Science.gov

Sample records for accumulating research suggests

  1. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  2. Applications and suggested directions of transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes many of the applications of transition research having significant technological importance and suggests critical general areas for further research. Critical research requirements include identification and quantification of initial disturbance fields, disturbance internalization by inviscid and viscous flow fields and amplification in nonboundary-layer flows, along with elucidation of the roughness-induced destabilization physics.

  3. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  4. Linking research to practice: suggestions for reading a research article.

    PubMed

    Crocker, L M

    1977-01-01

    Although researchers and editorial review boards are obligated to communicate research information in readable fashion, journal readers also must assume responsibility for interpreting and evaluating research articles. The general format for reporting research results is described. In addition, seven major questions to be asked by cirtical readers are presented. These questions are designed to help readers identify the purpose of a study; assess its importance; evaluate the research design, sampling and data collecting procedures; interpret the results of data analyses; and form implications for practice.

  5. Practical suggestions for community interventions using participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.

  6. Suggested strategies to attract reviewers for soil & tillage research submissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent letter to the editor in Soil and Tillage Research (STILL) entitled "Opportunity and Obligation" prompted a request for follow-up suggestions on how to solve a critical problem associated with securing reviewers for journal submissions. Ten broad suggestions for helping solve the problem of ...

  7. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  8. Research Directions Suggested by the A.C.L.U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1975-01-01

    Translates questions submitted by Alan Reitman, Associate Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union which the practitioners of civil liberties would like behavioral scientists to answer into researchable topics. Reviews some of the literature relevant to each, and suggests the kinds of studies needed to provide some answers.…

  9. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  10. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education.

  11. Accumulation of the Drosophila Torso-like protein at the blastoderm plasma membrane suggests that it translocates from the eggshell.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Alessandro; Furriols, Marc; Casanova, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    The eggshell serves as a depository for proteins that play an important role in early embryonic development. In particular, the Drosophila eggshell is responsible for transferring asymmetries from the egg chamber to specify the regions at both ends of the embryo through the uneven activation of the Torso (Tor) receptor in its membrane. This process relies on the restricted expression of the gene torso-like (tsl) in subpopulations of follicle cells during oogenesis and its protein accumulation at both poles of the eggshell, but it is not known how this signal is transmitted to the embryo. Here, we show that Tsl accumulates at the embryonic plasma membrane, even in the absence of the Tor receptor. However, during oogenesis, we detected Tsl accumulation only at the eggshell. These results suggest that there is a two-step mechanism to transfer the asymmetric positional cues from the egg chamber into the early embryo: initial anchoring of Tsl at the eggshell as it is secreted, followed by its later translocation to the egg plasma membrane, where it enables Tor receptor activation. Translocation of anchored determinants from the eggshell might then regulate the spatial and temporal control of early embryonic developmental processes.

  12. Suggested drilling research tasks for the Federal Government

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    A brief summary discussion of drilling, drilling research and the role of the government in drilling research is presented. Specific research and development areas recommended for federal consideration are listed. The technical nature of the identified tasks is emphasized. The Appendices present the factual basis for the discussion and recommendations. Numerous references are noted in the Appendices.

  13. Suggestions from Research for Improving Mathematics Instruction for Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Mary Jo

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen suggestions for improving mathematics instruction for bilingual students are discussed. The role of language in learning mathematics and in solving problems is the focus of a number of suggestions. (MNS)

  14. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  15. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  16. Teaching Chemistry in Primary Science: What Does the Research Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…

  17. Three Personal Theories That Suggest Models for Teacher Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses three theoretical structures (those of Michael Polanyi, Maxine Greene, and Ann Berthoff) which consider the role of personal interpretation central to ultimate meaning-making. The article proposes them as useful frameworks for teachers who are beginning deliberate classroom research. (IAH)

  18. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  19. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  20. Economic Literacy and Efficacy: Suggestions for Research. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Donald R.

    Economic literacy and economic efficacy are addressed by examining basic goals and assumptions of economic education and by suggesting areas that need systematic attention and investigation. To clarify goals, an operational definition of economic literacy must be developed and used in a criterion-referenced testing instrument. A definition of…

  1. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  2. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2016-11-28

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  3. Constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation: suggestion for a high school curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouropatov, Anatoli; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2013-07-01

    Students have a tendency to see integral calculus as a series of procedures with associated algorithms and many do not develop a conceptual grasp giving them the desirable versatility of thought. Thus, instead of a proceptual view of the symbols in integration, they have, at best, a process-oriented view. On the other hand, it is not surprising that many students find concepts such as the integral difficult when they are unable to experience these processes directly in the classroom. With a view towards improving this situation, constructing the integral concept on the basis of the idea of accumulation has been proposed (Educ Stud Math. 1994;26:229-274; Integral as accumulation: a didactical perspective for school mathematics; Thessaloniki: PME; 2009. p. 417-424). In this paper, we discuss a curriculum that is based on this idea and a design for curriculum materials that are intended to develop an improved cognitive base for a flexible proceptual understanding of the integral and integration in high school. The main focus is on how we (mathematics teachers and mathematics educators) might teach the integral concept in order to help high school students to construct meaningful knowledge alongside acquiring technical abilities.

  4. Every scientist is a memory researcher: Suggestions for making research more memorable.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    Independent of the actual results, some scientific articles are more memorable than others. As anyone who has written an article collaboratively knows, there are numerous ways a manuscript can be written to convey the same general ideas. To aid with this, many scientific writing books and editorials provide advice, often anecdotal, on how to make articles more memorable. Here I ground these suggestions with empirical support from memory research. Specifically, I suggest that researchers consider how to emphasize their work's novelty, strive to describe their work using concrete, easy-to-understand terms, and use caution when attempting to evoke an emotional response in the reader. I also discuss considerations in title selections and conference presentations.

  5. Size, Accumulation and Performance for Research Grants: Examining the Role of Size for Centres of Excellence

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Carter; Schneider, Jesper W.; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the relation between size, accumulation and performance for research grants, where we examine the relation between grant size for Centres of Excellence (CoE) funded by the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF) and various ex post research performance measures, including impact and shares of highly cited articles. We examine both the relation between size and performance and also how performance for CoEs evolves over the course of grant periods. In terms of dynamics, it appears that performance over the grant period (i.e. 10 years) is falling for the largest CoEs, while it is increasing for those among the smallest half. Overall, multivariate econometric analysis finds evidence that performance is increasing in grant size and over time. In both cases, the relation appears to be non-linear, suggesting that there is a point at which performance peaks. The CoEs have also been very successful in securing additional funding, which can be viewed as a ‘cumulative effect’ of center grants. In terms of new personnel, the far majority of additional funding is spent on early career researchers, hence, this accumulation would appear to have a ‘generational’ dimension, allowing for scientific expertise to be passed on to an increasing number of younger researchers. PMID:26862907

  6. Size, Accumulation and Performance for Research Grants: Examining the Role of Size for Centres of Excellence.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Carter; Schneider, Jesper W; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the relation between size, accumulation and performance for research grants, where we examine the relation between grant size for Centres of Excellence (CoE) funded by the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF) and various ex post research performance measures, including impact and shares of highly cited articles. We examine both the relation between size and performance and also how performance for CoEs evolves over the course of grant periods. In terms of dynamics, it appears that performance over the grant period (i.e. 10 years) is falling for the largest CoEs, while it is increasing for those among the smallest half. Overall, multivariate econometric analysis finds evidence that performance is increasing in grant size and over time. In both cases, the relation appears to be non-linear, suggesting that there is a point at which performance peaks. The CoEs have also been very successful in securing additional funding, which can be viewed as a 'cumulative effect' of center grants. In terms of new personnel, the far majority of additional funding is spent on early career researchers, hence, this accumulation would appear to have a 'generational' dimension, allowing for scientific expertise to be passed on to an increasing number of younger researchers.

  7. Spatial gene expression analysis in tomato hypocotyls suggests cysteine as key precursor of vascular sulfur accumulation implicated in Verticillium dahliae defense.

    PubMed

    Klug, Katharina; Hogekamp, Claudia; Specht, André; Myint, San Shwe; Blöink, Dominik; Küster, Helge; Horst, Walter J

    2015-02-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a prominent generator of plant vascular wilting disease and sulfur (S)-enhanced defense (SED) mechanisms contribute to its in-planta elimination. The accumulation of S-containing defense compounds (SDCs) including elemental S (S(0) ) has been described based on the comparison of two near-isogenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines differing in fungal susceptibility. To better understand the effect of S nutrition on V. dahliae resistance both lines were supplied with low, optimal or supraoptimal sulfate-S. An absolute quantification demonstrated a most effective fungal elimination due to luxury plant S nutrition. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed a strong regulation of Cys levels and an S-responsive GSH pool rise in the bulk hypocotyl. High-frequency S peak accumulations were detected in vascular bundles of resistant tomato plants after fungal colonization by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Global transcriptomic analysis suggested that early steps of the primary S metabolism did not promote the SDCs synthesis in the whole hypocotyl as gene expression was downregulated after infection. Enhanced S fertilization mostly alleviated the repressive fungal effect but did not reverse it. Upregulation of glutathione (GSH)-associated genes in bulk hypocotyls but not in vascular bundles indicated a global antioxidative role of GSH. To finally assign the contribution of S metabolism-associated genes to high S(0) accumulations exclusively found in the resistant tomato line, a spatial gene expression approach was applied. Laser microdissection of infected vascular bundles revealed a switch toward transcription of genes connected with cysteine (Cys) synthesis. The upregulation of LeOASTLp1 suggests a role for Cys as key precursor for local S accumulations (possibly S(0) ) in the vascular bundles of the V. dahliae-resistant tomato line.

  8. A Suggested Research Agenda on Treatment-Outcome Research for Female Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resick, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    I appreciate the opportunity to present my opinions on the appropriate course for the research agenda on violence against women. Briere and Jordan (this issue) have done an estimable job in reviewing the research on the psychological impact of violence on women and have concluded that, because psychological symptoms following victimization are…

  9. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  10. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research - suggestion for an operational tool.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, L V; Dagnæs-Hansen, F; Herskin, M S

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been done on pigs, hardly any studies include systematic welfare assessment. Still, it is essential to assess welfare of laboratory pigs, both domestic pig breeds and smaller purpose-bred breeds, as (1) scientific obligations entail responsibility to ensure and document a fair welfare standard for animals used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest a method for monitoring the welfare status of individual laboratory pigs, intended to relieve the practical scoring of the welfare of individual pigs as well as the interpretation of the findings.

  11. Quality of Life and Military Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework and Suggestions for Planned Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a conceptual framework and suggestions for a planned study of quality of life (QOL) and military outcomes among Navy personnel...The conceptual framework links individual variables (e.g., age, marital status, and Navy paygrade) and contextual Navy variables (e.g., command) with...fit. One section of the report lists expectations derived from the conceptual framework ; another presents specific research recommendations.

  12. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  13. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: A literature review with suggestions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David L.; Mead, Kenneth R.; Lynch, Robert A.; Hirst, Deborah V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential risks associated with “toilet plume” aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission. Methods The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks. Results The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized. Conclusion Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities. PMID:23040490

  14. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  15. Calorie Restriction: What Recent Results Suggest for the Future of Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Calorie Restriction (CR) research has expanded rapidly over the past few decades and CR remains the most highly reproducible, environmental intervention to improve health and extend lifespan in animal studies. Although many model organisms have consistently demonstrated positive responses to CR, it remains to be shown whether CR will extend lifespan in humans. Additionally, the current environment of excess caloric consumption and high incidence of overweight/obesity illustrate the improbable nature of the long-term adoption of a CR lifestyle by a significant proportion of the human population. Thus, the search for substances that can reproduce the beneficial physiologic responses of CR without a requisite calorie intake reduction, termed CR mimetics (CRMs), has gained momentum. Material & Methods Recent articles describing health and lifespan results of CR in nonhuman primates and short-term human studies are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the rapidly expanding search for CRMs. Results The first results from a long-term, randomized, controlled CR study in nonhuman primates showing statistically significant benefits on longevity have now been reported. Additionally, positive results from short-term, randomized, controlled CR studies in humans are suggestive of potential health and longevity gains, while test of proposed CRMs (including rapamycin, resveratrol, 2-deoxyglucose and metformin) have shown both positive and mixed results in rodents. Conclusion Whether current positive results will translate into longevity gains for humans remains an open question. However, the apparent health benefits that have been observed with CR suggest that regardless of longevity gains, the promotion of healthy aging and disease prevention may be attainable. PMID:20534066

  16. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  17. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  18. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  19. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions.

    PubMed

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article.

  20. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions

    PubMed Central

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article. PMID:26629463

  1. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  2. Ethics Reporting in Biospecimen and Genetic Research: Current Practice and Suggestions for Changes

    PubMed Central

    Chin, William Wei Lim; Wieschowski, Susanne; Prokein, Jana; Illig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Modern approaches for research with human biospecimens employ a variety of substantially different types of ethics approval and informed consent. In most cases, standard ethics reporting such as “consent and approval was obtained” is no longer meaningful. A structured analysis of 120 biospecimen studies recently published in top journals revealed that more than 85% reported on consent and approval, but in more than 90% of cases, this reporting was insufficient and thus potentially misleading. Editorial policies, reporting guidelines, and material transfer agreements should include recommendations for meaningful ethics reporting in biospecimen research. Meaningful ethics reporting is possible without higher word counts and could support public trust as well as networked research. PMID:27483445

  3. Sleep-Related Leg Cramps: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Terry M

    2015-09-01

    Various medications and behavioral treatments for sleep-related leg cramps have been tried, but the quality of the evidence is low. Quinine seems to be effective, but dangerous. β-Agonists may be one of the more common causes of secondary leg cramps. Statins may not be implicated in leg cramps as much as has been believed. Potassium-sparing diuretics may have a higher incidence of sleep-related leg cramps than potassium-depleting diuretics. Plantar flexion of the feet may elicit most sleep-related leg cramps. More research into behavioral treatments is needed. A standardized sleep-related leg cramp questionnaire would be useful to expand research.

  4. Research-Practice Integration in Real Practice Settings: Issues and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny K.; Thyer, Bruce A.; Webb, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    At the National Bridging the Research and Practice Gap Symposium to discuss evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work, 150 participants attended five breakout groups to address real practice setting applications. These participants from social work academia and practice communities addressed issues and looked for solutions to promote…

  5. Dissemination with Impact: What Research Suggests for Practice in Career and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Jones, Lisa M.

    Dissemination in career and technical education does not simply disperse information, new products, new practices and materials, and new ideas designed to stimulate local change but does so in ways that promote its use. Federal efforts to promote dissemination of research-based information in education are: (1) deeply indebted to the agricultural…

  6. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education,…

  7. Future Directions in Adventure-based Therapy Research: Methodological Considerations and Design Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newes, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    More methodologically sound research in adventure therapy is needed if the field is to claim empirically-based efficacy as a treatment modality. Some considerations for conducting outcome studies in adventure therapy relate to standardization, multiple domain assessment, regression techniques, objective assessment of participant change, client and…

  8. Research Suggestions in the Design of a Global Graduate Business Program Delivered by Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puderbaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…

  9. Research and Theory Driven Insights: Ten Suggestions for L2 Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Ghiretti, Gabriela; White, Violaine; Berg, Bartell; Quintana, Rubén Domínguez; Grayson, Brandan L.; Weng, Miaowei

    2007-01-01

    Research and theory on second language reading has reached heightened dimensions in recent years. It is through reading that learners access much information concerning the target language and culture, and consequently reading is an important part of almost all language programs across stages of acquisition. The purpose of this article is to offer…

  10. School Turnaround Principals: What Does Initial Research Literature Suggest They Are Doing to Be Successful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby V.; Hambrick Hitt, Dallas

    2017-01-01

    As the research literature on principals leading school turnaround grows, determining whether or not real differences between good, even effective, principals and turnaround principals becomes increasingly important. Recent federal government policy and investment established turnaround models that emphasize the role of the school principal,…

  11. Composition Classroom Anthologies: Some Exploratory Thoughts and Suggestions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, David

    A writing instructor, who informally surveyed 11 current essay anthologies to determine why such anthologies discourage students from reading and writing, suggests problems relating to three aspects of physical design. First, many anthologies alienate composition students by their distinctive textbook-styled covers. These covers do not suggest…

  12. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  13. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Rabon, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Once widespread in the Eastern United States, early 20th century predator-control programs reduced red wolves to a remnant population by the 1970s. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, restored red wolves to northeastern North Carolina in 1987. After 25 years of restoration efforts, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. To understand how these issues influence recovery efforts, we examine the history of red wolf restoration and its challenges. We then formulate areas of research that are of direct relevance to the restoration of red wolves. Abstract By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70–80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves. PMID:26479530

  14. Adult Attachment and Transgender Identity in the Italian Context: Clinical Implications and Suggestions for Further Research

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Vitelli, Roberto; Scandurra, Cristiano; Picariello, Simona; Valerio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although attachment theory has been recognized as one of the main reference for the study of the general wellbeing, little research has been focused on the attachment styles of transgender people. Attachment styles are deeply influenced by the earliest relationships with caregivers, which, for gender nonconforming children, are often characterized by parental rejection. Consequently, transgender children and adults likely internalize societal stigma, developing internalized transphobia. The current research was aimed to explore the link between adult attachment and internalized transphobia. Method 25 male-to-female (MtF) and 23 female-to-male (FtM) transgender people participated in the survey filling in two self-report questionnaires: the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Transgender Identity Survey. A cluster analysis, T-Test and multiple regression analysis were conducted to explore the link between attachment styles and internalized transphobia. Results A greater prevalence of secure attachment styles was detected. Participants with secure attachment styles reported higher levels of positive transgender identity than those with insecure attachment styles. Secure attachment styles significantly affect positive transgender identity, while insecure attachment styles influence internalized transphobia. Conclusions A clinical focus on the redefinition of the Internal Working Models of transgender people can inform psychologically-focused interventions, which transgender people can benefit from. PMID:26937224

  15. Obesity and health--new perspectives from bioscience research suggest directions for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Penny, Suzi; Carryer, Jenny

    2011-02-11

    This viewpoint is written from the dual perspectives of a metabolic biochemist and a nurse academic who met at the Oxford University Round Table Forum on Obesity in 2008. Forty invited participants from around the world spent a week presenting and debating research and practice in the area of obesity. A unique feature of this forum was that it was cross-disciplinary with participants ranging from those working in public health with a background in medicine, paediatrics, nutrition, nursing, education, policy analysis, behaviour and social sciences, and exercise physiology to those working in the food industry and health insurance. The link between our current affluent lifestyle and increasing obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and the associated morbidity and mortality is well established. Interventions have involved individual patient clinician encounters aimed at weight loss and broader public health interventions with the goal of prevention and management of obesity. However, what is often overlooked is the need to also understand the psychosocial implications and issues for those living with a large body in a society where the prevailing culture, including that of health professionals, espouses a lean body as the ideal and excess weight as a testimony to greed, sloth and lack of will power. In this paper we share observations and learning from Round Table participation together with some of our own research interests.

  16. Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Rabon, David R

    2013-08-13

    By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70-80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves.

  17. A review of social host policies focused on underage drinking parties: suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Francisco, Vincent T; Sparks, Michael; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Underage drinking continues to be a public health concern, partially due to the ease in which adolescents obtain alcohol and consume it in private locations. States and municipalities have implemented strategies to counteract this, including adopting public policies called social host policies, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Traditionally, these laws have held adults accountable for furnishing alcohol to underage drinkers. However, states and communities are using another policy, also called social host, to deter underage drinking parties where easy access to alcohol and high-risk use occurs. These innovative laws hold individuals who control the property accountable for underage drinking that occurs there, regardless of alcohol source. We conducted a critical analysis of social host policies focused on hosting underage drinking parties and constructed a conceptual model to understand their targeted factors. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  18. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  19. [Research progress in lampbrush chromosomes and some suggestions for their use in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    Fanguo, Chen; Qingqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    Lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) are transient giant transcripts that exist at the diplotene stage of the first meiotic division in female gametocytes of almost all animals except mammals. LBCs are named for their lampbrush-like structure, however, they received the lowest research attention in studies of three classical cytogenetic chromosomes. They have been excellent models for studying the structure, organization, transcription, and transcriptional processing of chromosomes during meiosis. Here we briefly summarized these studies and LBCs forming mechanism and also discussed their possible functions, such as providing enough transcriptional products for embryonic development by oocytes LBCs or polyploidy demonstrated by previous reports. Finally, we discussed the possibility of introducing this typical case into our genetics teaching to inspire students' interest in genetics.

  20. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  1. The rationale and suggested approaches for research geosynchronous satellite measurements for severe storm and mesoscale investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Adler, R. F.; Chesters, D.; Susskind, J.; Uccellini, L.

    1984-01-01

    The measurements from current and planned geosynchronous satellites provide quantitative estimates of temperature and moisture profiles, surface temperature, wind, cloud properties, and precipitation. A number of significant observation characteristics remain, they include: (1) temperature and moisture profiles in cloudy areas; (2) high vertical profile resolution; (3) definitive precipitation area mapping and precipitation rate estimates on the convective cloud scale; (4) winds from low level cloud motions at night; (5) the determination of convective cloud structure; and (6) high resolution surface temperature determination. Four major new observing capabilities are proposed to overcome these deficiencies: a microwave sounder/imager, a high resolution visible and infrared imager, a high spectral resolution infrared sounder, and a total ozone mapper. It is suggested that the four sensors are flown together and used to support major mesoscale and short range forecasting field experiments.

  2. [Research advances in uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification of Pb in plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, De-Chao; Yu, Ming-Ge; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of soils by lead (Pb) is of widespread occurrence because of the industrialization, urbanization, mining, and many other anthropogenic activities. It is urgent and necessary for scientists to uncover the mechanisms of uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification of Pb in plants for the following two reasons. First, it helps target and regulate the key process of Pb uptake by crops and vegetables and minimize the threat of Pb introduction to the food chain. Second, it helps cultivate Pb hyperaccumulating plants that can absorb and sequester excessive amounts from contaminated soils in their biomass without incurring damage to basic metabolic functions. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in uptake, translocation and accumulation of Pb in plants and address the mechanisms by which plants or plant systems detoxify Pb. The further researches on the foliar uptake, the interactions between soil components and plant cell wall, as well as the integrated technologies for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soils were prospected.

  3. The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Keaney, M. A.; Bentz, K.; Groleau, M.; Tyssen, M.; Keyte, J.; Ball, C. G.; Campbell, M. R.; Grenon, S. M.; McBeth, P.; Broderick, T. J.

    2010-03-01

    Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council of Canada's Flight Research Laboratory's Falcon 20 aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research. The Falcon 20 had never been used for this purpose nor had the involved teams collaborated previously. There were many process challenges including the lack of antecedent surgical studies on this aircraft, a requirement for multiple disciplines who were unfamiliar and geographically distant from each other, flight performance limitations with the Falcon 20, complex animal care requirements, requirements for prototypical in-flight life-support surgical suites, financial limitations, and a need to use non-flight hardened technologies. Stepwise suggested solutions to these challenges are outlined as guidelines for future investigators intending similar research. Overall, the Falcon 20 TASE, backed by the flight resources, especially the design and fabrication capabilities of the NRC-FRL, provide investigators with a versatile and responsive opportunity to pursue research into advanced medical techniques that will be needed to save lives during space exploration.

