; this special issue illustrates the productivity of the work to date, and indicates the potential for advances to come. PMID:17574790

  19. Recruiting Chinese Americans for dementia caregiver intervention research: suggestions for success.

    PubMed

    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Rabinowitz, Yaron; Tang, Paulette C Y; Tse, Collins; Kwo, Elizabeth; Hsu, Shannon; Wang, Peng-Chih; Leung, Laurie; Tong, Hui-Qi; Thompson, Larry W

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three recruitment modalities for enrolling Chinese-American and white family caregivers into research studies to evaluate intervention strategies. A total of 116 Chinese Americans and 134 whites were screened for eligibility to participate in one of two clinical intervention trials. Participants were recruited using: 1) media sources; 2) nonprofessional referral sources; or 3) professional referrals. Each participant was asked an open-ended question about how they became aware of the programs offered. A smaller proportion of Chinese Americans (39%) than whites (50%) who responded to recruiting strategies actually enrolled as subjects. There was a significant interaction between ethnicity and recruitment strategy. Chinese-American caregivers who were recruited by nonprofessional sources were less likely to enroll in the intervention studies than those who were recruited through media sources or professional referrals. Whites, on the other hand, were more likely to be recruited through nonprofessional sources than the other two. A consumer-oriented approach, which included direct face-to-face contact with key community leaders, generated the highest number of Chinese-American participants. Culture-specific factors such as trust-building with social service agencies, demonstrating genuine commitment to the well-being of the target community, and linguistic and ethnic matching between research staff and potential participants appear helpful to successful research recruitment in this rapidly increasing segment of dementia caregivers.

  20. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Rabon, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Once widespread in the Eastern United States, early 20th century predator-control programs reduced red wolves to a remnant population by the 1970s. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, restored red wolves to northeastern North Carolina in 1987. After 25 years of restoration efforts, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. To understand how these issues influence recovery efforts, we examine the history of red wolf restoration and its challenges. We then formulate areas of research that are of direct relevance to the restoration of red wolves. Abstract By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70–80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves. PMID:26479530

  1. Adult Attachment and Transgender Identity in the Italian Context: Clinical Implications and Suggestions for Further Research

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Vitelli, Roberto; Scandurra, Cristiano; Picariello, Simona; Valerio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although attachment theory has been recognized as one of the main reference for the study of the general wellbeing, little research has been focused on the attachment styles of transgender people. Attachment styles are deeply influenced by the earliest relationships with caregivers, which, for gender nonconforming children, are often characterized by parental rejection. Consequently, transgender children and adults likely internalize societal stigma, developing internalized transphobia. The current research was aimed to explore the link between adult attachment and internalized transphobia. Method 25 male-to-female (MtF) and 23 female-to-male (FtM) transgender people participated in the survey filling in two self-report questionnaires: the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Transgender Identity Survey. A cluster analysis, T-Test and multiple regression analysis were conducted to explore the link between attachment styles and internalized transphobia. Results A greater prevalence of secure attachment styles was detected. Participants with secure attachment styles reported higher levels of positive transgender identity than those with insecure attachment styles. Secure attachment styles significantly affect positive transgender identity, while insecure attachment styles influence internalized transphobia. Conclusions A clinical focus on the redefinition of the Internal Working Models of transgender people can inform psychologically-focused interventions, which transgender people can benefit from. PMID:26937224

  2. Obesity and health--new perspectives from bioscience research suggest directions for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Penny, Suzi; Carryer, Jenny

    2011-02-11

    This viewpoint is written from the dual perspectives of a metabolic biochemist and a nurse academic who met at the Oxford University Round Table Forum on Obesity in 2008. Forty invited participants from around the world spent a week presenting and debating research and practice in the area of obesity. A unique feature of this forum was that it was cross-disciplinary with participants ranging from those working in public health with a background in medicine, paediatrics, nutrition, nursing, education, policy analysis, behaviour and social sciences, and exercise physiology to those working in the food industry and health insurance. The link between our current affluent lifestyle and increasing obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and the associated morbidity and mortality is well established. Interventions have involved individual patient clinician encounters aimed at weight loss and broader public health interventions with the goal of prevention and management of obesity. However, what is often overlooked is the need to also understand the psychosocial implications and issues for those living with a large body in a society where the prevailing culture, including that of health professionals, espouses a lean body as the ideal and excess weight as a testimony to greed, sloth and lack of will power. In this paper we share observations and learning from Round Table participation together with some of our own research interests.

  3. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Rabon, David R

    2013-08-13

    By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70-80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves.

  4. [Research advances in uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification of Pb in plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, De-Chao; Yu, Ming-Ge; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of soils by lead (Pb) is of widespread occurrence because of the industrialization, urbanization, mining, and many other anthropogenic activities. It is urgent and necessary for scientists to uncover the mechanisms of uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification of Pb in plants for the following two reasons. First, it helps target and regulate the key process of Pb uptake by crops and vegetables and minimize the threat of Pb introduction to the food chain. Second, it helps cultivate Pb hyperaccumulating plants that can absorb and sequester excessive amounts from contaminated soils in their biomass without incurring damage to basic metabolic functions. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in uptake, translocation and accumulation of Pb in plants and address the mechanisms by which plants or plant systems detoxify Pb. The further researches on the foliar uptake, the interactions between soil components and plant cell wall, as well as the integrated technologies for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soils were prospected.

  5. [Research progress in lampbrush chromosomes and some suggestions for their use in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    Fanguo, Chen; Qingqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    Lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) are transient giant transcripts that exist at the diplotene stage of the first meiotic division in female gametocytes of almost all animals except mammals. LBCs are named for their lampbrush-like structure, however, they received the lowest research attention in studies of three classical cytogenetic chromosomes. They have been excellent models for studying the structure, organization, transcription, and transcriptional processing of chromosomes during meiosis. Here we briefly summarized these studies and LBCs forming mechanism and also discussed their possible functions, such as providing enough transcriptional products for embryonic development by oocytes LBCs or polyploidy demonstrated by previous reports. Finally, we discussed the possibility of introducing this typical case into our genetics teaching to inspire students' interest in genetics.

  6. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  7. A review of social host policies focused on underage drinking parties: suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Francisco, Vincent T; Sparks, Michael; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Underage drinking continues to be a public health concern, partially due to the ease in which adolescents obtain alcohol and consume it in private locations. States and municipalities have implemented strategies to counteract this, including adopting public policies called social host policies, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Traditionally, these laws have held adults accountable for furnishing alcohol to underage drinkers. However, states and communities are using another policy, also called social host, to deter underage drinking parties where easy access to alcohol and high-risk use occurs. These innovative laws hold individuals who control the property accountable for underage drinking that occurs there, regardless of alcohol source. We conducted a critical analysis of social host policies focused on hosting underage drinking parties and constructed a conceptual model to understand their targeted factors. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  8. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  9. The rationale and suggested approaches for research geosynchronous satellite measurements for severe storm and mesoscale investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Adler, R. F.; Chesters, D.; Susskind, J.; Uccellini, L.

    1984-01-01

    The measurements from current and planned geosynchronous satellites provide quantitative estimates of temperature and moisture profiles, surface temperature, wind, cloud properties, and precipitation. A number of significant observation characteristics remain, they include: (1) temperature and moisture profiles in cloudy areas; (2) high vertical profile resolution; (3) definitive precipitation area mapping and precipitation rate estimates on the convective cloud scale; (4) winds from low level cloud motions at night; (5) the determination of convective cloud structure; and (6) high resolution surface temperature determination. Four major new observing capabilities are proposed to overcome these deficiencies: a microwave sounder/imager, a high resolution visible and infrared imager, a high spectral resolution infrared sounder, and a total ozone mapper. It is suggested that the four sensors are flown together and used to support major mesoscale and short range forecasting field experiments.

  10. Construction ages of the Upton Stone Chamber: Preliminary findings and suggestions for future luminescence research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, Shannon; Martin, Frederick; Taylor, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Upton Chamber in Massachusetts, an earth-covered stone structure 3.4 meters (m) in diameter, with a corbelled stone dome, and a 4.3 m long entrance passageway, is studied with the aim of determining whether optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating methods can be used to establish the approximate construction date of the entranceway. Three samples, taken from soil behind the lowest stones in the wall of the entrance passageway, returned OSL ages between 385 and 660 years ago (or from 1625 A.D. to 1350 A.D.; using the year 2011 as the 0 year). One sample, taken below the bottom of the artifact layers in an archeological test pit in front of the chamber entrance, returned OSL ages between 650 and 880 years ago. A modern sample collected from a nearby fluvial channel returned an age between 55 and 175 years. The Upton Chamber OSL sampling results are challenging to interpret because there are mixtures in the samples of both younger and older grains that likely result from human modification, root or soil processes, animal bioturbation (i.e. ants and worms), and/or partial bleaching. The ages were determined using the lowest component of the finite mixture model as applied to a distribution of quartz grains. Further research may enable us to determine whether older components are of anthropomorphic or geological origin.

  11. A Mini Review of Dolphin Carbohydrate Metabolism and Suggestions for Future Research Using Exhaled Air

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Sam H.

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold) before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health. PMID:24379802

  12. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Kenya. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nzomo, Juliana; Kariuki, Mary; Guantai, Lilian

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of SACMEQ's initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five…

  13. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Zanzibar. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassor, Sebtuu; Mohammed, Khadija Ali

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five areas of…

  14. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Mauritius. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulpoo, Dhurumbeer

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of SACMEQ's initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five…

  15. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Namibia. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigts, Friedhelm

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of SACMEQ's initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five…

  16. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Zimbabwe. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machingaidze, Thomas; Pfukani, Patrick; Shumba, Sibangani

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of SACMEQ's initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five…

  17. Integration and Testing of a Disjunct Eddy Accumulation VOC Flux Measurement System in a Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, K.; Everly, M.; Wyss, P.; Carlsen, M.; Zimmerman, J.; Stirm, B.; Carney, T.; Santini, R.; Shepson, P.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes can now be measured using Disjunct Eddy Accumulation (DEA). This method is primarily applied from fixed towers above forest canopies to study biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes. To expand these tower-based BVOC measurements to spatial scales beyond the tower footprint, an aircraft-based DEA platform is required. Among the significant challenges to such an approach is the capability to determine the vertical component of atmospheric wind from the aircraft with adequate precision and accuracy. The design of a suitable airborne sampling system is another significant challenge. The development of the Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) is described herein. We describe the DEA design and installation along with calibration results which characterize the uncertainties of the vertical wind component measurement. We also describe initial tests of the DEA sampling system, the capabilities of the final installation, and the expected flux uncertainties.

  18. The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Keaney, M. A.; Bentz, K.; Groleau, M.; Tyssen, M.; Keyte, J.; Ball, C. G.; Campbell, M. R.; Grenon, S. M.; McBeth, P.; Broderick, T. J.

    2010-03-01

    Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council of Canada's Flight Research Laboratory's Falcon 20 aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research. The Falcon 20 had never been used for this purpose nor had the involved teams collaborated previously. There were many process challenges including the lack of antecedent surgical studies on this aircraft, a requirement for multiple disciplines who were unfamiliar and geographically distant from each other, flight performance limitations with the Falcon 20, complex animal care requirements, requirements for prototypical in-flight life-support surgical suites, financial limitations, and a need to use non-flight hardened technologies. Stepwise suggested solutions to these challenges are outlined as guidelines for future investigators intending similar research. Overall, the Falcon 20 TASE, backed by the flight resources, especially the design and fabrication capabilities of the NRC-FRL, provide investigators with a versatile and responsive opportunity to pursue research into advanced medical techniques that will be needed to save lives during space exploration.

  19. Research into Practice: Suggestions to Help Sustain Teacher Turn-Taking Talk and Socratic Questions with Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Martin, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Research using an intensive single-session training to increase use of Socratic (open-ended) questions and to lengthen turn-taking talk with low-income preschoolers showed that immediate posttraining gains were not sustained in classrooms 3 months later. Suggestions are given for trainers and for teachers that can boost teacher ability to…

  20. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: a comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions.

    PubMed

    Wyke, Sally; Adamson, Joy; Dixon, Diane; Hunt, Kate

    2013-06-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of knowledge across disciplines. We present a critical review and detailed comparison of three process models of response to symptoms: the Illness Action Model, the Common Sense Model of the Self-Regulation of Health and Illness and the Network Episode Model. We suggest an integrated framework in which symptoms, responses and actions are simultaneously interpreted and evaluated in the light of accumulated knowledge and through interactions. Evaluation may be subconscious and is influenced by the extent to which the symptoms impose themselves, expectations of outcomes, the resources available and understanding of symptoms' salience and possible outcomes. Actions taken are part of a process of problem solving through which both individuals and their immediate social network seek to (re)achieve 'normality'. Response is also influenced by social structure (directly and indirectly), cultural expectations of health, the meaning of symptoms, and access to and understandings of the legitimate use of services. Changes in knowledge, in embodied state and in emotions can all be directly influential at any point. We do not underestimate the difficulty of operationalising an integrated framework at different levels of analysis. Attempts to do so will require us to move easily between disciplinary understandings to conduct prospective, longitudinal, research that uses novel methodologies to investigate response to symptoms in the context of affective as well as cognitive responses and interactions within social networks. While challenging such an approach would facilitate accumulation of knowledge across disciplines and enable movement beyond description to change in individual and

  1. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior: Evidence from Controlled Studies, Methodological Critique, and Suggestions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes, including negative sexual health outcomes. In this paper, we review the literature investigating the relation between CSA and subsequent sexual risk behaviors among men and women. Previous research has found a relatively consistent association between CSA and higher rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly sex trading, more sexual partners, and an earlier age of first intercourse. However, there are a number of limitations to this research, including lack of a consistent definition of CSA, failure to investigate gender as a moderator, and possible confounding of the CSA experience with some of the sexual behavior outcome variables. Further, although there appears to be an association between CSA and later sexual risk behavior, researchers have not established whether this association is causal. Suggestions for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:18045760

  2. Albert Heim (1849-1937): The Multifaceted Geologist Who Influenced Research Into Near-death Experiences and Suggestion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Swiss geologist Albert Heim is well known for his pioneering contributions to several aspects of geology, and for his role in establishing the breeding of different kinds of Swiss mountain dogs. In the field of near-death research, it is also recognized that he performed a pioneering study into near-death states of falling mountaineers. It seems hardly known, however, that Heim also influenced suggestion therapy significantly-in particular, the treatment of warts by suggestion. This article provides an overview of Heim's contribution in the latter field of study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Privacy and the secondary use of data for health research: experience in Canada and suggested directions forward.

    PubMed

    Willison, Donald

    2003-07-01

    This paper has three parts. The first part describes developments in the use of personal information for health research in Canada, challenges in responding to new data protection legislation and the work of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in assisting the research community to adapt to these developments. The second part critiques two aspects of the stakeholder analysis posited in William Lowrance's report: the lack of an analysis of researchers' interests as distinct from those of society at large, and the framing of privacy as an individual interest. I argue for recasting the privacy and research tension as a values conflict between two societal goods and not an individual versus a societal interest, and for explicitly acknowledging researchers' interests as data users. In so doing, there is no clear trump of privacy or research, and greater importance is placed upon the weighing of benefits and risks of individual studies to determine whether the waiving of consent for a particular study or programme of research is justified. The third part makes specific suggestions as to future ways in which data use practices may evolve. I argue the need to engage the public in deliberating the broad parameters under which personal information will be used, as the public collectively has a major stake in this issue and their input provides legitimacy for these uses of information. In addition, given the proliferation of prospectively-developed databases for research purposes, a 'systems' approach for obtaining consent for participation to replace the current study-by-study recruitment of individuals is appropriate.

  4. A Probabilistic Method of Assessing Carbon Accumulation Rate at Imnavait Creek Peatland, Arctic Long Term Ecological Research Station, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Frolking, Steve; Karavias, John

    2017-01-01

    Arctic peatlands are an important part of the global carbon cycle, accumulating atmospheric carbon as organic matter since the Late glacial. Current methods for understanding the changing efficiency of the peatland carbon sink rely on peatlands with an undisturbed stratigraphy. Here we present a method of estimating primary carbon accumulation rate from a site where permafrost processes have either vertically or horizontally translocated nearby carbon-rich sediment out of stratigraphic order. Briefly, our new algorithm estimates the probability of the age of deposition of a random increment of sediment in the core. The method assumes that if sediment age is measured at even depth increments, dates are more likely to occur during intervals of higher accumulation rate and vice versa. Multiplying estimated sedimentation rate by measured carbon density yields carbon accumulation rate. We perform this analysis at the Imnavait Creek Peatland, near the Arctic Long Term Ecological Research network site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Using classical radiocarbon age modeling, we find unreasonably high rates of carbon accumulation at various Holocene intervals. With our new method, we find accumulation rate changes that are in improved agreement within the context of other sites throughout Alaska and the rest of the Circum-Arctic region.

  5. What recent research on diagrams suggests about learning with rather than learning from visual representations in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-03-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were located through searches of journal databases and books. Open coding of the studies identified 13 themes, 6 of which were identified in at least 10% of the studies: eliciting mental models, classroom-based research, multimedia principles, teaching and learning strategies, representational competence, and student agency. A shift in emphasis on learning with rather than learning from representations was evident across the three 5-year intervals considered, mirroring a pedagogical shift from science instruction as transmission of information to constructivist approaches in which learners actively negotiate understanding and construct knowledge. The themes and topics in recent research highlight areas of active interest and reveal gaps that may prove fruitful for further research, including classroom-based studies, the role of prior knowledge, and the use of eye-tracking. The results of the research included in this thematic review of the 2000-2014 literature suggest that both interpreting and constructing representations can lead to better understanding of science concepts.

  6. A Brief, Critical Review of Research on Impaired Control over Alcohol Use and Suggestions for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Helms, Christa M.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Wakeling, Vanessa A.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired control, defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption” (Heather et al. 1993; p. 701) has historically been considered an important aspect of addiction. Despite recognition of its importance to addiction and potential value as an early indicator of problem drinking risk, we argue that impaired control over alcohol use has not received sufficient research attention. In an effort to spark further research, the present critical review offers brief discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding impaired control and avenues for future research. Three main research areas are addressed: 1) epidemiology, 2) measurement issues and 3) potential mechanisms underlying relationships between impaired control and subsequent problem drinking. Measurement issues include complexities involved in self-report assessment of impaired control, development and validation of human and animal laboratory models, and impaired control’s relationship to other constructs (i.e., impulsivity and other difficulties with self-control; symptoms of dependence such as craving). We discuss briefly two potential mechanisms that may help to explain why some drinkers experience impaired control while others do not: neurobiological dysfunction and family history/genetics. Suggestions for future research are focused on ways in which the impaired control construct may enhance prediction of who might be at particular risk of subsequent problem drinking and to facilitate intervention to reduce problem alcohol use. PMID:24117468

  7. A brief, critical review of research on impaired control over alcohol use and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Beseler, Cheryl L; Helms, Christa M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Wakeling, Vanessa A; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-02-01

    Impaired control, defined as "a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption" (Heather et al. J Stud Alcohol 1993; 54, 701), has historically been considered an important aspect of addiction. Despite recognition of its importance to addiction and potential value as an early indicator of problem drinking risk, we argue that impaired control over alcohol use has not received sufficient research attention. In an effort to spark further research, the present critical review offers brief discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding impaired control and avenues for future research. Three main research areas are addressed: (i) epidemiology; (ii) measurement issues; and (iii) potential mechanisms underlying relationships between impaired control and subsequent problem drinking. Measurement issues include complexities involved in self-report assessment of impaired control, development and validation of human and animal laboratory models, and impaired control's relationship to other constructs (i.e., impulsivity and other difficulties with self-control; symptoms of dependence such as craving). We discuss briefly 2 potential mechanisms that may help to explain why some drinkers experience impaired control while others do not: neurobiological dysfunction and family history/genetics. Suggestions for future research are focused on ways in which the impaired control construct may enhance prediction of who might be at particular risk of subsequent problem drinking and to facilitate intervention to reduce problem alcohol use.

  8. The Pioneering Work of Enrico Morselli (1852-1929) in Light of Modern Scientific Research on Hypnosis and Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2017-01-01

    This article examines research on hypnosis and suggestion, starting with the nineteenth-century model proposed by Enrico Morselli (1852-1929), an illustrious Italian psychiatrist and psychologist. The authors conducted an original psychophysiological analysis of hypnosis, distancing the work from the neuropathological concept of the time and proposing a model based on a naturalistic approach to investigating mental processes. The issues investigated by Morselli, including the definition of hypnosis and analysis of specific mental processes such as attention and memory, are reviewed in light of modern research. From the view of modern neuroscientific concepts, some problems that originated in the nineteenth century still appear to be present and pose still-open questions.

  9. A look at an interactive classroom-based drug abuse prevention program: interactive contents and suggestions for research.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A; Patel, Ravi; Holiday, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Interactivity has been shown to be a critical element of effective drug abuse prevention programs. This study examined the contents of Project Towards No Drug Abuse, a program that has revealed strong effects only when delivered in a highly interactive version. Types of teacher and student interactive messages were identified. It is speculated that explicit action on the part of the teacher to have students make statements and ask questions of one another may be the essence of effective drug education program delivery. Suggestions for future research on interactivity were made.

  10. Feeding Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate in Brazil: Suggestions to Improve Health Policy and Research.

    PubMed

    Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia; Xavier, Ana Carolina; Klein-Antunes, Denise; Ferreira, Ana Carolina R G; Tonocchi, Rita; Fett-Conte, Agnes C; Silva, Raquel N; Leirião, Vera H V; Caramori, Lázara P C; Magna, Luiz A; Amstalden-Mendes, Lívia G

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To verify feeding resources used prior to corrective surgery among cleft babies from Brazil and to discuss suggestions to improve common feeding problems around the world. Design : Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at eight medical centers. Participants : A total of 215 parents or guardians of cleft children. Methods : Interview based upon a prevalidated questionnaire. The chi-square test and comparison of means by analysis of variance were used; significance level adopted was 5% (P < .05). Results : Feeding guidelines were provided in the maternity unit to 53% of the families. Breast-feeding was encouraged among 80% of mothers, predominantly in the South (P = .016). However, follow-up after maternity discharge was not appropriately carried out and failure to breast-feed occurred in 78% of families. The feeding tube was used in 21%. According to families, for those who used the ordinary nipple, it was considered the best option by the majority (29%). Conclusion : Neonatal feeding in cleft babies is a global challenge. Reports about the difficulties encountered and successful experiences would be helpful to disseminate strategies and stimulate research directed at the large-scale applicability of neonatal feeding for cleft babies on public health. This study detected the need to increase professional training and emphasizes the need for public policies addressing neonatal referral to specialized care wherever possible. It also stimulates research into using an ordinary nipple as another resource for feeding cleft babies and suggests an international discussion about specific recommendations for humanized primary health care.

  11. Recent developments in polyfluoroalkyl compounds research: a focus on human/environmental health impact, suggested substitutes and removal strategies.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, John Baptist Nzukizi; Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed; Matsha, Tandi; Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Itoba-Tombo, Elie Fereche

    2017-08-01

    Between the late 1940s and early 1950s, humans manufactured polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) using electrochemical fluorination and telomerisation technologies, whereby hydrogen atoms are substituted by fluorine atoms, thus conferring unnatural and unique physicochemical properties to these compounds. Presently, there are wide ranges of PFCs, and owing to their bioaccumulative properties, they have been detected in various environmental matrices and in human sera. It has thus been suggested that they are hazardous. Hence, this review aims at highlighting the recent development in PFC research, with a particular focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the most studied and predominantly found PFCs in various environmental matrices, although recent reports have included perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), which was previously regarded as innocuously harmless, when compared to its counterparts, PFOA and PFOS. As such, proper investigations are thus required for a better understanding of short-chain PFC substitutes, which have been suggested as suitable replacements to long-chained PFCs, although these substitutes have also been suggested to pose various health risks comparable to those associated with long-chain PFCs. Similarly, several novel technologies, such as PFC reduction using zero-valent iron, including removal at point of use, adsorption and coagulation, have been proposed. However, regardless of how efficient removers some of these techniques have proven to be, short-chain PFCs remain a challenge to overcome for scientists, in this regard.

  12. Towards Bi-Inclusive Policies: Suggestions Based on Research on Dutch Same-Sex Attracted Young People.

    PubMed

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Dutch national LGBT policies are not bi-inclusive and this study provides suggestions for improvement, based on empirical research. Attention for bisexuality in policy appears simply to pay lip service and to endorse the construction of sexual orientation as a hetero/homo binary. The outcomes of our survey (n = 1449) and in-depth interviews (n = 38) of Dutch same-sex attracted young people suggest that special attention for bisexual people is warranted. Compared to exclusively same-sex attracted participants, the equally both-sex attracted participants scored worse on openness about their sexual attraction, visibility discomfort, perceived acceptance, and suicide attempts. Unique issues for bisexual-identified young people were identified as follows: marginalization of bisexuality; difficulty expressing bisexuality, particularly in relationships; and a lack of bisexual or bi-inclusive communities. These issues were all related to the hetero/homo binary and mononormativity. Suggested implications for more bi-inclusive policies focus on awareness of marginalization and invisibility of bisexuality, biphobia, community and capacity building, and comprehensive sexuality and gender education. Furthermore, rather than policies focusing on sameness, a comprehensive diversity perspective on sexuality and gender offers more space for bisexuality. This may be particularly relevant for young people who are exploring their sexuality and developing a sense of their sexual self.