  4. Research into Practice: Suggestions to Help Sustain Teacher Turn-Taking Talk and Socratic Questions with Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Martin, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Research using an intensive single-session training to increase use of Socratic (open-ended) questions and to lengthen turn-taking talk with low-income preschoolers showed that immediate posttraining gains were not sustained in classrooms 3 months later. Suggestions are given for trainers and for teachers that can boost teacher ability to…

  5. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior: Evidence from Controlled Studies, Methodological Critique, and Suggestions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes, including negative sexual health outcomes. In this paper, we review the literature investigating the relation between CSA and subsequent sexual risk behaviors among men and women. Previous research has found a relatively consistent association between CSA and higher rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly sex trading, more sexual partners, and an earlier age of first intercourse. However, there are a number of limitations to this research, including lack of a consistent definition of CSA, failure to investigate gender as a moderator, and possible confounding of the CSA experience with some of the sexual behavior outcome variables. Further, although there appears to be an association between CSA and later sexual risk behavior, researchers have not established whether this association is causal. Suggestions for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:18045760

  6. What recent research on diagrams suggests about learning with rather than learning from visual representations in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-03-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were located through searches of journal databases and books. Open coding of the studies identified 13 themes, 6 of which were identified in at least 10% of the studies: eliciting mental models, classroom-based research, multimedia principles, teaching and learning strategies, representational competence, and student agency. A shift in emphasis on learning with rather than learning from representations was evident across the three 5-year intervals considered, mirroring a pedagogical shift from science instruction as transmission of information to constructivist approaches in which learners actively negotiate understanding and construct knowledge. The themes and topics in recent research highlight areas of active interest and reveal gaps that may prove fruitful for further research, including classroom-based studies, the role of prior knowledge, and the use of eye-tracking. The results of the research included in this thematic review of the 2000-2014 literature suggest that both interpreting and constructing representations can lead to better understanding of science concepts.

  7. A brief, critical review of research on impaired control over alcohol use and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Beseler, Cheryl L; Helms, Christa M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Wakeling, Vanessa A; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-02-01

    Impaired control, defined as "a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption" (Heather et al. J Stud Alcohol 1993; 54, 701), has historically been considered an important aspect of addiction. Despite recognition of its importance to addiction and potential value as an early indicator of problem drinking risk, we argue that impaired control over alcohol use has not received sufficient research attention. In an effort to spark further research, the present critical review offers brief discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding impaired control and avenues for future research. Three main research areas are addressed: (i) epidemiology; (ii) measurement issues; and (iii) potential mechanisms underlying relationships between impaired control and subsequent problem drinking. Measurement issues include complexities involved in self-report assessment of impaired control, development and validation of human and animal laboratory models, and impaired control's relationship to other constructs (i.e., impulsivity and other difficulties with self-control; symptoms of dependence such as craving). We discuss briefly 2 potential mechanisms that may help to explain why some drinkers experience impaired control while others do not: neurobiological dysfunction and family history/genetics. Suggestions for future research are focused on ways in which the impaired control construct may enhance prediction of who might be at particular risk of subsequent problem drinking and to facilitate intervention to reduce problem alcohol use.

  8. A Brief, Critical Review of Research on Impaired Control over Alcohol Use and Suggestions for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Helms, Christa M.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Wakeling, Vanessa A.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired control, defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption” (Heather et al. 1993; p. 701) has historically been considered an important aspect of addiction. Despite recognition of its importance to addiction and potential value as an early indicator of problem drinking risk, we argue that impaired control over alcohol use has not received sufficient research attention. In an effort to spark further research, the present critical review offers brief discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding impaired control and avenues for future research. Three main research areas are addressed: 1) epidemiology, 2) measurement issues and 3) potential mechanisms underlying relationships between impaired control and subsequent problem drinking. Measurement issues include complexities involved in self-report assessment of impaired control, development and validation of human and animal laboratory models, and impaired control’s relationship to other constructs (i.e., impulsivity and other difficulties with self-control; symptoms of dependence such as craving). We discuss briefly two potential mechanisms that may help to explain why some drinkers experience impaired control while others do not: neurobiological dysfunction and family history/genetics. Suggestions for future research are focused on ways in which the impaired control construct may enhance prediction of who might be at particular risk of subsequent problem drinking and to facilitate intervention to reduce problem alcohol use. PMID:24117468

  9. A suggestion for future research on interface design of an Internet-based telemedicine system for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chuna, Young J; Patterson, Patrick E

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine has emerged as an effective tool for providing high quality healthcare service and health-related information, especially in rural areas. Rural areas often have a larger elderly population with greater rates of preventable disease. These areas also have fewer medical resources and specialists, and have limited access to health services, all of which can influence overall health. An Internet-based telemedicine system can be one solution to provide the rural elderly with the proper health information when needed. The elderly obviously have limited capabilities compared with younger adults in the use of internet technology. However, the interfaces of the currently existing Internet-based telemedicine systems are not specifically developed for elderly users. This paper suggests future interface design research for an Internet-based telemedicine system specifically for the elderly.

  10. Co-occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Problems among Homeless Persons: Suggestions for Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Polcin, Douglas L

    Communities throughout the U.S. are struggling to find solutions for serious and persistent homelessness. Alcohol and drug problems can be causes and consequences of homelessness, as well as co-occurring problems that complicate efforts to succeed in finding stable housing. Two prominent service models exist, one known as "Housing First" takes a harm reduction approach and the other known as the "linear" model typically supports a goal of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Despite their popularity, the research supporting these models suffers from methodological problems and inconsistent findings. One purpose of this paper is to describe systematic reviews of the homelessness services literature, which illustrate weaknesses in research designs and inconsistent conclusions about the effectiveness of current models. Problems among some of the seminal studies on homelessness include poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, inadequate measures of alcohol and drug use, unspecified or poorly implemented comparison conditions, and lack of procedures documenting adherence to service models. Several recent papers have suggested broader based approaches for homeless services that integrate alternatives and respond better to consumer needs. Practical considerations for implementing a broader system of services are described and peer managed recovery homes are presented as examples of services that address some of the gaps in current approaches. Three issues are identified that need more attention from researchers: 1) improving upon the methodological limitations in current studies, 2) assessing the impact of broader based, integrated services on outcome, and 3) assessing approaches to the service needs of homeless persons involved in the criminal justice system.

  11. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  12. Long-Term Engagement in Authentic Research with NASA (LEARN): Innovative Practices Suggested By a New Model for Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, M. R.; Joseph, J. D.; Yang, M. M.; Omar, A. H.; Crecelius, S.; Harte, T.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.; Taylor, J.; Bujosa, R.; Moulton, C.; Haggard, C. S.; Hyater-Adams, S.; Kollmeyer, R.; Weisman, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's LEARN Project is an innovative program that provides long-term immersion in the practice of atmospheric science for middle and high school in-service teachers. Working alongside NASA scientists and using authentic NASA Science Mission Directorate research data, teachers develop individual research topics of interest during two weeks in the summer while on-site at NASA Langley. With continued, intensive mentoring by NASA scientists, the teachers further develop their research throughout the academic year through virtual group meetings and data team meetings mirroring scientific collaborations. At the end of the first year, LEARN teachers present scientific posters. The LEARN experience has had such an impact that multiple teachers from the first two cohorts have elected to continue their research. The LEARN project evaluation has provided insights into particularly effective elements of this new approach. Findings indicate that teachers' perceptions of the scientific enterprise have changed, and that LEARN provided substantial resources to help them take real-world research to their students. This presentation will focus on key factors from LEARN's implementation that inform best practices for the incorporation of authentic scientific research into teacher professional development experiences. We suggest that these factors should be considered in the development of other such experiences, including: (1) The involvement of a single scientist as both the project leader/manager and the project scientist, to ensure that the project can meet teachers' needs. (2) An emphasis on framing and approaching scientific research questions, so that teachers can learn to evaluate the feasibility of studies based on scope, scale, and availability of data. (3) Long term, ongoing relationships where teachers and scientists work as collaborators, beyond the workshop "mold." (4) A focus on meeting the needs of individual teachers, whether their needs relate to elements of

  13. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae: Annual report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a lipid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 33 figs.

  14. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  15. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development – a case study

    PubMed Central

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education. PMID:27990467

  16. Fiber optic DTS system application in the research of accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Látal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Šiška, Petr; Skapa, Jan; Hanáečk, František; Vašinek, Vladimír; Vitásek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Bocheza, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    The team of authors tries to provide information on the results of the fiber-optic DTS system application under long-term research of accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass in this article. In 2006, was in Ostrava implemented the largest object in the Czech Republic, which is heated by heat pump system. It is a multi-purpose aula at VŠB-TU + CIT (Center for Information Technology). The installed heat pump system consists of ten heat pumps with a total output of 700kW and 110 wells about 140m deep. The applied research is conducted in two measuring polygons ("Big" and "Little" polygon). Simultaneously with fiber-optic DTS system is applied group of PT1000 temperature sensors and Geothermal Response Test (GERT). Fiber-optic DTS system is deployed inside polyethylene PE collector via a special sensory fiber optic cable. The ecological antifreeze mixture, based on the technical spirit, used for the collection and delivery of energy to the rock mass circulates inside of PE collector. PT1000 temperature sensors are placed at certain intervals on the outer side of the PE U-tube within the heat well. The result of application of the fiberoptic DTS system is information about the heat profile of wells, thermal conductivity of the geological environment and the impact of external changes in the thermal wells, along with the accumulation possibilities of thermal energy in the rock mass (over-summer period).

  17. Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28 a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

  18. Parent-Offspring Value Transmission in a Societal Context: Suggestions for a Utopian Research Design--With Empirical Underpinnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnke, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Puts intrafamilial value transmission into a societal context, using data from a study of university student-parents triads to show why a unified research approach is necessary. All conservation values were more important to the parents than the offspring, while the reverse was found for self-transcendence versus self-enhancement values. (SM)

  19. CAN YOU MAKE A PICTURE TO SUGGEST, A MANUAL OF IDEAS AND MATERIALS FOR A CONTEMPORARY CLASSROOM MATH RESEARCH CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUCKS COUNTY SCHOOL STUDY COUNCIL

    A MATH RESEARCH CENTER MAY BE SET UP IN A CORNER OF A ROOM, PERFERABLY WITH A CHALK BOARD. CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO CREATE MANY OF THE GAMES, CHARTS AND STORIES TO BE USED IN SUCH A CENTER. THE CENTER MAY BE SUPPLEMENTED WITH BOOKS, GAMES, BLOCKS, POPPIT BEADS, COUNTERS, CHECKERS, AND NUMBER LINE CHARTS. ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO A WIDE VARIETY OF…

  20. Exploring a Method for Transference Assessment in Group Therapy Using the Social Relations Model: Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Rayna D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how group clinicians and researchers might use a methodological and statistical model called the Social Relations Model (SRM) to circumvent common challenges to studying transference in groups. In particular, it examines how this method of transference assessment deals with the distortion aspect of transference and explains…

  1. What Recent Research on Diagrams Suggests about Learning "with" Rather than Learning "from" Visual Representations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were…

  2. Teacher Shortages in Rural America and Suggestions for Solution. Rural Research Report. Volume 13, Issue 8, Spring 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaw, Donna S.; Freeman, Robert; Philhower, Susan

    2002-01-01

    In a climate of increasing enrollment, reduced funding, and unfunded mandated state and federal programs, urban and rural school districts find it increasingly difficult to attract and retain qualified teachers. This paper offers suggestions to local school boards and district administrators in states with significant numbers of rural schools: (1)…

  3. Open research practices: unintended consequences and suggestions for averting them. (Commentary on the Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative (PROI) is a move to enlist reviewers in the promotion of data-sharing. In this commentary, I discuss objections that can be raised, first to the specific proposals in the PROI, and second to data-sharing in general. I argue that although many objections have strong counter-arguments, others merit more serious consideration. Regarding the PROI, I suggest that it could backfire if editors and authors feel coerced into data-sharing and so may not be the most pragmatic way of encouraging greater openness. More generally, while promoting data-sharing, we need to be sensitive to cases where sharing of data from human participants could create ethical problems. Furthermore, those interested in promoting reproducible science need to defend against an increased risk of data-dredging when large, multivariable datasets are shared. I end with some suggestions to avoid these unintended consequences. PMID:27152225

  4. Behavioral treatment of drooling: a methodological critique of the literature with clinical guidelines and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Jan J W; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H; Rotteveel, Jan J

    2007-09-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavioral procedures are scarce. This article reviews 19 behavioral studies published since 1970. Treatment procedures are (a) instruction, prompting, and positive reinforcement; (b) negative social reinforcement and declarative procedures; (c) cueing techniques; and (d) self-management procedures. Although these procedures yield positive results, critical examination of experimental methodology of the studies reveals several methodological shortcomings. Guidelines for clinical use of behavioral treatment for drooling are presented, and recommendations are given for future research in this area.

  5. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  6. A Critical Review of the Literature on Attentional Bias in Cocaine Use Disorder and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Robinson, Cendrine D.; Waters, Andrew J.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine use disorder (CUD) continues to be an important public health problem and novel approaches are needed to improve the effectiveness of treatments for CUD. Recently, there has been increased interest in the role of automatic cognition such as attentional bias (AB) in addictive behaviors and AB has been proposed to be a cognitive marker for addictions. Automatic cognition may be particularly relevant to CUD as there is evidence for particularly robust AB to cocaine cues and strong relationships to craving for cocaine and other illicit drugs. Further, the wide-ranging cognitive deficits (e.g., in response inhibition and working memory) evinced by many cocaine users enhance the potential importance of interventions targeting automatic cognition in this population. In the current paper, we discuss relevant addiction theories, followed by a review of studies that examined AB in CUD. We then consider the neural substrates of attentional bias including human neuroimaging, neurobiological and pharmacological studies. We conclude with a discussion of research gaps and future directions for attentional bias in CUD. PMID:25222545

  7. The role of micronutrients in the response to ambient air pollutants: Potential mechanisms and suggestions for research design.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Rayalam, Srujana

    2017-01-01

    People living in regions of low socioeconomic status are thought to be prone to higher exposures to environmental pollutants, poor nutrition, and numerous preventable diseases and infections. Poverty correlates with pollution and malnutrition; however, limited studies examined their interrelationship. The well-studied, deleterious health effects attributed to environmental pollutants and poor nutrition may act in combination with produce more severe adverse health outcomes than any one factor alone. Deficiencies in specific nutrients render the body more susceptible to injury which may influence the pathways that serve as the mechanistic responses to ambient air pollutants. This review (1) explores specific micronutrients that are of global concern, (2) explains how these nutrients may impact the body's response to ambient air pollution, and (3) provides guidance on designing animal models of nutritional deficiency. It is likely that those individuals who reside in regions of high ambient air pollution are similarly malnourished. Therefore, it is important that research identifies specific nutrients of concern and their impact in identified regions of high ambient air pollution.

  8. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  9. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  10. The dynamics of the tundra-taiga boundary: an overview and suggested coordinated and integrated approach to research.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Crawford, Robert M M; Eronen, Matti; Hofgaard, Annika; Payette, Serge; Rees, W Gareth; Skre, Oddvar; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Vlassova, Tatiana K; Werkman, Ben R

    2002-08-01

    The tundra-taiga boundary stretches for more than 13,400 km around the Northern Hemisphere and is probably the Earth's greatest vegetation transition. The trees that define the boundary have been sensitive to climate changes in the past and models of future vegetation distribution suggest a rapid and dramatic invasion of the tundra by the taiga. Such changes would generate both positive and negative feedbacks to the climate system and the balance could result in a net warming effect. However, the boundary is becoming increasingly affected by human activities that remove trees and degrade forest-tundra into tundra-like areas. Because of the vastness and remoteness of the tundra-taiga boundary, and of methodological problems such as problematic definitions and lack of standardized methods to record the location and characteristics of the ecotone, a project group has been established under the auspices of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). This paper summarizes the initial output of the group and focuses on our uncertainties in understanding the current processes at the tundra-taiga boundary and the conflicts between model predictions of changes in the location of the boundary and contrasting recently observed changes due to human activities. Finally, we present recommendations for a coordinated international approach to the problem and invite the international community to join us in reducing the uncertainties about the dynamics of the ecotone and their consequences.

  11. Approaching a network connectivity-driven classification of the psychosis continuum: a selective review and suggestions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Smieskova, Renata; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Lang, Undine E.; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Brain changes in schizophrenia evolve along a dynamic trajectory, emerging before disease onset and proceeding with ongoing illness. Recent investigations have focused attention on functional brain interactions, with experimental imaging studies supporting the disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia. These studies have revealed a broad spectrum of abnormalities in brain connectivity in patients, particularly for connections integrating the frontal cortex. A critical point is that brain connectivity abnormalities, including altered resting state connectivity within the fronto-parietal (FP) network, are already observed in non-help-seeking individuals with psychotic-like experiences. If we consider psychosis as a continuum, with individuals with psychotic-like experiences at the lower and psychotic patients at the upper ends, individuals with psychotic-like experiences represent a key population for investigating the validity of putative biomarkers underlying the onset of psychosis. This paper selectively addresses the role played by FP connectivity in the psychosis continuum, which includes patients with chronic psychosis, early psychosis, clinical high risk, genetic high risk, as well as the general population with psychotic experiences. We first discuss structural connectivity changes among the FP pathway in each domain in the psychosis continuum. This may provide a basis for us to gain an understanding of the subsequent changes in functional FP connectivity. We further indicate that abnormal FP connectivity may arise from glutamatergic disturbances of this pathway, in particular from abnormal NMDA receptor-mediated plasticity. In the second part of this paper we propose some concepts for further research on the use of network connectivity in the classification of the psychosis continuum. These concepts are consistent with recent efforts to enhance the role of data in driving the diagnosis of psychiatric spectrum diseases. PMID:25628553

  12. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions for future research

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Gill; Vargas, Rodrigo; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Turetsky, Merritt

    2012-07-09

    Rewetting of dry soils and thawing of frozen soils are short-term, transitional phenomena in terms of hydrology and thermodynamics in soil systems. The impact of these short-term phenomena on larger-scale ecosystem fluxes has only recently been fully appreciated, and a growing number of studies show that these events affect various biogeochemical processes including fluxes of biogenic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and intensity of drying-rewetting events and thawing of frozen soils, highlighting the importance of understanding how rewetting and thawing will influence biogenic gas fluxes. Here we summarize findings in an acquired database from 338 studies conducted from 1956-2010, and propose future research questions. Studies have reported conflicting results, ranging from large increases in gas fluxes to non-significant changes following rewetting and thawing in various terrestrial ecosystems. An analysis of published data revealed that CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes increase 7.6 (standard error 1.1) times following rewetting and thawing with no significant difference between these events. We explore possible mechanisms and controls that regulate flux responses, and note that there is a lack of studies on variation of CH{sub 4}, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes following rewetting and thawing events. High temporal resolution of flux measurements is critical to capture rapid changes in the gas fluxes after these soil perturbations. Finally, we propose that future studies should investigate the interactions between biological (i.e., microbial community) and physical (i.e., gas production, flux, and dissolution) changes in biogenic gas fluxes, and explore synergistic experimental and modelling approaches.

  13. Why Don't Well-Educated Adults Understand Accumulation? A Challenge to Researchers, Educators, and Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Sterman, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation is a fundamental process in dynamic systems: inventory accumulates production less shipments; the national debt accumulates the federal deficit. Effective decision making in such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between stocks and the flows that alter them. However, highly educated people are often unable to infer…

  14. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  15. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  16. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  17. The effect of WIN 55,212-2 suggests a cannabinoid-sensitive component in the early toxicity induced by organic acids accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I and in related disorders of propionate metabolism in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, A L; Paz-Loyola, A L; Serratos, I N; Seminotti, B; Ribeiro, C A J; Leipnitz, G; Souza, D O; Wajner, M; Santamaría, A

    2015-12-03

    Several physiological processes in the CNS are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Cannabinoid receptors (CBr) and CBr agonists have been involved in the modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activation. Glutaric (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OHGA), methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic (PA) acids are endogenous metabolites produced and accumulated in the brain of children affected by severe organic acidemias (OAs) with neurodegeneration. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have been involved in the toxic pattern exerted by these organic acids. Studying the early pattern of toxicity exerted by these metabolites is crucial to explain the extent of damage that they can produce in the brain. Herein, we investigated the effects of the synthetic CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on early markers of GA-, 3-OHGA-, MMA- and PA-induced toxicity in brain synaptosomes from adult (90-day-old) and adolescent (30-day-old) rats. As pre-treatment, WIN exerted protective effects on the GA- and MMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation induced by all metabolites. Our findings support a protective and modulatory role of cannabinoids in the early toxic events elicited by toxic metabolites involved in OAs.

  18. How to integrate dreaming into a general theory of consciousness--a critical review of existing positions and suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Noreika, Valdas

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we address the different ways in which dream research can contribute to interdisciplinary consciousness research. As a second global state of consciousness aside from wakefulness, dreaming is an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness. However, programmatic suggestions for integrating dreaming into broader theories of consciousness, for instance by regarding dreams as a model system of standard or pathological wake states, have not yielded straightforward results. We review existing proposals for using dreaming as a model system, taking into account concerns about the concept of modeling and the adequacy and practical feasibility of dreaming as a model system. We conclude that existing modeling approaches are premature and rely on controversial background assumptions. Instead, we suggest that contrastive analysis of dreaming and wakefulness presents a more promising strategy for integrating dreaming into a broader research context and solving many of the problems involved in the modeling approach.

  19. Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Learning through Research Workshops in a Hispanic-Serving Institution in USA: A Review of Two Years' Accumulative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Shin, Yousun; Overton, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the analysis results of two-year accumulative data from Research Academy workshops held for pre-service and in-service teachers in a southern state Hispanic-Serving Institution. Graduate students' perceptions of learning through these professional development workshops were reported. Statistical analyses were…

  20. Research to determine the accumulation of organic constituents and heavy metals from petroleum-impacted sediments by marine detritivores of the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Roesijadi, G.; Augenfeld, J.M.; Riley, R.G.; Credilius, E.A.

    1980-04-01

    The major objective of this research program was to investigate the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and intertidal zone and their bioavailability to, and effects on, the biota. The work has advanced the level of knowledge by demonstrating that exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments can result in accumulation and retention of heavier polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, but does not enhance uptake of trace metals.

  1. The Impact of Migraine and the Effect of Migraine Treatment on Workplace Productivity in the United States and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Wayne N.; Landy, Stephen H.; Downs, Kristen E.; Runken, M. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that migraine is associated with decreased productivity. This article describes the results of a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications that measured the impact of migraine on workplace productivity in the United States and provides recommendations for future research. A MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1, 1990 to July 31, 2008. Articles were included if the results were from a prospective or retrospective study that reported work-specific productivity outcomes in adults with migraine in the United States. Twenty-six studies were included. Nine studies found that diagnosed and/or undiagnosed migraine had a negative impact on worker productivity. Although one migraine prophylactic study found a statistically significant improvement in worker productivity for topiramate-treated patients, another found an insignificant difference in lisinopril-treated patients. Fifteen studies compared the impact of triptan therapy with a control group. The control groups in these studies differed with regard to recall periods, time to follow-up, and types of questionnaires used. Almost all studies found that triptan therapy was associated with a statistically significant improvement in loss in worker productivity vs the control group. Health care professionals can reduce the impact of migraine on worker productivity with appropriate therapy. Researchers should collect presenteeism and absenteeism data, report results in units of time, use a validated instrument, carefully consider recall periods, and report worker productivity separately. In addition, patients with undiagnosed migraine should be included in disease burden studies. When evaluating effects of treatment on productivity, researchers should target well-controlled, double-blind studies and conduct productivity research for new treatments. PMID:19411440

  2. The seasonal fluctuations and accumulation of iodine-129 in relation to the hydrogeochemistry of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, a discontinuous permafrost watershed.

    PubMed

    Herod, Matthew N; Li, Tianjiao; Pellerin, André; Kieser, William E; Clark, Ian D

    2016-11-01

    The long lived radioisotope (129)I is a uranium fission product, and an environmental contaminant of the nuclear age. Consequently, it can trace anthropogenic releases of (129)I in watersheds, and has been identified as a potential means to distinguish water sources in discharge (Nimz, 1998). The purpose of this work was to identify the sources and mass input of (129)I and trace the transport, partitioning and mass balance of (129)I over time in a remote watershed. We monitored (129)I and other geochemical and isotope tracers (e.g. δ(14)CDIC, δ(13)CDIC, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, etc.) in precipitation and discharge from the Wolf Creek Research Basin (WCRB), a discontinuous permafrost watershed in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and evaluated the use of (129)I as a water end-member tracer. Radiocarbon and geochemical tracers of weathering show that discharge is comprised of (i) groundwater baseflow that has recharged under open system conditions, (ii) spring freshet meltwater that has derived solutes through closed-system interaction with saturated soils, and (iii) active layer drainage. The abundance of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I ratio correlated with geochemical tracers suggests varying contributions of these three water end-members to discharge. The (129)I concentration was highest at the onset of freshet, reaching 17.4×10(6) atoms/L, and likely reflects the lack of interaction between meltwater and organic matter at that time. This peak in (129)I was followed by a decline over the summer to its lowest value. Mass balance calculations of the (129)I budget show that the input to the watershed via precipitation is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the output suggesting that such arctic watersheds accumulate nearly 90% of the annual input, primarily in soil organic matter. Temporal variations in discharge (129)I concentrations correlated with changes in discharge water sources suggesting that (129)I is a promising hydrologic tracer, particularly when used in

  3. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  4. What are the functional outcomes of right hemisphere stroke patients with or without hemi-inattention complications? A critical narrative review and suggestions for further research

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Maria Stella; Kilbride, Cherry; Reynolds, Frances Ann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: There is widespread acceptance that patients demonstrating neglect/hemi-inattention (HI) following right hemisphere stroke (RHS) underachieve functionally compared to their counterparts without neglect. However, empirical evidence for this view needs examination. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise relevant studies that compared outcomes from RHS patients with/without hemi-attention and suggest more robust follow-up research. Method: Twelve studies published in 1995–2013 were critically reviewed. Two independent reviewers appraised design features including sample representation, assessment and data analysis methods. Strengths and limitations were highlighted. Results: Results were largely inconsistent. Considerable heterogeneity within patient groups and across studies complicated interpretation. Evidence suggested average group disparity in scores between patients with and without HI at discharge but the cause of functional disparity could not be attributed specifically to HI from the data and modelling results available. Conclusion: The relationship between HI status and functional recovery warrants further investigation in studies with stronger methodology to ensure rigour and robustness in the results. Pending further research, HI status should not be regarded as a key predictor of functional recovery or rehabilitation potential in patients with RHSs. This group should continue to receive appropriate therapeutic intervention aimed at maximising their functional recovery post-stroke.Implications for RehabilitationFindings from this review demonstrate a paucity of evidence to support the presence of hemi-inattention as a key predictor of functional recovery in patients with right hemisphere stroke; as such, practitioners should take this into consideration when planning rehabilitation programmes of their patients.In the initial months following right hemisphere stroke, there are wide-ranging differences in the rate and amount

  5. Comparison of height-accumulation and volume-equation methods for estimating tree and stand volumes. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.B.; Baldwin, V.C.

    1995-09-01

    Estimating tree and stand volume in mature plantations is time consuming, involving much manpower and equipment; however, several sampling and volume-prediction techniques are available. This study showed that a well-constructed, volume-equation method yields estimates comparable to those of the often more time-consuming, hight-accumulation method, even though the latter should be more accurate for any individual tree. Plot volumes were estimated by both methods in a remeasurement of trees in a 40-plot, planted slash pine thinning study. The mean percent age difference in total volume, inside bark, between the two methods ranged from 1 to 2.5 percent across all the plots; differences outside bark ranged from 7 to 10 percent. The results were similar when the effecs of site, plot mean values, or tree-by-tree comparisons were incorporated.

  6. Suggestion can help.

    PubMed

    Benson, P E

    2000-10-01

    One cannot practise dentistry without realising that for the patient, the control of pain and fear is extremely important. Modern technical advances have made painless dentistry a reality and yet research has shown that more people avoid dental treatment through fear of pain than all other factors combined. Dental surgeons and psychologists agree that patients frequently magnify their unpleasant dental experiences. There are deep-seated psychological reasons for this exaggerated fear; the mouth being a highly charged erotogenic region, is a primary zone of interaction with the environment and can have important far-reaching emotional significance. To many people the anticipation of dental treatment is sufficient to arouse extreme anxiety. Dental schools lay great emphasis on basic medical sciences and the technical excellence of students, the psychosomatic approach to the alleviation of apprehension, fear and pain is meanwhile often sadly neglected. The use of controlled suggestion and hypnosis can be shown to play a very important role in clinical dentistry.

  7. What Does Research Suggest about the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Statistics at the College Level? A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; Alt, Shirley; Dupuis, Danielle; Holleque, Kristine; Chang, Beng

    2008-01-01

    Since the first studies on the teaching and learning of statistics appeared in the research literature, the scholarship in this area has grown dramatically. Given the diversity of disciplines, methodology, and orientation of the studies that may be classified as "statistics education research," summarizing and critiquing this body of work for…

  8. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in sub-Saharan Africa: synthesis of available data and suggestions for further research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Gill; Thomas, Andrew D.; Pelster, David; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    This paper summarizes currently available data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African natural ecosystems and agricultural lands. The available data are used to synthesize current understanding of the drivers of change in GHG emissions, outline the knowledge gaps, and suggest future directions and strategies for GHG emission research. GHG emission data were collected from 75 studies conducted in 22 countries (n = 244) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were by far the largest contributor to GHG emissions and global warming potential (GWP) in SSA natural terrestrial systems. CO2 emissions ranged from 3.3 to 57.0 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, methane (CH4) emissions ranged from -4.8 to 3.5 kg ha-1 yr-1 (-0.16 to 0.12 Mg CO2 equivalent (eq.) ha-1 yr-1), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions ranged from -0.1 to 13.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 (-0.03 to 4.1 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). Soil physical and chemical properties, rewetting, vegetation type, forest management, and land-use changes were all found to be important factors affecting soil GHG emissions from natural terrestrial systems. In aquatic systems, CO2 was the largest contributor to total GHG emissions, ranging from 5.7 to 232.0 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, followed by -26.3 to 2741.9 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 (-0.89 to 93.2 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1) and 0.2 to 3.5 kg N2O ha-1 yr-1 (0.06 to 1.0 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). Rates of all GHG emissions from aquatic systems were affected by type, location, hydrological characteristics, and water quality. In croplands, soil GHG emissions were also dominated by CO2, ranging from 1.7 to 141.2 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, with -1.3 to 66.7 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 (-0.04 to 2.3 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1) and 0.05 to 112.0 kg N2O ha-1 yr-1 (0.015 to 33.4 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). N2O emission factors (EFs) ranged from 0.01 to 4.1 %. Incorporation of crop residues or manure with inorganic fertilizers invariably resulted in significant changes in GHG emissions, but results were inconsistent as the magnitude and direction of

  10. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  11. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  12. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  13. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  14. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  15. Original Research: Hydroxytyrosol, an ingredient of olive oil, reduces triglyceride accumulation and promotes lipolysis in human primary visceral adipocytes during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Stefanon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol has various pharmacological properties, including anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory activities, preventing hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. The present study is focused on the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of hydroxytyrosol on primary human visceral adipocytes. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 (A7) days of treatment when they reached mature shape. The treatment with hydroxytyrosol extract significantly (P < 0.001) increased apoptosis in P10 and P20 cells in comparison to control and A7 cells; significantly (P < 0.001) reduced triglyceride accumulation in P20 cells compared to P10 and control cells; and significantly (P < 0.001) increased lipolysis in P20 cells in comparison to control cells and A7 mature adipocytes. Hydroxytyrosol-treated P20 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA2, GATA3, WNT3A, SFRP5, HES1, and SIRT1. In contrast, genes involved in promoting adipogenesis such as LEP, FGF1, CCND1, and SREBF1 were significantly down-regulated by hydroxytyrosol treatment. These data suggest that hydroxytyrosol promotes lipolysis and apoptotic activity in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation and does not affect already mature adipocytes. PMID:27287014

  16. THE PEACE CORPS EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROJECT IN COLOMBIA--TWO YEARS OF RESEARCH. RESEARCH REPORT NO. 10, FEEDBACK TO THE PEACE CORPS ON PROJECT PROGRESS--SOME MODELS AND SUGGESTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMSTOCK, GEORGE; MACCOBY, NATHAN

    RESEARCH TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PEACE CORPS ETV PROJECT STEMMED FROM TWO MODELS OF FEEDBACK. INFORMATION PROVIDED IN "INDIVIDUAL FEEDBACK" IS OF VALUE AT A PRAGMATIC LEVEL, WHEREAS INFORMATION FROM "PROJECT FEEDBACK" CAN BE USED BY ADMINISTRATORS FOR POLICY DECISIONS. THE MAJOR TOOL FOR PROJECT…

  17. Contextual Suggestion from Wikitravel: Exploiting Community-based Suggestions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    in a spe- cific location, at a specific time, taking into ac- count their personal preferences. As a source for travel suggestions we use Wikitravel...which is a community-based travel guide for destinations all over the world. From pages dedicated to cities in the US we extract suggestions for...formation on user preferences is valuable for pro- viding appropriate suggestions. 1 Introduction Wikitravel1 is a collaboratively created site for travel

  18. Suggestive techniques connected to medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a series of articles where several detailed clinical examples will be presented on the effectiveness of using suggestive techniques in various fields of interventional medicine. The aim of this series is to raise the attention to the patients heightened openness to suggestions. By recognizing the unavoidable nature of suggestive effects on one hand we can eliminate unfavourable, negative suggestions and on the other hand go on and consciously apply positive, helpful variations. Research materials, reviews and case study will describe the way suggestions can reduce anxiety and stress connected to medical intervention, improve subjective well-being and cooperation, and increase efficiency by reducing treatment costs. PMID:24265898

  19. Positive Suggestion: It Helps LD Students Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldridge, O. A. "Buff"

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences in remediating reading problems of learning disabled students through hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestion. Research on the use of hypnosis is briefly summarized and recommendations on the use of nonhypnotic suggestion in the classroom are given. (CL)

  20. Hypnotic suggestion: a musical mathaphor.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, hypnotizability has always been associated with the increase in suggestibility produced by hypnosis. In practice, hypnotizability is measured as suggestibility following a hypnotic induction. Our understanding of hypnosis and suggestion has been hampered by this discordance between the conceptual and operational definitions of hypnotizability. For example, despite hundreds of studies purporting to use standardized scales to assess hypnotizability, we know next to nothing about that construct, as it has been defined conceptually. Neither the hypothesis that it is a stable trait nor the hypothesis that it is modifiable have been tested in any study, and correlations between hypnotizability and other psychological or physiological variables have not yet been assessed. Conversely, we have learned much about hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility. Suggestibility has been measured on reliable and valid instruments, and we have abundant data on its stability, modifiability, and correlates. Hypnosis enhances suggestibility to a modest degree and increases the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

  1. Accumulated versus continuous exercise for health benefit: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Marie H; Blair, Steven N; Murtagh, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Current physical activity guidelines endorse the notion that the recommended amount of daily physical activity can be accumulated in short bouts performed over the course of a day. Although intuitively appealing, the evidence for the efficacy of accumulated exercise is not plentiful. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of similar amounts of exercise performed in either one continuous or two or more accumulated bouts on a range of health outcomes. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review, in which at least one outcome known to affect health was measured before and after continuous and accumulated exercise training interventions. Where improvements in cardiovascular fitness were noted, most studies reported no difference in the alterations between accumulated and continuous patterns of exercise. In the few studies where a normalization of blood pressure was observed from baseline to post-intervention, there appear to be no differences between accumulated and continuous exercise in the magnitude of this effect. For other health outcomes such as adiposity, blood lipids and psychological well-being, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether accumulated exercise is as effective as the more traditional continuous approach. Seven short-term studies in which at least one health-related outcome was measured during the 0- to 48-hour period after a single continuous bout of exercise and a number of short bouts of equivalent total duration were included in the review. Many of the studies of such short-term effects considered the plasma triglyceride response to a meal following either accumulated short or continuous bouts of exercise. Collectively, these studies suggest that accumulated exercise may be as effective at reducing postprandial lipaemia. Further research is required to determine if even shorter bouts of accumulated exercise (<10 minutes) confer a health benefit and whether an accumulated approach to physical

  2. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  3. Chloroquine accumulation by purified plasma membranes from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Elandaloussi, Laurence M; Smith, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) has been associated with a decrease in CQ accumulation by parasitized erythrocytes. This study aimed at investigating the role of parasite plasma membranes (PPM) in the mechanism of CQ accumulation. CQ accumulation capabilities of membranes were determined using tritiated CQ. PPM isolated from chloroquine-sensitive parasites were found to accumulate less CQ than those isolated from chloroquine-resistant parasites. However, CQ accumulation was found to be ATP-independent suggesting that this accumulation results from binding rather than transport.

  4. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  5. Accumulation and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid (ACC) in Plants: Current Status, Considerations for Future Research and Agronomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses. This review highlights some recent advances related to ACC. These include the regulation of ACC synthesis, conjugation and deamination, evidence for a role of ACC as an ethylene-independent signal, short and long range ACC transport, and the identification of a first ACC transporter. Although unraveling the complex mechanism of ACC transport is in its infancy, new questions emerge together with the identification of a first transporter. In the light of the future quest for additional ACC transporters, this review presents perspectives of the novel findings and includes considerations for future research toward applications in agronomy. PMID:28174583

  6. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  7. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    PubMed

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  8. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2)…

  9. Suggestions for Library Network Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Various approaches to the design of automatic library systems are described, suggestions for the design of rational and effective automated library processes are posed, and an attempt is made to assess the importance and effect of library network systems on library operations and library effectiveness. (Author/CWM)

  10. Online Training Sessions: Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabonell, Martha; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These planning and evaluative guidelines for online trainers utilize a sliding scale--from minimal to suggested to optimal--for five types of training sessions: (1) Search Service--Beginning; (2) Search Service--Advanced; (3) Search Service--Subject; (4) Database Producer; and (5) Independent Introductory Workshop. (RAA)

  11. Control of helium accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The fishbone like oscillations in ignited tokamaks are addressed in an exploratory manner. The effects of the strong m = 1 oscillations and the weak high-frequency oscillations are examined in order to explore the feasibility of utilizing these oscillations for alpha accumulation control. The prospects of achieving small scale continuous alpha removal from the plasma center by mild fishbone-like oscillations are examined.

  12. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  13. Suggestions for Teaching the Migratory Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dolly; And Others

    Suggestions for teachers of migrant children are offered in seven individual teaching guides which were developed as part of a research and curriculum development project to improve the teaching of migratory pupils. Levels of study include grades four, five, six, and seven, and one general unit deals with providing an effective learning…

  14. Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163160.html Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests Fear of flare-ups might spur ... elementary school students in California, researchers found that childhood asthma ... increased risk of obesity over the next 10 years. "I was surprised ...

  15. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  16. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  17. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  18. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  19. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  20. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  1. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  2. Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Geomorphic control of landscape carbon accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbloom, N.A.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Schimel, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use the CREEP process-response model to simulate soil organic carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in Iowa. Our primary objectives are to identify spatial patterns of carbon accumulation, and explore the effect of erosion on basin-scale C accumulation. Our results point to two general findings. First, redistribution of soil carbon by erosion results in a net increase in basin-wide carbon storage relative to a noneroding environment. Landscape-average mean residence times are increased in an eroding landscape owing to the burial/preservation of otherwise labile C. Second, field observations taken along a slope transect may overlook significant intraslope variations in carbon accumulation. Spatial patterns of modeled deep C accumulation are complex. While surface carbon with its relatively short equilibration time is predictable from surface properties, deep carbon is strongly influenced by the landscape's geomorphic and climatic history, resulting in wide spatial variability. Convergence and divergence associated with upland swales and interfluves result in bimodal carbon distributions in upper and mid slopes; variability in carbon storage within modeled mid slopes was as high as simulated differences between erosional shoulders and depositional valley bottoms. The bimodality of mid-slope C variability in the model suggests that a three-dimensional sampling strategy is preferable over the traditional two-dimensional analog or "catena" approach. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  5. Mentoring in biostatistics: some suggestions for reform

    PubMed Central

    Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Thabane, Lehana

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring is routinely used as a tool to facilitate acquisition of skills by new professionals in fields like medicine, nursing, surgery, and business. While mentoring has been proposed as an effective strategy for knowledge and skills transfer in biostatistics and related fields, there is still much to be done to facilitate adoption by stakeholders, including academia and employers of biostatisticians. This is especially troubling given that biostatisticians play a key role in the success or otherwise of clinical research conducted for evidence-based decisions. In this paper, we offer suggestions on how mentoring can be applied in practice to advance the statistical training of future biostatisticians. In particular, we propose steps that academic statistics departments, professional statistical societies, and statistics organizations can take to advance the mentoring of young biostatisticians. Our suggestions also cover what mentors and mentees can do to facilitate a successful mentoring relationship. PMID:23093907

  6. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  7. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  8. DISTRIBUTED AND ACCUMULATED REINFORCEMENT ARRANGEMENTS: EVALUATIONS OF EFFICACY AND PREFERENCE

    PubMed Central

    DELEON, ISER G.; CHASE, JULIE A.; FRANK-CRAWFORD, MICHELLE A.; CARREAU-WEBSTER, ABBEY B.; TRIGGS, MANDY M.; BULLOCK, CHRISTOPHER E.; JENNETT, HEATHER K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of, and preference for, accumulated access to reinforcers, which allows uninterrupted engagement with the reinforcers but imposes an inherent delay required to first complete the task. Experiment 1 compared rates of task completion in 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities when reinforcement was distributed (i.e., 30-s access to the reinforcer delivered immediately after each response) and accumulated (i.e., 5-min access to the reinforcer after completion of multiple consecutive responses). Accumulated reinforcement produced response rates that equaled or exceeded rates during distributed reinforcement for 3 participants. Experiment 2 used a concurrent-chains schedule to examine preferences for each arrangement. All participants preferred delayed, accumulated access when the reinforcer was an activity. Three participants also preferred accumulated access to edible reinforcers. The collective results suggest that, despite the inherent delay, accumulated reinforcement is just as effective and is often preferred by learners over distributed reinforcement. PMID:24782203

  9. Distributed and accumulated reinforcement arrangements: evaluations of efficacy and preference.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Iser G; Chase, Julie A; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B; Triggs, Mandy M; Bullock, Christopher E; Jennett, Heather K

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of, and preference for, accumulated access to reinforcers, which allows uninterrupted engagement with the reinforcers but imposes an inherent delay required to first complete the task. Experiment 1 compared rates of task completion in 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities when reinforcement was distributed (i.e., 30-s access to the reinforcer delivered immediately after each response) and accumulated (i.e., 5-min access to the reinforcer after completion of multiple consecutive responses). Accumulated reinforcement produced response rates that equaled or exceeded rates during distributed reinforcement for 3 participants. Experiment 2 used a concurrent-chains schedule to examine preferences for each arrangement. All participants preferred delayed, accumulated access when the reinforcer was an activity. Three participants also preferred accumulated access to edible reinforcers. The collective results suggest that, despite the inherent delay, accumulated reinforcement is just as effective and is often preferred by learners over distributed reinforcement.

  10. The Importance of Synthesis: A Suggestion for International Research Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2007-06-01

    In a scientific discipline, it is common to deal with a system that consists of many elements or subsystems. Most of us engage in the study of system components and their elements by dividing and subdividing them, leading to the trend of infinite specialization. However, at a certain point during the course of the development of a scientific discipline, a grand synthesis enables the distillation and coalescence of disparate results into a coherent understanding of the system as a whole.