  13. A suggestion for future research on interface design of an Internet-based telemedicine system for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chuna, Young J; Patterson, Patrick E

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine has emerged as an effective tool for providing high quality healthcare service and health-related information, especially in rural areas. Rural areas often have a larger elderly population with greater rates of preventable disease. These areas also have fewer medical resources and specialists, and have limited access to health services, all of which can influence overall health. An Internet-based telemedicine system can be one solution to provide the rural elderly with the proper health information when needed. The elderly obviously have limited capabilities compared with younger adults in the use of internet technology. However, the interfaces of the currently existing Internet-based telemedicine systems are not specifically developed for elderly users. This paper suggests future interface design research for an Internet-based telemedicine system specifically for the elderly.

  14. Dental pulp stem cells: state of the art and suggestions for a true translation of research into therapy.

    PubMed

    La Noce, Marcella; Paino, Francesca; Spina, Anna; Naddeo, Pasqualina; Montella, Roberta; Desiderio, Vincenzo; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Tirino, Virginia; Laino, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Stem cells have the ability to rescue and/or repair injured tissue. In humans, it is possible to isolate different types of stem cells from the body. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities. In particular they represent a gold standard for neural-crest-derived bone reconstruction in humans and can be used for the repair of body defects in low-risk autologous therapeutic strategies. An electronic search was conducted on PubMed databases and supplemented with a manual study of relevant references. All research described in this review highlight that DPSCs are mesenchymal stem cells that could be used in clinical applications. Unfortunately, very few clinical trials have been reported. Major obstacles imposed on researchers are hindering the translation of potentially effective therapies to the clinic. Both researchers and regulatory institutions need to develop a new approach to this problem, drawing up a new policy for good manufacturing practice (GMP) procedures. We strongly suggest that only general rules be standardized rather than everything. Importantly, this would not have an effect on the safety of patients, but may very well affect the results, which cannot be identical for all patients, due to physiological diversity in the biology of each patient. Alternatively, it would be important to study the role of specific molecules that recruit endogenous stem cells for tissue regeneration. In this way, the clinical use of stem cells could be successfully developed. DPSCs are mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate into different tissues, maintain their characteristics after cryopreservation, differentiate into bone-like tissues when loaded on scaffolds in animal models, and regenerate bone in human grafts. In summary, all data reported up to now should encourage the development of clinical procedures using DPSCs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  15. Co-occurring substance abuse and mental health problems among homeless persons: Suggestions for research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Communities throughout the U.S. are struggling to find solutions for serious and persistent homelessness. Alcohol and drug problems can be causes and consequences of homelessness, as well as co-occurring problems that complicate efforts to succeed in finding stable housing. Two prominent service models exist, one known as “Housing First” takes a harm reduction approach and the other known as the “linear” model typically supports a goal of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Despite their popularity, the research supporting these models suffers from methodological problems and inconsistent findings. One purpose of this paper is to describe systematic reviews of the homelessness services literature, which illustrate weaknesses in research designs and inconsistent conclusions about the effectiveness of current models. Problems among some of the seminal studies on homelessness include poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, inadequate measures of alcohol and drug use, unspecified or poorly implemented comparison conditions, and lack of procedures documenting adherence to service models. Several recent papers have suggested broader based approaches for homeless services that integrate alternatives and respond better to consumer needs. Practical considerations for implementing a broader system of services are described and peer-managed recovery homes are presented as examples of services that address some of the gaps in current approaches. Three issues are identified that need more attention from researchers: (1) improving upon the methodological limitations in current studies, (2) assessing the impact of broader based, integrated services on outcome, and (3) assessing approaches to the service needs of homeless persons involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:27092027

  16. Co-occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Problems among Homeless Persons: Suggestions for Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Polcin, Douglas L

    Communities throughout the U.S. are struggling to find solutions for serious and persistent homelessness. Alcohol and drug problems can be causes and consequences of homelessness, as well as co-occurring problems that complicate efforts to succeed in finding stable housing. Two prominent service models exist, one known as "Housing First" takes a harm reduction approach and the other known as the "linear" model typically supports a goal of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Despite their popularity, the research supporting these models suffers from methodological problems and inconsistent findings. One purpose of this paper is to describe systematic reviews of the homelessness services literature, which illustrate weaknesses in research designs and inconsistent conclusions about the effectiveness of current models. Problems among some of the seminal studies on homelessness include poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, inadequate measures of alcohol and drug use, unspecified or poorly implemented comparison conditions, and lack of procedures documenting adherence to service models. Several recent papers have suggested broader based approaches for homeless services that integrate alternatives and respond better to consumer needs. Practical considerations for implementing a broader system of services are described and peer managed recovery homes are presented as examples of services that address some of the gaps in current approaches. Three issues are identified that need more attention from researchers: 1) improving upon the methodological limitations in current studies, 2) assessing the impact of broader based, integrated services on outcome, and 3) assessing approaches to the service needs of homeless persons involved in the criminal justice system.

  17. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  18. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    PubMed

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P < 0.001), 9.1% were moderately significant (P ≥ 0.001 to < 0.01), 11.7% were weakly significant (P ≥ 0.01 to < 0.05), and 53.2% were nonsignificant (P ≥ 0.05). We noted three irregularities: (1) high proportion of P-values <0.001, especially in observational studies, (2) excess of P-values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae: Annual report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a lipid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 33 figs.

  20. Long-Term Engagement in Authentic Research with NASA (LEARN): Innovative Practices Suggested By a New Model for Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, M. R.; Joseph, J. D.; Yang, M. M.; Omar, A. H.; Crecelius, S.; Harte, T.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.; Taylor, J.; Bujosa, R.; Moulton, C.; Haggard, C. S.; Hyater-Adams, S.; Kollmeyer, R.; Weisman, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's LEARN Project is an innovative program that provides long-term immersion in the practice of atmospheric science for middle and high school in-service teachers. Working alongside NASA scientists and using authentic NASA Science Mission Directorate research data, teachers develop individual research topics of interest during two weeks in the summer while on-site at NASA Langley. With continued, intensive mentoring by NASA scientists, the teachers further develop their research throughout the academic year through virtual group meetings and data team meetings mirroring scientific collaborations. At the end of the first year, LEARN teachers present scientific posters. The LEARN experience has had such an impact that multiple teachers from the first two cohorts have elected to continue their research. The LEARN project evaluation has provided insights into particularly effective elements of this new approach. Findings indicate that teachers' perceptions of the scientific enterprise have changed, and that LEARN provided substantial resources to help them take real-world research to their students. This presentation will focus on key factors from LEARN's implementation that inform best practices for the incorporation of authentic scientific research into teacher professional development experiences. We suggest that these factors should be considered in the development of other such experiences, including: (1) The involvement of a single scientist as both the project leader/manager and the project scientist, to ensure that the project can meet teachers' needs. (2) An emphasis on framing and approaching scientific research questions, so that teachers can learn to evaluate the feasibility of studies based on scope, scale, and availability of data. (3) Long term, ongoing relationships where teachers and scientists work as collaborators, beyond the workshop "mold." (4) A focus on meeting the needs of individual teachers, whether their needs relate to elements of

  1. Keep people informed or leave them alone? A suggested tool for identifying research participants who rightly want only limited information.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, S; Helgesson, G

    2005-11-01

    People taking part in research vary in the extent to which they understand information concerning their participation. Since they may choose to limit the time and effort spent on such information, lack of understanding is not necessarily an ethical problem. Researchers who notice a lack of understanding are in the quandary of not knowing whether this is due to flaws in the information process or to participants' deliberate choices. We argue that the two explanations call for different responses.A tool for identifying those research participants who want limited information is presented. This consists of a restricted number of questions about trust in and appraisal of research, priority of time and privacy, and perception of a duty to participate. It is argued that an important group of participants who purposely lack understanding of the study can be identified with this tool. Some limitations to this approach are also discussed.

  2. Keep people informed or leave them alone? A suggested tool for identifying research participants who rightly want only limited information

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, S; Helgesson, G

    2005-01-01

    People taking part in research vary in the extent to which they understand information concerning their participation. Since they may choose to limit the time and effort spent on such information, lack of understanding is not necessarily an ethical problem. Researchers who notice a lack of understanding are in the quandary of not knowing whether this is due to flaws in the information process or to participants' deliberate choices. We argue that the two explanations call for different responses. A tool for identifying those research participants who want limited information is presented. This consists of a restricted number of questions about trust in and appraisal of research, priority of time and privacy, and perception of a duty to participate. It is argued that an important group of participants who purposely lack understanding of the study can be identified with this tool. Some limitations to this approach are also discussed. PMID:16269568

  3. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  4. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development – a case study

    PubMed Central

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education. PMID:27990467

  5. Fiber optic DTS system application in the research of accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Látal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Šiška, Petr; Skapa, Jan; Hanáečk, František; Vašinek, Vladimír; Vitásek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Bocheza, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    The team of authors tries to provide information on the results of the fiber-optic DTS system application under long-term research of accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass in this article. In 2006, was in Ostrava implemented the largest object in the Czech Republic, which is heated by heat pump system. It is a multi-purpose aula at VŠB-TU + CIT (Center for Information Technology). The installed heat pump system consists of ten heat pumps with a total output of 700kW and 110 wells about 140m deep. The applied research is conducted in two measuring polygons ("Big" and "Little" polygon). Simultaneously with fiber-optic DTS system is applied group of PT1000 temperature sensors and Geothermal Response Test (GERT). Fiber-optic DTS system is deployed inside polyethylene PE collector via a special sensory fiber optic cable. The ecological antifreeze mixture, based on the technical spirit, used for the collection and delivery of energy to the rock mass circulates inside of PE collector. PT1000 temperature sensors are placed at certain intervals on the outer side of the PE U-tube within the heat well. The result of application of the fiberoptic DTS system is information about the heat profile of wells, thermal conductivity of the geological environment and the impact of external changes in the thermal wells, along with the accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass (over-summer period).

  6. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page What research is being ...

  7. Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28 a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

  8. What Recent Research on Diagrams Suggests about Learning "with" Rather than Learning "from" Visual Representations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were…

  9. Parent-Offspring Value Transmission in a Societal Context: Suggestions for a Utopian Research Design--With Empirical Underpinnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnke, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Puts intrafamilial value transmission into a societal context, using data from a study of university student-parents triads to show why a unified research approach is necessary. All conservation values were more important to the parents than the offspring, while the reverse was found for self-transcendence versus self-enhancement values. (SM)

  10. What Recent Research on Diagrams Suggests about Learning "with" Rather than Learning "from" Visual Representations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were…

  11. Exploring a Method for Transference Assessment in Group Therapy Using the Social Relations Model: Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Rayna D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how group clinicians and researchers might use a methodological and statistical model called the Social Relations Model (SRM) to circumvent common challenges to studying transference in groups. In particular, it examines how this method of transference assessment deals with the distortion aspect of transference and explains…

  12. CAN YOU MAKE A PICTURE TO SUGGEST, A MANUAL OF IDEAS AND MATERIALS FOR A CONTEMPORARY CLASSROOM MATH RESEARCH CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUCKS COUNTY SCHOOL STUDY COUNCIL

    A MATH RESEARCH CENTER MAY BE SET UP IN A CORNER OF A ROOM, PERFERABLY WITH A CHALK BOARD. CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO CREATE MANY OF THE GAMES, CHARTS AND STORIES TO BE USED IN SUCH A CENTER. THE CENTER MAY BE SUPPLEMENTED WITH BOOKS, GAMES, BLOCKS, POPPIT BEADS, COUNTERS, CHECKERS, AND NUMBER LINE CHARTS. ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO A WIDE VARIETY OF…

  13. CAN YOU MAKE A PICTURE TO SUGGEST, A MANUAL OF IDEAS AND MATERIALS FOR A CONTEMPORARY CLASSROOM MATH RESEARCH CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUCKS COUNTY SCHOOL STUDY COUNCIL

    A MATH RESEARCH CENTER MAY BE SET UP IN A CORNER OF A ROOM, PERFERABLY WITH A CHALK BOARD. CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO CREATE MANY OF THE GAMES, CHARTS AND STORIES TO BE USED IN SUCH A CENTER. THE CENTER MAY BE SUPPLEMENTED WITH BOOKS, GAMES, BLOCKS, POPPIT BEADS, COUNTERS, CHECKERS, AND NUMBER LINE CHARTS. ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO A WIDE VARIETY OF…

  14. Teacher as Researcher and Evaluator--One Suggested Solution to Some Recurrent Problems in ELT and ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Chris

    The educational system should create conditions in which the teacher undertakes research in the classroom and then shares results which will be used in improving teaching and for teacher self-renewal. The advantages are that: (1) the teacher becomes more knowledgeable about a situation, more able to defend his or her pedagogic actions, and perhaps…

  15. Teacher Shortages in Rural America and Suggestions for Solution. Rural Research Report. Volume 13, Issue 8, Spring 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaw, Donna S.; Freeman, Robert; Philhower, Susan

    2002-01-01

    In a climate of increasing enrollment, reduced funding, and unfunded mandated state and federal programs, urban and rural school districts find it increasingly difficult to attract and retain qualified teachers. This paper offers suggestions to local school boards and district administrators in states with significant numbers of rural schools: (1)…

  16. Molecular profiles suggest two types of liver cancer should be treated as one | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A comprehensive molecular analysis of two types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), has identified common molecular subtypes that can be found among patients with either disease. Although HCC and ICC are considered separate diseases, the finding suggests that a unified clinical approach could benefit patients with both types of liver cancer.  Read more...

  17. Open research practices: unintended consequences and suggestions for averting them. (Commentary on the Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative (PROI) is a move to enlist reviewers in the promotion of data-sharing. In this commentary, I discuss objections that can be raised, first to the specific proposals in the PROI, and second to data-sharing in general. I argue that although many objections have strong counter-arguments, others merit more serious consideration. Regarding the PROI, I suggest that it could backfire if editors and authors feel coerced into data-sharing and so may not be the most pragmatic way of encouraging greater openness. More generally, while promoting data-sharing, we need to be sensitive to cases where sharing of data from human participants could create ethical problems. Furthermore, those interested in promoting reproducible science need to defend against an increased risk of data-dredging when large, multivariable datasets are shared. I end with some suggestions to avoid these unintended consequences. PMID:27152225

  18. Urban heat stress: novel survey suggests health and fitness as future avenue for research and adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Christian; Honold, Jasmin; Lauf, Steffen; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme heat has tremendous adverse effects on human health. Heat stress is expected to further increase due to urbanization, an aging population, and global warming. Previous research has identified correlations between extreme heat and mortality. However, the underlying physical, behavioral, environmental, and social risk factors remain largely unknown and comprehensive quantitative investigation on an individual level is lacking. We conducted a new cross-sectional household questionnaire survey to analyze individual heat impairment (self-assessed and reported symptoms) and a large set of potential risk factors in the city of Berlin, Germany. This unique dataset (n = 474) allows for the investigation of new relationships, especially between health/fitness and urban heat stress. Our analysis found previously undocumented associations, leading us to generate new hypotheses for future research: various health/fitness variables returned the strongest associations with individual heat stress. Our primary hypothesis is that age, the most commonly used risk factor, is outperformed by health/fitness as a dominant risk factor. Related variables seem to more accurately represent humans’ cardiovascular capacity to handle elevated temperature. Among them, active travel was associated with reduced heat stress. We observed statistical associations for heat exposure regarding the individual living space but not for the neighborhood environment. Heat stress research should further investigate individual risk factors of heat stress using quantitative methodologies. It should focus more on health and fitness and systematically explore their role in adaptation strategies. The potential of health and fitness to reduce urban heat stress risk means that encouraging active travel could be an effective adaptation strategy. Through reduced CO2 emissions from urban transport, societies could reap double rewards by addressing two root causes of urban heat stress: population health and

  19. Behavioral treatment of drooling: a methodological critique of the literature with clinical guidelines and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Jan J W; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H; Rotteveel, Jan J

    2007-09-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavioral procedures are scarce. This article reviews 19 behavioral studies published since 1970. Treatment procedures are (a) instruction, prompting, and positive reinforcement; (b) negative social reinforcement and declarative procedures; (c) cueing techniques; and (d) self-management procedures. Although these procedures yield positive results, critical examination of experimental methodology of the studies reveals several methodological shortcomings. Guidelines for clinical use of behavioral treatment for drooling are presented, and recommendations are given for future research in this area.

  20. Why Don't Well-Educated Adults Understand Accumulation? A Challenge to Researchers, Educators, and Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Sterman, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation is a fundamental process in dynamic systems: inventory accumulates production less shipments; the national debt accumulates the federal deficit. Effective decision making in such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between stocks and the flows that alter them. However, highly educated people are often unable to infer…

  1. Why Don't Well-Educated Adults Understand Accumulation? A Challenge to Researchers, Educators, and Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Sterman, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation is a fundamental process in dynamic systems: inventory accumulates production less shipments; the national debt accumulates the federal deficit. Effective decision making in such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between stocks and the flows that alter them. However, highly educated people are often unable to infer…

  2. The role of micronutrients in the response to ambient air pollutants: Potential mechanisms and suggestions for research design.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Rayalam, Srujana

    2017-01-01

    People living in regions of low socioeconomic status are thought to be prone to higher exposures to environmental pollutants, poor nutrition, and numerous preventable diseases and infections. Poverty correlates with pollution and malnutrition; however, limited studies examined their interrelationship. The well-studied, deleterious health effects attributed to environmental pollutants and poor nutrition may act in combination with produce more severe adverse health outcomes than any one factor alone. Deficiencies in specific nutrients render the body more susceptible to injury which may influence the pathways that serve as the mechanistic responses to ambient air pollutants. This review (1) explores specific micronutrients that are of global concern, (2) explains how these nutrients may impact the body's response to ambient air pollution, and (3) provides guidance on designing animal models of nutritional deficiency. It is likely that those individuals who reside in regions of high ambient air pollution are similarly malnourished. Therefore, it is important that research identifies specific nutrients of concern and their impact in identified regions of high ambient air pollution.

  3. Eating disorders and suicidality: what we know, what we don't know, and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Smith, April R; Zuromski, Kelly L; Dodd, Dorian R

    2017-08-12

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), and suicidal behavior is elevated in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) relative to the general population. This paper reviews the suicidality literature within each ED, as well as theoretical explanations for the elevated risk for suicidality among those with EDs. Approximately one-quarter to one-third of people with AN, BN, or BED have thought about suicide, and one-quarter to one-third of people with AN and BN have attempted suicide. Relative to gender and aged matched comparison groups, individuals with AN are 18 times more likely to die by suicide, and individuals with BN are seven times more likely to die by suicide. However, the majority of the research in this area is cross-sectional or retrospective, which leaves the timing of the mortality risk unclear. Longitudinal work that is designed to examine dynamic and acute fluctuations in suicidality among ED samples is needed in order to determine meaningful risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms-Current knowledge and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Vena N; Ward, J Evan; Russell, Brandon J; Agrios, Alexander G

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms. There have been a number of studies that have reported the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the absence of light. An increasing number of studies are assessing the interactive effects of nanoparticles and ultraviolet light. However, most of these studies neglect environmentally-relevant experimental conditions. For example, researchers are using nanoparticle concentrations and light intensities that are too high for natural systems, and are ignoring water constituents that can alter the light field. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the photocatalytic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, discuss the limitations of these studies, and outline environmentally-relevant factors that need to be considered in future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Critical Review of the Literature on Attentional Bias in Cocaine Use Disorder and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Robinson, Cendrine D.; Waters, Andrew J.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine use disorder (CUD) continues to be an important public health problem and novel approaches are needed to improve the effectiveness of treatments for CUD. Recently, there has been increased interest in the role of automatic cognition such as attentional bias (AB) in addictive behaviors and AB has been proposed to be a cognitive marker for addictions. Automatic cognition may be particularly relevant to CUD as there is evidence for particularly robust AB to cocaine cues and strong relationships to craving for cocaine and other illicit drugs. Further, the wide-ranging cognitive deficits (e.g., in response inhibition and working memory) evinced by many cocaine users enhance the potential importance of interventions targeting automatic cognition in this population. In the current paper, we discuss relevant addiction theories, followed by a review of studies that examined AB in CUD. We then consider the neural substrates of attentional bias including human neuroimaging, neurobiological and pharmacological studies. We conclude with a discussion of research gaps and future directions for attentional bias in CUD. PMID:25222545

  6. A critical review of the literature on attentional bias in cocaine use disorder and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Robinson, Cendrine D; Waters, Andrew J; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Cocaine use disorder (CUD) continues to be an important public health problem, and novel approaches are needed to improve the effectiveness of treatments for CUD. Recently, there has been increased interest in the role of automatic cognition such as attentional bias (AB) in addictive behaviors, and AB has been proposed to be a cognitive marker for addictions. Automatic cognition may be particularly relevant to CUD, as there is evidence for particularly robust AB to cocaine cues and strong relationships to craving for cocaine and other illicit drugs. Further, the wide-ranging cognitive deficits (e.g., in response inhibition and working memory) evinced by many cocaine users enhance the potential importance of interventions targeting automatic cognition in this population. In the current article, we discuss relevant addiction theories, followed by a review of studies that examined AB in CUD. We then consider the neural substrates of AB, including human neuroimaging, neurobiological, and pharmacological studies. We conclude with a discussion of research gaps and future directions for AB in CUD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  8. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  9. The dynamics of the tundra-taiga boundary: an overview and suggested coordinated and integrated approach to research.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Crawford, Robert M M; Eronen, Matti; Hofgaard, Annika; Payette, Serge; Rees, W Gareth; Skre, Oddvar; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Vlassova, Tatiana K; Werkman, Ben R

    2002-08-01

    The tundra-taiga boundary stretches for more than 13,400 km around the Northern Hemisphere and is probably the Earth's greatest vegetation transition. The trees that define the boundary have been sensitive to climate changes in the past and models of future vegetation distribution suggest a rapid and dramatic invasion of the tundra by the taiga. Such changes would generate both positive and negative feedbacks to the climate system and the balance could result in a net warming effect. However, the boundary is becoming increasingly affected by human activities that remove trees and degrade forest-tundra into tundra-like areas. Because of the vastness and remoteness of the tundra-taiga boundary, and of methodological problems such as problematic definitions and lack of standardized methods to record the location and characteristics of the ecotone, a project group has been established under the auspices of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). This paper summarizes the initial output of the group and focuses on our uncertainties in understanding the current processes at the tundra-taiga boundary and the conflicts between model predictions of changes in the location of the boundary and contrasting recently observed changes due to human activities. Finally, we present recommendations for a coordinated international approach to the problem and invite the international community to join us in reducing the uncertainties about the dynamics of the ecotone and their consequences.

  10. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  11. Approaching a network connectivity-driven classification of the psychosis continuum: a selective review and suggestions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Smieskova, Renata; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Lang, Undine E.; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Brain changes in schizophrenia evolve along a dynamic trajectory, emerging before disease onset and proceeding with ongoing illness. Recent investigations have focused attention on functional brain interactions, with experimental imaging studies supporting the disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia. These studies have revealed a broad spectrum of abnormalities in brain connectivity in patients, particularly for connections integrating the frontal cortex. A critical point is that brain connectivity abnormalities, including altered resting state connectivity within the fronto-parietal (FP) network, are already observed in non-help-seeking individuals with psychotic-like experiences. If we consider psychosis as a continuum, with individuals with psychotic-like experiences at the lower and psychotic patients at the upper ends, individuals with psychotic-like experiences represent a key population for investigating the validity of putative biomarkers underlying the onset of psychosis. This paper selectively addresses the role played by FP connectivity in the psychosis continuum, which includes patients with chronic psychosis, early psychosis, clinical high risk, genetic high risk, as well as the general population with psychotic experiences. We first discuss structural connectivity changes among the FP pathway in each domain in the psychosis continuum. This may provide a basis for us to gain an understanding of the subsequent changes in functional FP connectivity. We further indicate that abnormal FP connectivity may arise from glutamatergic disturbances of this pathway, in particular from abnormal NMDA receptor-mediated plasticity. In the second part of this paper we propose some concepts for further research on the use of network connectivity in the classification of the psychosis continuum. These concepts are consistent with recent efforts to enhance the role of data in driving the diagnosis of psychiatric spectrum diseases. PMID:25628553

  12. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions for future research

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Gill; Vargas, Rodrigo; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Turetsky, Merritt

    2012-07-09

    Rewetting of dry soils and thawing of frozen soils are short-term, transitional phenomena in terms of hydrology and thermodynamics in soil systems. The impact of these short-term phenomena on larger-scale ecosystem fluxes has only recently been fully appreciated, and a growing number of studies show that these events affect various biogeochemical processes including fluxes of biogenic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and intensity of drying-rewetting events and thawing of frozen soils, highlighting the importance of understanding how rewetting and thawing will influence biogenic gas fluxes. Here we summarize findings in an acquired database from 338 studies conducted from 1956-2010, and propose future research questions. Studies have reported conflicting results, ranging from large increases in gas fluxes to non-significant changes following rewetting and thawing in various terrestrial ecosystems. An analysis of published data revealed that CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes increase 7.6 (standard error 1.1) times following rewetting and thawing with no significant difference between these events. We explore possible mechanisms and controls that regulate flux responses, and note that there is a lack of studies on variation of CH{sub 4}, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes following rewetting and thawing events. High temporal resolution of flux measurements is critical to capture rapid changes in the gas fluxes after these soil perturbations. Finally, we propose that future studies should investigate the interactions between biological (i.e., microbial community) and physical (i.e., gas production, flux, and dissolution) changes in biogenic gas fluxes, and explore synergistic experimental and modelling approaches.