  11. Sodium Influx and Accumulation in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Essah, Pauline A.; Davenport, Romola; Tester, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis is frequently used as a genetic model in plant salt tolerance studies, however, its physiological responses to salinity remain poorly characterized. This study presents a characterization of initial Na+ entry and the effects of Ca2+ on plant growth and net Na+ accumulation in saline conditions. Unidirectional Na+ influx was measured carefully using very short influx times in roots of 12-d-old seedlings. Influx showed three components with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+, diethylpyrocarbonate, and osmotic pretreatment. Pharmacological agents and known mutants were used to test the contribution of different transport pathways to Na+ uptake. Influx was stimulated by 4-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid; was inhibited by flufenamate, quinine, and cGMP; and was insensitive to modulators of K+ and Ca2+ channels. Influx did not differ from wild type in akt1 and hkt1 insertional mutants. These data suggested that influx was mediated by several different types of nonselective cation channels. Na+ accumulation in plants grown in 50 mm NaCl was strongly reduced by increasing Ca2+ activity (from 0.05-3.0 mm), and plant survival was improved. However, plant biomass was not affected by shoot Na+ concentration, suggesting that in Arabidopsis Na+ toxicity is not dependent on shoot Na+ accumulation. These data suggest that Arabidopsis is a good model for investigation of Na+ transport, but may be of limited utility as a model for the study of Na+ toxicity. PMID:12970496

  12. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  13. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  14. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  15. Tea Catechin Auto-oxidation Dimers are Accumulated and Retained by Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Song, Brian J.; Sapper, Teryn N.; Bomser, Joshua A.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the presence of bioactive catechin B-ring auto-oxidation dimers in tea, little is known regarding their absorption in humans. Our hypothesis for this research is that catechin auto-oxidation dimers are present in teas and are absorbable by human intestinal epithelial cells. Dimers [theasinensins (THSNs) and P-2 analogs) were quantified in commercial teas by HPLC-MS. (−)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) homodimers were present at 10–43 and 0–62 µmol/g leaf, respectively. EGC-EGCG heterodimers were present at 0–79 µmol/g. The potential intestinal absorption of these dimers was assessed using Caco-2 intestinal cells. Catechin monomers and dimers were detected in cells exposed to media containing monomers and preformed dimers. Accumulation of dimers was significantly greater than monomers from test media. Three h accumulation of EGC and EGCG was 0.19– 0.55% and 1.24–1.35% respectively. Comparatively, 3h accumulation of the EGC P-2 analog, and THSNs C/E was 0.89 ± 0.28% and 1.53 ± 0.36%. Accumulation of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 6.93 ± 2.1%, and 10.1 ± 3.6%. EGCG-EGC heterodimer P-2 analog, and THSN B 3h accumulation was 4.87 ± 2.2%, and 4.65 ± 2.8% respectively. One h retention of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 171 ± 22%, and 29.6 ± 9.3% of accumulated amount suggesting intracellular oxidative conversion of THSNs to P-2. These data suggest that catechin dimers present in the gut lumen may be readily absorbed by intestinal epithelium. PMID:20579525

  16. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  17. Criteria for Technician Education. A Suggested Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses criteria for post-secondary education of technicians as illustrated by the accumulated experience of successful programs which have had their graduates sought after by employees. Chapter headings are (1) Technicians: Who They Are and What They Do, (2) Administration of Programs to Educate Technicians, (3) Physical…

  18. P values: from suggestion to superstition

    PubMed Central

    Concato, John; Hartigan, John A

    2016-01-01

    A threshold probability value of ‘p≤0.05’ is commonly used in clinical investigations to indicate statistical significance. To allow clinicians to better understand evidence generated by research studies, this review defines the p value, summarizes the historical origins of the p value approach to hypothesis testing, describes various applications of p≤0.05 in the context of clinical research and discusses the emergence of p≤5×10−8 and other values as thresholds for genomic statistical analyses. Corresponding issues include a conceptual approach of evaluating whether data do not conform to a null hypothesis (ie, no exposure–outcome association). Importantly, and in the historical context of when p≤0.05 was first proposed, the 1-in-20 chance of a false-positive inference (ie, falsely concluding the existence of an exposure–outcome association) was offered only as a suggestion. In current usage, however, p≤0.05 is often misunderstood as a rigid threshold, sometimes with a misguided ‘win’ (p≤0.05) or ‘lose’ (p>0.05) approach. Also, in contemporary genomic studies, a threshold of p≤10−8 has been endorsed as a boundary for statistical significance when analyzing numerous genetic comparisons for each participant. A value of p≤0.05, or other thresholds, should not be employed reflexively to determine whether a clinical research investigation is trustworthy from a scientific perspective. Rather, and in parallel with conceptual issues of validity and generalizability, quantitative results should be interpreted using a combined assessment of strength of association, p values, CIs, and sample size. PMID:27489256

  19. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  20. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  1. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  2. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems. Generally, time spent by employees outside of their regular working hours in developing suggestions under...

  3. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems. Generally, time spent by employees outside of their regular working hours in developing suggestions under...

  4. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  5. Accumulation of solid bodies in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.; Davis, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the accumulation of solid bodies in the solar nebula is discussed. Studies of the earliest stage of accumulation of solid bodies in the solar system, which occured in the presence of the gaseous component of the solar nebula, are discussed. The combined effects of gas drag and gravitational perturbations of a planetary embryo on the orbital evolution of planetesimals, the effects of resonant trapping on planetesimals, and planetary mass accretion are discussed.

  6. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  7. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  8. Ion Trapping in the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1985-02-18

    The beam space charge (- for {bar p}'s) will attract positive ions. In the absence of additional fields (clearing electrodes, e.g.) these ions will be trapped in the beam potential well. The depth of this potential well has been calculated for some geometries relevant for the accumulator.

  9. Mercury accumulation in sediments and seabird feathers from the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Calle, Paola; Alvarado, Omar; Monserrate, Lorena; Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Calle, Nastenka; Alava, Juan José

    2015-02-28

    In an effort to assess the impact of mercury in the Antarctic Peninsula, we conducted ecotoxicological research in this region during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to assess: (a) mercury levels in sediment samples; (b) mercury accumulation in Antarctic seabird feathers: Catharacta lonnbergi (brown skua), Pygoscelis papua (gentoo penguin) and Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin); and (c) biomagnification (BMF predator/prey) and biota sediment accumulation (BSAF skuas/sediment) factors. Mercury concentrations in sediment were relatively low. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in brown skuas and gentoo penguins than in chinstrap penguins (2012), and significantly higher in brown skuas than in both penguins (2013). BMF indicated 2-7.5 times greater mercury levels in brown skuas than in penguins. BSAF values suggested an apparent temporal decrease of 18.2% of this ratio from 2012 to 2013. Long-range environmental transport is the likely route of entry of mercury into the Antarctic Peninsula.

  10. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  11. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on plant terpenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Welling, M T; Liu, L; Rose, T J; Waters, D L E; Benkendorff, K

    2016-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a diverse group of soil-dwelling fungi that form symbiotic associations with land plants. AMF-plant associations promote the accumulation of plant terpenoids beneficial to human health, although how AMF mediate terpenoid accumulation is not fully understood. A critical assessment and discussion of the literature relating to mechanisms by which AMF influence plant terpenoid accumulation, and whether this symbiosis can be harnessed in horticultural ecosystems was performed. Modification of plant morphology, phosphorus availability and gene transcription involved with terpenoid biosynthetic pathways were identified as key mechanisms associated with terpenoid accumulation in AMF-colonised plants. In order to exploit AMF-plant symbioses in horticultural ecosystems it is important to consider the specificity of the AMF-plant association, the predominant factor affecting terpenoid accumulation, as well as the end use application of the harvested plant material. Future research should focus on resolving the relationship between ecologically matched AMF genotypes and terpenoid accumulation in plants to establish if these associations are effective in promoting mechanisms favourable for plant terpenoid accumulation.

  13. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups.

  14. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  15. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  16. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  17. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  18. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  19. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  20. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  1. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Richard; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Escartín, Javier; Ridao, Pere; Mallios, Angelos; Kilias, Stephanos P.; Argyraki, Ariadne; Andreani, Muriel; Ballu, Valerie; Campos, Ricard; Deplus, Christine; Gabsi, Taoufic; Garcia, Rafael; Gracias, Nuno; Hurtós, Natàlia; Magí, Lluis; Mével, Catherine; Moreira, Manuel; Palomeras, Narcís; Pot, Olivier; Ribas, David; Ruzié, Lorraine; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:26179858

  2. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites.

  3. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  4. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  5. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  6. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  7. [On suggestion and its related problems].

    PubMed

    Oka, Kazutaro

    2013-01-01

    Recently, intensive discussions about dissociative disorders have led to the rediscovery of the psychology of P. Janet, that has been under the shadow of Freud's psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, psychiatry, "Schulpsychiatrie" in German, has still paid little attention to the suggestion with which Janet has occupied himself throughout his long career. In this paper, the author examined suggestion from another point of view other than psychodynamic. It is presented that Freud reduced suggestion to a specific relation between an active subject and a passive object, as his precursors, F.A. Mesmer and R. de Puységur did the same. In contrast, Janet's early studies influenced by the philosophy of M. de Biran seem to focus on another aspect of suggestion. From this aspect, suggestion is based on a spontaneous intersubjective process that should be expressed by the middle voice. Referring to H. Bergson, with whom Janet corresponded, the author pointed out that one is not always one's own self that reflects one's whole life history, regardless of the presence/absence of mental abnormality, as is the case with a person under suggestion. Taking into account these factors of suggestion, i. e., the middle voice and fragile selfhood that is not firmly rooted in one's own life history, the author investigated hysteria as a distinct phenomenon that has a particularly close relation with suggestion. Furthermore, depersonalization and schizophrenia were discussed concerning their relation with hysteria. In this approach, the author suggested that the unconscious could be topographically localized not only in a deep portion of the mental apparatus, but also in its most superficial portion, unlike in the case of Freud's psychoanalysis.

  8. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  9. A suggested method for reporting a landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fell, Robin; Lacerda, W.; Cruden, D.M.; Evans, S.G.; LaRochelle, P.; Martinez, Fernando; Beltran, Lisandro; Jesenak, J.; Novograd, S.; Krauter, E.; Slunga, E.; Pilot, G.A.; Brand, E.W.; Farkas, J.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Esu, Franco; Fujita, H.; Nakamura, H.; Sassa, K.; Ting, W.H.; Salt, Graham; Janbu, Nilmar; Nespak, A.M.; Gongxian, Wang; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Michelena, R.; Popescu, Mihai; Viberg, Leif; Bonnard, C.; Hutchinson, J.N.; Einstein , H.H.; Schuster, R.L.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Martiros­ian, Z.G.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.; Anagnosti, P.; Hashizume, M.; Watanabe, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    The Landslide Report is a Suggested Method developed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory for reporting the position, date, type, geometry, volume and damage of significant landslides.

  10. Suggested Format for Acute Toxicity Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document suggests the format for final reports on pesticide studies (right column of the tables in the document) and provides instructions for the creation of PDF Version 1.3 electronic submission documents (left column of the tables).

  11. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes most products already below recommended level ... limit on how much lead can be in cosmetics ranging from lipstick and eye shadow to blush ...

  12. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  13. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  14. Stromal accumulation of chondroitin sulphate in mammary tumours of dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, U; Rutteman, G R; Nederbragt, H

    1999-01-01

    To contribute to the investigation of the composition of the extracellular matrix in epithelial tumours, mammary gland tissues of dogs (including tumours, hyperplasias and normal tissue as well as metastatic lesions in lymph nodes and lung) were studied histochemically and immunohistochemically for distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (s-GAGs). The formaline-fixed tissue was stained by alcian blue at pH 5.8, using the ‘critical electrolyte concentration’ to study the degree of sulphation of s-GAGs. s-GAGs were characterized by degradation with enzymes and nitrous acid and by immunohistochemistry with two anti-chondroitin sulphate monoclonal antibodies. The light microscopic investigation of s-GAG deposits revealed a limited number of patterns of their distribution. The main s-GAGs found in the mammary gland tumours of dogs and in metastatic lesions were chondroitin sulphate (CS) and heparin/heparan sulphate (HEP/HS). CS accumulated in diffuse structures between epithelial cells as well as around clusters of tumour cells. The latter pattern, possibly representing a mesenchymal reaction to the tumour, was present in 74% of the tumours, and in 67% of these, highly sulphated CS was present. A diffuse accumulation of CS was present almost exclusively in complex and mixed tumours; because of the expression of the 3B3 epitope for CS in immature cartilage the spindle cells of complex tumours are argued to be the precursors of the cartilage in mixed tumours. HEP/HS was stored mainly in mast cells that were found in increased numbers in hyperplasias and tumours. By pretreatment of microscopic slides with chondroitinase AC or ABC immunostaining of fibronectin could be made possible in areas in which CS was abundantly present, suggesting that CS may mask fibronectin epitopes. It is concluded that CS with different degrees of sulphation is the most important s-GAG in the extracellular matrix of mammary tumours of dogs. CS and other s-GAGs accumulate at different

  15. Liver ergothioneine accumulation in a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A possible mechanism of defence?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Tang, Richard; Ye, Peng; Yew, Terry S Z; Lim, Keith H S; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-01-01

    L-ergothioneine (ET), a putative antioxidant compound acquired by animals through dietary sources, has been suggested to accumulate in certain cells and tissues in the body that are predisposed to high oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified an elevation of ET in the liver of a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), elucidated a possible mechanism for the increased uptake and investigated the possible role for this accumulation. This increase in liver ET levels correlated with cholesterol accumulation and disease severity. We identified an increase in the transcriptional factor, RUNX1, which has been shown to upregulate the expression of the ET-specific transporter OCTN1, and could consequently lead to the observable elevation in ET. An increase was also seen in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which seemingly corresponds to ET elevation. No significant increase was observed in oxidative damage markers, F2-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyls, which could possibly be attributed to the increase in liver ET through direct antioxidant action, induction of HSP70, or by chelation of Fe(2+), preventing redox chemistry. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which the guinea pig fatty liver accumulates ET via upregulation of its transporter, as a possible stress response by the damaged liver to further suppress oxidative damage and delay tissue injury. Similar events may happen in other animal models of disease, and researchers should be aware of the possibility.

  16. Two age-related accumulation profiles of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the body burden levels of toxic metals in Japanese, five toxic metal concentrations in scalp hair samples from 28,424 subjects from infant to elderly were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean of hair mercury concentrations showed a high-significant age-correlated increase (r = 0.341, p < 0.0001) with a peak at the 6th decade of life and then decreased with further aging in both sexes. The mean mercury concentrations in male adults were significantly higher than those in female (p < 0.001), indicating the gender difference (male > female) in mercury accumulation. Arsenic also showed a similar accumulation profile with age dependency and gender difference in adult subjects. In contrast, cadmium, lead and aluminium exhibited another type of accumulation profile: the highest burden level was observed in infants aged 0-3 years old for every element in both sexes. In addition, cadmium was found to have a character accumulating in aged females, with significant age-dependency (r = 0.134, p < 0.0001) and gender difference (female > male). These findings suggest that toxic metals are classified into two families on the basis of their accumulation profiles, and that the three elements of mercury, arsenic and cadmium which accumulate age-dependently in adults, may play a role in aging process and higher burden with them may lead to acceleration of aging.

  17. Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

  18. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous ...

  19. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  20. Promoting Good Statistical Practices: Some Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Makes the case that science is best served when researchers focus on the size of effects and their practical significance. Advocates the use of confidence intervals for deciding whether chance or sampling variability is an unlikely explanation for an observed effect. Calls for more emphasis on effect sizes in the next edition of the American…

  1. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  2. Development and Testing of a Portable Vocal Accumulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyne, Harold A.; Hanson, Helen M.; Genereux, Ronald P.; Stevens, Kenneth N.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This research note describes the design and testing of a device for unobtrusive, long-term ambulatory monitoring of voice use, named the Portable Vocal Accumulator (PVA). The PVA contains a digital signal processor for analyzing input from a neck-placed miniature accelerometer. During its development, accelerometer recordings were obtained from 99…

  3. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  4. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  5. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  6. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  7. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  8. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  9. Reading Aloud--Suggestions for Classroom Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rews, Alun L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an introductory summary in defense of "reading aloud" in the English as a foreign language classroom and a more substantial section offering practical suggestions for handling it. The defense centers on a clarification of the purpose of reading aloud. Descriptions of different reading activities are included along with methods of…

  10. Suggested Outline for Auditory Perception Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Clare A.

    Presented are suggestions for speech therapists to use in auditory perception training and screening of language handicapped children in kindergarten through grade 3. Directions are given for using the program, which is based on games. Each component is presented in terms of purpose, materials, a description of the game, and directions for…

  11. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  12. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior.

  13. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  14. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  15. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    Exploiting homophily effect for trust prediction. In Proceedings of the sixth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining , pages 53–62. ACM...experiments to evaluate the proposed framework on TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion data set, and, as would be expected, the results demonstrate its generality...time, recommending according to user’s personalized needs the data describes the user’s interest accurately. The data about spots crawled from open-web

  16. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  17. Lecture 3: Some Suggestions and Remarks upon Observing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    These next two lectures succinctly discuss the necessary preparation and methods for observation. Using the naturalist Fabre as an example of scientific training of the faculties for sharp observation, Montessori compares the observer to a researcher and gives many suggestions for conducting thorough yet unobtrusive observation. Self-awareness of…

  18. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  19. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  20. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  1. In vivo visualization and attenuation of oxidized lipid accumulation in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Green, Simone R.; Baek, Ji Sun; Lee, Sang-Hak; Ellett, Felix; Deer, Elena; Lieschke, Graham J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative modification of LDL is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidation events such as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation may produce specific, immunogenic epitopes. Indeed, antibodies to MDA-derived epitopes are widely used in atherosclerosis research and have been demonstrated to enable cardiovascular imaging. In this study, we engineered a transgenic zebrafish with temperature-inducible expression of an EGFP-labeled single-chain human monoclonal antibody, IK17, which binds to MDA-LDL, and used optically transparent zebrafish larvae for imaging studies. Feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) supplemented with a red fluorescent lipid marker to the transgenic zebrafish resulted in vascular lipid accumulation, quantified in live animals using confocal microscopy. After heat shock–induced expression of IK17-EGFP, we measured the time course of vascular accumulation of IK17-specific MDA epitopes. Treatment with either an antioxidant or a regression diet resulted in reduced IK17 binding to vascular lesions. Interestingly, homogenates of IK17-EGFP–expressing larvae bound to MDA-LDL and inhibited MDA-LDL binding to macrophages. Moreover, sustained expression of IK17-EGFP effectively prevented HCD-induced lipid accumulation in the vascular wall, suggesting that the antibody itself may have therapeutic effects. Thus, we conclude that HCD-fed zebrafish larvae with conditional expression of EGFP-labeled oxidation-specific antibodies afford an efficient method of testing dietary and/or other therapeutic antioxidant strategies that may ultimately be applied to humans. PMID:22105168

  2. An investigation on factors influencing dust accumulation on CSP mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennetta, S.; Yu, S.; Borghesani, P.; Cholette, M.; Barry, John; Guan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The profitability of a CSP plant is highly affected by the efficiency of the solar field: it is essential to maintain mirrors' reflectivity at high level to avoid thermal power loss. Dust fouling is the main cause of reflectivity loss and cleaning of mirrors is a crucial activity to restore economical level of reflectivity. However, the high cost of cleaning operations requires the study and identification of a balanced plan for the dust removal. The dust generation and transport to the plant site is the first mechanism that needs to be modelled to identify the optimal schedule for cleaning operations and it is highly dependent on weather conditions. Several studies have suggested a dependency of reflectors performance with humidity level, frequency of rainfalls, wind and mirrors' tilting angle, however rarely quantitative correlation studies have been performed to validate these hypotheses. The aim of this research is to provide an in-depth insight on interaction between the main parameters and airborne dust concentration, providing quantitative information for the development of future mirror dusting models. Outcomes evidence the crucial role of high winds responsible of dust concentration in conjunction with higher wind direction frequencies in the range 60-120°. Actually, in this scenario a perfectly monotonic increase of dust accumulation in the air has been observed with high correspondence of wind direction. A very low effect is provided by the ambient temperature as the contribution of the barometric pressure.

  3. Annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet interpolated from historical and newly compiled observation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Dayong; Liu, Yuling; Huang, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of ice/snow accumulation is of great significance in quantifying the mass balance of ice sheets and variation in water resources. Improving the accuracy and reducing uncertainty has been a challenge for the estimation of annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we kriged and analyzed the spatial pattern of accumulation based on an observation data series including 315 points used in a recent research, plus 101 ice cores and snow pits and newly compiled 23 coastal weather station data. The estimated annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet is 31.2 g cm−2 yr−1, with a standard error of 0.9 g cm−2 yr−1. The main differences between the improved map developed in this study and the recently published accumulation maps are in the coastal areas, especially southeast and southwest regions. The analysis of accumulations versus elevation reveals the distribution patterns of accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet.

  4. New evidence suggesting segmentation of Cocos Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, L.R.; Sauermann, R.P.; De Boer, J.

    1985-02-01

    Compilation and analysis of geophysical and geological data indicate that the Cocos plate consists of three segments that have individual poles of rotation and independent motion vectors. Contoured heat-flow and gravity maps of the region delineate the boundaries of the segments within the Cocos plate. These segments have different focal-plane solutions along the Middle America Trench and different sedimentary-basin configurations within the Central America-Mexico island arc. Recent studies of seismic data from the region also have suggested that the subducted Cocos plate consists of three segments. The proposed northern and central segments are separated by the northeast-trending Siqueros-Tehuantepec Ridge fracture zone. The proposed central and southern segments are separated by the northeast-trending Costa Rica fracture zone that is located just northwest of the Cocos Ridge and extends from the Galapagos rift to the central valley of Costa Rica. Poles of rotation and relative motion vectors have been calculated with respect to the Caribbean plate for each segment. The northern segment is moving N75/sup 0/E, oblique to the trench; the central segment is moving N50/sup 0/E, perpendicular to the trench; the southern segment is moving north, perpendicular to the trench. The Siqueros-Tehuantepec and Costa Rice fracture zones appear to join with tectonized zones that dissect the Central America-Mexico island arc and extend across the Caribbean plate, suggesting that it too is segmented. Structural and stratigraphic data from the sedimentary basins on the island arc suggest that these fracture zones have existed throughout the Tertiary history of the region.

  5. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  6. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  7. [Suggestions for buying medical equipment in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Trontzos, Christos

    2004-01-01

    TO THE EDITOR: Both in Greece and in other European countries there are plans to buy more medical equipment. If the whole procedure is not effective, it may result to a large deficit in the hospital budget. The total hospital deficit now in Greece is about 2.5 billion euros. It is suggested that in every hospital, the Authorized Committee for Medical Equipment Purchasing, should include the following: One Director of a Medical Department related to the equipment to be bought and another Director of a Medical Department, unrelated. One accountant. One legal advisor specialized in hospital affairs. One economical advisor specialized in banking who will be able to suggest leasing or other means of financing the purchase of the relevant equipment. A cost accounting analysis described by a detailed report, should be provided to secure that the equipment to be bought should be cost-effective and leaving a reasonable surplus after not more than 10 years from the time it is installed. Finally, the possibility of using one expensive equipment to cover the needs of more than one hospitals either by moving the equipment (i.e. the PET/CT camera by a large vehicle) or by transferring the patients to a central hospital, may be provided by the above Authorized Committee.

  8. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  9. Suggested noise criteria for plumbing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Jerry

    2005-09-01

    The issue of noise that is generated by plumbing systems has been addressed in several articles and texts in the acoustic literature, but most of this information deals with a description of the various noise generation mechanisms and recommended methods of controlling noise from plumbing fixtures and piping. As with any noise source that has the potential for generating annoyance, the question of how much noise is too much noise eventually arises. Chapter 47 of the 2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook contains newly published guidelines for plumbing noise criteria as it impacts building occupants. This paper discusses the ASHRAE guidelines, and it also suggests additional noise criteria for other plumbing-related sources of noise in multitenant buildings.

  10. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  11. Accumulation of enteric bacteriophage in fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Skraber, Sylvain; Schijven, Jack; Italiaander, Ronald; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2009-09-01

    Our study aimed to assess the accumulation of bacteriophages in sandy and clayey fresh water sediments. All of the 24 natural fresh water sediments were positive for somatic and F-specific phages, though their concentrations in the overlying water were undetectable in 1 and 11 samples, respectively, out of 24, corresponding to 4 and 46% for somatic and F-specific phages, respectively. Based on the sediment-to-water ratios, F-specific phages accumulate over 100 times more than the somatic coliphages in clayey sediments. Inactivation of bacteriophages in clayey and sandy sediments over a 1-month period at 15 degrees C was negligible. Our data suggest that persistence of deposited viruses in fresh water sediments leads to accumulation and the findings call for additional investigations on the fate of entrapped pathogenic viruses.

  12. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  13. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure.