  13. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Zambia. An Interim Report. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkamba, Manasseh; Kanyika, Joe

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of SACMEQ's initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five…

  14. The Quality of Education: Some Policy Suggestions Based on a Survey of Schools--Malawi. An Interim Report. SACMEQ Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Grace; Chimombo, Joseph; Banda, Thokozire; Mchikoma, Clive

    The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) is a consortium of ministries of education in southern Africa. This bound report--one of seven--presents the research results and policy suggestions that emerged from implementation of SACMEQ's initial educational policy research project. The report looks broadly at five…

  15. A focus on the state of the art of food waste/losses issue and suggestions for future researches.

    PubMed

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2017-07-05

    Today, the role of the supply chain (SC) strategies in Food-Waste/Losses (F-W/L) generation is neglected, because F-W/L are generally considered an unavoidable consequence of accidental events. Therefore, only operating plans are today put into practice, which aim at reducing the impact of product losses along the SC. This involves that structured analyses and strategic SC approaches are not available for the prevention/minimization of F-W/L. The paper aims at changing the perspective, and promoting the hypothesis that generation of F-W/L mainly depends on the SC strategies put into practice that are usually optimized on the basis of the market demand. The paper considers the F-W/L an intrinsic characteristic of the SC, which must be put in relation with the market demand and the shelf life of products, for given boundary conditions (legal constraints, politic decisions, climatic and micro macro-economic factors). Thus, the paper aims at reviewing the state of the art of the F-W/L issue, and proposing new research topics in the field of the prevention and minimization of F-W/L, by focusing on: (i) the forecasting of F-W/L, the implementation of adaptive-holistic approaches that model the non-stationary and holistic behaviour of the phenomenon; (ii) the determination of analytical conditions that entail the generation of F-W/L, in relation to the implementation of specific SC strategies; (iii) the study of mathematical models for the assessment of the shelf life, and the evaluation of innovative technologies, which enable the shelf life monitoring; (iv) the study of new shelf life-dependent demand models based on the consumer-utility theory; (v) the redesign of the logistic SC management models, by proposing new SC coordination models, planning and replenishment strategies, and pricing models, for the prevention/minimization of the predictable component of F-W/L; (vi) the design of new risk assessment plans for the management of the accidental component of F

  16. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  17. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  18. The effect of WIN 55,212-2 suggests a cannabinoid-sensitive component in the early toxicity induced by organic acids accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I and in related disorders of propionate metabolism in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, A L; Paz-Loyola, A L; Serratos, I N; Seminotti, B; Ribeiro, C A J; Leipnitz, G; Souza, D O; Wajner, M; Santamaría, A

    2015-12-03

    Several physiological processes in the CNS are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Cannabinoid receptors (CBr) and CBr agonists have been involved in the modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activation. Glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OHGA), methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic (PA) acids are endogenous metabolites produced and accumulated in the brain of children affected by severe organic acidemias (OAs) with neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have been involved in the toxic pattern exerted by these organic acids. Studying the early pattern of toxicity exerted by these metabolites is crucial to explain the extent of damage that they can produce in the brain. Herein, we investigated the effects of the synthetic CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on early markers of GA-, 3-OHGA-, MMA- and PA-induced toxicity in brain synaptosomes from adult (90-day-old) and adolescent (30-day-old) rats. As pre-treatment, WIN exerted protective effects on the GA- and MMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation induced by all metabolites. Our findings support a protective and modulatory role of cannabinoids in the early toxic events elicited by toxic metabolites involved in OAs.

  19. A Missing Link in Suggestibility Research: What Is Known About the Behavior of Field Interviewers in Unstructured Interviews With Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Livia L.

    2004-01-01

    Despite suggestibility researchers' focus on adult behaviors that distort children's reports, whether behaviors examined in experimental work are used in the field is unknown. The current study presents a mutually exclusive and exhaustive hierarchical coding system that reflects interview questioning behaviors of concern in experimental work. The…

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  1. How to integrate dreaming into a general theory of consciousness--a critical review of existing positions and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Noreika, Valdas

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we address the different ways in which dream research can contribute to interdisciplinary consciousness research. As a second global state of consciousness aside from wakefulness, dreaming is an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness. However, programmatic suggestions for integrating dreaming into broader theories of consciousness, for instance by regarding dreams as a model system of standard or pathological wake states, have not yielded straightforward results. We review existing proposals for using dreaming as a model system, taking into account concerns about the concept of modeling and the adequacy and practical feasibility of dreaming as a model system. We conclude that existing modeling approaches are premature and rely on controversial background assumptions. Instead, we suggest that contrastive analysis of dreaming and wakefulness presents a more promising strategy for integrating dreaming into a broader research context and solving many of the problems involved in the modeling approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Learning through Research Workshops in a Hispanic-Serving Institution in USA: A Review of Two Years' Accumulative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Shin, Yousun; Overton, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the analysis results of two-year accumulative data from Research Academy workshops held for pre-service and in-service teachers in a southern state Hispanic-Serving Institution. Graduate students' perceptions of learning through these professional development workshops were reported. Statistical analyses were…

  3. Antarctic accumulation seasonality.

    PubMed

    Sime, Louise C; Wolff, Eric W

    2011-11-09

    The resemblance of the orbitally filtered isotope signal from the past 340 kyr in Antarctic ice cores to Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity has been used to suggest that the northern hemisphere may drive orbital-scale global climate changes. A recent Letter by Laepple et al. suggests that, contrary to this interpretation, this semblance may instead be explained by weighting the orbitally controlled Antarctic seasonal insolation cycle with a static (present-day) estimate of the seasonal cycle of accumulation. We suggest, however, that both time variability in accumulation seasonality and alternative stable seasonality can markedly alter the weighted insolation signal. This indicates that, if the last 340 kyr of Antarctic accumulation has not always looked like the estimate of precipitation and accumulation seasonality made by Laepple et al., this particular accumulation weighting explanation of the Antarctic orbital-scale isotopic signal might not be robust.

  4. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A missing link in suggestibility research: what is known about the behavior of field interviewers in unstructured interviews with young children?

    PubMed

    Gilstrap, Livia L

    2004-03-01

    Despite suggestibility researchers' focus on adult behaviors that distort children's reports, whether behaviors examined in experimental work are used in the field is unknown. The current study presents a mutually exclusive and exhaustive hierarchical coding system that reflects interview questioning behaviors of concern in experimental work. The study examined 80 unstructured interviews conducted by 41 field interviewers with 40 children ages 3 to 7 about known events. Data on the use of leading and neutral questions are presented and include distinctions between accurate and inaccurate suggested information. In addition, analyses show that interviewers are consistent in their style of questioning and that a preinterview measure of interviewers' preference for a qualitative versus a quantitative interviewing style predicted the introduction of novel information into the interview.

  6. Research to determine the accumulation of organic constituents and heavy metals from petroleum-impacted sediments by marine detritivores of the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Roesijadi, G.; Augenfeld, J.M.; Riley, R.G.; Credilius, E.A.

    1980-04-01

    The major objective of this research program was to investigate the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and intertidal zone and their bioavailability to, and effects on, the biota. The work has advanced the level of knowledge by demonstrating that exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments can result in accumulation and retention of heavier polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, but does not enhance uptake of trace metals.

  7. [Dynamic research of density on Platycodon grandiflorum dry material accumulation and platycodin D content in Platycodon grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Geng, Huiyun; Wang, Jianhua; Cai, Aimin; Zhou, Hongying; Dong, Qiting; Sun, Yinshi; Xue, Yongfeng; Ma, Xiaochong; Liu, Sha

    2009-01-01

    To study the dynamic changes of dry material accumulation and platycodin D content in Platycodon grandiflorum in different planting densities. Five different planting densities M1 (4 cm x 25 cm), M2 (6 cm x 25 cm), M3 (8 cm x 25 cm), M4 (10 cm x 25 cm) and M5 (12 cm x 25 cm) were designed in the plot experiment. The individual and colony biomass accumulation, dry material distribution, root yield and platycodin D content were measured in different stage. In a certain density range the individual biomass in P. grandiflorum obviously declined with increasing density with the exception of biomass M2 > biomass M3. On the contrary, the colony biomass increased with the increasing density. Dry material accumulation in each organ in P. grandiflorum in different planting densities showed significance (P<0.05). The dry material distribution in organs in the different planting densities showed significance (P<0.05), and the dry material distribution in flower and fruit reached the minimal level in M2, in the same planting density the distribution in root reached the maximal; The dry material in stem, flower and fruit obviously declined with the increasing density, while the dry material in leaf increased. The individual root output increased with the increasing density, and it reached the highest in M2. The colony root yield increased with the increasing density. The platycodin D content in P. grandiflorum reached the highest in M2. The result showed that a suitable planting density is very important to P. grandiflorum dry material accumulation and distribution, root yield, platycodin D content and colony yield.

  8. The seasonal fluctuations and accumulation of iodine-129 in relation to the hydrogeochemistry of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, a discontinuous permafrost watershed.

    PubMed

    Herod, Matthew N; Li, Tianjiao; Pellerin, André; Kieser, William E; Clark, Ian D

    2016-11-01

    The long lived radioisotope (129)I is a uranium fission product, and an environmental contaminant of the nuclear age. Consequently, it can trace anthropogenic releases of (129)I in watersheds, and has been identified as a potential means to distinguish water sources in discharge (Nimz, 1998). The purpose of this work was to identify the sources and mass input of (129)I and trace the transport, partitioning and mass balance of (129)I over time in a remote watershed. We monitored (129)I and other geochemical and isotope tracers (e.g. δ(14)CDIC, δ(13)CDIC, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, etc.) in precipitation and discharge from the Wolf Creek Research Basin (WCRB), a discontinuous permafrost watershed in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and evaluated the use of (129)I as a water end-member tracer. Radiocarbon and geochemical tracers of weathering show that discharge is comprised of (i) groundwater baseflow that has recharged under open system conditions, (ii) spring freshet meltwater that has derived solutes through closed-system interaction with saturated soils, and (iii) active layer drainage. The abundance of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I ratio correlated with geochemical tracers suggests varying contributions of these three water end-members to discharge. The (129)I concentration was highest at the onset of freshet, reaching 17.4×10(6) atoms/L, and likely reflects the lack of interaction between meltwater and organic matter at that time. This peak in (129)I was followed by a decline over the summer to its lowest value. Mass balance calculations of the (129)I budget show that the input to the watershed via precipitation is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the output suggesting that such arctic watersheds accumulate nearly 90% of the annual input, primarily in soil organic matter. Temporal variations in discharge (129)I concentrations correlated with changes in discharge water sources suggesting that (129)I is a promising hydrologic tracer, particularly when used in

  9. The Impact of Migraine and the Effect of Migraine Treatment on Workplace Productivity in the United States and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Wayne N.; Landy, Stephen H.; Downs, Kristen E.; Runken, M. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that migraine is associated with decreased productivity. This article describes the results of a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications that measured the impact of migraine on workplace productivity in the United States and provides recommendations for future research. A MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1, 1990 to July 31, 2008. Articles were included if the results were from a prospective or retrospective study that reported work-specific productivity outcomes in adults with migraine in the United States. Twenty-six studies were included. Nine studies found that diagnosed and/or undiagnosed migraine had a negative impact on worker productivity. Although one migraine prophylactic study found a statistically significant improvement in worker productivity for topiramate-treated patients, another found an insignificant difference in lisinopril-treated patients. Fifteen studies compared the impact of triptan therapy with a control group. The control groups in these studies differed with regard to recall periods, time to follow-up, and types of questionnaires used. Almost all studies found that triptan therapy was associated with a statistically significant improvement in loss in worker productivity vs the control group. Health care professionals can reduce the impact of migraine on worker productivity with appropriate therapy. Researchers should collect presenteeism and absenteeism data, report results in units of time, use a validated instrument, carefully consider recall periods, and report worker productivity separately. In addition, patients with undiagnosed migraine should be included in disease burden studies. When evaluating effects of treatment on productivity, researchers should target well-controlled, double-blind studies and conduct productivity research for new treatments. PMID:19411440

  10. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  11. Comparison of height-accumulation and volume-equation methods for estimating tree and stand volumes. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.B.; Baldwin, V.C.

    1995-09-01

    Estimating tree and stand volume in mature plantations is time consuming, involving much manpower and equipment; however, several sampling and volume-prediction techniques are available. This study showed that a well-constructed, volume-equation method yields estimates comparable to those of the often more time-consuming, hight-accumulation method, even though the latter should be more accurate for any individual tree. Plot volumes were estimated by both methods in a remeasurement of trees in a 40-plot, planted slash pine thinning study. The mean percent age difference in total volume, inside bark, between the two methods ranged from 1 to 2.5 percent across all the plots; differences outside bark ranged from 7 to 10 percent. The results were similar when the effecs of site, plot mean values, or tree-by-tree comparisons were incorporated.

  12. What are the functional outcomes of right hemisphere stroke patients with or without hemi-inattention complications? A critical narrative review and suggestions for further research

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Maria Stella; Kilbride, Cherry; Reynolds, Frances Ann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: There is widespread acceptance that patients demonstrating neglect/hemi-inattention (HI) following right hemisphere stroke (RHS) underachieve functionally compared to their counterparts without neglect. However, empirical evidence for this view needs examination. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise relevant studies that compared outcomes from RHS patients with/without hemi-attention and suggest more robust follow-up research. Method: Twelve studies published in 1995–2013 were critically reviewed. Two independent reviewers appraised design features including sample representation, assessment and data analysis methods. Strengths and limitations were highlighted. Results: Results were largely inconsistent. Considerable heterogeneity within patient groups and across studies complicated interpretation. Evidence suggested average group disparity in scores between patients with and without HI at discharge but the cause of functional disparity could not be attributed specifically to HI from the data and modelling results available. Conclusion: The relationship between HI status and functional recovery warrants further investigation in studies with stronger methodology to ensure rigour and robustness in the results. Pending further research, HI status should not be regarded as a key predictor of functional recovery or rehabilitation potential in patients with RHSs. This group should continue to receive appropriate therapeutic intervention aimed at maximising their functional recovery post-stroke.Implications for RehabilitationFindings from this review demonstrate a paucity of evidence to support the presence of hemi-inattention as a key predictor of functional recovery in patients with right hemisphere stroke; as such, practitioners should take this into consideration when planning rehabilitation programmes of their patients.In the initial months following right hemisphere stroke, there are wide-ranging differences in the rate and amount

  13. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  14. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Fifty-Six Years of Accumulated Research on Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; White, Michael J.; Spengler, Paul M.; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical predictions made by mental health practitioners are compared with those using statistical approaches. Sixty-seven studies were identified from a comprehensive search of 56 years of research; 92 effect sizes were derived from these studies. The overall effect of clinical versus statistical prediction showed a somewhat greater accuracy for…

  15. Suggestion can help.

    PubMed

    Benson, P E

    2000-10-01

    One cannot practise dentistry without realising that for the patient, the control of pain and fear is extremely important. Modern technical advances have made painless dentistry a reality and yet research has shown that more people avoid dental treatment through fear of pain than all other factors combined. Dental surgeons and psychologists agree that patients frequently magnify their unpleasant dental experiences. There are deep-seated psychological reasons for this exaggerated fear; the mouth being a highly charged erotogenic region, is a primary zone of interaction with the environment and can have important far-reaching emotional significance. To many people the anticipation of dental treatment is sufficient to arouse extreme anxiety. Dental schools lay great emphasis on basic medical sciences and the technical excellence of students, the psychosomatic approach to the alleviation of apprehension, fear and pain is meanwhile often sadly neglected. The use of controlled suggestion and hypnosis can be shown to play a very important role in clinical dentistry.

  16. What Does Research Suggest about the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Statistics at the College Level? A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; Alt, Shirley; Dupuis, Danielle; Holleque, Kristine; Chang, Beng

    2008-01-01

    Since the first studies on the teaching and learning of statistics appeared in the research literature, the scholarship in this area has grown dramatically. Given the diversity of disciplines, methodology, and orientation of the studies that may be classified as "statistics education research," summarizing and critiquing this body of work for…

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in sub-Saharan Africa: synthesis of available data and suggestions for further research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Gill; Thomas, Andrew D.; Pelster, David; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    This paper summarizes currently available data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African natural ecosystems and agricultural lands. The available data are used to synthesize current understanding of the drivers of change in GHG emissions, outline the knowledge gaps, and suggest future directions and strategies for GHG emission research. GHG emission data were collected from 75 studies conducted in 22 countries (n = 244) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were by far the largest contributor to GHG emissions and global warming potential (GWP) in SSA natural terrestrial systems. CO2 emissions ranged from 3.3 to 57.0 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, methane (CH4) emissions ranged from -4.8 to 3.5 kg ha-1 yr-1 (-0.16 to 0.12 Mg CO2 equivalent (eq.) ha-1 yr-1), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions ranged from -0.1 to 13.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 (-0.03 to 4.1 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). Soil physical and chemical properties, rewetting, vegetation type, forest management, and land-use changes were all found to be important factors affecting soil GHG emissions from natural terrestrial systems. In aquatic systems, CO2 was the largest contributor to total GHG emissions, ranging from 5.7 to 232.0 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, followed by -26.3 to 2741.9 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 (-0.89 to 93.2 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1) and 0.2 to 3.5 kg N2O ha-1 yr-1 (0.06 to 1.0 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). Rates of all GHG emissions from aquatic systems were affected by type, location, hydrological characteristics, and water quality. In croplands, soil GHG emissions were also dominated by CO2, ranging from 1.7 to 141.2 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, with -1.3 to 66.7 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 (-0.04 to 2.3 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1) and 0.05 to 112.0 kg N2O ha-1 yr-1 (0.015 to 33.4 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). N2O emission factors (EFs) ranged from 0.01 to 4.1 %. Incorporation of crop residues or manure with inorganic fertilizers invariably resulted in significant changes in GHG emissions, but results were inconsistent as the magnitude and direction of

  18. Collaborative Teaching and Research Between Basic and Clinical Sciences: Exploration of the Barriers to Collaboration and Suggested Approaches to Achieve Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Mary E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In this position paper for the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the gap between traditional basic science faculty and the newer group of practitioner-educators is examined, and remedies are suggested that focus on institutional goals, educational mission, daily activities, teaching methods, significance of effort, and differences in…

  19. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  20. The Research on the Relationship of RAGE, LRP-1, and Aβ Accumulation in the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Lobe, and Amygdala of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lou-Yan; Fei, Yu-Lang; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Song-Di; Du, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Mei; Jin, Long; Li, Ming; Li, Hai-Long; Zhai, Jia-Jia; Ji, Lu-Peng; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Song-Fang; Li, Mo; Ma, Li; Ma, Xiao-Rui; Qu, Qiu-Min; Lv, Ya-Li

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been regarded as an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and diabetic patients and animals have shown cognitive dysfunction. More research has shown that the amyloid-β (Aβ), which is a hallmark of AD, was found deposited in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. This Aβ accumulation is regulated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1). However, the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 in diabetic rats is not very clear. In the present study, we used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to investigate whether the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 is related to Aβ1-42 deposition at the hippocampus, prefrontal lobe, and amygdala in DM. We found that diabetic rats had longer escape latency and less frequency of entrance into the target zone than that of the control group (P < 0.05) in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The Aβ1-42 expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal lobe significantly increased in the DM group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). RAGE increased (P < 0.05), while LRP-1 decreased (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus tissue and prefrontal lobe tissue of DM rats. The Aβ1-42 deposition was correlated with RAGE positively (P < 0.05), but with LRP-1 negatively (P < 0.05). Further, the expression levels of Aβ1-42, RAGE, and LRP-1 were not changed in the amygdala between the diabetic rats and the control group. These findings indicated that upregulating RAGE and/or downregulating LRP-1 at the hippocampus and the prefrontal lobe contributed to the Aβ1-42 accumulation and then further promoted the cognitive impairment of diabetic rats.

  1. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  2. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  3. WEALTH INEQUALITY AND ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Killewald, Alexandra; Pfeffer, Fabian T; Schachner, Jared N

    2017-07-01

    Research on wealth inequality and accumulation and the data upon which it relies have expanded substantially in the twenty-first century. While the field has experienced rapid growth, conceptual and methodological challenges remain. We begin by discussing two major unresolved methodological concerns facing wealth research: how to address challenges to causal inference posed by wealth's cumulative nature and how to operationalize net worth, given its highly skewed nature. To underscore the need for continued empirical attention to net worth, we review trends in wealth levels and inequality and evaluate wealth's distinctiveness as an indicator of social stratification. Next, we provide an overview of data sources available for wealth research. We then review recent empirical evidence on the effects of wealth on other social outcomes, as well as research on the determinants of wealth. We close with a list of promising avenues for future research on wealth, its causes, and its consequences.

  4. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  5. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  6. The utility of captive animals in actualistic research: A geometric morphometric exploration of the tooth row of Alligator mississippiensis suggesting ecophenotypic influences and functional constraints.

    PubMed

    Drumheller, Stephanie K; Wilberg, Eric W; Sadleir, Rudyard W

    2016-07-01

    Captive broad snouted crocodylians are generally thought to have wider, shorter rostra than their wild counterparts. Interpreted to reflect morphological change in response to the conditions of captivity, this qualitative pattern could affect the utility of these animals in a variety of fields of research. However, due to relative ease of access and availability of life history data, captive animals are often utilized in actualistic research. Thus, this issue should be addressed in more detail. Here we explore snout shape variation between captive and wild members of Alligator mississippiensis using two-dimensional (2D) morphometric techniques. Several landmark schemesare used to assess the utility of different aspects of morphology in distinguishing the groups. While statistical analyses consistently differentiated between the groups, the area of morphospace occupied by wild members of A. mississippiensis generally overlapped with the larger area encompassing the captive specimens. This indicates that the captive condition is not as uniform as previously thought and instead encompasses a large spectrum of morphologies, ranging from the stereotypical broad, shortened snouts to outlines that are indistinguishable from the wild morphotype. These results align well with the interpretation that this change reflects an extreme example of ecophenotypy, since ranched, farmed, or zoo organisms are held in an array of enclosures, ranging from indoor, climate controlled pens to outdoor, more natural areas. This variation in environments should be reflected in different reactions to the animals' surroundings, resulting in a broad spectrum of morphotypes. While wild specimens are still preferred, especially for fine scale analyses, these results indicate that not all captive members of A. mississippiensis exhibit the extreme morphological alterations often cited in the literature. Weighing the conditions in which the animals are held and exploring the possibility of

  7. Theories of Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William

    1928-01-01

    The word “suggestion” has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence. Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena. The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability. Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct “inhibited in its aim” (transference) and brings in his distinction of “ego” and “ego-ideal” (or “super-ego”) to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible. PMID:19986306

  8. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  9. The use of performance improvement methods to enhance emergency department patient satisfaction in the United States: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Cruz, Brian L; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2006-07-01

    The authors reviewed the evidence on performance improvement methods for increasing emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction to provide evidence-based suggestions for clinical practice. Data sources consisted of searches through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, Cochrane Library, and Emergency Medicine Abstracts and a manual search of references. Articles were included if they reported a performance improvement intervention targeting patient satisfaction in the ED setting. Articles on studies not conducted in the United States or that failed to provide enough details to allow critical evaluation of the study were excluded. Two authors used structured evaluation criteria to independently review each retained study. Nineteen articles met all selection criteria. Three studies found varying levels of support for multicomponent interventions, predominantly focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines for specific presenting complaints and process redesign. Sixteen studies evaluated single-component interventions, with the following having at least one supportive study: using alternating patient assignment to provider teams rather than "zone"-based assignment, enhancing provider communication and customer service skills, incorporating information delivery interventions (e.g., pamphlets, video) that target patient expectations, using preformatted charts, and establishing ED-based observation units for specific conditions such as asthma and chest pain. There is modest evidence supporting a range of performance improvement interventions for improving ED patient satisfaction. Further work is needed before specific, evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding which process changes are most effective. Recommendations are made for improving the quality of performance improvement efforts in the ED setting.

  10. Comment on “Problems of UV-B radiation measurements in biological research: Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements” by H. Tüg and M. E. M. Baumann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R. L.; Johnston, P. V.

    1995-05-01

    We wish to comment on the paper titled “Problems of UV-B radiation in biological research. Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements”, by Helmut Tüg and Marcus Baumann (hereafter T&B), which appeared in the April 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters (21, 8, 689-692, 1994).

  11. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  12. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  13. Original Research: Hydroxytyrosol, an ingredient of olive oil, reduces triglyceride accumulation and promotes lipolysis in human primary visceral adipocytes during differentiation.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxytyrosol has various pharmacological properties, including anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory activities, preventing hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. The present study is focused on the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of hydroxytyrosol on primary human visceral adipocytes. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 (A7) days of treatment when they reached mature shape. The treatment with hydroxytyrosol extract significantly (P < 0.001) increased apoptosis in P10 and P20 cells in comparison to control and A7 cells; significantly (P < 0.001) reduced triglyceride accumulation in P20 cells compared to P10 and control cells; and significantly (P < 0.001) increased lipolysis in P20 cells in comparison to control cells and A7 mature adipocytes. Hydroxytyrosol-treated P20 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA2, GATA3, WNT3A, SFRP5, HES1, and SIRT1. In contrast, genes involved in promoting adipogenesis such as LEP, FGF1, CCND1, and SREBF1 were significantly down-regulated by hydroxytyrosol treatment. These data suggest that hydroxytyrosol promotes lipolysis and apoptotic activity in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation and does not affect already mature adipocytes. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Original Research: Hydroxytyrosol, an ingredient of olive oil, reduces triglyceride accumulation and promotes lipolysis in human primary visceral adipocytes during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Stefanon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol has various pharmacological properties, including anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory activities, preventing hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. The present study is focused on the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of hydroxytyrosol on primary human visceral adipocytes. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 (A7) days of treatment when they reached mature shape. The treatment with hydroxytyrosol extract significantly (P < 0.001) increased apoptosis in P10 and P20 cells in comparison to control and A7 cells; significantly (P < 0.001) reduced triglyceride accumulation in P20 cells compared to P10 and control cells; and significantly (P < 0.001) increased lipolysis in P20 cells in comparison to control cells and A7 mature adipocytes. Hydroxytyrosol-treated P20 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA2, GATA3, WNT3A, SFRP5, HES1, and SIRT1. In contrast, genes involved in promoting adipogenesis such as LEP, FGF1, CCND1, and SREBF1 were significantly down-regulated by hydroxytyrosol treatment. These data suggest that hydroxytyrosol promotes lipolysis and apoptotic activity in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation and does not affect already mature adipocytes. PMID:27287014

  15. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Practical suggestions from teachers include activities for defining new English words, using free association and writing, stocking the sustained silent reading library, and using the compare/contrast strategy for word recognition. (MKM)

  16. Open To Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  17. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  18. Suggestions on Japanese Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roy Andrew

    After commenting briefly on the current state of instructional materials available to students and teachers of Japanese at a college level, the paper underlines the need for materials that deal specifically with aspects of Japanese culture, and outlines suggestions for possible materials. Graded intermediate materials that stress particularly the…

  19. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  1. Generalized Combinatoric Accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Dae Hyun; Seo, Jae Woo; Lee, Pil Joong

    The accumulator was introduced as a decentralized alternative to digital signatures. While most of accumulators are based on number theoretic assumptions and require time-consuming modulo exponentiations, Nyberg's combinatoric accumulator dose not depend on any computational assumption and requires only bit operations and hash function evaluations. In this article, we present a generalization of Nyberg's combinatoric accumulator, which allows a lower false positive rate with the same output length. Our generalization also shows that the Bloom filter can be used as a cryptographic accumulator and moreover excels the Nyberg's accumulator.

  2. THE PEACE CORPS EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROJECT IN COLOMBIA--TWO YEARS OF RESEARCH. RESEARCH REPORT NO. 10, FEEDBACK TO THE PEACE CORPS ON PROJECT PROGRESS--SOME MODELS AND SUGGESTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMSTOCK, GEORGE; MACCOBY, NATHAN

    RESEARCH TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PEACE CORPS ETV PROJECT STEMMED FROM TWO MODELS OF FEEDBACK. INFORMATION PROVIDED IN "INDIVIDUAL FEEDBACK" IS OF VALUE AT A PRAGMATIC LEVEL, WHEREAS INFORMATION FROM "PROJECT FEEDBACK" CAN BE USED BY ADMINISTRATORS FOR POLICY DECISIONS. THE MAJOR TOOL FOR PROJECT…

  3. [Sugar transport, metabolism, accumulation and their regulation in fruits].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shang-Long; Zhang, Liang-Cheng

    2004-02-01

    Photosynthates transported into fruits are mainly in the form of sucrose in most fruit tree species; but sorbitol takes the place of sucrose in woody Rosaceae plants. The transport of sugars across the plasma membrane from apoplastic space into cells is mediated by sugar transporters. The fact that gene expression of sugar transporters is upregulated just before and during sugar accumulation suggests the participation of sugar transporters in sugar accumulation of fruit. The sucrose-metabolizing enzymes participate in four futile cycles that involve sugar transport between cytosol, vacuole, amyloplast and apoplast. The increase in SS (sucrose synthase) and SPS (sucrose phosphate synthase) activities and mRNA levels during maturation parallels the increase in sugar accumulation indicates that the sucrose-metabolizing enzymes have important roles on sugar accumulation in fruits. The prerequisite for rapid accumulation of sugar in fruit is restriction of hexose catabolism and promotion of its synthesis. In woody Rosaceae plants, the fact that sucrose metabolism is also quite active in fruit suggests that sorbitol and sucrose probably play similar roles in fruit development. Sugars as signal molecules regulate the expression of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism. Sugar transport, metabolism and accumulation are also regulated by natural environmental factors and cultural practices. The increase in sugar content of tomato fruit in acid invertase gene antisense-inhibited plants provides promising prospect of genetic engineering as a potential effective technique in regulation of sugar accumulation in fruits. Thus, the sugar content of fruit is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The future research works will be focused on elucidating the mechanism of sugar signal and other intrinsic signals as well as extrinsic signals including nutrients, plant hormones and physical factors on sugar transport, metabolism and accumulation and the

  4. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  5. Calcium accumulation by chondrocyte mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, I M; Lee, N H

    1975-01-01

    Chick epiphyseal plate mitochondria observed in vitro suggest that energy dependent Ca++ uptake was maximal in the presence of ATP and a respiratory substrate. However, nucleotides other than ATP had no effect on this type of cation uptake. The observation that Ca++ accumulation was sensitive to the presence of 2,4-DNP and a number of respiratory inhibitors suggested that the mechanism of cation accumulation was similar to that described in tissues that do not undergo biological mineralization. Non-energy supported Ca++ acumulation was studied in the presence of rotenone and antimycin A. Under these conditions, the amount of Ca++ bound by skeletal tissue mitochondria was greater than bound by mitochondria obtained from noncalcifying tissues. Following isopycnic centrifugation, the Ca++ loaded mitochondria banded at different sucrose densties but the Ca++ affinity of mitochondria at each density band was similar. Hence, no particular mitochondrial species seems to be responsible for cation transport.

  6. Contextual Suggestion from Wikitravel: Exploiting Community-based Suggestions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    in a spe- cific location, at a specific time, taking into ac- count their personal preferences. As a source for travel suggestions we use Wikitravel...which is a community-based travel guide for destinations all over the world. From pages dedicated to cities in the US we extract suggestions for...formation on user preferences is valuable for pro- viding appropriate suggestions. 1 Introduction Wikitravel1 is a collaboratively created site for travel

  7. Hypnotic suggestion: a musical mathaphor.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, hypnotizability has always been associated with the increase in suggestibility produced by hypnosis. In practice, hypnotizability is measured as suggestibility following a hypnotic induction. Our understanding of hypnosis and suggestion has been hampered by this discordance between the conceptual and operational definitions of hypnotizability. For example, despite hundreds of studies purporting to use standardized scales to assess hypnotizability, we know next to nothing about that construct, as it has been defined conceptually. Neither the hypothesis that it is a stable trait nor the hypothesis that it is modifiable have been tested in any study, and correlations between hypnotizability and other psychological or physiological variables have not yet been assessed. Conversely, we have learned much about hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility. Suggestibility has been measured on reliable and valid instruments, and we have abundant data on its stability, modifiability, and correlates. Hypnosis enhances suggestibility to a modest degree and increases the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

  8. Accumulated versus continuous exercise for health benefit: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marie H; Blair, Steven N; Murtagh, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Current physical activity guidelines endorse the notion that the recommended amount of daily physical activity can be accumulated in short bouts performed over the course of a day. Although intuitively appealing, the evidence for the efficacy of accumulated exercise is not plentiful. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of similar amounts of exercise performed in either one continuous or two or more accumulated bouts on a range of health outcomes. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review, in which at least one outcome known to affect health was measured before and after continuous and accumulated exercise training interventions. Where improvements in cardiovascular fitness were noted, most studies reported no difference in the alterations between accumulated and continuous patterns of exercise. In the few studies where a normalization of blood pressure was observed from baseline to post-intervention, there appear to be no differences between accumulated and continuous exercise in the magnitude of this effect. For other health outcomes such as adiposity, blood lipids and psychological well-being, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether accumulated exercise is as effective as the more traditional continuous approach. Seven short-term studies in which at least one health-related outcome was measured during the 0- to 48-hour period after a single continuous bout of exercise and a number of short bouts of equivalent total duration were included in the review. Many of the studies of such short-term effects considered the plasma triglyceride response to a meal following either accumulated short or continuous bouts of exercise. Collectively, these studies suggest that accumulated exercise may be as effective at reducing postprandial lipaemia. Further research is required to determine if even shorter bouts of accumulated exercise (<10 minutes) confer a health benefit and whether an accumulated approach to physical

  9. Positive Suggestion: It Helps LD Students Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldridge, O. A. "Buff"

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences in remediating reading problems of learning disabled students through hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestion. Research on the use of hypnosis is briefly summarized and recommendations on the use of nonhypnotic suggestion in the classroom are given. (CL)

  10. Positive Suggestion: It Helps LD Students Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldridge, O. A. "Buff"

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences in remediating reading problems of learning disabled students through hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestion. Research on the use of hypnosis is briefly summarized and recommendations on the use of nonhypnotic suggestion in the classroom are given. (CL)

  11. Accumulation and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid (ACC) in Plants: Current Status, Considerations for Future Research and Agronomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses. This review highlights some recent advances related to ACC. These include the regulation of ACC synthesis, conjugation and deamination, evidence for a role of ACC as an ethylene-independent signal, short and long range ACC transport, and the identification of a first ACC transporter. Although unraveling the complex mechanism of ACC transport is in its infancy, new questions emerge together with the identification of a first transporter. In the light of the future quest for additional ACC transporters, this review presents perspectives of the novel findings and includes considerations for future research toward applications in agronomy. PMID:28174583

  12. Accumulation and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid (ACC) in Plants: Current Status, Considerations for Future Research and Agronomic Applications.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses. This review highlights some recent advances related to ACC. These include the regulation of ACC synthesis, conjugation and deamination, evidence for a role of ACC as an ethylene-independent signal, short and long range ACC transport, and the identification of a first ACC transporter. Although unraveling the complex mechanism of ACC transport is in its infancy, new questions emerge together with the identification of a first transporter. In the light of the future quest for additional ACC transporters, this review presents perspectives of the novel findings and includes considerations for future research toward applications in agronomy.

  13. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  14. Metapopulation extinction caused by mutation accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Kevin; Lynch, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Theory suggests that the risk of extinction by mutation accumulation can be comparable to that by environmental stochasticity for an isolated population smaller than a few thousand individuals. Here we show that metapopulation structure, habitat loss or fragmentation, and environmental stochasticity can be expected to greatly accelerate the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations, lowering the genetic effective size to such a degree that even large metapopulations may be at risk of extinction. Because of mutation accumulation, viable metapopulations may need to be far larger and better connected than would be required under just stochastic demography. PMID:11226343

  15. Chloroquine accumulation by purified plasma membranes from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Elandaloussi, Laurence M; Smith, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) has been associated with a decrease in CQ accumulation by parasitized erythrocytes. This study aimed at investigating the role of parasite plasma membranes (PPM) in the mechanism of CQ accumulation. CQ accumulation capabilities of membranes were determined using tritiated CQ. PPM isolated from chloroquine-sensitive parasites were found to accumulate less CQ than those isolated from chloroquine-resistant parasites. However, CQ accumulation was found to be ATP-independent suggesting that this accumulation results from binding rather than transport.

  16. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  17. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  18. Some Suggestions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Hartford N.

    1978-01-01

    Provides several suggestions concerning how public television might organize to approach the future. Suggestions include accepting the telecommunications center concept, revising the structure to provide a stronger national service, sustaining local programing, and providing new services. Government role, a new federal funding plan, and the system…

  19. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Twenty Suggestions for Newspaper Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofty, Thomas G.

    1978-01-01

    Suggestions to student publications staffs deal with a variety of topics, including selection of editors, editorials, letters to the editor, sports coverage, layout, use of visuals, and selection of staff members. (GW)

  1. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  2. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  3. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins

  4. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  5. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    PubMed

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  6. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). 14...to 60 suggestions, thus, we search again with different parameters, like place types that are relevant to the track (e.g., restaurant, cafe , museum

  7. Suggestions for Library Network Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Various approaches to the design of automatic library systems are described, suggestions for the design of rational and effective automated library processes are posed, and an attempt is made to assess the importance and effect of library network systems on library operations and library effectiveness. (Author/CWM)

  8. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2)…

  9. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2)…

  10. Online Training Sessions: Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabonell, Martha; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These planning and evaluative guidelines for online trainers utilize a sliding scale--from minimal to suggested to optimal--for five types of training sessions: (1) Search Service--Beginning; (2) Search Service--Advanced; (3) Search Service--Subject; (4) Database Producer; and (5) Independent Introductory Workshop. (RAA)

  11. User Modeling for Contextual Suggestion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    work on the Contextual Suggestion Track of the Twenty-Third Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2014). The key to our approach is user interest modeling...Median) on three performance metrics. In addition, RAMARUN2 has a slight performance edge over RUN1. The effectiveness of our approach is evidenced by...from relevance factors captured in these models. As such, our approach differs from other participating teams in at least three important ways: a

  12. Suggestions for Teaching the Migratory Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dolly; And Others

    Suggestions for teachers of migrant children are offered in seven individual teaching guides which were developed as part of a research and curriculum development project to improve the teaching of migratory pupils. Levels of study include grades four, five, six, and seven, and one general unit deals with providing an effective learning…

  13. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  14. Dust Accumulation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since landing on Mars a year ago, NASA's pair of six-wheeled geologists have been constantly exposed to martian winds and dust. As a result, the Spirit rover has gradually experienced a slight decline in power as a thin layer of dust has accumulated on the solar panels, blocking some of the sunlight that is converted to electricity. In this enlarged image of a postage-stamp-size (3-centimeter-square, 1.2-inch-square) portion of one of Spirit's solar panels, a fine layer of martian dust coats electrical connections and metal surfaces. Individual silt grains or clumps of dust are visible where sediment has accumulated in crevices between solar cells and circuits. The upper right half of the image shows the edge of one of the rover's solar cells. The lower left half shows electrical wires bonded with silicon adhesive to the underlying composite surface; the circular abrasions are the result of sanding by hand on Earth. The braided wire is connected to a thermocouple used to measure temperature based on electrical resistance. Spirit took this image with its microscopic imager on martian day, or sol, 350 (Dec. 26, 2004).

  15. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  16. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  17. Silence and Voicing Accumulations in Italian Primary School Teachers With and Without Voice Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Astolfi, Arianna; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the silence and voicing accumulations of primary school teachers and the teachers' clinical status was examined to determine whether more voicing accumulations and fewer silence accumulations were measured for the vocally unhealthy subjects than for the healthy subjects, which would imply more vocal loading and fewer short-term recovery moments. Twenty-six Italian primary school teachers were allocated by clinicians to three groups: (1) with organic voice disorders, (2) with subjectively mild organic alteration or functional voice symptoms, and (3) normal voice quality and physiology. Continuous silence and voicing periods were measured with the APM3200 during the teachers' 4-hour workdays. The accumulations were grouped into seven time intervals, ranging from 0.03-0.9 to 3.16-10 seconds, according to Italian prosody. The effects of group on silence and voicing accumulations were evaluated. Regarding silence accumulations, Group 1 accumulated higher values in intervals between 0.1 and 3.15 seconds than other groups, whereas Groups 2 and 3 did not differ from each other. Voicing accumulations between 0.17 and 3.15 seconds were higher for subjects with a structural disorder. A higher time dose was accumulated by these subjects (40.6%) than other subjects (Group 2, 31.9%; Group 3, 32.3%). Although previous research has suggested that a rest period of a few seconds may produce some vocal fatigue recovery, these results indicate that periods shorter than 3.16 seconds may not have an observable effect on recovery. The results provide insight into how vocal fatigue and vocal recovery may relate to voice disorders in occupational voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence.

    PubMed

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2016-09-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed 'sequential decision bias' and 'sequential design bias', are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models of meta-analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence-based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  20. Suggestive modeling for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgibbon, Andrew W.; Fisher, Robert B.

    1992-11-01

    Traditional modeling techniques, with roots in CAD systems, do not provide a rich enough modeling environment for computer vision. The models themselves describe the structure rather than appearance of objects, and rarely provide facilities for the recording of the additional information required by a vision system. Encoding appearance explicitly ensures quick access and use of the model, and yields model features that correspond to observable data features. We describe the Suggestive Modelling System (SMS) which has been designed specifically for vision applications, combining the geometric object model with vision-specific annotations. Among SMS's features are: (1) A novel separation of surface shape, extent and position; (2) Encoding of underconstrained positions for subcomponents such as spheres and discs; (3) Incorporation of uncertain property values; (4) Cheap encoding of viewpoint- dependent information in addition to the body-centered model; (5) Hierarchical models; (6) Symbolic labels for each primitive; and (7) Parallel curve, surface, and volume-based representations simplify project management. We will describe how this approach reflects more faithfully the capabilities of current scene analysis algorithms than traditional methods. Results from the Imagine 2 vision system demonstrate the applicability of the models to complex real-world industrial inspection and recognition tasks. In addition a number of other vision-related applications in which the SMS paradigm has proved useful will be discussed.

  1. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  2. THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, A. G.

    1938-01-01

    Experiments on Valonia were carried out as follows: Stage I.—Cells in dim light accumulated 0.08 M ammonia (NH3 + NH4OH + NH4+) from sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia (but the concentration of undissociated ammonia appeared to remain less inside than outside). Potassium came out. Stage II.—Cells in dim light in nearly ammonia-free normal sea water lost ammonia which was replaced by sodium entering from the sea water. Potassium in the sap remained practically constant. Stage III.—The cells were placed in stronger light where the loss of ammonia continued and potassium entered. Sodium entered more rapidly than in Stage II. Stage IV.—Cells transferred to sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia again accumulated ammonia up to 0.1345 M. The results in general harmonize with the view that the direction of movement of a base M through the protoplasm depends on the difference of the activity products (M)o(OH)o and (M)i(OH)i where the subscripts o and i refer to sea water and sap respectively. On this basis, if the entrance of ammonia raised the internal concentration of OH sufficiently in Stage I potassium should come out in Stage I, as actually happened. The behavior of sodium is in doubt. If the internal pH in Stage II were sufficiently high sodium should enter but not potassium. This was actually found. In Stage III, if we suppose that the effect of stronger light is to increase the external pH (by photosynthesis) more than the internal pH (as found by Crozier) we can understand why potassium entered, because such an increase in pH could readily make the external value of (K) (OH) greater than the internal. This would also explain why sodium entered more rapidly than in Stage II. When ammonia is coming out of the cell, sodium and potassium may enter more rapidly than usual without raising the internal concentration of halide above a certain critical value at which entrance appears to be checked. PMID:19873074

  3. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  4. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  5. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  6. Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Geomorphic control of landscape carbon accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbloom, N.A.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Schimel, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use the CREEP process-response model to simulate soil organic carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in Iowa. Our primary objectives are to identify spatial patterns of carbon accumulation, and explore the effect of erosion on basin-scale C accumulation. Our results point to two general findings. First, redistribution of soil carbon by erosion results in a net increase in basin-wide carbon storage relative to a noneroding environment. Landscape-average mean residence times are increased in an eroding landscape owing to the burial/preservation of otherwise labile C. Second, field observations taken along a slope transect may overlook significant intraslope variations in carbon accumulation. Spatial patterns of modeled deep C accumulation are complex. While surface carbon with its relatively short equilibration time is predictable from surface properties, deep carbon is strongly influenced by the landscape's geomorphic and climatic history, resulting in wide spatial variability. Convergence and divergence associated with upland swales and interfluves result in bimodal carbon distributions in upper and mid slopes; variability in carbon storage within modeled mid slopes was as high as simulated differences between erosional shoulders and depositional valley bottoms. The bimodality of mid-slope C variability in the model suggests that a three-dimensional sampling strategy is preferable over the traditional two-dimensional analog or "catena" approach. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  9. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  10. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  11. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  12. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  13. Mentoring in biostatistics: some suggestions for reform.

    PubMed

    Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Thabane, Lehana

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring is routinely used as a tool to facilitate acquisition of skills by new professionals in fields like medicine, nursing, surgery, and business. While mentoring has been proposed as an effective strategy for knowledge and skills transfer in biostatistics and related fields, there is still much to be done to facilitate adoption by stakeholders, including academia and employers of biostatisticians. This is especially troubling given that biostatisticians play a key role in the success or otherwise of clinical research conducted for evidence-based decisions. In this paper, we offer suggestions on how mentoring can be applied in practice to advance the statistical training of future biostatisticians. In particular, we propose steps that academic statistics departments, professional statistical societies, and statistics organizations can take to advance the mentoring of young biostatisticians. Our suggestions also cover what mentors and mentees can do to facilitate a successful mentoring relationship.

  14. Mentoring in biostatistics: some suggestions for reform

    PubMed Central

    Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Thabane, Lehana

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring is routinely used as a tool to facilitate acquisition of skills by new professionals in fields like medicine, nursing, surgery, and business. While mentoring has been proposed as an effective strategy for knowledge and skills transfer in biostatistics and related fields, there is still much to be done to facilitate adoption by stakeholders, including academia and employers of biostatisticians. This is especially troubling given that biostatisticians play a key role in the success or otherwise of clinical research conducted for evidence-based decisions. In this paper, we offer suggestions on how mentoring can be applied in practice to advance the statistical training of future biostatisticians. In particular, we propose steps that academic statistics departments, professional statistical societies, and statistics organizations can take to advance the mentoring of young biostatisticians. Our suggestions also cover what mentors and mentees can do to facilitate a successful mentoring relationship. PMID:23093907

  15. Expanded Study on the accumulation effect of tourism under the constraint of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Zhenzhi; Huang, Lu

    2017-05-01

    There is a mutual influence between departmental structure and accumulation and growth. Therefore, the accumulation and growth of the tourism industry will be subject to certain restrictions on the industrial structure, and, conversely, it will have an impact on the existing industrial structure. Li Jingyi reported special research in the paper called "Research on tourism growth based on structural constraints" about the relationship between the growth of tourism and the existing industrial structure. It pointed out the specific interdependence between tourism and other economic sectors in terms of accumulation and growth. However, the research of Li Jingyi is based on the trichotomy of social product value. It is too abstract, while the study is understandable in theory. In practice, it is difficult to use the model of the paper to deal with specific problems. Therefore, how to improve the industry association model in the paper of Li and make it more in line with the actual situation becomes our concern. In this paper, the author hopes to improve the model of Li's paper by simplifying the decomposition of social product value. At the same time, it makes a further study on accumulation elasticity and growth elasticity. On this basis, some suggestions are put forward to guide the development of other industries based on the tourism industry.

  16. The Importance of Synthesis: A Suggestion for International Research Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2007-06-01

    In a scientific discipline, it is common to deal with a system that consists of many elements or subsystems. Most of us engage in the study of system components and their elements by dividing and subdividing them, leading to the trend of infinite specialization. However, at a certain point during the course of the development of a scientific discipline, a grand synthesis enables the distillation and coalescence of disparate results into a coherent understanding of the system as a whole.

  17. Reply to Dogramaci: Suggestions for Improving Administrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that use only of beta weights conceals important effects, unstandard regression coefficients should be reported, a method for avoiding spuriously correlated ratio variables exists, and less time should be devoted to efforts to discover uniformities across organizations and more to documenting the immense variety of organizational forms.…

  18. Learning by Augmenting Rules and Accumulating Censors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    CONTROLLIMSoFFICIENAME AND ADDRIESS 12. REPORT DATEF Advanced-Research Projects Agency uj18. 11,00 Wrlsorr Blvd .2 UMUERnO~pAGES Aritngton, Virginia. � ag- 4 8 ,f...678 May196 LEARNING BY AUGMENTING RULES AND ACCUMULATING CENSORS by Patrick i. Winston Abstract This paper is a synthesis of several sets of ideas ... ideas about learning from precedents and exercises, ideas about learning using near misses, ideas about generalizing if-then rules and ideas about

  19. Distributed and accumulated reinforcement arrangements: evaluations of efficacy and preference.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Iser G; Chase, Julie A; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B; Triggs, Mandy M; Bullock, Christopher E; Jennett, Heather K

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of, and preference for, accumulated access to reinforcers, which allows uninterrupted engagement with the reinforcers but imposes an inherent delay required to first complete the task. Experiment 1 compared rates of task completion in 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities when reinforcement was distributed (i.e., 30-s access to the reinforcer delivered immediately after each response) and accumulated (i.e., 5-min access to the reinforcer after completion of multiple consecutive responses). Accumulated reinforcement produced response rates that equaled or exceeded rates during distributed reinforcement for 3 participants. Experiment 2 used a concurrent-chains schedule to examine preferences for each arrangement. All participants preferred delayed, accumulated access when the reinforcer was an activity. Three participants also preferred accumulated access to edible reinforcers. The collective results suggest that, despite the inherent delay, accumulated reinforcement is just as effective and is often preferred by learners over distributed reinforcement.