  14. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Findings suggest dual functions of APOE for lipid accumulation and differentiation.

  15. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection impacts stress granule accumulation.

    PubMed

    Finnen, Renée L; Pangka, Kyle R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2012-08-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle.

  16. Response times from ensembles of accumulators

    PubMed Central

    Zandbelt, Bram; Purcell, Braden A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Logan, Gordon D.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is explained by psychologists through stochastic accumulator models and by neurophysiologists through the activity of neurons believed to instantiate these models. We investigated an overlooked scaling problem: How does a response time (RT) that can be explained by a single model accumulator arise from numerous, redundant accumulator neurons, each of which individually appears to explain the variability of RT? We explored this scaling problem by developing a unique ensemble model of RT, called e pluribus unum, which embodies the well-known dictum “out of many, one.” We used the e pluribus unum model to analyze the RTs produced by ensembles of redundant, idiosyncratic stochastic accumulators under various termination mechanisms and accumulation rate correlations in computer simulations of ensembles of varying size. We found that predicted RT distributions are largely invariant to ensemble size if the accumulators share at least modestly correlated accumulation rates and RT is not governed by the most extreme accumulators. Under these regimes the termination times of individual accumulators was predictive of ensemble RT. We also found that the threshold measured on individual accumulators, corresponding to the firing rate of neurons measured at RT, can be invariant with RT but is equivalent to the specified model threshold only when the rate correlation is very high. PMID:24550315

  17. Patterns of sediment accumulation in the tidal marshes of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, M.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    One year's measurements of surficial sedimentation rates (1986-1987) for 26 Maine marsh sites were made over marker horizons of brick dust. Observed sediment accumulation rates, from 0 to 13 mm yr-1, were compared with marsh morphology, local relative sea-level rise rate, mean tidal range, and ice rafting activity. Marshes with four different morphologies (back-barrier, fluvial, bluff-toe, and transitional) showed distinctly different sediment accumulation rates. In general, back-barrier marshes had the highest accumulation rates and blufftoe marshes had the lowest rates, with intermediate values for transitional and fluvial marshes. No causal relationship between modern marsh sediment accumulation rate and relative sea-level rise rate (from tide gauge records) was observed. Marsh accretionary balance (sediment accumulation rate minus relative sea-level rise rate) did not correlate with mean tidal range for this meso- to macro-tidal area. Estimates of ice-rafted debris on marsh sites ranged from 0% to >100% of measured surficial sedimentation rates, indicating that ice transport of sediment may make a significant contribution to surficial sedimentation on Maine salt marshes. ?? 1989 Estuarine Research Federation.

  18. Accumulation boundaries: codimension-two accumulation of accumulations in phase diagrams of semiconductor lasers, electric circuits, atmospheric and chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason Alfredo Carlson

    2008-02-28

    We report high-resolution phase diagrams for several familiar dynamical systems described by sets of ordinary differential equations: semiconductor lasers; electric circuits; Lorenz-84 low-order atmospheric circulation model; and Rössler and chemical oscillators. All these systems contain chaotic phases with highly complicated and interesting accumulation boundaries, curves where networks of stable islands of regular oscillations with ever-increasing periodicities accumulate systematically. The experimental exploration of such codimension-two boundaries characterized by the presence of infinite accumulation of accumulations is feasible with existing technology for some of these systems.

  19. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments.

  20. Mechanisms of Cadmium Mobility and Accumulation in Indian Mustard.

    PubMed Central

    Salt, D. E.; Prince, R. C.; Pickering, I. J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), a high biomass crop plant, accumulated substantial amounts of cadmium, with bioaccumulation coefficients (concentration of Cd in dry plant tissue/concentration in solution) of up to 1100 in shoots and 6700 in roots at nonphytotoxic concentrations of Cd (0.1 [mu]g/mL) in solution. This was associated with a rapid accumulation of phytochelatins in the root, where the majority of the Cd was coordinated with sulfur ligands, probably as a Cd-S4 complex, as demonstrated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In contrast, Cd moving in the xylem sap was coordinated predominantly with oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and the rate of Cd accumulation in the leaves displayed similar saturation kinetics, suggesting that the process of Cd transport from solution through the root and into the xylem is mediated by a saturable transport system(s). However, Cd translocation to the shoot appeared to be driven by transpiration, since ABA dramatically reduced Cd accumulation in leaves. Within leaves, Cd was preferentially accumulated in trichomes on the leaf surface, and this may be a possible detoxification mechanism. PMID:12228679

  1. Proteinase Inhibitor I Accumulation in Tomato Suspension Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Simmons, Mary; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1986-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of tomato accumulate proteinase Inhibitor I as the sucrose is depleted from 1% to less than 0.1% in the culture medium. Inhibitor I can be prematurely induced to accumulate in the cells by the addition to the medium of the proteinase inhibitor inducing factor, trigalacturonic acid, ethylene glycol chitin, or chitosan. In cultures grown in 0.6% initial sucrose with no inducers added, a uronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide appears in the medium during growth of the cells. This extracellular polysaccharide apparently contains an `endogenous inducer' of Inhibitor I synthesis. When the partially purified polysaccharide is added to the culture medium, Inhibitor I accumulation is induced. Proteinase inhibitors also accumulate in tobacco and alfalfa suspension-cultured cells as the cell cultures age. As with the tomato cultures, a uronic acid-rich component(s) appears in the media prior to inhibitor accumulation. These data suggest that an endogenous inducer may be activating proteinase inhibitor genes through a similar mechanism in all three types of cells. PMID:16664609

  2. N₂O accumulation from denitrification under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Poh, Leong Soon; Jiang, Xie; Zhang, Zhongbo; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during denitrification and denitritation were investigated. Batch experiments were performed to measure N2O accumulation at 25 and 35 °C. More N2O accumulation was observed during denitritation at the higher temperature as compared with full denitrification and low temperature tests. The highest nitrite concentration tested in this study (25 mg/L NO2 (-)N and pH 8.0) did not show inhibitory effect on N2O reduction. It was found that the major cause of more N2O accumulation during denitrification at higher temperature was due to higher N2O production rate and lower N2O solubility. Specific nitrate, nitrite, and N2O reduction rates increased 62, 61, and 41 %, respectively, when temperature rose from 25 to 35 °C. The decrease of N2O solubility in mixed liquor at 35 °C (when compared to 25 °C) resulted in faster diffusing rate of N2O from liquid to gas phase. It was also more difficult for gas phase N2O to be re-dissolved. The diffused N2O was then accumulated in the headspace, which was not available for denitrification by denitrifiers. The results of this study suggest higher temperature may worsen N2O emission from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

  3. Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin; Chen, Zengming; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-09-01

    To explore soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation mechanisms, the dynamics of C functional groups and macroaggregation were studied synchronously through aggregate fractionation and 13C NMR spectroscopy in sandy loam soil following an 18-year application of compost and fertilizer in China. Compared with no fertilizer control, both compost and fertilizer improved SOC content, while the application of compost increased macroaggregation. Fertilizer application mainly increased the levels of recalcitrant organic C components characterized by methoxyl/N-alkyl C and alkyl C, whereas compost application mainly promoted the accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C, phenolic C, carboxyl C, O-alkyl C and di-O-alkyl C in bulk soil. The preferential accumulation of organic C functional groups in aggregates depended on aggregate size rather than nutrient amendments. These groups were characterized by phenolic C and di-O-alkyl C in the silt + clay fraction, carboxyl C in microaggregates and phenolic C, carboxyl C and methoxyl/N-alkyl C in macroaggregates. Thus, the differences in accumulated organic C components in compost- and fertilizer-amended soils were primarily attributable to macroaggregation. The accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C in microaggregates effectively promoted macroaggregation. Our results suggest that organic amendment rich in methoxyl/N-alkyl C effectively improved SOC content and accelerated macroaggregation in the test soil.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  5. Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin; Chen, Zengming; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    To explore soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation mechanisms, the dynamics of C functional groups and macroaggregation were studied synchronously through aggregate fractionation and 13C NMR spectroscopy in sandy loam soil following an 18-year application of compost and fertilizer in China. Compared with no fertilizer control, both compost and fertilizer improved SOC content, while the application of compost increased macroaggregation. Fertilizer application mainly increased the levels of recalcitrant organic C components characterized by methoxyl/N-alkyl C and alkyl C, whereas compost application mainly promoted the accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C, phenolic C, carboxyl C, O-alkyl C and di-O-alkyl C in bulk soil. The preferential accumulation of organic C functional groups in aggregates depended on aggregate size rather than nutrient amendments. These groups were characterized by phenolic C and di-O-alkyl C in the silt + clay fraction, carboxyl C in microaggregates and phenolic C, carboxyl C and methoxyl/N-alkyl C in macroaggregates. Thus, the differences in accumulated organic C components in compost- and fertilizer-amended soils were primarily attributable to macroaggregation. The accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C in microaggregates effectively promoted macroaggregation. Our results suggest that organic amendment rich in methoxyl/N-alkyl C effectively improved SOC content and accelerated macroaggregation in the test soil. PMID:26358660

  6. Model suggests Earth undergoing true polar wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-11-01

    At various points throughout Earth's history, the planet's solid exterior has drifted about in relation to the planetary rotation axis. This solid body drift, which is known as “true polar wander,” results in a wholesale shift in the orientation of Earth's landmasses and is different from the motion of individual tectonic plates (“tectonic drift”) or of the magnetic pole (“apparent polar wander”). Sorting out when, in which direction, and at what rate the Earth's solid exterior has rotated in this way depends on having a stable frame of reference to which observations of relative motion can be compared. To develop such a frame, researchers rely on hot spots, regions of recurrent volcanism that are known to produce long, largely linear island chains—such as the Hawaiian islands—as an overlying tectonic plate passes overhead. Hot spots are fed by magma plumes from the deep mantle and hence tend to be long-lived and relatively stable. Hot spots have long been used to understand the motion of tectonic plates.

  7. California foreshock sequences suggest aseismic triggering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Shearer, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    Foreshocks are one of the few well-documented precursors to large earthquakes; therefore, understanding their nature is very important for earthquake prediction and hazard mitigation. However, the triggering role of foreshocks is not yet clear. It is possible that foreshocks are a self-triggering cascade of events that simply happen to trigger an unusually large aftershock; alternatively, foreshocks might originate from an external aseismic process that ultimately triggers the mainshock. In the former case, the foreshocks will have limited utility for forecasting. The latter case has been observed for several individual large earthquakes; however, it remains unclear how common it is and how to distinguish foreshock sequences from other seismicity clusters that do not lead to large earthquakes. Here we analyze foreshocks of three M>7 mainshocks in southern California. These foreshock sequences appear similar to earthquake swarms, in that they do not start with their largest events and they exhibit spatial migration of seismicity. Analysis of source spectra shows that all three foreshock sequences feature lower average stress drops and depletion of high-frequency energy compared with the aftershocks of their corresponding mainshocks. Using a longer-term stress-drop catalog, we find that the average stress drop of the Landers and Hector Mine foreshock sequences is comparable to nearby swarms. Our observations suggest that these foreshock sequences are manifestations of aseismic transients occurring close to the mainshock hypocenters, possibly related to localized fault zone complexity, which have promoted the occurrence of both the foreshocks and the eventual mainshock.

  8. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-26

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  9. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  10. Arsenic and bladder cancer: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Vladan; Jakovljević, Branko

    2008-10-01

    Arsenic from drinking water is a well-known risk factor for bladder cancer. The purpose of this paper is to systematize some important yet often overlooked facts considering the relationship between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of bladder cancer. Since the exposure to inorganic arsenic from food, inhaled air, and skin absorption as well as arsenic methylation ability are not fully investigated, our assumption is that the exposure of arsenic only from drinking water is underestimated and its role as a risk factor is highly overestimated. This paper proposes some qualitative and quantitative parameters of arsenic as a risk factor for bladder cancer. The recommended qualitative parameters of arsenic intake are first, pathways of exposure, and second, toxicity and metabolism. The suggested quantitative parameters of arsenic intake include amounts of arsenic absorbed in the body, duration of arsenic exposure, and duration of arsenic presence in the urinary bladder. This approach can be implemented in a systematic classification and explanation of various risk factors and their mutual interactions for other types of cancer or diseases in general.

  11. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  12. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film.

  13. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions.

  14. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Link, William A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentists methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HEALTH LAW: OVERVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Daolu

    2014-07-01

    Health law is a rapidly developing law specialty in China. This article examines the current overall framework and evolution of Chinese health law, as a background to an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this legal regime. Research suggests that: 1) The independent status of Chinese health law as jurisprudence and a specialty ought to be assured altogether; 2) The convergence between health law and other laws should be strengthened; 3) The current Chinese health law framework ought to be completed. This suggests the necessity to find ways to improve the independence of health law in China by eliminating the convergence and completing the legal framework.

  16. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars.

  18. Holocene and recent sediment accumulation rates in southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; King, J.W.; Jones, Glenn A.; Reynolds, R.L.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2000-01-01

    Rates of sediment accumulation in Lake Michigan are a key component of its geologic history and provide important data related to societal concerns such as shoreline erosion and the fate of anthropogenic pollutants. Previous attempts to reconstruct Holocene rates of sediment accumulation in Lake Michigan, as well as in the other Laurentian Great Lakes, have been bedeviled by the effect of refractory terrestrial material on radiocarbon ages from total organic carbon samples of lake sediments. AMS radiocarbon ages on small samples of biogenic carbonate (ostracodes and mollusks) in Lake Michigan provide accurate Holocene ages. The present bicarbonate reservoir effect is estimated from shells of mollusks collected live before atmospheric nuclear testing to be 250 yr. From paired samples of biogenic carbonate and terrestrial macrofossils, the past reservoir effect is thought to be less than 500 yr. The radiocarbon ages indicate a distinct decrease in sediment accumulation rates throughout the southern basin of Lake Michigan at about 5 ka, about the time when lake level stabilized at the Nipissing level after rising rapidly for several thousand years. Average rates of sediment accumulation for the historic period (the last 150 yr) can be estimated from radioisotopes (210Pb and 137Cs), pollen stratigraphy, and changes in sediment properties associated with human activity. Multiple methods are necessary because at any given site, problems arise in the assumptions or applicability of one or more methods. In general, the mass accumulation calculations suggest that sediments were deposited 4 to 11 times faster in the historic period than before human settlement. The character of the sediment did not change in a dramatic way, but sediment magnetic properties suggest shifts in the sources of sediment. The data suggest that some of the changes in sources and (or) character of the sediment occurred just before human settlement and were probably related to climatic changes

  19. Webis at TREC 2014: Web, Session, and Contextual Suggestion Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00...much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run

  20. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  1. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  2. Ontogenetic aspects of traumatic brain edema--facts and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R; Walter, B; Fritz, H; Zwiener, U

    1999-02-01

    Diffuse brain swelling (DBS) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs more commonly in children than adults. Most of the recent clinical studies suggest that young children are more negatively affected by DBS. Until now studies in young animals in which the pathophysiology of DBS was evaluated remained seldom. However, pathogenetic mechanisms of edema formation after TBI in the immature brain appeared to be different in comparison to adult brains. There are evidences that vasogenic as well as cytotoxic edema components may be responsible for the development of DBS. Besides mechanical disturbance, the blood-brain barrier seems to be strongly endangered by oxidative stress after TBI because regional antioxidative capacity is obviously diminished. In addition, cytotoxic components of DBS may be caused by at least two different mechanisms. First, it was shown that a sustained posttraumatic cerebral hypoperfusion occurs in the immature brain. Moreover, a transient increase of NMDA receptor expression at this period of life may be responsible for an increased threat of intracellular sodium ion accumulation in brain cells. Obviously, brain swelling can be detrimental because it can elevate intracranial pressure, impair CBF, and may represent ongoing secondary brain injury.

  3. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  4. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  5. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  6. Proline accumulation in plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian

    2008-11-01

    Proline (Pro) accumulation is a common physiological response in many plants in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the possible role(s) of proline accumulation. In this review, knowledge on the regulation of Pro metabolism during development and stress, results of genetic manipulation of Pro metabolism and current debate on Pro toxicity in plants are presented.

  7. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  8. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  9. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  10. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  11. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, a generator may accumulate...: (1) The waste is placed: (i) In containers and the generator complies with the...

  12. 19 CFR 10.2017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.2017 Section 10.2017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Rules of Origin § 10.2017 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of a Party that...

  13. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  14. Truncation and Accumulated Errors in Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yi-Ling F.

    1988-12-01

    The approximation of the truncation and accumulated errors in the numerical solution of a linear initial-valued partial differential equation problem can be established by using a semidiscretized scheme. This error approximation is observed as a lower bound to the errors of a finite difference scheme. By introducing a modified von Neumann solution, this error approximation is applicable to problems with variable coefficients. To seek an in-depth understanding of this newly established error approximation, numerical experiments were performed to solve the hyperbolic equation {∂U}/{∂t} = -C 1(x)C 2(t) {∂U}/{∂x}, with both continuous and discontinuous initial conditions. We studied three cases: (1) C1( x)= C0 and C2( t)=1; (2) C1( x)= C0 and C2( t= t; and (3) C 1(x)=1+( {solx}/{a}) 2 and C2( t)= C0. Our results show that the errors are problem dependent and are functions of the propagating wave speed. This suggests a need to derive problem-oriented schemes rather than the equation-oriented schemes as is commonly done. Furthermore, in a wave-propagation problem, measurement of the error by the maximum norm is not particularly informative when the wave speed is incorrect.

  15. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  16. University of Waterloo at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion: Experiments with Suggestion Clustering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    task. As part of TREC 2014 the contextual suggestion track is running for the third time. The goal of this task is to tailor point -of-interest...suggestions to users according to this preferences. Here we present how we gathered candidate points -of-interest, grouped them according to similarity using...clustering, and picked points -of-interest that each user would find especially appealing. The organizers of this track distributed users’ personal

  17. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  18. Evaluation of species-specific dissimilarities in two marine fish species: mercury accumulation as a function of metal levels in consumed prey.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to compare mercury (Hg) accumulation (total and organic) and tissue distribution in two marine fish species with contrasting feeding tactics. Thus, juvenile specimens of European sea bass and Golden grey mullet were surveyed in an estuary historically affected by Hg discharges. Total Hg was preferentially accumulated in intestine, muscle, and liver, whereas gills and brain presented the lowest Hg levels observed in both species. Significant differences between species were only verified for muscle, with D. labrax's levels being greater than L. aurata's. Muscle accounted for >87% of the Hg relative tissue burden, whereas liver did not exceed 11%. Organic Hg accumulation occurred mainly in liver and muscle, with D. labrax evidencing significantly greater loads. Moreover, organic Hg in consumed prey items was also significantly greater in D. labrax. Accumulation of organic Hg in liver, intestine, and muscle seemed to vary as a function of the consumed prey items contamination, suggesting fish feeding strategies as the dominant factor determining metal accumulation. For both fish species, a stable ratio was observed between Hg increments from the reference to the contaminated site, possibly indicating that the organic Hg content of diet may regulate the internal levels of this contaminant. Thus, this ratio might prove to be a useful contamination predictor tool in early life stages of fish.

  19. Supply and demand: sink regulation of sugar accumulation in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    McCormick, A J; Watt, D A; Cramer, M D

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) accumulates sucrose to high concentrations and, as a result, has been the focus of extensive research into the biochemistry and physiology of sucrose accumulation. Despite this, the relationship between source leaf photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation in the culm sink is not well understood. The observations that photosynthetic activity declines during culm maturation in commercial cultivars and that high-sucrose-accumulating noble ancestral genotypes (Saccharum officinarum L.) photosynthesize at rates two-thirds of those of low-sucrose ancestors (Saccharum spontaneum L.) indicate that source-sink communication may play a pivotal role in determining sucrose yield. Although maturation of the culm results in a decreased demand for sucrose, recent evidence from partial leaf shading, defoliation, and transgenic studies indicates that sugarcane cultivars are capable of further increases in sugar content. Furthermore, sugarcane leaves appear to retain the capacity to increase the supply of assimilate to culm tissues under conditions of increased assimilate demand. The relationship between source and sink tissues in sugarcane should be viewed within a supply-demand paradigm; an often neglected conceptual approach in the study of this crop. Uncoupling of the signalling pathways that mediate negative feedback between source and sink tissues may result in improved leaf assimilation rates and, consequently, lead to increased sugarcane sucrose yields.

  20. Lethal hydroxyl radical accumulation by a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Toshimitsu, Nayu; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial mechanism of a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q, can be described by the toroidal pore model without any receptor. However, lacticin Q showed different degrees of activity (selective antimicrobial activity) against Gram-positive bacteria even among related species. The ability of lacticin Q to induce pore formation in liposomes composed of lipids from different indicator strains indicated that its selective antimicrobial activity could not be attributed only to membrane lipid composition. We investigated the accumulation of deleterious hydroxyl radicals after exposure to lacticin Q as a contributing factor to cell death in the indicator strains. When lacticin Q of the same concentration as the MIC or minimum bactericidal concentration was added to the indicator cultures, high levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation were detected. Treatment with hydroxyl radical scavengers, thiourea and 2,2'-bipyridyl, decreased the levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation and recovered cell viability. These results suggest that, with or without pore formation, the final antimicrobial mechanism of lacticin Q is the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals, which varies by strain, resulting in the selective antimicrobial activity of lacticin Q.

  1. Response of salt-marsh carbon accumulation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Matthew L; Mudd, Simon M

    2012-09-27

    About half of annual marine carbon burial takes place in shallow water ecosystems where geomorphic and ecological stability is driven by interactions between the flow of water, vegetation growth and sediment transport. Although the sensitivity of terrestrial and deep marine carbon pools to climate change has been studied for decades, there is little understanding of how coastal carbon accumulation rates will change and potentially feed back on climate. Here we develop a numerical model of salt marsh evolution, informed by recent measurements of productivity and decomposition, and demonstrate that competition between mineral sediment deposition and organic-matter accumulation determines the net impact of climate change on carbon accumulation in intertidal wetlands. We find that the direct impact of warming on soil carbon accumulation rates is more subtle than the impact of warming-driven sea level rise, although the impact of warming increases with increasing rates of sea level rise. Our simulations suggest that the net impact of climate change will be to increase carbon burial rates in the first half of the twenty-first century, but that carbon-climate feedbacks are likely to diminish over time.

  2. Chloroplasts continuously monitor photoreceptor signals during accumulation movement.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hidenori; Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Under low light conditions, chloroplasts gather at a cell surface to maximize light absorption for efficient photosynthesis, which is called the accumulation response. Phototropin1 (phot1) and phototropin2 (phot2) were identified as blue light photoreceptors in the accumulation response that occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Adiantum capillus-veneris with neochrome1 (neo1) as a red light photoreceptor in A. capillus-veneris. However, the signal molecule that is emitted from the photoreceptors and transmitted to the chloroplasts is not known. To investigate this topic, the accumulation response was induced by partial cell irradiation with a microbeam of red, blue and far-red light in A. capillus-veneris gametophyte cells. Chloroplasts moved towards the irradiated region and were able to sense the signal as long as its signal flowed. The signal from neo1 had a longer life than the signal that came from phototropins. When two microbeams with the same wavelength and the same fluence rate were placed 20 μm apart from each other and were applied to a dark-adapted cell, chloroplasts at an equidistant position always moved towards the center (midpoint) of the two microbeams, but not towards either one. This result indicates that chloroplasts are detecting the concentration of the signal but not the direction of signal flow. Chloroplasts repeatedly move and stop at roughly 10 s intervals during the accumulation response, suggesting that they monitor the intermittent signal waves from photoreceptors.

  3. Deleterious mutation accumulation and the regeneration of genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Daniel J.; David, Jacques L.; Bataillon, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations accompanying recurrent regeneration of plant germ plasm was modeled under regeneration conditions characterized by different amounts of selection and genetic drift. Under some regeneration conditions (sample sizes ≥75 individuals and bulk harvesting of seed) mutation accumulation was negligible, but under others (sample sizes <75 individuals or equalization of seed production by individual plants) mutation numbers per genome increased significantly during 25–50 cycles of regeneration. When mutations also are assumed to occur (at elevated rates) during seed storage, significant mutation accumulation and fitness decline occurred in 10 or fewer cycles of regeneration regardless of the regeneration conditions. Calculations also were performed to determine the numbers of deleterious mutations introduced and remaining in the genome of an existing variety after hybridization with a genetic resource and subsequent backcrossing. The results suggest that mutation accumulation has the potential to reduce the viability of materials held in germ plasm collections and to offset gains expected by the introduction of particular genes of interest from genetic resources. PMID:9419386

  4. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  5. Lethal Hydroxyl Radical Accumulation by a Lactococcal Bacteriocin, Lacticin Q

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengqi; Yoneyama, Fuminori; Toshimitsu, Nayu; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial mechanism of a lactococcal bacteriocin, lacticin Q, can be described by the toroidal pore model without any receptor. However, lacticin Q showed different degrees of activity (selective antimicrobial activity) against Gram-positive bacteria even among related species. The ability of lacticin Q to induce pore formation in liposomes composed of lipids from different indicator strains indicated that its selective antimicrobial activity could not be attributed only to membrane lipid composition. We investigated the accumulation of deleterious hydroxyl radicals after exposure to lacticin Q as a contributing factor to cell death in the indicator strains. When lacticin Q of the same concentration as the MIC or minimum bactericidal concentration was added to the indicator cultures, high levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation were detected. Treatment with hydroxyl radical scavengers, thiourea and 2,2′-bipyridyl, decreased the levels of hydroxyl radical accumulation and recovered cell viability. These results suggest that, with or without pore formation, the final antimicrobial mechanism of lacticin Q is the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals, which varies by strain, resulting in the selective antimicrobial activity of lacticin Q. PMID:23733459

  6. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of an Annular Pogo Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Schwarz, Jordan; Yang, H. Q.; Zoladz, Tom

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on a scaled annular pogo accumulator for the Ares I Upper Stage. The test article was representative of the LO2 feedline and preliminary accumulator design, and included multiple designs of a perforated ring connecting the accumulator to the core feedline flow. The system was pulse tested in water over a range of pulse frequency and flow rates. Time dependent measurements of pressure at various locations in the test article were used to extract system compliance, inertance, and resistance. Preliminary results indicated a significant deviation from standard orifice flow theory and suggest a strong dependence on feedline average velocity. In addition, several CFD analyses were conducted to investigate the details of the time variant flow field. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations were performed with time varying boundary conditions used to represent system pulsing. The CFD results compared well with the sub-scale results and demonstrated the influence of feedline average velocity on the flow into and out of the accumulator. This paper presents updated results of the investigation including a parametric design space for determining resistance characteristics. Using the updated experimental results a new scaling relationship has been defined for shear flow over a cavity. A comparison of sub-scale and full scale CFD simulations provided early verification of the scaling of the fluid flowfield and resistance characteristics.

  7. Identification of three relationships linking cadmium accumulation to cadmium tolerance and zinc and citrate accumulation in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Zorrig, Walid; Rouached, Aïda; Shahzad, Zaigham; Abdelly, Chedly; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a plant species that shows high accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Lettuce is therefore a good model both for identifying determinants controlling cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in edible tissues. In this work, 14-day-old plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for 8 days on media supplemented with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 microM. Growth, as well as Cd(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), phosphate, malate and citrate root an shoot contents were analyzed. The three lettuce varieties Paris Island Cos, Red Salad Bowl and Kordaat displayed differential abilities to accumulate cadmium in roots and shoots, Paris Island Cos displaying the lowest cadmium content and Kordaat the highest. From the global analysis of the three varieties, three main trends were identified. First, a common negative correlation linked cadmium tissue content and relative dry weight reduction in response to cadmium treatments in the three varieties. Second, increasing cadmium concentration in the culture medium resulted in a parallel increase in zinc tissue content in all lettuce varieties. A common strong positive correlation between cadmium and zinc contents was observed for all varieties. This suggested that systems enabling zinc and cadmium transport were induced by cadmium. Finally, the cadmium treatments had a contrasting effect on anion contents in tissues. Interestingly, citrate content in shoots was correlated with cadmium translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting that citrate might play a role in cadmium transport in the xylem vessels. Altogether, these results shed light on three main strategies developed by lettuce to cope with cadmium, which could help to develop breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in lettuce.

  8. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  9. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  10. Heat production by energy viscous dissipation at the stage of the Earth's accumulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurie Khachay, Professor; Olga Hachay, Professor

    2016-04-01

    In [1] it is suggested the model of Sun's protoplanetary cloud matter differentiation during the process of terrestrial planets accumulation. In [2] it was shown that the energy released during the decay of short-lived radioactive elements in the small size more than 50 km, it is enough that the temperature inside of the protoplanet becomes larger than the temperature of iron melting. It provides a realization of the matter differentiation process and convection development inside the inner envelopes. In [3] it is shown that during the sequence of changes in the growth of accumulated protoplanets, three types of driving mechanisms of convection are realized: internal heat sources; heated top; finally in the outer forming core of the Earth, heated from bottom and chemical and thermal convection. At all stages of proto Earth's development the convective heat-mass transfer becomes a most significant factor in the dynamics of the planet. However, the heat release due to friction in the viscous liquid is still considered only for the formed planetary envelopes with a constant radius and angular speed. In this paper we present the first results of numerical modeling of thermal evolution of 3D spherical segment for a protoplanet with increasing radius. To describe the planetary accumulation Safronov equation is used [4]. For the quantitative determination of the released heat by viscous friction a system of hydro dynamic equations of a viscous liquid is used. The obtained results show that the heat input due to viscous friction heat release at the early stage of planetary accumulation was very significant. This work was supported by grant RFFI №16-05-00540 Reference. 1. Anfilogov V., Khachay Y., 2015, Some Aspects of the Solar System Formation. Springer Briefs of the Earth Sciences. 75p 2. Anfilogov V., Khachay Y., 2005, A possible variant of matter differentiation on the initial stage of Earth's forming. DAN, V. 403, No 6, pp. 803-806. 3. Khachay Yu. Realization of

  11. 40 CFR 94.220 - Service accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accumulation. (a) Each test emission data engine in the test fleet may be operated with all emission control systems operating properly for a period, up to 125 hours of operation, that is sufficient to...

  12. The accumulation and structure of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, Bertram

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence for the accumulation of the terrestrial planets and comets from solid grains, with emphasis on the various proposals for the formation of cometary nuclei. With three exceptions, all hypotheses conclude or imply that a single compact object forms. Several hypotheses start with Goldreich-Ward-type gravitational instabilities. The collapse for this case also occurs at low velocities in the cm/s to m/s range. Experiment and theory show that under these conditions, low-density, filamentary clusters form that are fractal aggregates with a fractal dimension approximately equal to 2. In order to form cometary nuclei, the initial temperature must be about 50 K and not undergo a significant temperature rise during the accumulation process. The calculations show that accumulation will occur at low temperatures. Models of cometary nuclei are reviewed, and a simple model of the structure that results fom the accumulation of fluffy aggregates is described.

  13. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  14. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  15. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  16. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  17. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  18. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  19. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  20. Evidence Accumulator or Decision Threshold - Which Cortical Mechanism are We Observing?

    PubMed

    Simen, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Most psychological models of perceptual decision making are of the accumulation-to-threshold variety. The neural basis of accumulation in parietal and prefrontal cortex is therefore a topic of great interest in neuroscience. In contrast, threshold mechanisms have received less attention, and their neural basis has usually been sought in subcortical structures. Here I analyze a model of a decision threshold that can be implemented in the same cortical areas as evidence accumulators, and whose behavior bears on two open questions in decision neuroscience: (1) When ramping activity is observed in a brain region during decision making, does it reflect evidence accumulation? (2) Are changes in speed-accuracy tradeoffs and response biases more likely to be achieved by changes in thresholds, or in accumulation rates and starting points? The analysis suggests that task-modulated ramping activity, by itself, is weak evidence that a brain area mediates evidence accumulation as opposed to threshold readout; and that signs of modulated accumulation are as likely to indicate threshold adaptation as adaptation of starting points and accumulation rates. These conclusions imply that how thresholds are modeled can dramatically impact accumulator-based interpretations of this data.

  1. The role of photorespiration during astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhui; Zhang, Litao; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Most previous studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. However, the relationships between photorespiration and astaxanthin accumulation have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of photorespiration during the process of astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis. During astaxanthin accumulation, the astaxanthin content was reduced significantly when photorespiration was inhibited by its specific inhibitor, carboxymethoxylamine. The inhibition of photorespiration did not change the dry weight, chlorophyll content and OJIP transients during the incubation; however, the inhibition of photorespiration significantly decreased the photochemistry of photosystem II and total photosynthetic O2 evolution capacity. Moreover, the restriction in photorespiration was synchronized with a decrease of astaxanthin accumulation. These results suggest that the photorespiratory pathway in H. pluvialis can accelerate astaxanthin accumulation. We speculate that photorespiration can enhance astaxanthin accumulation in the following ways: (i) photorespiration directly affects the glycerate-3-phosphate (PGA) level, which is intrinsically related to the accumulation of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis; (ii) the photorespiratory pathway indirectly affects the PGA level by effecting the dark reactions of photosynthesis, which then results in the enhancement of astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis.

  2. Induction of Nickel Accumulation in Response to Zinc Deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Sho; Kato, Aki; Tsuzuki, Chisato; Yoshida, Junko; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2015-04-27

    Excessive accumulation of nickel (Ni) can be toxic to plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Fe²⁺ transporter, iron (Fe)-regulated transporter1 (IRT1), mediates Fe uptake and also implicates in Ni²⁺ uptake at roots; however, the underlying mechanism of Ni²⁺ uptake and accumulation remains unelucidated. In the present study, we found that zinc (Zn) deficient conditions resulted in increased accumulation of Ni in plants, particularly in roots, in A. thaliana. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Ni uptake correlating zinc condition, we traced 63Ni isotope in response to Zn and found that (i) Zn deficiency induces short-term Ni²⁺ absorption and (ii) Zn²⁺ inhibits Ni²⁺ uptake, suggesting competitive uptake between Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the Zrt/Irt-like protein 3 (ZIP3)-defective mutant with an elevated Zn-deficient response exhibited higher Ni accumulation than the wild type, further supporting that the response to Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation. Previously, expression profile study demonstrated that IRT1 expression is not inducible by Zn deficiency. In the present study, we found increased Ni accumulation in IRT1-null mutant under Zn deficiency in agar culture. These suggest that Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation in an IRT1-independen manner. The present study revealed that Ni accumulation is inducible in response to Zn deficiency, which may be attributable to a Zn uptake transporter induced by Zn deficiency.

  3. Plasmid accumulation reduces life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Alaric A; Aris, John P

    2003-10-24

    Aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is under the control of multiple pathways. The production and accumulation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) is one pathway that has been proposed to bring about aging in yeast. To test this proposal, we have developed a plasmid-based model system to study the role of DNA episomes in reduction of yeast life span. Recombinant plasmids containing different replication origins, cis-acting partitioning elements, and selectable marker genes were constructed and analyzed for their effects on yeast replicative life span. Plasmids containing the ARS1 replication origin reduce life span to the greatest extent of the plasmids analyzed. This reduction in life span is partially suppressed by a CEN4 centromeric element on ARS1 plasmids. Plasmids containing a replication origin from the endogenous yeast 2 mu circle also reduce life span, but to a lesser extent than ARS1 plasmids. Consistent with this, ARS1 and 2 mu origin plasmids accumulate in approximately 7-generation-old cells, but ARS1/CEN4 plasmids do not. Importantly, ARS1 plasmids accumulate to higher levels in old cells than 2 mu origin plasmids, suggesting a correlation between plasmid accumulation and life span reduction. Reduction in life span is neither an indirect effect of increased ERC levels nor the result of stochastic cessation of growth. The presence of a fully functional 9.1-kb rDNA repeat on plasmids is not required for, and does not augment, reduction in life span. These findings support the view that accumulation of DNA episomes, including episomes such as ERCs, cause cell senescence in yeast.

  4. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (<2 m) back-reef of Agatti atoll, Lakshadweep. The fine-mesh cages excluded all visible herbivores, which had rapid and lasting effects on the benthic communities, and, after 127 d of deployment, there was a visible and significant increase in algae (mainly macroalgae) with algal volume being 13 times greater than in adjacent open areas. The coarse-mesh cages excluded larger fishes (>8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  5. Adaptation of marine plankton to environmental stress by glycolipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gašparović, Blaženka; Godrijan, Jelena; Frka, Sanja; Tomažić, Igor; Penezić, Abra; Marić, Daniela; Djakovac, Tamara; Ivančić, Ingrid; Paliaga, Paolo; Lyons, Daniel; Precali, Robert; Tepić, Nataša

    2013-12-01

    A systematic investigation of non-phosphorus containing glycolipids (GL) was conducted in the northern Adriatic Sea during two years at two stations with different nutrient loads. GL concentration varied both spatially and temporally, with values of 1.1-21.5 μg/L and 0.4-44.7 μg/L in the particulate and the dissolved fraction, respectively. The highest concentrations were measured during summer in surface waters and at the more oligotrophic station, where GL yields (% of total lipids) were often higher than 20% and 50% in the particulate and dissolved fractions, respectively. To obtain more insight into factors governing GL accumulation autotrophic plankton community structure (pico-, nano- and microplankton fractions), chlorophyll a, heterotrophic bacteria and nutrient concentrations were measured together with hydrographic parameters and sunlight intensity. During the investigated period smaller autotrophic plankton cells (pico- and followed by nanoplankton) prevailed in abundance over larger cells (microplankton), which were found in large numbers in freshened surface samples. Several major findings resulted from the study. Firstly, during PO4 limitation, particularly at the oligotrophic station, enhanced glycolipid instead of phospholipid accumulation takes place, representing an effective phosphate-conserving mechanism. Secondly, results suggest that at seawater temperatures >19 °C autotrophic plankton considerably accumulate GL, probably to achieve thermal stability. Thirdly, high sunlight intensities seem to influence increased GL accumulation; GL possibly plays a role in cell mechanisms that prevent/mitigate photooxidation. And finally, substantial accumulation of GL detected in the dissolved fraction could be related to the fact that GL do not contain biologically relevant elements, like phosphorus, which makes them an unattractive substrate for enzyme activity. Therefore, substantial portion of CO2 could be removed from the atmosphere in P

  6. Origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum in Gulf Coast Cenozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Explanations of the origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum in the Gulf Coast upper Cenozoic must accommodate the following facts. (1) No specific source of the petroleum has ever been identified. (2) The most probable source section is 10,000-20,000 ft of low TOC (0.4-1.0 wt %) shale that underlies the reservoirs. (3) Tremendous volumes of dry gas have been generated in the middle and basal part of the source section. (4) More gas than oil is in the reservoirs. (5) The distribution of oil and gas accumulations in the Cenozoic is not primarily controlled by the distribution of terrestrial gas-prone organic facies and marine oil-prone organic facies, but by the relative ease of migration of the two hydrocarbon phases. For example, gas preferentially accumulates in the simpler structures, oil in the intrusive salt domes. (6) High pressure and high porosity in the source rock indicates that neither water movement nor continuous phase oil movement out of the source rock are likely to be significant factors in primary migration. (7) The situation is very dynamic, with generation, migration, and accumulation occurring today. (8) Faults are very important as controls on migration and accumulation of the petroleum. The interaction of these (and other) factors suggests that most oil reservoirs in the Gulf Coast upper Cenozoic sediments probably initially became mobile after being dissolved in gas in the source rock. The gas-oil mixture moved toward lower pressure areas adjacent to and in faults, and moved upward into reservoirs and traps along faults.

  7. Genetic and Environmental Controls on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Rissanen, Antti J.; Arvola, Lauri; Nykänen, Hannu; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Tiirola, Marja

    2015-01-01

    We studied potential links between environmental factors, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation, and genetic indicators of nitrite and N2O reducing bacteria in 12 boreal lakes. Denitrifying bacteria were investigated by quantifying genes encoding nitrite and N2O reductases (nirS/nirK and nosZ, respectively, including the two phylogenetically distinct clades nosZI and nosZII) in lake sediments. Summertime N2O accumulation and hypolimnetic nitrate concentrations were positively correlated both at the inter-lake scale and within a depth transect of an individual lake (Lake Vanajavesi). The variability in the individual nirS, nirK, nosZI, and nosZII gene abundances was high (up to tenfold) among the lakes, which allowed us to study the expected links between the ecosystem’s nir-vs-nos gene inventories and N2O accumulation. Inter-lake variation in N2O accumulation was indeed connected to the relative abundance of nitrite versus N2O reductase genes, i.e. the (nirS+nirK)/nosZI gene ratio. In addition, the ratios of (nirS+nirK)/nosZI at the inter-lake scale and (nirS+nirK)/nosZI+II within Lake Vanajavesi correlated positively with nitrate availability. The results suggest that ambient nitrate concentration can be an important modulator of the N2O accumulation in lake ecosystems, either directly by increasing the overall rate of denitrification or indirectly by controlling the balance of nitrite versus N2O reductase carrying organisms. PMID:25756328

  8. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.A.; Caldwell, M.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1984-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in sodium uptake between populations of A. tridentata, A. falcata and A. gardneri, with some populations having less than 0.1% leaf sodium and other populations having up to 5 or 6%. In three experiments (a field study, a greenhouse pot study and a hydroponics study) there were no significant differences in salinity tolerance between sodium accumulating and nonaccumulating A. canescens: both genotypes were highly salt tolerant. There was a significant buildup of sodium in the soil beneath sodium accumulating Atriplex plants, both in natural populations and on revegetated oil shale study plots. The sodium buildup was not sufficient to be detrimental to the growth or establishment of most herbaceous species, but with older Atriplex plants or with more saline soil, the buildup could potentially be detrimental. 14 references, 42 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Why a fern (Pteris multifida) dominantly growing on an arsenictheavy metal contamînated soil does not accumulate arsenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M. X.; Xu, J. M.; Smith, L.; Naidu, R.

    2003-05-01

    A kind of fern (Pteris multifida) is growing dominantly on a lead/zinc mine tailings contaminated soil located in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, the People's Republic of China. The soil was heavily contaminated by heavy metals and arsenic, especially by lead, arsenic, and zinc. The total concentration (mg/kg) ranges for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soil were 1370-4539, 3.0-9.3, 39-48, 65-206, 5271-16397, and 387-1221, respectively. The accumulative characteristics of heavy metals and arsenic in the fern pteris multifida showed that it accumulated lead 86-237 mg/kg in leaf, 33-741 mg/kg in stem, 879-4040 mg/kg in root and accumulated arsenic only 0.3-1.6 mg/kg in leaf, 0.5-8.0 mg/kg in stem, 24-45 mg/kg in root. Some ferns were reportedly As hyperaccumulators by some researchers. Why a fern (Pteris multifida) grown on a high As-contaminated soil in the present research could not accumulate arsenic? Further analyses indicated that water-soluble arsenic was almost zero and water-soluble Pb was high. It is suggested that high concentration Pb reacted with arsenic in soil solution to form a stable mineral. X-ray diffraction détermination proved that there was a mineral, beudantite PbFe3 (AsO44)(SO4)(OH)6) in <0.002 mm clay fraction of the contaminated soil. The solubility product (Ksp) of beudantite was reportedly 10^{-21}, leading to very low water-soluble As in the soil.

  10. Role of pericytes in skeletal muscle regeneration and fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-08-15

    Stem cells ensure tissue regeneration, while overgrowth of adipogenic cells may compromise organ recovery and impair function. In myopathies and muscle atrophy associated with aging, fat accumulation increases dysfunction, and after chronic injury, the process of fatty degeneration, in which muscle is replaced by white adipocytes, further compromises tissue function and environment. Some studies suggest that pericytes may contribute to muscle regeneration as well as fat formation. This work reports the presence of two pericyte subpopulations in the skeletal muscle and characterizes their specific roles. Skeletal muscle from Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice show two types of pericytes, Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ (type-1) and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ (type-2), in close proximity to endothelial cells. We also found that both Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ cells colocalize with staining of two pericyte markers, PDGFRβ and CD146, but only type-1 pericyte express the adipogenic progenitor marker PDGFRα. Type-2 pericytes participate in muscle regeneration, while type-1 contribute to fat accumulation. Transplantation studies indicate that type-1 pericytes do not form muscle in vivo, but contribute to fat deposition in the skeletal muscle, while type-2 pericytes contribute only to the new muscle formation after injury, but not to the fat accumulation. Our results suggest that type-1 and type-2 pericytes contribute to successful muscle regeneration which results from a balance of myogenic and nonmyogenic cells activation.

  11. Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media.

    PubMed

    Li, Houng; Davis, Allen P

    2008-07-15

    Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media were investigated through the use of a one-dimensional filtration equation for particulate metals, advection/dispersion/adsorption transport equations for dissolved metals, and sequential extractions. Predicted spatial profiles and partitioning patterns of captured metals were compared to data derived from a bioretention cell in the District of Columbia. Zinc, lead, and copper profiles showed a high surface accumulation, significantly decreasing with the media depth. Surface street particle-enriched areas had the highest heavy metal levels, demonstrating a close relationship between capture of metals and runoff particles. Sequential extractions suggested that most captured metals were of anthropogenic origin. Soluble-exchangeable bound metals from the sequential extraction correlated well with predicted aqueous dissolved metals; the more strongly associated metal fractions correlated with modeled runoff and media particulate metals. A simple risk evaluation indicated thatlead isthe limiting metal in bioretention accumulation. On the basis of information collected in this study, a shallow bioretention cell design is suggested for systems with a focus on metal capture.