  20. DISTRIBUTED AND ACCUMULATED REINFORCEMENT ARRANGEMENTS: EVALUATIONS OF EFFICACY AND PREFERENCE

    PubMed Central

    DELEON, ISER G.; CHASE, JULIE A.; FRANK-CRAWFORD, MICHELLE A.; CARREAU-WEBSTER, ABBEY B.; TRIGGS, MANDY M.; BULLOCK, CHRISTOPHER E.; JENNETT, HEATHER K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of, and preference for, accumulated access to reinforcers, which allows uninterrupted engagement with the reinforcers but imposes an inherent delay required to first complete the task. Experiment 1 compared rates of task completion in 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities when reinforcement was distributed (i.e., 30-s access to the reinforcer delivered immediately after each response) and accumulated (i.e., 5-min access to the reinforcer after completion of multiple consecutive responses). Accumulated reinforcement produced response rates that equaled or exceeded rates during distributed reinforcement for 3 participants. Experiment 2 used a concurrent-chains schedule to examine preferences for each arrangement. All participants preferred delayed, accumulated access when the reinforcer was an activity. Three participants also preferred accumulated access to edible reinforcers. The collective results suggest that, despite the inherent delay, accumulated reinforcement is just as effective and is often preferred by learners over distributed reinforcement. PMID:24782203

  1. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  2. Regional Greenland accumulation variability from Operation IceBridge airborne accumulation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Gabriel; Osterberg, Erich; Hawley, Robert; Whitmore, Brian; Marshall, Hans Peter; Box, Jason

    2017-03-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in a warming climate is of critical interest to scientists and the general public in the context of future sea-level rise. An improved understanding of temporal and spatial variability of snow accumulation will reduce uncertainties in GrIS mass balance models and improve projections of Greenland's contribution to sea-level rise, currently estimated at 0.089 ± 0.03 m by 2100. Here we analyze 25 NASA Operation IceBridge accumulation radar flights totaling > 17 700 km from 2013 to 2014 to determine snow accumulation in the GrIS dry snow and percolation zones over the past 100-300 years. IceBridge accumulation rates are calculated and used to validate accumulation rates from three regional climate models. Averaged over all 25 flights, the RMS difference between the models and IceBridge accumulation is between 0.023 ± 0.019 and 0.043 ± 0.029 m w.e. a-1, although each model shows significantly larger differences from IceBridge accumulation on a regional basis. In the southeast region, for example, the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MARv3.5.2) overestimates by an average of 20.89 ± 6.75 % across the drainage basin. Our results indicate that these regional differences between model and IceBridge accumulation are large enough to significantly alter GrIS surface mass balance estimates. Empirical orthogonal function analysis suggests that the first two principal components account for 33 and 19 % of the variance, and correlate with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), respectively. Regions that disagree strongest with climate models are those in which we have the fewest IceBridge data points, requiring additional in situ measurements to verify model uncertainties.

  3. Sodium Influx and Accumulation in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Essah, Pauline A.; Davenport, Romola; Tester, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis is frequently used as a genetic model in plant salt tolerance studies, however, its physiological responses to salinity remain poorly characterized. This study presents a characterization of initial Na+ entry and the effects of Ca2+ on plant growth and net Na+ accumulation in saline conditions. Unidirectional Na+ influx was measured carefully using very short influx times in roots of 12-d-old seedlings. Influx showed three components with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+, diethylpyrocarbonate, and osmotic pretreatment. Pharmacological agents and known mutants were used to test the contribution of different transport pathways to Na+ uptake. Influx was stimulated by 4-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid; was inhibited by flufenamate, quinine, and cGMP; and was insensitive to modulators of K+ and Ca2+ channels. Influx did not differ from wild type in akt1 and hkt1 insertional mutants. These data suggested that influx was mediated by several different types of nonselective cation channels. Na+ accumulation in plants grown in 50 mm NaCl was strongly reduced by increasing Ca2+ activity (from 0.05-3.0 mm), and plant survival was improved. However, plant biomass was not affected by shoot Na+ concentration, suggesting that in Arabidopsis Na+ toxicity is not dependent on shoot Na+ accumulation. These data suggest that Arabidopsis is a good model for investigation of Na+ transport, but may be of limited utility as a model for the study of Na+ toxicity. PMID:12970496

  4. Accumulation of Norfloxacin by Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Vito; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of norfloxacin by Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 was determined by the modified fluorescence method. The time required to achieve a steady-state concentration (SSC) after allowing B. fragilis to accumulate norfloxacin in an aerobic or an anaerobic environment was ∼2 min; the SSC achieved in air was 90.28 ± 9.32 ng of norfloxacin/mg (dry weight) of cells, and that achieved anaerobically was 98.45 ± 3.7 ng of norfloxacin/mg (dry weight) of cells. Initial rates of accumulation were determined with a range of external concentrations, as up to 8 μg/ml the concentration of norfloxacin accumulated increased proportionally to the external concentration, 12.13 ng/mg (dry weight) of cells per μg of exogenous norfloxacin per ml. At concentrations above 10 μg/ml no increase in the rate of norfloxacin accumulation was observed. From the kinetic data, a Lineweaver-Burk plot calculated a Km of 5.03 μg/ml and a Vmax of 25.1 ng of norfloxacin/s. With an increase in temperature of between 0 and 30°C, the concentration of norfloxacin accumulated also increased proportionally at 4.722 ng of norfloxacin/mg (dry weight) of cells/°C. At low concentrations of glucose (<0.2%; 11 mM), the concentration of norfloxacin accumulated was decreased. With the addition of 100 μM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) the mean SSC of norfloxacin was increased to 116 ± 7.01 ng of norfloxacin/mg (dry weight) of cells; glucose had no significant effect in the presence of CCCP. Magnesium chloride (20 mM) decreased the SSC of norfloxacin to 40.5 ± 3.76 ng of norfloxacin per mg (dry weight) of cells. These data suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of norfloxacin by B. fragilis is similar to that of aerobic bacteria and that the fluoresence procedure is suitable for use with an anaerobic bacterium. PMID:10952580

  5. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  6. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  7. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  8. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  9. Cadmium-accumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Plants are categorized in three groups concerning their uptake of heavy metals: indicator, excluder, and hyperaccumulator plants, which we explain in this chapter, the former two groups briefly and the hyperaccumulators in detail. The ecological role of hyperaccumulation, for example, the prevention of herbivore attacks and a possible substitution of Zn by Cd in an essential enzyme, is discussed. As the mechanisms of cadmium hyperaccumulation are a very interesting and challenging topic and many aspects are studied worldwide, we provide a broad overview over compartmentation strategies, expression and function of metal transporting proteins and the role of ligands for uptake, transport, and storage of cadmium. Hyperaccumulators are not without reason a topic of great interest, they can be used biotechnologically for two main purposes which we discuss here for Cd: phytoremediation, dealing with the cleaning of anthropogenically contaminated soils as well as phytomining, i.e., the use of plants for commercial metal extraction. Finally, the outlook deals with topics for future research in the fields of biochemistry/biophysics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. We discuss which knowledge is still missing to fully understand Cd hyperaccumulation by plants and to use that phenomenon even more successfully for both environmental and economical purposes.

  10. P values: from suggestion to superstition.

    PubMed

    Concato, John; Hartigan, John A

    2016-10-01

    A threshold probability value of 'p≤0.05' is commonly used in clinical investigations to indicate statistical significance. To allow clinicians to better understand evidence generated by research studies, this review defines the p value, summarizes the historical origins of the p value approach to hypothesis testing, describes various applications of p≤0.05 in the context of clinical research and discusses the emergence of p≤5×10(-8) and other values as thresholds for genomic statistical analyses. Corresponding issues include a conceptual approach of evaluating whether data do not conform to a null hypothesis (ie, no exposure-outcome association). Importantly, and in the historical context of when p≤0.05 was first proposed, the 1-in-20 chance of a false-positive inference (ie, falsely concluding the existence of an exposure-outcome association) was offered only as a suggestion. In current usage, however, p≤0.05 is often misunderstood as a rigid threshold, sometimes with a misguided 'win' (p≤0.05) or 'lose' (p>0.05) approach. Also, in contemporary genomic studies, a threshold of p≤10(-8) has been endorsed as a boundary for statistical significance when analyzing numerous genetic comparisons for each participant. A value of p≤0.05, or other thresholds, should not be employed reflexively to determine whether a clinical research investigation is trustworthy from a scientific perspective. Rather, and in parallel with conceptual issues of validity and generalizability, quantitative results should be interpreted using a combined assessment of strength of association, p values, CIs, and sample size. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  11. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  12. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  13. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  14. Tea Catechin Auto-oxidation Dimers are Accumulated and Retained by Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Song, Brian J.; Sapper, Teryn N.; Bomser, Joshua A.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the presence of bioactive catechin B-ring auto-oxidation dimers in tea, little is known regarding their absorption in humans. Our hypothesis for this research is that catechin auto-oxidation dimers are present in teas and are absorbable by human intestinal epithelial cells. Dimers [theasinensins (THSNs) and P-2 analogs) were quantified in commercial teas by HPLC-MS. (−)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) homodimers were present at 10–43 and 0–62 µmol/g leaf, respectively. EGC-EGCG heterodimers were present at 0–79 µmol/g. The potential intestinal absorption of these dimers was assessed using Caco-2 intestinal cells. Catechin monomers and dimers were detected in cells exposed to media containing monomers and preformed dimers. Accumulation of dimers was significantly greater than monomers from test media. Three h accumulation of EGC and EGCG was 0.19– 0.55% and 1.24–1.35% respectively. Comparatively, 3h accumulation of the EGC P-2 analog, and THSNs C/E was 0.89 ± 0.28% and 1.53 ± 0.36%. Accumulation of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 6.93 ± 2.1%, and 10.1 ± 3.6%. EGCG-EGC heterodimer P-2 analog, and THSN B 3h accumulation was 4.87 ± 2.2%, and 4.65 ± 2.8% respectively. One h retention of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 171 ± 22%, and 29.6 ± 9.3% of accumulated amount suggesting intracellular oxidative conversion of THSNs to P-2. These data suggest that catechin dimers present in the gut lumen may be readily absorbed by intestinal epithelium. PMID:20579525

  15. Criteria for Technician Education. A Suggested Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses criteria for post-secondary education of technicians as illustrated by the accumulated experience of successful programs which have had their graduates sought after by employees. Chapter headings are (1) Technicians: Who They Are and What They Do, (2) Administration of Programs to Educate Technicians, (3) Physical…

  16. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  17. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, D.C.; McIntosh, A. . Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center)

    1994-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for fish. The epibenthic freshwater shrimp Mysis relicta is an integral part of the benthic and pelagic food web in lake Champlain and may act as a link between PCBs in sediments and lake trout. Previous investigations have shown that diurnal migrations of mysids enhance the movement and distribution of toxic contaminants, effectively coupling the benthic and pelagic zones. The objective of this research was to examine the role contaminated sediments play in the transfer of PCBs to mysids. Bioaccumulation was assessed by exposing mysids to such sediments in two ways: (a) with organisms screened from sediments; and (b) with organisms in direct contact with sediments. Accumulation of PCBs over the course of the 24-day exposure period was examined on the following days: 0, 3, 6, 12, 21, and 24. Eighty-nine individual PCB congeners were measured in tissue and sediment. Mysids in direct contact with sediments accumulated significantly higher levels of PCBs than did organisms screened from sediments. Mysids accumulated substantial levels of PCBs, suggesting they may play an important part in the transfer of PCBs from sediments into the Lake Champlain food web. It is clear from this research that sediments can play a critical role in the accumulation of PCBs by mysids.

  18. P values: from suggestion to superstition

    PubMed Central

    Concato, John; Hartigan, John A

    2016-01-01

    A threshold probability value of ‘p≤0.05’ is commonly used in clinical investigations to indicate statistical significance. To allow clinicians to better understand evidence generated by research studies, this review defines the p value, summarizes the historical origins of the p value approach to hypothesis testing, describes various applications of p≤0.05 in the context of clinical research and discusses the emergence of p≤5×10−8 and other values as thresholds for genomic statistical analyses. Corresponding issues include a conceptual approach of evaluating whether data do not conform to a null hypothesis (ie, no exposure–outcome association). Importantly, and in the historical context of when p≤0.05 was first proposed, the 1-in-20 chance of a false-positive inference (ie, falsely concluding the existence of an exposure–outcome association) was offered only as a suggestion. In current usage, however, p≤0.05 is often misunderstood as a rigid threshold, sometimes with a misguided ‘win’ (p≤0.05) or ‘lose’ (p>0.05) approach. Also, in contemporary genomic studies, a threshold of p≤10−8 has been endorsed as a boundary for statistical significance when analyzing numerous genetic comparisons for each participant. A value of p≤0.05, or other thresholds, should not be employed reflexively to determine whether a clinical research investigation is trustworthy from a scientific perspective. Rather, and in parallel with conceptual issues of validity and generalizability, quantitative results should be interpreted using a combined assessment of strength of association, p values, CIs, and sample size. PMID:27489256

  19. Metal accumulation in bobcats in the Southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Rachel K; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-10-01

    Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are wide-ranging mammals found throughout the continental USA. As carnivores near the top of their food chain, bobcats would seem to be a useful bioindicator of metal pollution in terrestrial environments. However, there is very limited research on bobcats in toxicology studies. Here, we offer the first analysis of metal (copper, selenium, silver, and zinc) contaminants in the livers of wild bobcats. Liver tissues from 120 adult bobcats (i.e., estimated to be ≥1 year old) were collected from 2003 to 2006 at four sites in Georgia and Florida, USA that experienced relatively similar levels of human disturbance. We found no differences in metal concentrations between males and females. At two of the sites sampled over three consecutive years, there was substantial year-to-year variation in the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We also documented some variation between sites, but only between sites sampled in different years, which may reflect additional temporal, rather than spatial, variation. Concentrations of Cu and Ag were significantly positively correlated with one another, as were concentrations of Se and Zn. Contrary to expectation, there were no significant relationships between body weight and metal concentrations. Finally, comparison with results from previous metal toxicology studies of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virgianus), collected from the same sites during the same years, showed differential patterns of accumulation across species, suggesting that ecological lifestyle is an important influence on metal accumulation. This study provides reference levels of metal contaminants in the liver of bobcats as well as insight into metal accumulation in a top level carnivore.

  20. Episodic strain accumulation in southern california.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W

    1976-11-12

    Reexamination of horizontal geodetic data in the region of recently discovered aseismic uplift has demonstrated that equally unusual horizontal crustal deformation accompanied the development of the uplift. During this time interval compressive strains were oriented roughly normal to the San Andreas fault, suggesting that the uplift produced little shear strain accumulation across this fault. On the other hand, the orientation of the anomalous shear straining is consistent with strain accumulation across northdipping range-front thrusts like the San Fernando fault. Accordingly, the horizontal and vertical crustal deformation disclosed by geodetic observation is interpreted as a short epoch of rapid strain accumulation on these frontal faults. If this interpretation is correct, thrust-type earthquakes will eventually release the accumulated strains, but the geodetic data examined here cannot be used to estimate when these events might occur. However, observation of an unusual sequence of tilts prior to 1971 on a level line lying to the north of the magnitude 6.4 San Fernando earthquake offers some promise for precursor monitoring. The data are adequately explained by a simple model of up-dip aseismic slip propagation toward the 1971 epicentral region. These observations and the simple model that accounts for them suggest a conceptually straightforward monitoring scheme to search for similar uplift and tilt precursors within the uplifted region. Such premonitory effects could be detected by a combination of frequenlty repeated short (30 to 70 km in length) level line measurements, precise gravity traverses, and continuously recording gravimeters sited to the north of the active frontal thrust faults. Once identified, such precursors could be closely followed in space and time, and might then provide effective warnings of impending potentially destructive earth-quakes.

  1. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  2. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  3. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  4. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  5. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  6. Inorganic Carbon Accumulation by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Livingston J.; Moroney, James V.

    1988-01-01

    When the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is placed under low CO2 conditions it adapts by making an inorganic carbon accumulating mechanism. Algal cells were labeled with 35SO4−2 during this adaptation period and labeled proteins specific for this low CO2 adaptation were identified. Four major proteins were preferentially synthesized under low CO2 conditions and had Mr of 46, 44, 37, and 20 kilodaltons. The 37 kilodalton protein is most likely the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase previously identified as being part of the inorganic carbon accumulation mechanism of C. reinhardtii. The other three proteins have not been identified. The 46 and the 44 kilodalton proteins were not synthesized by a mutant algal strain, pmp-1, which cannot grow at low CO2 concentrations. This strain does make the 37 and 20 kilodalton proteins, however. These data suggest that at least two or three proteins in addition to the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase are part of the inorganic carbon accumulation mechanism in C. reinhardtii. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16666333

  7. Synergistic accumulation of iron and zinc by cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Glenda M; Scheiber, Ivo F; Dringen, Ralf; Robinson, Stephen R

    2010-07-01

    Iron and zinc are essential for normal brain function, yet the mechanisms used by astrocytes to scavenge non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and zinc are not well understood. Ischaemic stroke, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease are associated with perturbations in the metabolism of NTBI and zinc, suggesting that these two metals may collectively contribute to pathology. The present study has investigated the accumulation of NTBI and zinc by rat primary astrocyte cultures. It was found that astrocytes express mRNA for both divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and Zip14, indicating the potential for these transporters to contribute to the accumulation of NTBI and zinc by these cells. Astrocytes were found to accumulate iron from ferric chloride in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and the rate of accumulation was strongly stimulated by co-incubation with zinc acetate. In addition, cultured astrocytes rapidly accumulated zinc from zinc acetate, and this accumulation was stimulated by co-incubation with ferric chloride. Because a synergistic stimulation of iron and zinc accumulation is inconsistent with the known properties of DMT1 and Zip14, the present results suggest that additional mechanisms assist astrocytes to scavenge iron and zinc when they are present together in the extracellular compartment. These mechanisms may be involved in disorders that involve elevations in the extracellular concentrations of these metal ions.

  8. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  9. Acute toxicity of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium-accumulator plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium (Se) accumulating plants, such as Astragalus spp. and Aster spp., can accumulate up to 8,000 to 13,000 ppm selenium and can cause acute toxicity when consumed by livestock or wildlife. Recent research has shown that much of the selenium in some Se-accumulating plants is stored as selenate ...

  10. Accumulation of solid bodies in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.; Davis, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the accumulation of solid bodies in the solar nebula is discussed. Studies of the earliest stage of accumulation of solid bodies in the solar system, which occured in the presence of the gaseous component of the solar nebula, are discussed. The combined effects of gas drag and gravitational perturbations of a planetary embryo on the orbital evolution of planetesimals, the effects of resonant trapping on planetesimals, and planetary mass accretion are discussed.

  11. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  12. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  13. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  14. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  15. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems. Generally, time spent by employees outside of their regular working hours in developing suggestions under...

  16. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  17. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  18. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  19. Mercury accumulation in sediments and seabird feathers from the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Calle, Paola; Alvarado, Omar; Monserrate, Lorena; Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Calle, Nastenka; Alava, Juan José

    2015-02-28

    In an effort to assess the impact of mercury in the Antarctic Peninsula, we conducted ecotoxicological research in this region during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to assess: (a) mercury levels in sediment samples; (b) mercury accumulation in Antarctic seabird feathers: Catharacta lonnbergi (brown skua), Pygoscelis papua (gentoo penguin) and Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin); and (c) biomagnification (BMF predator/prey) and biota sediment accumulation (BSAF skuas/sediment) factors. Mercury concentrations in sediment were relatively low. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in brown skuas and gentoo penguins than in chinstrap penguins (2012), and significantly higher in brown skuas than in both penguins (2013). BMF indicated 2-7.5 times greater mercury levels in brown skuas than in penguins. BSAF values suggested an apparent temporal decrease of 18.2% of this ratio from 2012 to 2013. Long-range environmental transport is the likely route of entry of mercury into the Antarctic Peninsula.

  20. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  1. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  2. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators (< 100 mg Se/kg DW), to Se-accumulators (100-1000 mg Se/kg DW) to Se hyperaccumulators (> 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on plant terpenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Welling, M T; Liu, L; Rose, T J; Waters, D L E; Benkendorff, K

    2016-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a diverse group of soil-dwelling fungi that form symbiotic associations with land plants. AMF-plant associations promote the accumulation of plant terpenoids beneficial to human health, although how AMF mediate terpenoid accumulation is not fully understood. A critical assessment and discussion of the literature relating to mechanisms by which AMF influence plant terpenoid accumulation, and whether this symbiosis can be harnessed in horticultural ecosystems was performed. Modification of plant morphology, phosphorus availability and gene transcription involved with terpenoid biosynthetic pathways were identified as key mechanisms associated with terpenoid accumulation in AMF-colonised plants. In order to exploit AMF-plant symbioses in horticultural ecosystems it is important to consider the specificity of the AMF-plant association, the predominant factor affecting terpenoid accumulation, as well as the end use application of the harvested plant material. Future research should focus on resolving the relationship between ecologically matched AMF genotypes and terpenoid accumulation in plants to establish if these associations are effective in promoting mechanisms favourable for plant terpenoid accumulation. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-28

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD.

  5. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  6. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Allison; Hayflick, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) describes a group of progressive extrapyramidal disorders with radiographic evidence of focal iron accumulation in the brain, usually in the basal ganglia. Patients previously diagnosed with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome fall into this category. Mutations in the PANK2 gene account for the majority of NBIA cases and cause an autosomal recessive inborn error of coenzyme A metabolism called pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN). PKAN is characterized by dystonia and pigmentary retinopathy in children or speech and neuropsychiatric disorders in adults. In addition, a specific pattern on brain MRI, called the eye-of-the-tiger sign, is virtually pathognomonic for the disease. Pantothenate kinase is essential to coenzyme A biosynthesis, and the PANK2 protein is targeted to the mitochondria. Hypotheses of PKAN pathogenesis are based on the predictions of tissue-specific coenzyme A deficiency and the accumulation of cysteine-containing substrates. Identification of the major NBIA gene has led to more accurate clinical delineation of the diseases that comprise this group, a molecular diagnostic test for PKAN, and hypotheses for treatment. PMID:16416393

  7. Similar Evolutionary Trajectories for Retrotransposon Accumulation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Reuben M.; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Raison, Joy M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The factors guiding retrotransposon insertion site preference are not well understood. Different types of retrotransposons share common replication machinery and yet occupy distinct genomic domains. Autonomous long interspersed elements accumulate in gene-poor domains and their nonautonomous short interspersed elements accumulate in gene-rich domains. To determine genomic factors that contribute to this discrepancy we analyzed the distribution of retrotransposons within the framework of chromosomal domains and regulatory elements. Using comparative genomics, we identified large-scale conserved patterns of retrotransposon accumulation across several mammalian genomes. Importantly, retrotransposons that were active after our sample-species diverged accumulated in orthologous regions. This suggested a similar evolutionary interaction between retrotransposon activity and conserved genome architecture across our species. In addition, we found that retrotransposons accumulated at regulatory element boundaries in open chromatin, where accumulation of particular retrotransposon types depended on insertion size and local regulatory element density. From our results, we propose a model where density and distribution of genes and regulatory elements canalize retrotransposon accumulation. Through conservation of synteny, gene regulation and nuclear organization, mammalian genomes with dissimilar retrotransposons follow similar evolutionary trajectories. PMID:28945883

  8. A metal-accumulator mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Delhaize, E

    1996-01-01

    A mutation designated man1 (for manganese accumulator) was found to cause Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to accumulate a range of metals. The man1 mutation segregated as a single recessive locus located on chromosome 3. When grown on soil, mutant seedlings accumulated Mn (7.5 times greater than wild type), Cu (4.6 times greater than wild type), Zn (2.8 times greater than wild type), and Mg (1.8 times greater than wild type) in leaves. In addition to these metals, the man1 mutant accumulated 2.7-fold more S in leaves, primarily in the oxidized form, than wild-type seedlings. Analysis of seedlings grown by hydroponic culture showed a similar accumulation of metals in leaves of man1 mutants. Roots of man1 mutants also accumulated metals, but unlike leaves they accumulated 10-fold more total Fe (symplasmic and apoplasmic combined) than wild-type roots. Roots of man1 mutants possessed greater (from 1.8- to 20-fold) ferric-chelate reductase activity than wild-type seedings, and this activity was not responsive to changes of Mn nutrition in either genotype. Taken together, these results suggest that the man1 mutation disrupts the regulation of metal-ion uptake or homeostasis in Arabidopsis. PMID:8754685

  9. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  10. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  11. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  12. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups.

  13. [Research on relationship of syndrome type and parameters of hemorheology and platelet activation in patients with acute gout arthritis of dampness-heat blockage type and stasis-heat accumulate type].

    PubMed

    Shao, Pei; Huang, Xing-tao; Zjang, Fan

    2006-11-01

    To study the relationship between syndrome type and the parameters of hemorrheology and platelet activation in patients with acute gout arthritis of dampness-heat blockage (DHB) type and stasis-heat accumulation (SHA) type. Forty patients with acute gouty arthritis were divided into 2 groups according to TCM syndrome differentiation, the DHB group (n=24) and the SHA group (n=16), and 20 healthy people were taken as the control group. Hemorrheological parameters, platelet activating factor (PAC-1) and P-selection (CD62p) in them were detected. Plasma viscosity, outcome of erythrocyte sedimentation and K value of its equation, levels of PAC-1 and CD62p were higher, erythrocyte electrophoresis index was significantly lower in gout patients of both types than those in the control group (all P < 0.01), and the levels of PAC-1 and CD62p in the SHA group were higher than those in the DHB group (P < 0.05). DHB type and SHA syndrome type of acute gout arthritis are correlated with parameters of hemorrheology and platelet activation, and the different levels of these pameters showed in the two types, may be the internal factors for their genesis.

  14. Regulation of Tomato Fruit Polygalacturonase mRNA Accumulation by Ethylene: A Re-Examination1

    PubMed Central

    Sitrit, Yaron; Bennett, Alan B.

    1998-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is the major enzyme responsible for pectin disassembly in ripening fruit. Despite extensive research on the factors regulating PG gene expression in fruit, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of ethylene in mediating its expression. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits in which endogenous ethylene production was suppressed by the expression of an antisense 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene were used to re-examine the role of ethylene in regulating the accumulation of PG mRNA, enzyme activity, and protein during fruit ripening. Treatment of transgenic antisense ACC synthase mature green fruit with ethylene at concentrations as low as 0.1 to 1 μL/L for 24 h induced PG mRNA accumulation, and this accumulation was higher at concentrations of ethylene up to 100 μL/L. Neither PG enzyme activity nor PG protein accumulated during this 24-h period of ethylene treatment, indicating that translation lags at least 24 h behind the accumulation of PG mRNA, even at high ethylene concentrations. When examined at concentrations of 10 μL/L, PG mRNA accumulated within 6 h of ethylene treatment, indicating that the PG gene responds rapidly to ethylene. Treatment of transgenic tomato fruit with a low level of ethylene (0.1 μL/L) for up to 6 d induced levels of PG mRNA, enzyme activity, and protein after 6 d, which were comparable to levels observed in ripening wild-type fruit. A similar level of internal ethylene (0.15 μL/L) was measured in transgenic antisense ACC synthase fruit that were held for 28 d after harvest. In these fruit PG mRNA, enzyme activity, and protein were detected. Collectively, these results suggest that PG mRNA accumulation is ethylene regulated, and that the low threshold levels of ethylene required to promote PG mRNA accumulation may be exceeded, even in transgenic antisense ACC synthase tomato fruit. PMID:9501147

  15. Comparison of Marsh Sediment Accumulation and Accretion Rates in Two Contrasting Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, B. M.; Sommerfield, C. K.; Quirk, T. E.

    2016-02-01

    A comparative study of salt marshes in two different U.S. Mid-Atlantic estuaries was conducted for insight on hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on sediment accumulation and accretion. Cores were collected in Barnegat Bay (back-barrier lagoon estuary) and Delaware Bay (coastal plain river-estuary) and analyzed for soil physical properties and radionuclide chronometry with 137Cs and 210Pb. Results indicate that the volume of soil organic solids was comparable between the two estuaries, yet the volume of mineral solids was significantly larger in Delaware Bay marshes. Rates of mineral and organic mass accumulation were significantly higher in Delaware Bay marshes (2.6 ± 2.0 kg m-2 y-1, 0.65 ± 0.25 kg m-2 y-1) than in Barnegat Bay (0.31 ± 0.24 kg m-2 y-1, 0.29 ± 0.08 kg m-2 y-1) . The relatively higher rate of mineral sediment accumulation in Delaware Bay marshes is most likely due to the larger tidal range and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in estuarine source waters. Organic mass accumulation in both estuaries was positively related to rates of mineral sediment accumulation. The time frame of hydraulic modifications to Barnegat Inlet corresponds to changes in accumulated mineral sediment in Barnegat Bay marshes. Rates of marsh accretion were significantly higher at the Delaware Bay sites (0.79 ± 0.37 cm yr-1) than in Barnegat Bay (0.28 ± 0.06 cm yr-1) associated with higher mineral and organic mass accumulation. Based on these data, Delaware Bay marsh accretion over the last 60 -100 years was greater than local relative sea-level rise, whereas Barnegat Bay marsh accretion rates were at the low end, or fall below, sea-level rise over the same time period. These findings support prior research suggesting that the upper and lower limits of marsh accretion are set by rates of mineral sediment and organic matter accumulation, respectively.

  16. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Richard; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Escartín, Javier; Ridao, Pere; Mallios, Angelos; Kilias, Stephanos P.; Argyraki, Ariadne; Andreani, Muriel; Ballu, Valerie; Campos, Ricard; Deplus, Christine; Gabsi, Taoufic; Garcia, Rafael; Gracias, Nuno; Hurtós, Natàlia; Magí, Lluis; Mével, Catherine; Moreira, Manuel; Palomeras, Narcís; Pot, Olivier; Ribas, David; Ruzié, Lorraine; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:26179858

  17. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites.

  18. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  19. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  20. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  1. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  2. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  3. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  4. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  5. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  6. Suggestions: What Should ESL Students Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the linguistic forms used to perform the speech act of suggestions in both real language and ESL textbooks. Comparisons between suggestions in two authentic settings in a corpus, professor-student interaction during office hours and student-student study groups, and six popular ESL textbooks, three old and three recent, were…

  7. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  8. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  9. Final Accumulative Results & Transfer of Knowledge of the Arizona Career Ladder Research & Evaluation Project: Impact on Student Achievement, Formulated Models, Network Anecdotes, & Recommendations to the Legislature for Policy Development, Program Continuation & State-Wide Expansion. Summative Report VIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    This paper presents research findings concerning the Career Ladder pilot test program in Arizona. The program is designed to reward and motivate teachers based on performance. One of the program's key features is the flexibility and innovation allowed to participating districts in their individual development of program designs and structures. An…

  10. Aspects of tobacco diterpene biosynthesis and accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    Lamina, midveins, stalks and flowers of most Nicotiana species are covered with trichomes. The exudate which accumulates around glandular trichome heads has been suggested to be responsible for the characteristics flavor and aroma associated with different tobaccos. Many classes of compounds have been identified in cuticular surface washes and exudates of tobacco, in particular diterpenes such as the labdanes and duvanes. It has been assumed that most of the components present in the cuticular surface washes and trichome exudates are synthesized by the trichomes. However, there is little definitive evidence to support this assumption. Utilizing radiolabeled precursors, studies were undertaken to determine the site or sites of 1S- and 1R-4.8, 13-duvatriene-1,3-diol (1S- and 1R-diol) biosynthesis. Experiments using midvein sections of Tobacco Introduction 1068 treated with (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid indicated that radioactivity was incorporated into surface components, including 1S- and 1R-diol. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that all of the labeled duvatrienediols found were associated with the exudate and surface extracts. Experiments using incubated detached glandular trichome heads unequivocally demonstrated that the glandular heads have the biosynthetic capacity to incorporate (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid into 1S- and 1R-diol. The influence of nitrogen fertilization, water stress, time of topping and curing conditions on the accumulated levels of 1S- and 1R-diol in field grown Ky 14 was also examined.

  11. [On suggestion and its related problems].

    PubMed

    Oka, Kazutaro

    2013-01-01

    Recently, intensive discussions about dissociative disorders have led to the rediscovery of the psychology of P. Janet, that has been under the shadow of Freud's psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, psychiatry, "Schulpsychiatrie" in German, has still paid little attention to the suggestion with which Janet has occupied himself throughout his long career. In this paper, the author examined suggestion from another point of view other than psychodynamic. It is presented that Freud reduced suggestion to a specific relation between an active subject and a passive object, as his precursors, F.A. Mesmer and R. de Puységur did the same. In contrast, Janet's early studies influenced by the philosophy of M. de Biran seem to focus on another aspect of suggestion. From this aspect, suggestion is based on a spontaneous intersubjective process that should be expressed by the middle voice. Referring to H. Bergson, with whom Janet corresponded, the author pointed out that one is not always one's own self that reflects one's whole life history, regardless of the presence/absence of mental abnormality, as is the case with a person under suggestion. Taking into account these factors of suggestion, i. e., the middle voice and fragile selfhood that is not firmly rooted in one's own life history, the author investigated hysteria as a distinct phenomenon that has a particularly close relation with suggestion. Furthermore, depersonalization and schizophrenia were discussed concerning their relation with hysteria. In this approach, the author suggested that the unconscious could be topographically localized not only in a deep portion of the mental apparatus, but also in its most superficial portion, unlike in the case of Freud's psychoanalysis.

  12. A suggested method for reporting a landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fell, Robin; Lacerda, W.; Cruden, D.M.; Evans, S.G.; LaRochelle, P.; Martinez, Fernando; Beltran, Lisandro; Jesenak, J.; Novograd, S.; Krauter, E.; Slunga, E.; Pilot, G.A.; Brand, E.W.; Farkas, J.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Esu, Franco; Fujita, H.; Nakamura, H.; Sassa, K.; Ting, W.H.; Salt, Graham; Janbu, Nilmar; Nespak, A.M.; Gongxian, Wang; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Michelena, R.; Popescu, Mihai; Viberg, Leif; Bonnard, C.; Hutchinson, J.N.; Einstein , H.H.; Schuster, R.L.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Martiros­ian, Z.G.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.; Anagnosti, P.; Hashizume, M.; Watanabe, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    The Landslide Report is a Suggested Method developed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory for reporting the position, date, type, geometry, volume and damage of significant landslides.

  13. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes most products already below recommended level ... limit on how much lead can be in cosmetics ranging from lipstick and eye shadow to blush ...

  14. Suggested Format for Acute Toxicity Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document suggests the format for final reports on pesticide studies (right column of the tables in the document) and provides instructions for the creation of PDF Version 1.3 electronic submission documents (left column of the tables).

  15. Electronic Reference Services: Some Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Bernie

    1998-01-01

    Suggests guidelines to help libraries formalize their electronic reference services. Covers the following issues: administration/management (library division/department, library administration, campus administration, academic departments); services; primary clientele; personnel; infrastructure/facilities; finances; and evaluation. (AEF)

  16. Characterizing carbon accumulation in peatlands of NE China by paleolimnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Kunshan

    2017-04-01

    Peatland ecosystems contain large carbon (C) stocks and are considered to play an important role in global C cycling, thus having potential implications for global climate change. Most studies of peatland C dynamics have been carried out on boreal and subarctic peatlands because of a greater increase in temperature than the global average according to climate models prediction. However, there are significant peatland C stocks at lower latitudes. They are closer to the climatic limit of peatland distribution, and may be more vulnerable to future climate change. Compared to the boreal and subarctic peatlands, current research about C accumulation in temperate peatlands is in its infancy and is gradually being developed. Northeast (NE) China is China's largest wetland region, with extensive peatlands in mountain regions (Changbai Mt, Great and Small Hinggan Mts) and across the plains (Sanjiang Plain and Songliao Plain). Here, we used paleolimnogy data from 134 peatland cores from the mountain and plain peatlands to quantify the C accumulation rate over different time scales, including long-term (apparent) rate of C accumulation (LORCA) and recent (apparent) rate of C accumulation (RERCA) and to estimate C storage of peatlands across NE China. The relations between climate and peat accumulation rate as well as the latitudinal patterns of the accumulation rates were also addressed. Our results could provide an insight into the possible future response of the peatland ecosystem in NE China to climate change, and the database would also usefully complement to a global picture of peatland C cycle in the future.

  17. Stromal accumulation of chondroitin sulphate in mammary tumours of dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, U; Rutteman, G R; Nederbragt, H

    1999-01-01

    To contribute to the investigation of the composition of the extracellular matrix in epithelial tumours, mammary gland tissues of dogs (including tumours, hyperplasias and normal tissue as well as metastatic lesions in lymph nodes and lung) were studied histochemically and immunohistochemically for distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (s-GAGs). The formaline-fixed tissue was stained by alcian blue at pH 5.8, using the ‘critical electrolyte concentration’ to study the degree of sulphation of s-GAGs. s-GAGs were characterized by degradation with enzymes and nitrous acid and by immunohistochemistry with two anti-chondroitin sulphate monoclonal antibodies. The light microscopic investigation of s-GAG deposits revealed a limited number of patterns of their distribution. The main s-GAGs found in the mammary gland tumours of dogs and in metastatic lesions were chondroitin sulphate (CS) and heparin/heparan sulphate (HEP/HS). CS accumulated in diffuse structures between epithelial cells as well as around clusters of tumour cells. The latter pattern, possibly representing a mesenchymal reaction to the tumour, was present in 74% of the tumours, and in 67% of these, highly sulphated CS was present. A diffuse accumulation of CS was present almost exclusively in complex and mixed tumours; because of the expression of the 3B3 epitope for CS in immature cartilage the spindle cells of complex tumours are argued to be the precursors of the cartilage in mixed tumours. HEP/HS was stored mainly in mast cells that were found in increased numbers in hyperplasias and tumours. By pretreatment of microscopic slides with chondroitinase AC or ABC immunostaining of fibronectin could be made possible in areas in which CS was abundantly present, suggesting that CS may mask fibronectin epitopes. It is concluded that CS with different degrees of sulphation is the most important s-GAG in the extracellular matrix of mammary tumours of dogs. CS and other s-GAGs accumulate at different

  18. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  19. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events.

  20. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous ...

  1. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for nonionic organic chemicals and pesticides. Fresh, tidal, and marine ecosystems are included in the data.

  2. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  3. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  4. Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; McConkey, Marie E.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that accumulate during development and are thought to function as constitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) leaves and investigated several physiological processes that could regulate their accumulation: the rate of biosynthesis, the rate of metabolic loss, and the rate of volatilization. Monoterpene accumulation was found to be restricted to leaves of 12 to 20 d of age, the period of maximal leaf expansion. The rate of monoterpene biosynthesis determined by 14CO2 incorporation was closely correlated with monoterpene accumulation, as determined by gas chromatographic analysis, and appeared to be the principal factor controlling the monoterpene level of peppermint leaves. No significant catabolic losses of monoterpenes were detected throughout leaf development, and monoterpene volatilization was found to occur at a very low rate, which, on a monthly basis, represented less than 1% of the total pool of stored monoterpenes. The composition of volatilized monoterpenes differed significantly from that of the total plant monoterpene pool, suggesting that these volatilized products may arise from a separate secretory system. With the demonstration that the rate of biosynthesis is the chief process that determines monoterpene accumulation in peppermint, efforts to improve production in this species can now focus on the genes, enzymes, and cell differentiation processes that regulate monoterpene biosynthesis. PMID:10631264

  5. Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

  6. Two age-related accumulation profiles of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the body burden levels of toxic metals in Japanese, five toxic metal concentrations in scalp hair samples from 28,424 subjects from infant to elderly were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean of hair mercury concentrations showed a high-significant age-correlated increase (r = 0.341, p < 0.0001) with a peak at the 6th decade of life and then decreased with further aging in both sexes. The mean mercury concentrations in male adults were significantly higher than those in female (p < 0.001), indicating the gender difference (male > female) in mercury accumulation. Arsenic also showed a similar accumulation profile with age dependency and gender difference in adult subjects. In contrast, cadmium, lead and aluminium exhibited another type of accumulation profile: the highest burden level was observed in infants aged 0-3 years old for every element in both sexes. In addition, cadmium was found to have a character accumulating in aged females, with significant age-dependency (r = 0.134, p < 0.0001) and gender difference (female > male). These findings suggest that toxic metals are classified into two families on the basis of their accumulation profiles, and that the three elements of mercury, arsenic and cadmium which accumulate age-dependently in adults, may play a role in aging process and higher burden with them may lead to acceleration of aging.

  7. Liver ergothioneine accumulation in a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A possible mechanism of defence?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Tang, Richard; Ye, Peng; Yew, Terry S Z; Lim, Keith H S; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-01-01

    L-ergothioneine (ET), a putative antioxidant compound acquired by animals through dietary sources, has been suggested to accumulate in certain cells and tissues in the body that are predisposed to high oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified an elevation of ET in the liver of a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), elucidated a possible mechanism for the increased uptake and investigated the possible role for this accumulation. This increase in liver ET levels correlated with cholesterol accumulation and disease severity. We identified an increase in the transcriptional factor, RUNX1, which has been shown to upregulate the expression of the ET-specific transporter OCTN1, and could consequently lead to the observable elevation in ET. An increase was also seen in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which seemingly corresponds to ET elevation. No significant increase was observed in oxidative damage markers, F2-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyls, which could possibly be attributed to the increase in liver ET through direct antioxidant action, induction of HSP70, or by chelation of Fe(2+), preventing redox chemistry. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which the guinea pig fatty liver accumulates ET via upregulation of its transporter, as a possible stress response by the damaged liver to further suppress oxidative damage and delay tissue injury. Similar events may happen in other animal models of disease, and researchers should be aware of the possibility.

  8. Development and Testing of a Portable Vocal Accumulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyne, Harold A.; Hanson, Helen M.; Genereux, Ronald P.; Stevens, Kenneth N.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This research note describes the design and testing of a device for unobtrusive, long-term ambulatory monitoring of voice use, named the Portable Vocal Accumulator (PVA). The PVA contains a digital signal processor for analyzing input from a neck-placed miniature accelerometer. During its development, accelerometer recordings were obtained from 99…

  9. Development and Testing of a Portable Vocal Accumulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyne, Harold A.; Hanson, Helen M.; Genereux, Ronald P.; Stevens, Kenneth N.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This research note describes the design and testing of a device for unobtrusive, long-term ambulatory monitoring of voice use, named the Portable Vocal Accumulator (PVA). The PVA contains a digital signal processor for analyzing input from a neck-placed miniature accelerometer. During its development, accelerometer recordings were obtained from 99…

  10. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  11. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  12. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  14. Promoting Good Statistical Practices: Some Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Makes the case that science is best served when researchers focus on the size of effects and their practical significance. Advocates the use of confidence intervals for deciding whether chance or sampling variability is an unlikely explanation for an observed effect. Calls for more emphasis on effect sizes in the next edition of the American…

  15. Suggestion and Expectancy in Emotional Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Building on previous research indicating that among first, third, and fifth graders, older children expect affective expressive behavior to be regulated, a study was made of children's beliefs about rationales for and consequences of regulated affective expressive behavior. Children's beliefs were examined in conjunction with their parents' (1)…

  16. Promoting Good Statistical Practices: Some Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Makes the case that science is best served when researchers focus on the size of effects and their practical significance. Advocates the use of confidence intervals for deciding whether chance or sampling variability is an unlikely explanation for an observed effect. Calls for more emphasis on effect sizes in the next edition of the American…

  17. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  18. Suggestions for Career Exploration and Job Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals seeking jobs in New York State, consists of suggestions for career exploration and job seeking. The booklet begins with a brief discussion of places to begin a job search: New York State Job Service and community service centers; schools and community organizations providing free advice; libraries;…

  19. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  20. Assessment of Achievement Motives: Comments and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygard, Roald; Gjesme, Torgrim

    1973-01-01

    In this article some problems, such as the tests employed to assess motivation, are considered together with suggestions for developing an instrument more in accordance with the achievement motivation theory as represented by the McClelland-Atkinson tradition. (Author/RK)

  1. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  2. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  3. Challenges and Suggestions for Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Looks at challenges to safe schools and offers eight suggestions for ensuring the safety of students and educators. Notes that school violence includes unacceptable social behavior ranging from aggression that threatens or harms others to bullying, threats, sexual harassment, gang violence, extortion, and other forms of intimidation. (SG)

  4. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  5. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  6. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  7. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  8. Reading Aloud--Suggestions for Classroom Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rews, Alun L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an introductory summary in defense of "reading aloud" in the English as a foreign language classroom and a more substantial section offering practical suggestions for handling it. The defense centers on a clarification of the purpose of reading aloud. Descriptions of different reading activities are included along with methods of…

  9. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  10. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  11. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  12. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  13. Suggested Outline for Auditory Perception Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Clare A.

    Presented are suggestions for speech therapists to use in auditory perception training and screening of language handicapped children in kindergarten through grade 3. Directions are given for using the program, which is based on games. Each component is presented in terms of purpose, materials, a description of the game, and directions for…

  14. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  15. Guidelines for Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities smaller than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in greater amounts are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WSSs). This document provides guidelines for establishing and maintaining an SSA. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior.

  17. Annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet interpolated from historical and newly compiled observation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Dayong; Liu, Yuling; Huang, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of ice/snow accumulation is of great significance in quantifying the mass balance of ice sheets and variation in water resources. Improving the accuracy and reducing uncertainty has been a challenge for the estimation of annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we kriged and analyzed the spatial pattern of accumulation based on an observation data series including 315 points used in a recent research, plus 101 ice cores and snow pits and newly compiled 23 coastal weather station data. The estimated annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet is 31.2 g cm−2 yr−1, with a standard error of 0.9 g cm−2 yr−1. The main differences between the improved map developed in this study and the recently published accumulation maps are in the coastal areas, especially southeast and southwest regions. The analysis of accumulations versus elevation reveals the distribution patterns of accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet.

  18. In vivo visualization and attenuation of oxidized lipid accumulation in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Green, Simone R.; Baek, Ji Sun; Lee, Sang-Hak; Ellett, Felix; Deer, Elena; Lieschke, Graham J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative modification of LDL is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidation events such as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation may produce specific, immunogenic epitopes. Indeed, antibodies to MDA-derived epitopes are widely used in atherosclerosis research and have been demonstrated to enable cardiovascular imaging. In this study, we engineered a transgenic zebrafish with temperature-inducible expression of an EGFP-labeled single-chain human monoclonal antibody, IK17, which binds to MDA-LDL, and used optically transparent zebrafish larvae for imaging studies. Feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) supplemented with a red fluorescent lipid marker to the transgenic zebrafish resulted in vascular lipid accumulation, quantified in live animals using confocal microscopy. After heat shock–induced expression of IK17-EGFP, we measured the time course of vascular accumulation of IK17-specific MDA epitopes. Treatment with either an antioxidant or a regression diet resulted in reduced IK17 binding to vascular lesions. Interestingly, homogenates of IK17-EGFP–expressing larvae bound to MDA-LDL and inhibited MDA-LDL binding to macrophages. Moreover, sustained expression of IK17-EGFP effectively prevented HCD-induced lipid accumulation in the vascular wall, suggesting that the antibody itself may have therapeutic effects. Thus, we conclude that HCD-fed zebrafish larvae with conditional expression of EGFP-labeled oxidation-specific antibodies afford an efficient method of testing dietary and/or other therapeutic antioxidant strategies that may ultimately be applied to humans. PMID:22105168

  19. A suggested new bacteriophage genus: "Viunalikevirus".

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Anany, Hany; Blasdel, Bob; Connerton, Ian F; Goulding, David; Griffiths, Mansel W; Hooton, Steven P; Kutter, Elizabeth M; Kropinski, Andrew M; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Maes, Martine; Pickard, Derek; Ryu, Sangryeol; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Shahrbabak, S Sabouri; Toribio, Ana L; Lavigne, Rob

    2012-10-01

    We suggest a bacteriophage genus, "Viunalikevirus", as a new genus within the family Myoviridae. To date, this genus includes seven sequenced members: Salmonella phages ViI, SFP10 and ΦSH19; Escherichia phages CBA120 and PhaxI; Shigella phage phiSboM-AG3; and Dickeya phage LIMEstone1. Their shared myovirus morphology, with comparable head sizes and tail dimensions, and genome organization are considered distinguishing features. They appear to have conserved regulatory sequences, a horizontally acquired tRNA set and the probable substitution of an alternate base for thymine in the DNA. A close examination of the tail spike region in the DNA revealed four distinct tail spike proteins, an arrangement which might lead to the umbrella-like structures of the tails visible on electron micrographs. These properties set the suggested genus apart from the recently ratified subfamily Tevenvirinae, although a significant evolutionary relationship can be observed.

  20. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  1. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  2. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this...Exploiting homophily effect for trust prediction. In Proceedings of the sixth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining , pages 53–62. ACM

  3. The influence of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Green, Charlotte J; Hodson, Leanne

    2014-11-10

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation in human observational and intervention studies. Overall, it would seem that total calorie consumption, rather than dietary fat composition, is an important factor in the development of fatty liver disease in humans.

  4. An investigation on factors influencing dust accumulation on CSP mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennetta, S.; Yu, S.; Borghesani, P.; Cholette, M.; Barry, John; Guan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The profitability of a CSP plant is highly affected by the efficiency of the solar field: it is essential to maintain mirrors' reflectivity at high level to avoid thermal power loss. Dust fouling is the main cause of reflectivity loss and cleaning of mirrors is a crucial activity to restore economical level of reflectivity. However, the high cost of cleaning operations requires the study and identification of a balanced plan for the dust removal. The dust generation and transport to the plant site is the first mechanism that needs to be modelled to identify the optimal schedule for cleaning operations and it is highly dependent on weather conditions. Several studies have suggested a dependency of reflectors performance with humidity level, frequency of rainfalls, wind and mirrors' tilting angle, however rarely quantitative correlation studies have been performed to validate these hypotheses. The aim of this research is to provide an in-depth insight on interaction between the main parameters and airborne dust concentration, providing quantitative information for the development of future mirror dusting models. Outcomes evidence the crucial role of high winds responsible of dust concentration in conjunction with higher wind direction frequencies in the range 60-120°. Actually, in this scenario a perfectly monotonic increase of dust accumulation in the air has been observed with high correspondence of wind direction. A very low effect is provided by the ambient temperature as the contribution of the barometric pressure.