  12. CircRNA accumulation in the aging mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Hannah; Cortés-López, Mariela; Cooper, Daphne A.; Bauer, Matthew; Miura, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs expressed across diverse phyla. These enigmatic transcripts are most commonly generated by back-splicing events from exons of protein-coding genes. This results in highly stable RNAs due to the lack of free 5′ and 3′ ends. CircRNAs are enriched in neural tissues, suggesting that they might have neural functions. Here, we sought to determine whether circRNA accumulation occurs during aging in mice. Total RNA-seq profiling of young (1 month old) and aged (22 month old) cortex, hippocampus and heart samples was performed. This led to the confident detection of 6,791 distinct circRNAs across these samples, including 675 novel circRNAs. Analysis uncovered a strong bias for circRNA upregulation during aging in neural tissues. These age-accumulation trends were verified for individual circRNAs by RT-qPCR and Northern analysis. In contrast, comparison of aged versus young hearts failed to reveal a global trend for circRNA upregulation. Age-accumulation of circRNAs in brain tissues was found to be largely independent from linear RNA expression of host genes. These findings suggest that circRNAs might play biological roles relevant to the aging nervous system. PMID:27958329

  13. Cranberry Product Decreases Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quancai; Yue, Yiren; Shen, Peiyi; Yang, Jeremy J; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-04-01

    Cranberry phenolic compounds have been linked to many health benefits. A recent report suggested that cranberry bioactives inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the cranberry product (CP) on lipid metabolism using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. CP (0.016% and 0.08%) dose-dependently reduced overall fat accumulation in C. elegans (N2, wild type) by 43% and 74%, respectively, without affecting its pumping rates or locomotive activities. CP decreased fat accumulation in aak-2 (an ortholog of AMP-activated kinase α) and tub-1 (an ortholog of TUBBY) mutants significantly, but only minimal effects were observed in sbp-1 (an ortholog of sterol response element-binding protein-1) and nhr-49 (an ortholog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) mutant strains. We further confirmed that CP downregulated sbp-1, cebp, and hosl-1 (an ortholog of hormone-sensitive lipase homolog) expression, while increasing the expression of nhr-49 in wild-type C. elegans. These results suggest that CP could effectively reduce fat accumulation in C. elegans dependent on sbp-1, cebp, and nhr-49, but not aak-2 and tub-1.

  14. Exploring health information technology education: an analysis of the research.

    PubMed

    Virgona, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the Health Information Technology Education published research. The purpose of this study was to examine selected literature using variables such as journal frequency, keyword analysis, universities associated with the research and geographic diversity. The analysis presented in this paper has identified intellectually significant studies that have contributed to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth of Health Information Technology. The keyword analysis suggests that Health Information Technology research has evolved from establishing concepts and domains of health information systems, technology and management to contemporary issues such as education, outsourcing, web services and security. The research findings have implications for educators, researchers, journal.

  15. Nibbled to Death by Ducks: The Accumulation of Disadvantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Caroline E.

    2010-05-01

    One of the consequences of unconscious bias is the accumulation of advantage/disadvantage. Research has shown that over time, minor imbalances will accrue and eventually have major impacts regarding promotion, salary, prestige, and advancement to leadership positions. For example, an unconscious bias during an evaluation leading to an underestimate of performance will result in a lower success rate, which then feeds back into the next evaluation and the cycle repeats. How can we address this? We'll be discussing how to become informed and conscious of the problem, and we'll look at recommendations for developing and implementing departmental and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing awareness and countering these accumulations of imbalances that impact us all.

  16. Landform elevation suggests ecohydrologic footprints in subsurface geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Heffernan, J. B.; Martin, J. B.; Murray, A.; Osborne, T.; Cohen, M. J.; Kobziar, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Many landscapes exhibit patterns in their arrangement of biota, or in their surface geomorphology as a result of biotic activity. Examples occur around the globe and include northern peatlands, Sahelian savannas, and shallow marine reefs. Such self-organized patterning is strongly suggestive of coupled, reciprocal feedbacks (i.e. locally positive, and distally negative) among biota and their environment. Much research on patterned landscapes has concerned emergent biogeomorphologic surfaces such as those found in peatlands, or the influence of biota on soil formation or transport. Our research concerns ecohydrologic feedbacks hypothesized to produce patterned occurrence of depressions in a subtropical limestone karst landscape. Our findings show strong evidence of self-organized patterning, in the form of overdispersed dissolution basins. Distributions of randomized bedrock elevation measurements on the landscape are bimodal, with means clustered about either higher- or lower-elevation modes. Measurements on the thin mantle of soil overlying this landscape, however, display reduced bimodality and mode separation. These observations indicate abiotic processes in diametric opposition to the biogenic forces which may be responsible for generating landscape pattern. Correlograms show higher spatial autocorrelation among soil measurements compared to bedrock measurements, and measurements of soil-layer thickness show high negative correlation with bedrock elevation. Our results are consistent with predictions of direct ecohydrologic feedbacks that would produce patterned "footprints" directly on bedrock, and of abiotic processes operating to obfuscate this pattern. The study suggests new steps to identify biogeochemical mechanisms for landscape patterning: an "ecological drill" by which plant communities modify geology.

  17. Conifer ovulate cones accumulate pollen principally by simple impaction

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, James E.; Henning, Kevin; Pennel, Christophe; Lahoubi, Mohamed; Patrick, Michael A.; Young, Phillipe G.; Tabor, Gavin R.

    2007-01-01

    In many pine species (Family Pinaceae), ovulate cones structurally resemble a turbine, which has been widely interpreted as an adaptation for improving pollination by producing complex aerodynamic effects. We tested the turbine interpretation by quantifying patterns of pollen accumulation on ovulate cones in a wind tunnel and by using simulation models based on computational fluid dynamics. We used computer-aided design and computed tomography to create computational fluid dynamics model cones. We studied three species: Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, and Cedrus libani. Irrespective of the approach or species studied, we found no evidence that turbine-like aerodynamics made a significant contribution to pollen accumulation, which instead occurred primarily by simple impaction. Consequently, we suggest alternative adaptive interpretations for the structure of ovulate cones. PMID:17986613

  18. Self-Mutilation in Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Raj, Pawan; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Well-known phenotypic features are progressive regression with extra pyramidal involvement and a variable course. A 10-year-old child born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive generalized opisthotonic dystonia, retrocollis, oromandibular dyskinesias, apraxia for swallowing, optic atrophy and severe self-mutilation of lips. MR imaging showed brain iron accumulation. Other causes of self-mutilation were excluded. Early infantile onset, ophisthotonic dystonia with oromandibular dyskinesias and characteristic MR images are suggestive of NBIA. There is only one case reported in the literature of self-mutilation in this condition. PMID:26120159

  19. Adenovirus type 2 nuclear RNA accumulating during productive infection.

    PubMed Central

    Bachenheimer, S L

    1977-01-01

    The viral-specific nuclear RNA which accumulates early and late during productive infection of HeLa cells by adenovirus-type 2 (Ad2) has been characterized with respect to its size and stability after denaturation by Me2SO. Early nuclear transcripts, under nondenaturing conditions, sediment in the range 28 to 45S, but treatment with Me2SO prior to sedimentation results in a shift to about 20S. Later nuclear RNA accumulates as a composite of two populations of molecules: one with a broad size distribution centering on 45S under nondenaturing conditions and less than 32S after denaturation and a second having a narrow size distribution around 35S which is quite stable to Me2SO. Analysis of late RNA by hybridization to Sma fragments of Ad2 DNA suggests that the 35S RNA species is derived from a limited portion of the left half of the viral genome. PMID:864839

  20. Emergence and accumulation of novel pathogens suppress an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Harmon, Philip F; Goss, Erica M; Clay, Keith; Luke Flory, S

    2016-04-01

    Emerging pathogens are a growing threat to human health, agriculture and the diversity of ecological communities but may also help control problematic species. Here we investigated the diversity, distribution and consequences of emerging fungal pathogens infecting an aggressive invasive grass that is rapidly colonising habitats throughout the eastern USA. We document the recent emergence and accumulation over time of diverse pathogens that are members of a single fungal genus and represent multiple, recently described or undescribed species. We also show that experimental suppression of these pathogens increased host performance in the field, demonstrating the negative effects of emerging pathogens on invasive plants. Our results suggest that invasive species can facilitate pathogen emergence and amplification, raising concerns about movement of pathogens among agricultural, horticultural, and wild grasses. However, one possible benefit of pathogen accumulation is suppression of aggressive invaders over the long term, potentially abating their negative impacts on native communities.

  1. FETAL HEALTH SHOCKS AND EARLY INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH CAPITAL ACCUMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic inequalities in child health and consequences of early disease. However, not much is known about inequalities in health capital accumulation in the womb in response to fetal health shocks, which is essential for finding the earliest sensitive periods for interventions to reduce inequalities. We identify inequalities in birth weight accumulation as a result of fetal health shocks from the occurrence of one of the most common birth defects, oral clefts, within the first 9 weeks of pregnancy, using quantile regression and two datasets from South America and the US. Infants born at lower birth weight quantiles are significantly more adversely affected by the health shock compared to those born at higher birth weight quantiles, with overall comparable results between the South American and US samples. These results suggest that fetal health shocks increase child health disparities by widening the spread of the birth weight distribution and that health inequalities begin in the womb, requiring interventions before pregnancy. PMID:23339079

  2. MYB76 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaowei; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Hai, Jiangbo; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    The MYB family of transcription factors is important in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, their role in regulating fatty acid accumulation in seeds is still largely unclear. Here, we found that MYB76, localized in the nucleus, was predominantly expressed in developing seeds during maturation. The myb76 mutation caused a significant increase in the amounts of total fatty acids and several major fatty acid compositions in mature seeds, suggesting that MYB76 functioned as an important repressor during seed oil biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed remarkable alteration of numerous genes involved in photosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, modification, and degradation, and oil body formation in myb76 seeds at 12 days after pollination. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB76 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of MYB transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:28270825

  3. Conifer ovulate cones accumulate pollen principally by simple impaction.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, James E; Henning, Kevin; Pennel, Christophe; Lahoubi, Mohamed; Patrick, Michael A; Young, Phillipe G; Tabor, Gavin R

    2007-11-13

    In many pine species (Family Pinaceae), ovulate cones structurally resemble a turbine, which has been widely interpreted as an adaptation for improving pollination by producing complex aerodynamic effects. We tested the turbine interpretation by quantifying patterns of pollen accumulation on ovulate cones in a wind tunnel and by using simulation models based on computational fluid dynamics. We used computer-aided design and computed tomography to create computational fluid dynamics model cones. We studied three species: Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, and Cedrus libani. Irrespective of the approach or species studied, we found no evidence that turbine-like aerodynamics made a significant contribution to pollen accumulation, which instead occurred primarily by simple impaction. Consequently, we suggest alternative adaptive interpretations for the structure of ovulate cones.

  4. Nanoparticle-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation during C2C12 cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} HTT2800 has a significant effect on intracellular lipid accumulation. {yields} HTT2800 reduced muscle-specific genes and led to the emergence of adipocyte-related genes. {yields} HT2800 converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts to that of adipoblast-like cells. -- Abstract: In this report, we sought to elucidate whether multiwall carbon nanotubes are involved in the modulation of the proliferation and differentiation of the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for 40% of total body weight and 50% of energy consumption. We focused on the differentiation pathway of myoblasts after exposure to a vapor-grown carbon fiber, HTT2800, which is one of the most highly purified carbon nanotubes. This treatment leads in parallel to the expression of a typical adipose differentiation program. We found that HTT2800 stimulated intracellular lipid accumulation in C2C12 cells. We have also shown by quantified PCR analysis that the expression of adipose-related genes was markedly upregulated during HTT2800 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that HTT2800 specifically converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts to that of adipoblast-like cells.

  5. Accumulation and sublethal effects of a Wyoming crude oil in cutthroat trout

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, D.F.; Mehrle, P.M. Jr.; Mauck, W.L.

    1981-05-01

    Cutthroat trout Salmo clarki were exposed for 90 days to four concentrations of a Wyoming crude oil in water, ranging from 100 to 520 ..mu..g/liter. Survival was reduced to 52% among fish held in the 520-..mu..g/liter concentration, but was not affected by three lower concentrations. The growth of cutthroat trout in all four concentrations was significantly slower than that of the control fish. Exposure concentrations of 520 and 450 ..mu..g/liter induced gill lesions and development of lesions on the retina and lens of the eye of cutthroat trout. Accumulation of total hydrocarbons in fish tissue was directly related to water concentration, except for fish in the 520-..mu..g/liter concentration. Alkylated mono- and dicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were accumulated most readily and naphthalenes were the dominant aromatic component in oil, water, and fish. Evidence from this research suggests that discharges of 10 mg/liter oil and grease allowed by several western states are too high.

  6. Occurrence of contaminant accumulation in lead pipe scales from domestic drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Schock, Michael R; Hyland, Robert N; Welch, Meghan M

    2008-06-15

    Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden risk. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of over 40 major scale constituents, regulated metals, and other potential metallic inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution system Pb (lead) or Pb-lined service lines. The primary method of analysis was inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, following complete decomposition of scale material. Contaminants and scale constituents were categorized by their average concentrations, and many metals of potential health concern were found to occur at levels sufficient to result in elevated levels at the consumer's taps if they were to be mobilized. The data indicate distinctly nonconservative behavior for many inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution systems. This finding suggests an imminent need for further research into the transport and fate of contaminants throughout drinking-water distribution system pipes, as well as a re-evaluation of monitoring protocols in order to more accurately determine the scope and levels of potential consumer exposure.

  7. Differential snow accumulation and melt at southern hemisphere deciduous forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, James; Huerta, Marlene; Molotch, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the differential snow dynamics resulting from forest cover in southern hemisphere alpine regions. Tree species variability and differences in local climate preclude extrapolation of northern hemisphere results and introduce uncertainty on the future impacts of climate change on snow-cover duration, maximum accumulation and melt rates. This research presents preliminary results from field observations obtained at an experimental watershed in the Nevados de Chillan region, in south-central Chile. The relatively low elevation of the Andes Cordillera and higher latitude of the site allows the existence of mixed Nothofagus forests, sometimes combined with bamboo-type undergrowth. Rain-on-snow events can be observed during winter and in the early stages of the austral spring. We installed four instrument clusters at the Valle Hermoso experimental catchments, where snow depth, air temperature and relative humidity were measured both under canopy and in forest clearings. The clusters where positioned in order to cover a range of elevations and sun exposure. Preliminary results from two winter seasons suggest that forest cover can impact accumulation rates as much as elevation does, and that melt rates are fairly sensitive to forest cover even in low LAI conditions.

  8. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  9. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  10. Intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interactions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel C; Carella, Philip; Cameron, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in several disease resistance responses. During the Age-Related Resistance (ARR) response that occurs in mature Arabidopsis responding to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst), SA accumulates in the intercellular space where it may act as an antimicrobial agent. Recently we measured intracellular and intercellular SA levels in young, ARR-incompetent plants responding to virulent and avirulent strains of Pst to determine if intercellular SA accumulation is a component of additional defense responses to Pst. In young plants virulent Pst suppressed both intra- and intercellular SA accumulation in a coronatine-dependent manner. In contrast, high levels of intra- and intercellular SA accumulated in response to avirulent Pst. Our results support the idea that SA accumulation in the intercellular space is an important component of multiple defense responses. Future research will include understanding how mature plants counteract the effects of coronatine during the ARR response.

  11. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  12. Drivers of Holocene peatland carbon accumulation across a climate gradient in northeastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charman, Dan J.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Hinchliffe, William; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Mallon, Gunnar; Blake, William H.; Daley, Tim J.; Gallego-Sala, Angela V.; Mauquoy, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    Peatlands are an important component of the Holocene global carbon (C) cycle and the rate of C sequestration and storage is driven by the balance between net primary productivity and decay. A number of studies now suggest that climate is a key driver of peatland C accumulation at large spatial scales and over long timescales, with warmer conditions associated with higher rates of C accumulation. However, other factors are also likely to play a significant role in determining local carbon accumulation rates and these may modify past, present and future peatland carbon sequestration. Here, we test the importance of climate as a driver of C accumulation, compared with hydrological change, fire, nitrogen content and vegetation type, from records of C accumulation at three sites in northeastern North America, across the N-S climate gradient of raised bog distribution. Radiocarbon age models, bulk density values and %C measurements from each site are used to construct C accumulation histories commencing between 11,200 and 8000 cal. years BP. The relationship between C accumulation and environmental variables (past water table depth, fire, peat forming vegetation and nitrogen content) is assessed with linear and multivariate regression analyses. Differences in long-term rates of carbon accumulation between sites support the contention that a warmer climate with longer growing seasons results in faster rates of long-term carbon accumulation. However, mid-late Holocene accumulation rates show divergent trends, decreasing in the north but rising in the south. We hypothesise that sites close to the moisture threshold for raised bog distribution increased their growth rate in response to a cooler climate with lower evapotranspiration in the late Holocene, but net primary productivity declined over the same period in northern areas causing a decrease in C accumulation. There was no clear relationship between C accumulation and hydrological change, vegetation, nitrogen content

  13. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    PubMed

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  14. Zinc and/or cadmium accumulation in Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. studied in vitro and the effect on crude protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitlertumpai, Natthawoot; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Sangdee, Aphidech; Thumanu, Kanjana; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko

    2013-03-01

    Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. is a zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulative plant. The aim of this study was to examine the tolerance of G. pseudochina (L.) DC. for Zn and/or Cd accumulation and protein expression. An in vitro tissue culture system was used to control the environment and effects of the microorganisms. Treatments with higher Zn and Cd concentrations increased chlorosis and the accumulation of metals in the root and shoot. Cd treatment at low levels induced the growth of the plant, and the translocation factor was high. A dual treatment with Cd and Zn decreased the metals' toxicity and demonstrated the plant's proclivity to accumulate Cd. The SDS-PAGE and FT-IR analyses showed the effect of the metals' toxicity on protein expression and secondary structure. Moreover, using XAFS techniques, it was demonstrated that treatment with a high Zn concentration (100 mg l-1) resulted in tetrahedral coordination with mixed S/O ligation in the protein extract as compared with Znsbnd O coordination in the protein extract from the control plant cultured in the presence of trace levels of Zn (0.04 mg l-1). This research suggested that G. pseudochina (L.) DC. had properties to tolerate a high Zn and Cd concentration, related to the sulphur proteins.

  15. Ammonium reduces oxalate accumulation in different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) genotypes by inhibiting root uptake of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Lingli; Chen, Qiuhui; Ding, Wenya; Dai, Peibin; Hu, Yan; Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-11-01

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate negatively affects nutritional value of many vegetables, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Mixed solution of ammonium and nitrate could effectively reduce oxalate accumulation, while the mechanism involved remains unknown. High (Heizhenzhu) and low (Weilv) oxalate-accumulated spinach genotypes were used in this study to investigate the association of oxalate accumulation and root uptake of nitrogen. Exposure of increasing nitrate or mixed-nitrogen (nitrate:ammonium = 1:1) significantly increased leaf total and soluble oxalate contents. In contrast, increasing ammonium did not result in elevation of leaf oxalate. Correlation analysis confirmed that leaf oxalate accumulation was positively associated with root uptake of nitrate but not ammonium. Moreover, addition of ammonium significantly reduced nitrate uptake rate, and subsequently decreased leaf oxalate accumulation. The results suggest that oxalate synthesis in spinach leaves is associated with its root uptake of nitrate, and ammonium is able to reduce oxalate accumulation by inhibiting uptake of nitrate.

  16. Does Titan's Slightly Oblate Shape suggest a Capture Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    -zero orbital eccentricity of Titan also points to a cold and rigid interior (Sohl et al, 1995 Icarus 115 278). It is proposed that Titan initially accreted at low temperature (94 K) within the gas ring shed by the PSC at Saturn’s orbit. Titan’s present 2-zone structure came about through the melting of its outer layers via the dissipation of gravitational energy in the final stages of its accumulation, as has been suggested for Callisto (Lunine and Stevenson 1982 Icarus 52 14). Initially Titan was spinning rapidly and had a highly oblate shape. Titan’s capture by the Saturn system was secured by collision with one or both of 2 volatile-rich native moons of Saturn that once existed at 17RSat and 24RSat where RSat = 60268 km (Prentice 2005 BAAS 37 729). It is the NH3 and CH4 ices of those lost moons which is the source of Titan’s N2 -CH4 atmosphere. If Titan’s outer ice mantle was still warm at the time of capture, then its shape would soon relax via tidal dissipation to that demanded by the moon’s new orbit about Saturn. The shape of the cold inner core might, however, retain its oblate shape. Titan’s shape today is thus the outcome of an amazing and complex dynamical past. I present numerical models for Titan’s radiogenic evolution to solar age which show that the central core has remained cold to solar age.

  17. Airborne-radar and ice-core observations of snow accumulation in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, Brooke

    The world's ice sheets store enough water to raise global eustatic sea level by several tens of meters, and therefore, any fluctuations in their size will cause sea level to rise or fall. The net mass exchanged with the ocean - defined as the mass balance - determines the glacial contribution to sea level and is the difference in snow accumulated in the interior and ice discharged into the ocean at the ice sheet periphery. While new techniques in remotely acquired surface velocities lead to improved discharge measurements, snow accumulation remains unmeasured over much of the of the ice sheet. This work aims to improve our understanding of snow accumulation over two of the most rapidly evolving glaciers in Antarctica: Pine Island and Thwaites. Specifically, we use two airborne radar systems to image and track the near-surface internal stratigraphy to measure snow accumulation rates over both glaciers. This method allows for investigation of the spatial and temporal variations in accumulation at the catchment-scale, which is essential for determining glacier mass balance. Examination of the radar-derived accumulation rates over Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers revealed several results including: (1) accumulation exhibited no significant trend between 1980 and 2009, (2) the sea-level contribution from Pine Island and Thwaites tripled from +0.09 mm yr-1 in the mid-1990s to +0.27 mm yr-1 by 2010, (3) a shift towards higher accumulation occurred between 1944-1984 and 1985-2009, observed in both ice core and radar records, and (4) atmospheric models are an adequate replacement for accumulation measurements in areas with few observations. These findings indicate that accumulation is not concurrently compensating the enhanced ice discharge from the region, and as a result, the sea-level contribution from these glaciers is increasing. Furthermore, a recent shift towards higher mean accumulation suggests these glaciers might have been out of balance earlier than originally

  18. Abscisic Acid accumulates at positive turgor potential in excised soybean seedling growing zones.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1991-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) hypocotyl elongating regions when seedlings were transferred to low water potential vermiculite (Psi = -0.3 megapascals) even though positive turgor is retained in this tissue. Accumulation of ABA in growing zones could occur from de novo biosynthesis within this tissue or transport from adjacent nongrowing zones. Both growing and nongrowing hypocotyl and root tissues accumulated significant levels of ABA when excised and dehydrated to reduce turgor. Surprisingly, excised growing zones (which experienced no water loss) also accumulated ABA when incubated in darkness for 4 hours at 100% relative humidity and 29 degrees C. Induction of ABA accumulation in the excised elongating region of the hypocotyl was not caused by disruption of root pressure or wounding. While excision of hypocotyl elongating regions induced ABA accumulation, no change in either extensin or p33 mRNA levels was observed. Accumulation of extensin or p33 mRNA required more severe wounding. This suggests that ABA is not involved in the response of these genes in wounded tissue and that wound signals are not causing ABA accumulation in excised tissue. Accumulation of ABA in excised elongating regions was correlated with growth inhibition and a decline in turgor to the yield threshold (Psi;(p) = 0.37 megapascals; R Matyssek, S Maruyama, JS Boyer [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 1163-1167). Inhibiting hypocotyl growth by transferring seedlings to lower temperatures or light did not cause ABA accumulation. We conclude that induction of ABA accumulation in growing zones is more sensitive to changes in turgor than the induction which occurs in mature tissues.