  5. Incorporating microbial ecology into the metabolic modelling of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Oehmen, A; Carvalho, G; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    In the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) has been studied intensively in recent years by both microbiologists and engineers, due to its important effects on phosphorus removal performance and efficiency. This study addresses the impact of microbial ecology on assessing the PAO-GAO competition through metabolic modelling, focussing on reviewing recent developments, discussion of how the results from molecular studies can impact the way we model the process, and offering perspectives for future research opportunities based on unanswered questions concerning PAO and GAO metabolism. Indeed, numerous findings that are seemingly contradictory could in fact be explained by the metabolic behaviour of different sub-groups of PAOs and/or GAOs exposed to different environmental and operational conditions. Some examples include the glycolysis pathway (i.e. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) vs. Entner-Doudoroff (ED)), denitrification capacity, anaerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity and PAOs' ability to adjust their metabolism to e.g. a GAO-like metabolism. Metabolic modelling may further yield far-reaching influences on practical applications as well, and serves as a bridge between molecular/biochemical research studies and the optimisation of wastewater treatment plant operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lecture 3: Some Suggestions and Remarks upon Observing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    These next two lectures succinctly discuss the necessary preparation and methods for observation. Using the naturalist Fabre as an example of scientific training of the faculties for sharp observation, Montessori compares the observer to a researcher and gives many suggestions for conducting thorough yet unobtrusive observation. Self-awareness of…

  7. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  8. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  9. Establishing Accessibility for E-Journals: A Suggested Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna

    2002-01-01

    Examines 11 electronic research journals for accessibility to users with visual or mobility impairments and suggests that librarians need to consider accessibility issues. Discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act (1998); usability and universal design; accessibility errors; following links; browser compatibility;…

  10. Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents detailed guidelines based on the literature for screen layout and design of online catalogs, and discusses the potential advantages in terms of number of transactions per hour and user satisfaction. Further research questions are suggested and an extensive bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  11. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  12. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  13. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  14. Metal accumulation kinetics by the estuarine macroalga, Fucus ceranoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Ranjit; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.; Millward, Geoff E.

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics of Cu, Cd and Pb accumulation by the macroalga, Fucus ceranoides, was studied under simulated estuarine conditions. Accumulation of Cu and Pb proceeded via a pseudo-first-order reaction that was reversible, suggesting desorption or efflux of accumulated metal, with forward rate constants on the order of 0.1 h-1. For both metals, reaction reversibility increased and the equilibrium constant decreased with increasing salinity (from 1 to 33.5) and system response times were <10 h throughout. Accumulation of Cd proceeded via a first-order reaction that was irreversible, suggesting little desorption or efflux of metal, with rate constants that decreased with increasing salinity (from 0.023 to 0.015 h-1) and reaction half-lives ranging from approximately 30-50 h. Inorganic equilibrium speciation calculations suggest that interactions of Cu, Cd and Pb principally involve the respective free ions, but that additional ions (e.g. CdCl+) and biotic processes may also be significant.

  15. Accumulated financial strain and women's health over three decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv; Wilkinson, Lindsay R; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2012-09-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this research examines how accumulated financial strain affects women's self-rated health in middle and later life. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003), we employ random-coefficient growth curve models to examine whether recurring financial strain influences women's health, above and beyond several measures of objective social status. Predicted probabilities of poor health were estimated by the frequency of financial strain. Financial strain is associated with rapid declines in women's health during middle and later life, especially for those women who reported recurrent strain. Changes in household income and household wealth were also associated with women's health but did not eliminate the effects due to accumulated financial strain. Accumulated financial strain has long-term effects on women's health during middle and later life. The findings demonstrate the importance of measuring life course exposure to stressors in studies of health trajectories.

  16. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  17. New evidence suggesting segmentation of Cocos Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, L.R.; Sauermann, R.P.; De Boer, J.

    1985-02-01

    Compilation and analysis of geophysical and geological data indicate that the Cocos plate consists of three segments that have individual poles of rotation and independent motion vectors. Contoured heat-flow and gravity maps of the region delineate the boundaries of the segments within the Cocos plate. These segments have different focal-plane solutions along the Middle America Trench and different sedimentary-basin configurations within the Central America-Mexico island arc. Recent studies of seismic data from the region also have suggested that the subducted Cocos plate consists of three segments. The proposed northern and central segments are separated by the northeast-trending Siqueros-Tehuantepec Ridge fracture zone. The proposed central and southern segments are separated by the northeast-trending Costa Rica fracture zone that is located just northwest of the Cocos Ridge and extends from the Galapagos rift to the central valley of Costa Rica. Poles of rotation and relative motion vectors have been calculated with respect to the Caribbean plate for each segment. The northern segment is moving N75/sup 0/E, oblique to the trench; the central segment is moving N50/sup 0/E, perpendicular to the trench; the southern segment is moving north, perpendicular to the trench. The Siqueros-Tehuantepec and Costa Rice fracture zones appear to join with tectonized zones that dissect the Central America-Mexico island arc and extend across the Caribbean plate, suggesting that it too is segmented. Structural and stratigraphic data from the sedimentary basins on the island arc suggest that these fracture zones have existed throughout the Tertiary history of the region.

  18. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  19. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the current gondola design requirements for the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF). The CSBF is responsible for launching and supporting balloon borne scientific instruments and has some current updated guidelines that will be discussed in this presentation. As the sophistication of Payload systems have increased in size and complexity new guidelines have been implemented in order to make these instruments stay within the acceptable launch risks. Additionally, there is a requirement to submit a proper stress analysis report that states the flight design requirements have been met. Suggestions are discussed in this presentation that establish the proper guidelines to submit these.

  20. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  1. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  2. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Findings suggest dual functions of APOE for lipid accumulation and differentiation.

  3. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure.

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection Impacts Stress Granule Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Finnen, Renée L.; Pangka, Kyle R.

    2012-01-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle. PMID:22623775

  5. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection impacts stress granule accumulation.

    PubMed

    Finnen, Renée L; Pangka, Kyle R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2012-08-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle.

  6. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in acid sensitive lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, E.T.; Cessar, L.R.; Hites, R.A. )

    1987-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations and fluxes were measured in {sup 210}Pb dated sediment cores taken from nine lakes in four regions identified as susceptible to acidification. Calculated PAH accumulations were compared with historic S emissions, accumulation of sedimentary S, and anthropogenic metal accumulations to determine if PAH could be used as an indicator of combustion-derived sulfate deposition. Comparisons between regions indicated that the Adirondacks have a significantly higher burden of PAH than do northern New England, the northern Great Lakes States, and northern Florida. This difference likely results from significant upwind PAH sources to the Adirondack lakes. Detailed investigation of the largest lake in the study set, Big Moose Lake, indicates that PAH may serve as conservative, combustion indicators in large lakes. In this lake, PAH fluxes and concentrations were significantly correlated with historical S emission rates. These data suggest that PAH measured in sediment cores from large lakes can serve as indicators of past combustion production deposition.

  7. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in acid sensitive lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Cessar, Linda Roll; Hites, Ronald A.

    1987-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations and fluxes were measured in 210Pb dated sediment cores taken from nine lakes in four regions identified as susceptible to acidification. Calculated PAH accumulations were compared with historic S emissions, accumulation of sedimentary S and anthropogenic metal accumulations to determine if PAH could be used as an indicator of combustion-derived sulfate deposition. Comparisons between regions indicated that the Adirondacks have a significantly higher burden of PAH than do northern New England, the northern Great Lakes States and northern Florida. This difference likely results from significant upwind PAH sources to the Adirondack lakes. Detailed investigation of the largest lake in the study set, Big Moose Lake, indicates that PAH may serve as conservative, combustion indicators in large lakes. In this lake, PAH fluxes and concentrations were significantly correlated with historical S emission rates. These data suggest that PAH measured in sediment cores from large lakes can serve as indicators of past combustion product deposition.

  8. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  9. Accumulation of enteric bacteriophage in fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Skraber, Sylvain; Schijven, Jack; Italiaander, Ronald; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2009-09-01

    Our study aimed to assess the accumulation of bacteriophages in sandy and clayey fresh water sediments. All of the 24 natural fresh water sediments were positive for somatic and F-specific phages, though their concentrations in the overlying water were undetectable in 1 and 11 samples, respectively, out of 24, corresponding to 4 and 46% for somatic and F-specific phages, respectively. Based on the sediment-to-water ratios, F-specific phages accumulate over 100 times more than the somatic coliphages in clayey sediments. Inactivation of bacteriophages in clayey and sandy sediments over a 1-month period at 15 degrees C was negligible. Our data suggest that persistence of deposited viruses in fresh water sediments leads to accumulation and the findings call for additional investigations on the fate of entrapped pathogenic viruses.

  10. Accumulation boundaries: codimension-two accumulation of accumulations in phase diagrams of semiconductor lasers, electric circuits, atmospheric and chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason Alfredo Carlson

    2008-02-28

    We report high-resolution phase diagrams for several familiar dynamical systems described by sets of ordinary differential equations: semiconductor lasers; electric circuits; Lorenz-84 low-order atmospheric circulation model; and Rössler and chemical oscillators. All these systems contain chaotic phases with highly complicated and interesting accumulation boundaries, curves where networks of stable islands of regular oscillations with ever-increasing periodicities accumulate systematically. The experimental exploration of such codimension-two boundaries characterized by the presence of infinite accumulation of accumulations is feasible with existing technology for some of these systems.

  11. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  12. [Suggestions for buying medical equipment in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Trontzos, Christos

    2004-01-01

    TO THE EDITOR: Both in Greece and in other European countries there are plans to buy more medical equipment. If the whole procedure is not effective, it may result to a large deficit in the hospital budget. The total hospital deficit now in Greece is about 2.5 billion euros. It is suggested that in every hospital, the Authorized Committee for Medical Equipment Purchasing, should include the following: One Director of a Medical Department related to the equipment to be bought and another Director of a Medical Department, unrelated. One accountant. One legal advisor specialized in hospital affairs. One economical advisor specialized in banking who will be able to suggest leasing or other means of financing the purchase of the relevant equipment. A cost accounting analysis described by a detailed report, should be provided to secure that the equipment to be bought should be cost-effective and leaving a reasonable surplus after not more than 10 years from the time it is installed. Finally, the possibility of using one expensive equipment to cover the needs of more than one hospitals either by moving the equipment (i.e. the PET/CT camera by a large vehicle) or by transferring the patients to a central hospital, may be provided by the above Authorized Committee.

  13. Patterns of sediment accumulation in the tidal marshes of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, M.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    One year's measurements of surficial sedimentation rates (1986-1987) for 26 Maine marsh sites were made over marker horizons of brick dust. Observed sediment accumulation rates, from 0 to 13 mm yr-1, were compared with marsh morphology, local relative sea-level rise rate, mean tidal range, and ice rafting activity. Marshes with four different morphologies (back-barrier, fluvial, bluff-toe, and transitional) showed distinctly different sediment accumulation rates. In general, back-barrier marshes had the highest accumulation rates and blufftoe marshes had the lowest rates, with intermediate values for transitional and fluvial marshes. No causal relationship between modern marsh sediment accumulation rate and relative sea-level rise rate (from tide gauge records) was observed. Marsh accretionary balance (sediment accumulation rate minus relative sea-level rise rate) did not correlate with mean tidal range for this meso- to macro-tidal area. Estimates of ice-rafted debris on marsh sites ranged from 0% to >100% of measured surficial sedimentation rates, indicating that ice transport of sediment may make a significant contribution to surficial sedimentation on Maine salt marshes. ?? 1989 Estuarine Research Federation.

  14. Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin; Chen, Zengming; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    To explore soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation mechanisms, the dynamics of C functional groups and macroaggregation were studied synchronously through aggregate fractionation and 13C NMR spectroscopy in sandy loam soil following an 18-year application of compost and fertilizer in China. Compared with no fertilizer control, both compost and fertilizer improved SOC content, while the application of compost increased macroaggregation. Fertilizer application mainly increased the levels of recalcitrant organic C components characterized by methoxyl/N-alkyl C and alkyl C, whereas compost application mainly promoted the accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C, phenolic C, carboxyl C, O-alkyl C and di-O-alkyl C in bulk soil. The preferential accumulation of organic C functional groups in aggregates depended on aggregate size rather than nutrient amendments. These groups were characterized by phenolic C and di-O-alkyl C in the silt + clay fraction, carboxyl C in microaggregates and phenolic C, carboxyl C and methoxyl/N-alkyl C in macroaggregates. Thus, the differences in accumulated organic C components in compost- and fertilizer-amended soils were primarily attributable to macroaggregation. The accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C in microaggregates effectively promoted macroaggregation. Our results suggest that organic amendment rich in methoxyl/N-alkyl C effectively improved SOC content and accelerated macroaggregation in the test soil. PMID:26358660

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  16. N₂O accumulation from denitrification under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Poh, Leong Soon; Jiang, Xie; Zhang, Zhongbo; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during denitrification and denitritation were investigated. Batch experiments were performed to measure N2O accumulation at 25 and 35 °C. More N2O accumulation was observed during denitritation at the higher temperature as compared with full denitrification and low temperature tests. The highest nitrite concentration tested in this study (25 mg/L NO2 (-)N and pH 8.0) did not show inhibitory effect on N2O reduction. It was found that the major cause of more N2O accumulation during denitrification at higher temperature was due to higher N2O production rate and lower N2O solubility. Specific nitrate, nitrite, and N2O reduction rates increased 62, 61, and 41 %, respectively, when temperature rose from 25 to 35 °C. The decrease of N2O solubility in mixed liquor at 35 °C (when compared to 25 °C) resulted in faster diffusing rate of N2O from liquid to gas phase. It was also more difficult for gas phase N2O to be re-dissolved. The diffused N2O was then accumulated in the headspace, which was not available for denitrification by denitrifiers. The results of this study suggest higher temperature may worsen N2O emission from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

  17. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  18. Mechanisms of Cadmium Mobility and Accumulation in Indian Mustard.

    PubMed Central

    Salt, D. E.; Prince, R. C.; Pickering, I. J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), a high biomass crop plant, accumulated substantial amounts of cadmium, with bioaccumulation coefficients (concentration of Cd in dry plant tissue/concentration in solution) of up to 1100 in shoots and 6700 in roots at nonphytotoxic concentrations of Cd (0.1 [mu]g/mL) in solution. This was associated with a rapid accumulation of phytochelatins in the root, where the majority of the Cd was coordinated with sulfur ligands, probably as a Cd-S4 complex, as demonstrated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In contrast, Cd moving in the xylem sap was coordinated predominantly with oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and the rate of Cd accumulation in the leaves displayed similar saturation kinetics, suggesting that the process of Cd transport from solution through the root and into the xylem is mediated by a saturable transport system(s). However, Cd translocation to the shoot appeared to be driven by transpiration, since ABA dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in leaves. Within leaves, Cd was preferentially accumulated in trichomes on the leaf surface, and this may be a possible detoxification mechanism. PMID:12228679

  19. Proteinase Inhibitor I Accumulation in Tomato Suspension Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Simmons, Mary; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1986-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of tomato accumulate proteinase Inhibitor I as the sucrose is depleted from 1% to less than 0.1% in the culture medium. Inhibitor I can be prematurely induced to accumulate in the cells by the addition to the medium of the proteinase inhibitor inducing factor, trigalacturonic acid, ethylene glycol chitin, or chitosan. In cultures grown in 0.6% initial sucrose with no inducers added, a uronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide appears in the medium during growth of the cells. This extracellular polysaccharide apparently contains an `endogenous inducer' of Inhibitor I synthesis. When the partially purified polysaccharide is added to the culture medium, Inhibitor I accumulation is induced. Proteinase inhibitors also accumulate in tobacco and alfalfa suspension-cultured cells as the cell cultures age. As with the tomato cultures, a uronic acid-rich component(s) appears in the media prior to inhibitor accumulation. These data suggest that an endogenous inducer may be activating proteinase inhibitor genes through a similar mechanism in all three types of cells. PMID:16664609

  20. Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin; Chen, Zengming; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-09-01

    To explore soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation mechanisms, the dynamics of C functional groups and macroaggregation were studied synchronously through aggregate fractionation and 13C NMR spectroscopy in sandy loam soil following an 18-year application of compost and fertilizer in China. Compared with no fertilizer control, both compost and fertilizer improved SOC content, while the application of compost increased macroaggregation. Fertilizer application mainly increased the levels of recalcitrant organic C components characterized by methoxyl/N-alkyl C and alkyl C, whereas compost application mainly promoted the accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C, phenolic C, carboxyl C, O-alkyl C and di-O-alkyl C in bulk soil. The preferential accumulation of organic C functional groups in aggregates depended on aggregate size rather than nutrient amendments. These groups were characterized by phenolic C and di-O-alkyl C in the silt + clay fraction, carboxyl C in microaggregates and phenolic C, carboxyl C and methoxyl/N-alkyl C in macroaggregates. Thus, the differences in accumulated organic C components in compost- and fertilizer-amended soils were primarily attributable to macroaggregation. The accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C in microaggregates effectively promoted macroaggregation. Our results suggest that organic amendment rich in methoxyl/N-alkyl C effectively improved SOC content and accelerated macroaggregation in the test soil.

  1. Variance and covariance of accumulated displacement estimates.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Tracking large deformations in tissue using ultrasound can enable the reconstruction of nonlinear elastic parameters, but poses a challenge to displacement estimation algorithms. Such large deformations have to be broken up into steps, each of which contributes an estimation error to the final accumulated displacement map. The work reported here measured the error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using one-dimensional numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to tissue strain and electronic noise. The covariance between accumulation steps was also computed. These simulations show that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps, and therefore accumulate slowly, whereas errors due to tissue deformation are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. For reasonably low electronic noise levels, the error variance in the accumulated displacement estimates is remarkably constant as a function of step size, but increases with the length of the tracking kernel.

  2. Variance and Covariance of Accumulated Displacement Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking large deformations in tissue using ultrasound can enable the reconstruction of nonlinear elastic parameters, but poses a challenge to displacement estimation algorithms. Such large deformations have to be broken up into steps, each of which contributes an estimation error to the final accumulated displacement map. The work reported here measured the error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using one-dimensional numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to tissue strain and electronic noise. The covariance between accumulation steps was also computed. These simulations show that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps, and therefore accumulate slowly, while errors due to tissue deformation are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. For reasonably low electronic noise levels, the error variance in the accumulated displacement estimates is remarkably constant as a function of step size, but increases with the length of the tracking kernel. PMID:23493610

  3. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  4. Suggested noise criteria for plumbing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Jerry

    2005-09-01

    The issue of noise that is generated by plumbing systems has been addressed in several articles and texts in the acoustic literature, but most of this information deals with a description of the various noise generation mechanisms and recommended methods of controlling noise from plumbing fixtures and piping. As with any noise source that has the potential for generating annoyance, the question of how much noise is too much noise eventually arises. Chapter 47 of the 2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook contains newly published guidelines for plumbing noise criteria as it impacts building occupants. This paper discusses the ASHRAE guidelines, and it also suggests additional noise criteria for other plumbing-related sources of noise in multitenant buildings.

  5. A surface accumulator of Escherichia coli in water flow.

    PubMed

    Mayeed, M S; Al-Mekhnaqi, A M; Auner, G W; Newaz, G M

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this research is to design and optimise a mini/micro-channel based surface accumulator of Escherichia coli to be detected by acoustic wave biosensors. A computational research has been carried out using the state of the art software, CFD-ACE with water as bacteria bearing fluid. E. coli bacteria have been modelled as random discrete particles tracked by solving the Lagrangian equations. The design challenges are to achieve low shear force (pico-N), high concentration at accumulation and high enough Reynolds number to avoid bacteria swimming. A range of low Reynolds number (Re) from 28.2 to 58.3 has been considered along with the effects of particle-boundary interactions, gravity, Saffman lift and Magnus lift. About four orders of magnitude higher concentration at accumulation than the inlet concentration and lower shear force in the order of less than pico-N have been achieved in the optimised design with particles accumulating at a specific location under random particle-boundary interactions.

  6. Thioredoxin-interacting protein induced α-synuclein accumulation via inhibition of autophagic flux: Implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Cun-Jin; Feng, Yu; Liu, Teng-Teng; Liu, Xu; Bao, Jun-Jie; Shi, Ai-Ming; Hu, Duan-Min; Liu, Tong; Yu, Yun-Li

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is associated with activation of oxidative stress through inhibition of thioredoxin (Trx). However, some evidences point out that TXNIP acts as a scaffolding protein in signaling complex independent of cellular redox regulation. The autophagy-lysosomal pathway plays important roles in the clearance of misfolded proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Lysosomal dysfunction has been involved in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Although researchers have reported that TXNIP inhibited autophagic flux, the specific mechanism is rarely studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of TXNIP on autophagic flux and α-synuclein accumulation by Western blot in HEK293 cells transfected with TXNIP plasmid. Further, we explored the influence of TXNIP on DA neuron survival in substantia nigra by IHC. We found that TXNIP induced LC3-II expression, but failed to degrade p62, a substrate of autophagy. Also, TXNIP aggravated α-synuclein accumulation. We also found that TXNIP inhibited the expression of ATP13A2, a lysosomal membrane protein. Moreover, we found that overexpression of ATP13A2 attenuated the impairment of autophagic flux and α-synuclein accumulation induced by TXNIP. Furthermore, overexpression of TXNIP in substantia nigra resulted in loss of DA neuron. Our data suggested that TXNIP blocked autophagic flux and induced α-synuclein accumulation through inhibition of ATP13A2, indicating TXNIP was a disease-causing protein in PD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  9. Model suggests Earth undergoing true polar wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-11-01

    At various points throughout Earth's history, the planet's solid exterior has drifted about in relation to the planetary rotation axis. This solid body drift, which is known as “true polar wander,” results in a wholesale shift in the orientation of Earth's landmasses and is different from the motion of individual tectonic plates (“tectonic drift”) or of the magnetic pole (“apparent polar wander”). Sorting out when, in which direction, and at what rate the Earth's solid exterior has rotated in this way depends on having a stable frame of reference to which observations of relative motion can be compared. To develop such a frame, researchers rely on hot spots, regions of recurrent volcanism that are known to produce long, largely linear island chains—such as the Hawaiian islands—as an overlying tectonic plate passes overhead. Hot spots are fed by magma plumes from the deep mantle and hence tend to be long-lived and relatively stable. Hot spots have long been used to understand the motion of tectonic plates.

  10. Contributions of apoplasmic cadmium accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins in cadmium tolerance of the cadmium-accumulating cultivar of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Kiyono, Masako; Sakamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Izumi; Kuno, Katsuji

    2009-07-01

    The contributions of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in cell walls, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins (PCs) to Cd tolerance were investigated in two distinctive genotypes of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.). One cultivar of black oat 'New oat' accumulated Cd in the leaves at the highest concentration compared to another black oat cultivar 'Soil saver' and other major graminaceous crops. The shoot:root Cd ratio also demonstrated that 'New oat' was the high Cd-accumulating cultivar, whereas 'Soil saver' was the low Cd-accumulating cultivar. Varied levels of Cd exposure demonstrated the strong Cd tolerance of 'New oat'. By contrast, low Cd-accumulating cultivar 'Soil saver' suffered Cd toxicity such as growth defects and increased lipid peroxidation, even though it accumulated less Cd in shoots than 'New oat'. Higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1. 15. 1. 1) were observed in the leaves of 'New oat' than in 'Soil saver'. No advantage of 'New oat' in PCs induction was observed in comparison to Cd-sensitive cultivar 'Soil saver', although Cd exposure increased the concentration of total PCs in both cultivars. Higher and increased Cd accumulation in cell wall fraction was observed in shoots of 'New oat'. On the other hand, in 'Soil saver', apoplasmic Cd accumulation showed saturation under higher Cd exposure. Overall, the present results suggest that cell wall Cd accumulation and antioxidative activities function in the tolerance against Cd stress possibly in combination with vacuolar Cd compartmentation.

  11. Arsenic and bladder cancer: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Vladan; Jakovljević, Branko

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic from drinking water is a well-known risk factor for bladder cancer. The purpose of this paper is to systematize some important yet often overlooked facts considering the relationship between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of bladder cancer. Since the exposure to inorganic arsenic from food, inhaled air, and skin absorption as well as arsenic methylation ability are not fully investigated, our assumption is that the exposure of arsenic only from drinking water is underestimated and its role as a risk factor is highly overestimated. This paper proposes some qualitative and quantitative parameters of arsenic as a risk factor for bladder cancer. The recommended qualitative parameters of arsenic intake are first, pathways of exposure, and second, toxicity and metabolism. The suggested quantitative parameters of arsenic intake include amounts of arsenic absorbed in the body, duration of arsenic exposure, and duration of arsenic presence in the urinary bladder. This approach can be implemented in a systematic classification and explanation of various risk factors and their mutual interactions for other types of cancer or diseases in general.

  12. California foreshock sequences suggest aseismic triggering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Shearer, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    Foreshocks are one of the few well-documented precursors to large earthquakes; therefore, understanding their nature is very important for earthquake prediction and hazard mitigation. However, the triggering role of foreshocks is not yet clear. It is possible that foreshocks are a self-triggering cascade of events that simply happen to trigger an unusually large aftershock; alternatively, foreshocks might originate from an external aseismic process that ultimately triggers the mainshock. In the former case, the foreshocks will have limited utility for forecasting. The latter case has been observed for several individual large earthquakes; however, it remains unclear how common it is and how to distinguish foreshock sequences from other seismicity clusters that do not lead to large earthquakes. Here we analyze foreshocks of three M>7 mainshocks in southern California. These foreshock sequences appear similar to earthquake swarms, in that they do not start with their largest events and they exhibit spatial migration of seismicity. Analysis of source spectra shows that all three foreshock sequences feature lower average stress drops and depletion of high-frequency energy compared with the aftershocks of their corresponding mainshocks. Using a longer-term stress-drop catalog, we find that the average stress drop of the Landers and Hector Mine foreshock sequences is comparable to nearby swarms. Our observations suggest that these foreshock sequences are manifestations of aseismic transients occurring close to the mainshock hypocenters, possibly related to localized fault zone complexity, which have promoted the occurrence of both the foreshocks and the eventual mainshock.

  13. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  14. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-26

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  15. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  16. Forest canopy effects on snow accumulation and ablation: an integrative review of empirical results

    Treesearch

    Andres Varhola; Nicholas C. Coops; Markus Weiler; R. Dan Moore

    2010-01-01

    The past century has seen significant research comparing snow accumulation and ablation in forested and open sites. In this review we compile and standardize the results of previous empirical studies to generate statistical relations between changes in forest cover and the associated changes in snow accumulation and ablation rate. The analysis drew upon 33 articles...

  17. Holocene and recent sediment accumulation rates in southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; King, J.W.; Jones, Glenn A.; Reynolds, R.L.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2000-01-01

    Rates of sediment accumulation in Lake Michigan are a key component of its geologic history and provide important data related to societal concerns such as shoreline erosion and the fate of anthropogenic pollutants. Previous attempts to reconstruct Holocene rates of sediment accumulation in Lake Michigan, as well as in the other Laurentian Great Lakes, have been bedeviled by the effect of refractory terrestrial material on radiocarbon ages from total organic carbon samples of lake sediments. AMS radiocarbon ages on small samples of biogenic carbonate (ostracodes and mollusks) in Lake Michigan provide accurate Holocene ages. The present bicarbonate reservoir effect is estimated from shells of mollusks collected live before atmospheric nuclear testing to be 250 yr. From paired samples of biogenic carbonate and terrestrial macrofossils, the past reservoir effect is thought to be less than 500 yr. The radiocarbon ages indicate a distinct decrease in sediment accumulation rates throughout the southern basin of Lake Michigan at about 5 ka, about the time when lake level stabilized at the Nipissing level after rising rapidly for several thousand years. Average rates of sediment accumulation for the historic period (the last 150 yr) can be estimated from radioisotopes (210Pb and 137Cs), pollen stratigraphy, and changes in sediment properties associated with human activity. Multiple methods are necessary because at any given site, problems arise in the assumptions or applicability of one or more methods. In general, the mass accumulation calculations suggest that sediments were deposited 4 to 11 times faster in the historic period than before human settlement. The character of the sediment did not change in a dramatic way, but sediment magnetic properties suggest shifts in the sources of sediment. The data suggest that some of the changes in sources and (or) character of the sediment occurred just before human settlement and were probably related to climatic changes

  18. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HEALTH LAW: OVERVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Daolu

    2014-07-01

    Health law is a rapidly developing law specialty in China. This article examines the current overall framework and evolution of Chinese health law, as a background to an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this legal regime. Research suggests that: 1) The independent status of Chinese health law as jurisprudence and a specialty ought to be assured altogether; 2) The convergence between health law and other laws should be strengthened; 3) The current Chinese health law framework ought to be completed. This suggests the necessity to find ways to improve the independence of health law in China by eliminating the convergence and completing the legal framework.

  1. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    PubMed

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  2. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Link, William A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentists methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  3. Statistical analysis and modeling of pelletized cultivation of Mucor circinelloides for microbial lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chunjie; Wei, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Microbial oil accumulation via oleaginous fungi has some potential benefits because filamentous fungi can form pellets during cell growth and these pellets are easier to harvest from the culture broth than individual cells. This research studied the effect of various culture conditions on the pelletized cell growth of Mucor circinelloides and its lipid accumulation. The results showed that cell pelletization was positively correlated to biomass accumulation; however, pellet size was negatively correlated to the oil content of the fungal biomass, possibly due to the mass transfer barriers generated by the pellet structure. How to control the size of the pellet is the key to the success of the pelletized microbial oil accumulation process.

  4. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a “pulsed beam”; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a “continuous beam.” A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose

  5. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  6. Proline accumulation in plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian

    2008-11-01

    Proline (Pro) accumulation is a common physiological response in many plants in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the possible role(s) of proline accumulation. In this review, knowledge on the regulation of Pro metabolism during development and stress, results of genetic manipulation of Pro metabolism and current debate on Pro toxicity in plants are presented.

  7. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the applicable...

  8. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the applicable...

  9. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the applicable...

  12. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  13. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  14. 19 CFR 10.2017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.2017 Section 10.2017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Rules of Origin § 10.2017 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of a Party that...

  15. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  16. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  17. Accumulation of coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kai, Kosuke; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Watanabe, Ken; Sakata, Kanzo

    2006-02-01

    The biosynthesis of coumarins in plants is not well understood, although these metabolic pathways are often found in the plant kingdom. We report here the occurrence of coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia. Considerably high levels of scopoletin and its beta-d-glucopyranoside, scopolin, were found in the wild-type roots. The scopolin level in the roots was approximately 1200nmol/gFW, which was approximately 180-fold of that in the aerial parts. Calli accumulated scopolin at a level of 70nmol/gFW. Scopoletin and scopolin formation were induced in shoots after treatment with either 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (at 100microM) or a bud-cell suspension of Fusarium oxysporum. In order to gain insight into the biosynthetic pathway of coumarins in A. thaliana, we analyzed coumarins in the mutants obtained from the SALK Institute collection that carried a T-DNA insertion within the gene encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP98A3, which catalyzes 3'-hydroxylation of p-coumarate units in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The content of scopoletin and scopolin in the mutant roots greatly decreased to approximately 3% of that in the wild-type roots. This observation suggests that scopoletin and scopolin biosynthesis in A. thaliana are strongly dependent on the 3'-hydroxylation of p-coumarate units catalyzed by CYP98A3. We also found that the level of skimmin, a beta-d-glucopyranoside of umbelliferone, was slightly increased in the mutant roots.

  18. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (< -2MPa) substantially increased the concentration of FAAs and in particular alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Truncation and Accumulated Errors in Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yi-Ling F.

    1988-12-01

    The approximation of the truncation and accumulated errors in the numerical solution of a linear initial-valued partial differential equation problem can be established by using a semidiscretized scheme. This error approximation is observed as a lower bound to the errors of a finite difference scheme. By introducing a modified von Neumann solution, this error approximation is applicable to problems with variable coefficients. To seek an in-depth understanding of this newly established error approximation, numerical experiments were performed to solve the hyperbolic equation {∂U}/{∂t} = -C 1(x)C 2(t) {∂U}/{∂x}, with both continuous and discontinuous initial conditions. We studied three cases: (1) C1( x)= C0 and C2( t)=1; (2) C1( x)= C0 and C2( t= t; and (3) C 1(x)=1+( {solx}/{a}) 2 and C2( t)= C0. Our results show that the errors are problem dependent and are functions of the propagating wave speed. This suggests a need to derive problem-oriented schemes rather than the equation-oriented schemes as is commonly done. Furthermore, in a wave-propagation problem, measurement of the error by the maximum norm is not particularly informative when the wave speed is incorrect.

  20. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  1. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  2. Involvement of ethylene in the accumulation of esculeoside A during fruit ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Iijima, Yoko; Fujiwara, Yukio; Tokita, Takeaki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke

    2009-04-22

    The composition of glycoalkaloids in tomato fruit changes with ripening. However, it has not been clarified whether the accumulation of glycoalkaloids is controlled by the ripening-inducing phytohormone, ethylene. Here, we report the effect of ethylene on the accumulation of tomato fruit glycoalkaloids. We investigated the effect of exogenously applied ethylene. In response to ethylene treatment, the content of alpha-tomatine decreased, whereas the content of esculeoside A increased. Next, we analyzed the fruits of ripening mutants, rin, nor, and Nr. In fruits of these mutant lines, the level of accumulation of esculeoside A decreased, whereas alpha-tomatine accumulated to higher levels than in wild-type fruit. These results demonstrated that the esculeoside A accumulation was associated with production and perception of ethylene. Additionally, the accumulation profiles of the intermediate metabolites of esculeoside A biosynthesis in ripening mutant fruits suggest that a glycosylation step in the putative pathway from alpha-tomatine to esculeoside A depends on ethylene.

  3. Ontogenetic aspects of traumatic brain edema--facts and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R; Walter, B; Fritz, H; Zwiener, U

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse brain swelling (DBS) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs more commonly in children than adults. Most of the recent clinical studies suggest that young children are more negatively affected by DBS. Until now studies in young animals in which the pathophysiology of DBS was evaluated remained seldom. However, pathogenetic mechanisms of edema formation after TBI in the immature brain appeared to be different in comparison to adult brains. There are evidences that vasogenic as well as cytotoxic edema components may be responsible for the development of DBS. Besides mechanical disturbance, the blood-brain barrier seems to be strongly endangered by oxidative stress after TBI because regional antioxidative capacity is obviously diminished. In addition, cytotoxic components of DBS may be caused by at least two different mechanisms. First, it was shown that a sustained posttraumatic cerebral hypoperfusion occurs in the immature brain. Moreover, a transient increase of NMDA receptor expression at this period of life may be responsible for an increased threat of intracellular sodium ion accumulation in brain cells. Obviously, brain swelling can be detrimental because it can elevate intracranial pressure, impair CBF, and may represent ongoing secondary brain injury.

  4. Systematic analysis of plant mitochondrial and chloroplast small RNAs suggests organelle-specific mRNA stabilization mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ruwe, Hannes; Wang, Gongwei; Gusewski, Sandra; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2016-09-06

    Land plant organellar genomes encode a small number of genes, many of which are essential for respiration and photosynthesis. Organellar gene expression is characterized by a multitude of RNA processing events that lead to stable, translatable transcripts. RNA binding proteins (RBPs), have been shown to generate and protect transcript termini and eventually induce the accumulation of short RNA footprints. We applied knowledge of such RBP-derived footprints to develop software (sRNA miner) that enables identification of RBP footprints, or other clusters of small RNAs, in organelles. We used this tool to determine mitochondrial and chloroplast cosRNAs (clustered organellar sRNAs) in Arabidopsis. We found that in mitochondria, cosRNAs coincide with transcript 3'-ends, but are largely absent from 5'-ends. In chloroplasts this bias is absent, suggesting a different mode of 5' processing, possibly owing to different sets of RNases. Furthermore, we identified a large number of cosRNAs that represent silenced insertions of mitochondrial DNA in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. Steady-state RNA analyses demonstrate that cosRNAs display differential accumulation during development. Finally, we demonstrate that the chloroplast RBP PPR10 associates in vivo with its cognate cosRNA. A hypothetical role of cosRNAs as competitors of mRNAs for PPR proteins is discussed. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  6. University of Waterloo at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion: Experiments with Suggestion Clustering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    task. As part of TREC 2014 the contextual suggestion track is running for the third time. The goal of this task is to tailor point -of-interest...suggestions to users according to this preferences. Here we present how we gathered candidate points -of-interest, grouped them according to similarity using...clustering, and picked points -of-interest that each user would find especially appealing. The organizers of this track distributed users’ personal

  7. Supply and demand: sink regulation of sugar accumulation in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    McCormick, A J; Watt, D A; Cramer, M D

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) accumulates sucrose to high concentrations and, as a result, has been the focus of extensive research into the biochemistry and physiology of sucrose accumulation. Despite this, the relationship between source leaf photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation in the culm sink is not well understood. The observations that photosynthetic activity declines during culm maturation in commercial cultivars and that high-sucrose-accumulating noble ancestral genotypes (Saccharum officinarum L.) photosynthesize at rates two-thirds of those of low-sucrose ancestors (Saccharum spontaneum L.) indicate that source-sink communication may play a pivotal role in determining sucrose yield. Although maturation of the culm results in a decreased demand for sucrose, recent evidence from partial leaf shading, defoliation, and transgenic studies indicates that sugarcane cultivars are capable of further increases in sugar content. Furthermore, sugarcane leaves appear to retain the capacity to increase the supply of assimilate to culm tissues under conditions of increased assimilate demand. The relationship between source and sink tissues in sugarcane should be viewed within a supply-demand paradigm; an often neglected conceptual approach in the study of this crop. Uncoupling of the signalling pathways that mediate negative feedback between source and sink tissues may result in improved leaf assimilation rates and, consequently, lead to increased sugarcane sucrose yields.

  8. Selective Accumulation May Account for Shellfish-Associated Viral Illness

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R.

    2000-01-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F+ coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F+ coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters. PMID:10742214

  9. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of an Annular Pogo Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Schwarz, Jordan; Yang, H. Q.; Zoladz, Tom

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on a scaled annular pogo accumulator for the Ares I Upper Stage. The test article was representative of the LO2 feedline and preliminary accumulator design, and included multiple designs of a perforated ring connecting the accumulator to the core feedline flow. The system was pulse tested in water over a range of pulse frequency and flow rates. Time dependent measurements of pressure at various locations in the test article were used to extract system compliance, inertance, and resistance. Preliminary results indicated a significant deviation from standard orifice flow theory and suggest a strong dependence on feedline average velocity. In addition, several CFD analyses were conducted to investigate the details of the time variant flow field. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations were performed with time varying boundary conditions used to represent system pulsing. The CFD results compared well with the sub-scale results and demonstrated the influence of feedline average velocity on the flow into and out of the accumulator. This paper presents updated results of the investigation including a parametric design space for determining resistance characteristics. Using the updated experimental results a new scaling relationship has been defined for shear flow over a cavity. A comparison of sub-scale and full scale CFD simulations provided early verification of the scaling of the fluid flowfield and resistance characteristics.

  10. Chloroplasts continuously monitor photoreceptor signals during accumulation movement.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hidenori; Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Under low light conditions, chloroplasts gather at a cell surface to maximize light absorption for efficient photosynthesis, which is called the accumulation response. Phototropin1 (phot1) and phototropin2 (phot2) were identified as blue light photoreceptors in the accumulation response that occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Adiantum capillus-veneris with neochrome1 (neo1) as a red light photoreceptor in A. capillus-veneris. However, the signal molecule that is emitted from the photoreceptors and transmitted to the chloroplasts is not known. To investigate this topic, the accumulation response was induced by partial cell irradiation with a microbeam of red, blue and far-red light in A. capillus-veneris gametophyte cells. Chloroplasts moved towards the irradiated region and were able to sense the signal as long as its signal flowed. The signal from neo1 had a longer life than the signal that came from phototropins. When two microbeams with the same wavelength and the same fluence rate were placed 20 μm apart from each other and were applied to a dark-adapted cell, chloroplasts at an equidistant position always moved towards the center (midpoint) of the two microbeams, but not towards either one. This result indicates that chloroplasts are detecting the concentration of the signal but not the direction of signal flow. Chloroplasts repeatedly move and stop at roughly 10 s intervals during the accumulation response, suggesting that they monitor the intermittent signal waves from photoreceptors.

  11. Predictive compound accumulation rules yield a broad-spectrum antibiotic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Michelle F.; Drown, Bryon S.; Riley, Andrew P.; Garcia, Alfredo; Shirai, Tomohiro; Svec, Riley L.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2017-05-01

    Most small molecules are unable to rapidly traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and accumulate inside these cells, making the discovery of much-needed drugs against these pathogens challenging. Current understanding of the physicochemical properties that dictate small-molecule accumulation in Gram-negative bacteria is largely based on retrospective analyses of antibacterial agents, which suggest that polarity and molecular weight are key factors. Here we assess the ability of over 180 diverse compounds to accumulate in Escherichia coli. Computational analysis of the results reveals major differences from the retrospective studies, namely that the small molecules that are most likely to accumulate contain an amine, are amphiphilic and rigid, and have low globularity. These guidelines were then applied to convert deoxynybomycin, a natural product that is active only against Gram-positive organisms, into an antibiotic with activity against a diverse panel of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. We anticipate that these findings will aid in the discovery and development of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Predictive compound accumulation rules yield a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michelle F; Drown, Bryon S; Riley, Andrew P; Garcia, Alfredo; Shirai, Tomohiro; Svec, Riley L; Hergenrother, Paul J

    2017-05-18

    Most small molecules are unable to rapidly traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and accumulate inside these cells, making the discovery of much-needed drugs against these pathogens challenging. Current understanding of the physicochemical properties that dictate small-molecule accumulation in Gram-negative bacteria is largely based on retrospective analyses of antibacterial agents, which suggest that polarity and molecular weight are key factors. Here we assess the ability of over 180 diverse compounds to accumulate in Escherichia coli. Computational analysis of the results reveals major differences from the retrospective studies, namely that the small molecules that are most likely to accumulate contain an amine, are amphiphilic and rigid, and have low globularity. These guidelines were then applied to convert deoxynybomycin, a natural product that is active only against Gram-positive organisms, into an antibiotic with activity against a diverse panel of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. We anticipate that these findings will aid in the discovery and development of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Lethal Hydroxyl Radical Accumulation by a Lactococcal Bacteriocin, Lacticin Q

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengqi; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Toshimitsu, Nayu; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial mechanism of a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q, can be described by the toroidal pore model without any receptor. However, lacticin Q showed different degrees of activity (selective antimicrobial activity) against Gram-positive bacteria even among related species. The ability of lacticin Q to induce pore formation in liposomes composed of lipids from different indicator strains indicated that its selective antimicrobial activity could not be attributed only to membrane lipid composition. We investigated the accumulation of deleterious hydroxyl radicals after exposure to lacticin Q as a contributing factor to cell death in the indicator strains. When lacticin Q of the same concentration as the MIC or minimum bactericidal concentration was added to the indicator cultures, high levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation were detected. Treatment with hydroxyl radical scavengers, thiourea and 2,2′-bipyridyl, decreased the levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation and recovered cell viability. These results suggest that, with or without pore formation, the final antimicrobial mechanism of lacticin Q is the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals, which varies by strain, resulting in the selective antimicrobial activity of lacticin Q. PMID:23733459

  14. Response of salt-marsh carbon accumulation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Matthew L; Mudd, Simon M

    2012-09-27

    About half of annual marine carbon burial takes place in shallow water ecosystems where geomorphic and ecological stability is driven by interactions between the flow of water, vegetation growth and sediment transport. Although the sensitivity of terrestrial and deep marine carbon pools to climate change has been studied for decades, there is little understanding of how coastal carbon accumulation rates will change and potentially feed back on climate. Here we develop a numerical model of salt marsh evolution, informed by recent measurements of productivity and decomposition, and demonstrate that competition between mineral sediment deposition and organic-matter accumulation determines the net impact of climate change on carbon accumulation in intertidal wetlands. We find that the direct impact of warming on soil carbon accumulation rates is more subtle than the impact of warming-driven sea level rise, although the impact of warming increases with increasing rates of sea level rise. Our simulations suggest that the net impact of climate change will be to increase carbon burial rates in the first half of the twenty-first century, but that carbon-climate feedbacks are likely to diminish over time.

  15. Deleterious mutation accumulation and the regeneration of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Daniel J.; David, Jacques L.; Bataillon, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations accompanying recurrent regeneration of plant germ plasm was modeled under regeneration conditions characterized by different amounts of selection and genetic drift. Under some regeneration conditions (sample sizes ≥75 individuals and bulk harvesting of seed) mutation accumulation was negligible, but under others (sample sizes <75 individuals or equalization of seed production by individual plants) mutation numbers per genome increased significantly during 25–50 cycles of regeneration. When mutations also are assumed to occur (at elevated rates) during seed storage, significant mutation accumulation and fitness decline occurred in 10 or fewer cycles of regeneration regardless of the regeneration conditions. Calculations also were performed to determine the numbers of deleterious mutations introduced and remaining in the genome of an existing variety after hybridization with a genetic resource and subsequent backcrossing. The results suggest that mutation accumulation has the potential to reduce the viability of materials held in germ plasm collections and to offset gains expected by the introduction of particular genes of interest from genetic resources. PMID:9419386

  16. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  17. Lethal hydroxyl radical accumulation by a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Toshimitsu, Nayu; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial mechanism of a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q, can be described by the toroidal pore model without any receptor. However, lacticin Q showed different degrees of activity (selective antimicrobial activity) against Gram-positive bacteria even among related species. The ability of lacticin Q to induce pore formation in liposomes composed of lipids from different indicator strains indicated that its selective antimicrobial activity could not be attributed only to membrane lipid composition. We investigated the accumulation of deleterious hydroxyl radicals after exposure to lacticin Q as a contributing factor to cell death in the indicator strains. When lacticin Q of the same concentration as the MIC or minimum bactericidal concentration was added to the indicator cultures, high levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation were detected. Treatment with hydroxyl radical scavengers, thiourea and 2,2'-bipyridyl, decreased the levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation and recovered cell viability. These results suggest that, with or without pore formation, the final antimicrobial mechanism of lacticin Q is the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals, which varies by strain, resulting in the selective antimicrobial activity of lacticin Q.

  18. [Characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by vegetables].

    PubMed

    Hong, Chun-Lai; Weng, Huan-Xin; Yan, Ai-Lan; Xie, Ling-Li

    2007-10-01

    With seaweed iodine and KI as exogenous iodine sources, a pot experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by pakchoi cabbage, celery, capsicum, and radish. The results showed that the iodine content in the edible parts of test vegetables increased with increasing amount of exogenous iodine, but the iodine accumulation rate differed with the kinds of vegetables, in the order of pakchoi > celery > radish > capsicum. The majority of iodine was accumulated in roots, with lesser amount transferred to shoots. The distribution of iodine in vegetables was commonly in the order of root > leaf > stem > fruit, but the iodine in radish is lower in its rhizome than in its shoot. Low concentrations (0-25 mg x kg(-1)) of exogenous iodine had little effects on the growth of vegetables, while high concentrations (> or = 50 mg x kg(-1)) of it had inhibitory effects, resulting in a decreased vegetable biomass. The sensitivity of test vegetables to the adverse effect of exogenous iodine was in the order of capsicum > pachoi > celery > radish. Compared with seaweed iodine, KI decreased the biomass of first cutting significantly (P < 0.05), but for the second cutting, little difference was observed between these two iodine sources. The uptake and accumulation of these two iodine sources by vegetables also differed with cuttings, i.e., the first cutting vegetables absorbed more KI, while the second cutting vegetables absorbed more seaweed iodine (P < 0.05), suggesting that seaweed iodine had a longer efficacy than KI.

  19. Identification of three relationships linking cadmium accumulation to cadmium tolerance and zinc and citrate accumulation in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Zorrig, Walid; Rouached, Aïda; Shahzad, Zaigham; Abdelly, Chedly; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a plant species that shows high accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Lettuce is therefore a good model both for identifying determinants controlling cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in edible tissues. In this work, 14-day-old plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for 8 days on media supplemented with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 microM. Growth, as well as Cd(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), phosphate, malate and citrate root an shoot contents were analyzed. The three lettuce varieties Paris Island Cos, Red Salad Bowl and Kordaat displayed differential abilities to accumulate cadmium in roots and shoots, Paris Island Cos displaying the lowest cadmium content and Kordaat the highest. From the global analysis of the three varieties, three main trends were identified. First, a common negative correlation linked cadmium tissue content and relative dry weight reduction in response to cadmium treatments in the three varieties. Second, increasing cadmium concentration in the culture medium resulted in a parallel increase in zinc tissue content in all lettuce varieties. A common strong positive correlation between cadmium and zinc contents was observed for all varieties. This suggested that systems enabling zinc and cadmium transport were induced by cadmium. Finally, the cadmium treatments had a contrasting effect on anion contents in tissues. Interestingly, citrate content in shoots was correlated with cadmium translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting that citrate might play a role in cadmium transport in the xylem vessels. Altogether, these results shed light on three main strategies developed by lettuce to cope with cadmium, which could help to develop breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in lettuce. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of species-specific dissimilarities in two marine fish species: mercury accumulation as a function of metal levels in consumed prey.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to compare mercury (Hg) accumulation (total and organic) and tissue distribution in two marine fish species with contrasting feeding tactics. Thus, juvenile specimens of European sea bass and Golden grey mullet were surveyed in an estuary historically affected by Hg discharges. Total Hg was preferentially accumulated in intestine, muscle, and liver, whereas gills and brain presented the lowest Hg levels observed in both species. Significant differences between species were only verified for muscle, with D. labrax's levels being greater than L. aurata's. Muscle accounted for >87% of the Hg relative tissue burden, whereas liver did not exceed 11%. Organic Hg accumulation occurred mainly in liver and muscle, with D. labrax evidencing significantly greater loads. Moreover, organic Hg in consumed prey items was also significantly greater in D. labrax. Accumulation of organic Hg in liver, intestine, and muscle seemed to vary as a function of the consumed prey items contamination, suggesting fish feeding strategies as the dominant factor determining metal accumulation. For both fish species, a stable ratio was observed between Hg increments from the reference to the contaminated site, possibly indicating that the organic Hg content of diet may regulate the internal levels of this contaminant. Thus, this ratio might prove to be a useful contamination predictor tool in early life stages of fish.