  19. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation.

  20. Comprehensive model of damage accumulation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, K. R. C.; Benistant, F.; Jaraiz, M.; Rubio, J. E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Ion implantation induced damage accumulation is crucial to the simulation of silicon processing. We present a physically based damage accumulation model, implemented in a nonlattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, that can simulate a diverse range of interesting experimental observations. The model is able to reproduce the ion-mass dependent silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature of a range of ions from C to Xe, the amorphous layer thickness for a range of amorphizing implants, the superlinear increase in damage accumulation with dose, and the two-layered damage distribution observed along the path of a high-energy ion. In addition, this model is able to distinguish between dynamic annealing and post-cryogenic implantation annealing, whereby dynamic annealing is more effective in removing damage than post-cryogenic implantation annealing at the same temperature.

  1. Ionizing radiation increases systemic nanoparticle tumor accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Giustini, A.J.; Petryk, A.A.; Hoopes, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapies are currently being explored for both the imaging and treatment of primary and metastatic cancers. Effective nanoparticle cancer therapy requires significant accumulations of nanoparticles within the tumor environment. Various techniques have been used to improve tumor nanoparticle uptake and biodistribution. Most notable of these techniques are the use of tumor-specific-peptide-conjugated nanoparticles and chemical modification of the nanoparticles with immune-evading polymers. Another strategy for improving the tumor uptake of the nanoparticles is modification of the tumor microenvironment with a goal of enhancing the enhanced permeability and retention effect inherent to solid tumors. We demonstrate a two-fold increase in the tumor accumulation of systemically delivered iron oxide nanoparticles following a single, 15 Gy radiation dose in a syngeneic mouse breast tumor model. This increase in nanoparticle tumor accumulation correlates with a radiation-induced decrease in tumor interstitial pressure and a subsequent increase in vascular permeability. PMID:22633900

  2. Landscape Evolution and Carbon Accumulation: Uniformitarianism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, N. A.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.; Schimel, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    What is the role of hillslope transport in long-term carbon accumulation in soils? How do parent material, climate, and landform interact to produce the landscapes we observe today and to what extent can we use present day conditions to infer the dominant processes of the past? We use the CREEP [Rosenbloom, N.A. et al., 2001] process-response model to ask these questions, exploring the time-evolution of landscape form, soil distribution, and carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in western Iowa [Harden, J.W. et al., 2002]. The CREEP model simulates differential transport of soil particles, blanket deposition of atmospheric 10Be with eolian dust, and passive advection of soil carbon and 10Be, enabling the preferential enrichment and burial of rapidly moving soil constituents. By comparing landscape-wide average accumulations of 10Be to borehole observations at three hillslope positions, we conclude that the distribution of clay-adsorbed 10Be cannot be explained by co-transport with clay particles alone. Rather, 10Be appears to behave as a more complex tracer than originally assumed, requiring an explicit, independent parameterization of wet deposition and transport. By comparison, model carbon accumulation strongly reflects patterns of clay redistribution indicating that in situ carbon turnover is faster than redistribution. Observed vertical distributions of soil properties, including 10Be, could only be explained by assuming variations in deposition and erosion rates, specifically periods of accumulation, followed by periods of transport. This effect might not be apparent if only landform shape, geometry, and soil depth were considered and vertical distributions of soil properties were not explicitly simulated. The current landscape reflects a history of strong shifts in erosion and accumulation rates that cannot be simulated using a uniform parameterization of long-term landscape-evolution processes.

  3. Intracellular accumulation and resistance to degradation of the Alzheimer amyloid A4/beta protein.

    PubMed Central

    Knauer, M F; Soreghan, B; Burdick, D; Kosmoski, J; Glabe, C G

    1992-01-01

    The A4 or beta protein is a peptide that constitutes the major protein component of senile plaques in Alzheimer disease. The A4/beta protein is derived from a larger, transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). The putative abnormal processing events leading to amyloid accumulation are largely unknown. Here we report that a 42-residue synthetic peptide, beta 1-42, corresponding to one of the longer forms of the A4/beta protein, accumulates in cultured human skin fibroblasts and is stable for at least 3 days. The peptide appears to accumulate intracellularly, since it does not accumulate under conditions that prevent endocytosis and accumulation is correlated with the acquisition of resistance to removal by trypsin digestion. This intracellular accumulation is also correlated with the ability of the peptide to aggregate as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At low concentrations of the beta 1-42 peptide, which favor the nonaggregated state, no accumulation is observed. Shorter peptide analogs (28 or 39 residues) that are truncated at the C terminus, which lack the ability to aggregate in SDS gels, fail to accumulate. The accumulated intracellular beta 1-42 peptide is in an aggregated state and is contained in a dense organellar compartment that overlaps the distribution of late endosomes or secondary lysosomes. Immunofluorescence of the internalized peptide in permeabilized cells reveals that it is contained in granular deposits, consistent with localization in late endosomes or secondary lysosomes. Sequence analysis indicates that some of the internalized peptide is subject to N-terminal trimming. These results suggest that the aggregated A4/beta protein may be resistant to degradation and suggest that the A4/beta protein may arise, at least in part, by endosomal or lysosomal processing of APP. Our results also suggest that relatively nonspecific proteolysis may be sufficient to generate the A4/beta protein if this part of APP is selectively

  4. Social and Economic Indicators of Rural Development from a Sociological Viewpoint. A Suggested Empirical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Leslie D.; And Others

    An empirical approach to the development of a system of social indicators was suggested in this paper. The paper also suggested research developed around a more inductive approach to social indicator research with 3 methodological phases representing increasing levels of methodological sophistication. The first steps attempted to conceptualize…

  5. Conscious and Nonconscious Processes:Distinct Forms of Evidence Accumulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaene, Stanislas

    Among the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which ones are associated specifically with conscious perception, and which merely reflect nonconscious processing? Understanding the neuronal mechanisms of consciousness is a major challenge for cognitive neuroscience. Recently, progress has been achieved by contrasting behavior and brain activation in minimally different experimental conditions, one of which leads to conscious perception whereas the other does not. This chapter reviews briefly this line of research and speculates on its theoretical interpretation. I propose to draw links between evidence accumulation models, which are highly successful in capturing elementary psychophysical decisions, and the conscious/nonconscious dichotomy. In this framework, conscious access would correspond to the crossing of a threshold in evidence accumulation within a distributed global workspace, a set of recurrently connected neurons with long axons that is able to integrate and broadcast back evidence from multiple brain processors. During nonconscious processing, evidence would be accumulated locally within specialized subcircuits, but would fail to reach the threshold needed for global ignition and, therefore, conscious reportability.

  6. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  7. Individualist and collectivist values: hypotheses suggested by Alexis de Tocqueville.

    PubMed

    Watson, P J; Morris, Ronald J

    2002-05-01

    The work of Alexis de Tocqueville, the 19th-century social theorist who coined the term individualism, supplied a conceptual foundation for hypothesizing that individualism and collectivism, as value systems, should be directly correlated. In previous research (D. K.-S. Chan, 1994), individualist and collectivist values were negatively correlated in a sample of men, and in a combined sample of men and women (P. J. Watson, J. Sherbak, & R. J. Morris, 1998) these values were positively correlated. In the present study, a positive relationship was in fact observed in both men and women. Linkages with other measures of self and social functioning uncovered a few small associations of individualist values with maladjustment. Collectivist values predicted adjustment. These data confirm that individualist and collectivist values are compatible, just as Tocqueville had suggested, and that gender differences do not explain the conflicting results previously reported in this literature.

  8. Relating Paleoclimate Data and Past Temperature Gradients: Some Suggestive Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Understanding tropical sensitivity is perhaps the major concern confronting researchers, for both past and future climate change issues. Tropical data has been beset by contradictions, and many techniques applicable to the extratropics are either unavailable or fraught with uncertainty when applied at low latitudes. Paleoclimate data, if interpreted within the context of the latitudinal temperature gradient data they imply, can be used to estimate what happened to tropical temperatures in the past, and provide a first guess for what might happen in the future. The approach is made possible by the modeling result that atmospheric dynamical changes, and the climate impacts they produce, respond primarily to temperature gradient changes. Here we review some "rules" obtained from GCM (General Circulation Model) experiments with different sea surface temperature gradients and different forcing, that can be used to relate paleoclimate reconstructions to the likely temperature gradient changes they suggest.

  9. Regulation of proline accumulation in detached rice leaves exposed to excess copper.

    PubMed

    Chen, C T.; Chen, L -M.; Lin, C C.; Kao, C H.

    2001-01-05

    Accumulation of proline in response to excess Cu was studied in detached leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). CuSO(4) was effective in inducing proline accumulation in detached rice leaves under both light and dark conditions. CuSO(4) and CuCl(2) were equally effective in inducing proline accumulation, indicating that proline accumulation is induced by Cu. Sulfate salts of Mg, Mn, and Fe were ineffective in inducing proline accumulation in detached rice leaves. Excess Cu had no effect on relative water content of detached rice leaves, suggesting that Cu-induced proline accumulation is unlikely due to water deficit. Proline accumulation induced by excess Cu was related to proteolysis and an increase in Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase or ornithine-delta-aminotransferase activity and could not be explained by proline utilization or stress-induced modifications in proline dehydrogenase or Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. The content of glutamic acid decreased by excess Cu. The increase in arginine but not ornithine was found to be associated with the increase in proline content in Cu-stressed detached rice leaves. CuSO(4) treatment resulted in an increase in abscisic acid content in detached rice leaves. The possibility that proline accumulation induced by excess Cu is mediated through abscisic acid is discussed.

  10. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  11. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals.

  12. Chronic Psychological Stress Induces the Accumulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Junxia; Zhang, Xueying; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Dalin; Wang, Wendie; Wang, Jing; Shen, Beifen; Gao, Xu; Shi, Yanchun; Zhang, Jiyan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress has been shown to adversely impact immune system functions and compromise host defenses against various infections. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recent studies have demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in regulating immunity. It is of interest to explore whether or not chronic psychological stress plays immunosuppressive functions partially by inducing MDSCs accumulation. In this work, we report that chronic psychological stress led to the accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells in the bone marrow of BALB/c mice. Repeated β-agonist infusion showed no such effect. However, β-adrenergic blockade, but not glucocorticoids blockade, partially reversed the accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells under the condition of chronic psychological stress, suggesting catecholamines collaborate with other factors to induce the accumulation. Further exploration indicates that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) loop might act downstream to induce the accumulation. A majority of the accumulated CD11b+Gr1+ cells were Ly6G+Ly6Clow immature neutrophils, which inhibited cytokine release of macrophages as well as T cell responsiveness. Moreover, the accumulated CD11b+Gr1+ cells under the condition of chronic psychological stress expressed multiple inhibitory molecules. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that chronic psychological stress induces MDSCs accumulation in mice, which can contribute to immunosuppression. PMID:24058577

  13. Molecular analysis of ureide accumulation under drought stress in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Díaz-Leal, Juan Luís; Sánchez-Moran, Ma Victoria; Pineda, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Under water deficit, ureidic legumes accumulate ureides in plant tissues, and this accumulation has been correlated with the inhibition of nitrogen fixation. In this work we used a molecular approach to characterize ureide accumulation under drought stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. Accumulation of ureides, mainly allantoate, was found in roots, shoots and leaves, but only a limited transient increase was observed in nodules from drought-stressed plants. We show that ureide accumulation is regulated at the transcriptional level mainly through induction of allantoinase (ALN), whereas allantoate amidohydrolase (AAH), involved in allantoate degradation, was slightly reduced, indicating that inhibition of this enzyme, key in ureide breakdown in aerial tissues, is not the main cause of allantoate accumulation. Expression of the ureide metabolism genes analysed in this study was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), suggesting the involvement of this plant hormone in ureide accumulation. Moreover, we observed that increases of ureide levels in P. vulgaris drought-stressed tissues were similar in non-nodulated, nitrate-fed plants, and in plants cultured under nitrogen-fixation conditions. Our results indicate that ureide accumulation in response to water deficit is independent from de novo synthesis of ureides in nodules, and therefore uncoupled from nitrogen fixation.

  14. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source.

  15. Exploring the Cellular Accumulation of Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Cindy A.; Ernst, Russell J.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    Transition metal complexes offer great potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, and a growing number of biological applications have been explored. To be effective, these complexes must reach their intended target inside the cell. Here we review the cellular accumulation of metal complexes, including their uptake, localization, and efflux. Metal complexes are taken up inside cells through various mechanisms, including passive diffusion and entry through organic and metal transporters. Emphasis is placed on the methods used to examine cellular accumulation, to identify the mechanism(s) of uptake, and to monitor possible efflux. Conjugation strategies that have been employed to improve the cellular uptake characteristics of metal complexes are also described. PMID:20104335

  16. Dust Accumulation on MER Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Cull, S.

    2011-12-01

    underlying solar panels. The laboratory and HiRISE data suggest that the Spirit solar panels may have had a dust layer on the order of only 10s of micrometers thick. Further investigation of rover image data sets for the presence or absence of specular reflections as correlated with solar cell power output will yield more quantitative information on the amounts of atmospheric dust accumulation throughout the Spirit and Opportunity missions.

  17. 150,000 years of loess accumulation in central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Britta J. L.; Evans, Michael E.; Froese, Duane G.; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.

    2016-03-01

    The Halfway House site in interior Alaska is arguably the most studied loess deposit in northwestern North America. The site contains a complex paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental record, but has lacked the robust chronologic control that would allow its full potential to be exploited. Detailed reexamination of stratigraphy, paleomagnetics and tephrostratigraphy reveals a relatively complete marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to Holocene record constrained by the Old Crow (124 ± 10 ka), VT (106 ± 10 ka), Sheep Creek-Klondike (ca. 80 ka), Dominion Creek (77 ± 8 ka) and Dawson (ca. 30.2 cal ka BP) tephras. We show two well-developed paleosols formed during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e and 5a, while MIS 5c and 5b are either poorly represented or absent. The new tephrostratigraphy presented here is the most complete one to date for the late Pleistocene and indicates MIS 5 sediments are more common than previously recognized. A magnetic excursion within the sediments is identified as the post-Blake excursion (94.1 ± 7.8 ka), providing independent age control and adding to the increasing body of evidence that Alaskan loess is a detailed recorder of variations of the Earth's magnetic field over time. A high-resolution magnetic susceptibility profile placed into this new chronostratigraphic framework supports the hypothesis that wind-intensity is the main variable controlling fluctuations in susceptibility. Correlation of the susceptibility record to global marine δ18O records is complicated by highly variable accumulation rates. We find the lowest rates of accumulation during peak warm and cold stages, while abrupt increases are associated with periods of transition between marine isotope (sub)stages. Building on previous accumulation models for Alaska, surface roughness is likely a leading variable controlling loess accumulation rates during transitions and peak cold periods, but the negligible accumulation during MIS 5e and 5a suggests that loess production was

  18. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.

  19. Cell division modulates prion accumulation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Perkins, Beth; Ullman, Julie; May, Barnaby C H; Cohen, Fred E; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-11-13

    The phenotypic effect of prions on host cells is influenced by the physical properties of the prion strain and its level of accumulation. In mammalian cell cultures, prion accumulation is determined by the interplay between de novo prion formation, catabolism, cell division, and horizontal cell-to-cell transmission. Understanding this dynamic enables the analytical modeling of protein-based heritability and infectivity. Here, we quantitatively measured these competing effects in a subline of neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and propose a concordant reaction mechanism to explain the kinetics of prion propagation. Our results show that cell division leads to a predictable reduction in steady-state prion levels but not to complete clearance. Scrapie-infected N2a cells were capable of accumulating different steady-state levels of prions, dictated partly by the rate of cell division. We also show that prions in this subline of N2a cells are transmitted primarily from mother to daughter cells, rather than horizontal cell-to-cell transmission. We quantitatively modeled our kinetic results based on a mechanism that assumes a subpopulation of prions is capable of self-catalysis, and the levels of this subpopulation reach saturation in fully infected cells. Our results suggest that the apparent effectiveness of antiprion compounds in culture may be strongly influenced by the growth phase of the target cells.

  20. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.

  1. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  2. Mechanisms underlying 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Kenji; Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a diagnostic tool to evaluate metabolic activity by measuring accumulation of FDG, an analogue of glucose, and has been widely used for detecting small tumors, monitoring treatment response and predicting patients’ prognosis in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of FDG accumulation into tumors remains to be investigated. It is well-known that most cancers are metabolically active with elevated glucose metabolism, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. The underlying mechanisms for elevated glucose metabolism in cancer tissues are complex. Recent reports have indicated the potential of FDG-PET/CT scans in predicting mutational status (e.g., KRAS gene mutation) of colorectal cancer (CRC), which suggests that FDG-PET/CT scans may play a key role in determining therapeutic strategies by non-invasively predicting treatment response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. In this review, we summarize the current findings investigating the molecular mechanism of 18F-FDG accumulation in CRC. PMID:27928469

  3. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  4. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  5. The process of methylmercury accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Liang, Peng; Li, Ping; Chen, Chunxiao; Shang, Lihai

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that rice consumption can be an important pathway of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure to humans in Hg mining areas and also in certain inland areas of Southwestern China. The seed of rice has the highest ability to accumulate MeHg compared to other tissues. The main objective of this study was to investigate the process of (MeHg) accumulation in rice seed (Oryza sativa L.) by monitoring MeHg levels in specific tissues of rice plants experiencing various levels of Hg multisource pollution during a full rice growing season. Four groups of experimental plantations were utilized, distributed among a rural artisanal Hg production site and a regional background control site. Our results suggest that the newly deposited Hg is more readily transformed to MeHg and accumulated in rice plants than Hg forms with an extended residence time in soil, and soil is the potential source of MeHg in the tissues of rice plants. MeHg in soil was first absorbed by roots and then translocated to the above-ground parts (leaf and stalk). During the full rice growing season only a very small amount of MeHg was retained in the root section. In the premature plant, the majority of MeHg is located in the leaf and stalk; however, most of this MeHg was transferred to seed during the ripening period.

  6. Discovery sequence and the nature of low permeability gas accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2005-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion regarding the geologic nature of accumulations that host gas in low-permeability sandstone environments. This note examines the discovery sequence of the accumulations in low permeability sandstone plays that were classified as continuous-type by the U.S. Geological Survey for the 1995 National Oil and Gas Assessment. It compares the statistical character of historical discovery sequences of accumulations associated with continuous-type sandstone gas plays to those of conventional plays. The seven sandstone plays with sufficient data exhibit declining size with sequence order, on average, and in three of the seven the trend is statistically significant. Simulation experiments show that both a skewed endowment size distribution and a discovery process that mimics sampling proportional to size are necessary to generate a discovery sequence that consistently produces a statistically significant negative size order relationship. The empirical findings suggest that discovery sequence could be used to constrain assessed gas in untested areas. The plays examined represent 134 of the 265 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas assessed in undeveloped areas of continuous-type gas plays in low permeability sandstone environments reported in the 1995 National Assessment. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. No Accumulation of Transposable Elements in Asexual Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Bast, Jens; Schaefer, Ina; Schwander, Tanja; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive DNA can accumulate in the absence of recombination, a process contributing to the degeneration of Y-chromosomes and other nonrecombining genome portions. A similar accumulation of repetitive DNA is expected for asexually reproducing species, given their entire genome is effectively nonrecombining. We tested this expectation by comparing the whole-genome TE loads of five asexual arthropod lineages and their sexual relatives, including asexual and sexual lineages of crustaceans (Daphnia water fleas), insects (Leptopilina wasps), and mites (Oribatida). Surprisingly, there was no evidence for increased TE load in genomes of asexual as compared to sexual lineages, neither for all classes of repetitive elements combined nor for specific TE families. Our study therefore suggests that nonrecombining genomes do not accumulate TEs like nonrecombining genomic regions of sexual lineages. Even if a slight but undetected increase of TEs were caused by asexual reproduction, it appears to be negligible compared to variance between species caused by processes unrelated to reproductive mode. It remains to be determined if molecular mechanisms underlying genome regulation in asexuals hamper TE activity. Alternatively, the differences in TE dynamics between nonrecombining genomes in asexual lineages versus nonrecombining genome portions in sexual species might stem from selection for benign TEs in asexual lineages because of the lack of genetic conflict between TEs and their hosts and/or because asexual lineages may only arise from sexual ancestors with particularly low TE loads.

  8. Effect of spaceflight on isoflavonoid accumulation in etiolated soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sager, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the potential impact of microgravity on flavonoid biosynthesis, we examined isoflavonoid levels in soybean (Glycine max) tissues generated under both spaceflight and clinorotation conditions. A 6-day Space Shuttle-based microgravity exposure resulted in enhanced accumulation of isoflavone glycosides (daidzin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) in hypocotyl and root tissues, but reduced levels in cotyledons (relative to 1g controls on Earth). Soybean seedlings grown on a horizontally rotating clinostat for 3, 4 and 5 days exhibited (relative to a vertical clinorotation control) an isoflavonoid accumulation pattern similar to the space-grown tissues. Elevated isoflavonoid levels attributable to the clinorotation treatment were transient, with the greatest increase observed in the three-day-treated tissues and smaller increases in the four- and five-day-treated tissues. Differences between stresses presented by spaceflight and clinorotation and the resulting biochemical adaptations are discussed, as is whether the increase in isoflavonoid concentrations were due to differential rates of development under the "gravity" treatments employed. Results suggest that spaceflight exposure does not impair isoflavonoid accumulation in developing soybean tissues and that isoflavonoids respond positively to microgravity as a biochemical strategy of adaptation.

  9. Iron Accumulation and Neurotoxicity in Cortical Cultures Treated with Holotransferrin

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Roetling, Jing; Liu, Wenpei; Regan, Raymond F.

    2012-01-01

    Nonheme iron accumulates in CNS tissue after ischemic and hemorrhagic insults, and may contribute to cell loss. The source of this iron has not been precisely defined. After blood-brain barrier disruption, CNS cells may be exposed to plasma concentrations of transferrin-bound iron (TBI), which exceed that in CSF by over 50-fold. In this study, the hypothesis that these concentrations of TBI produce cell iron accumulation and neurotoxicity was tested in primary cortical cultures. Treatment with 0.5-3 mg/ml holotransferrin for 24 hours resulted in loss of 20-40% of neurons, associated with increases in malondialdehyde, ferritin, heme oxygenase-1 and iron; transferrin receptor-1 expression was reduced by about 50%. Deferoxamine, 2,2′-bipyridyl, Trolox, and ascorbate prevented all injury, but apotransferrin was ineffective. Cell TBI accumulation was significantly reduced by deferoxamine, 2,2′-bipyridyl, and apotransferrin, but not by ascorbate or Trolox. After treatment with 55Fe-transferrin, approximately 40% of cell iron was exported within 16 hours. Net export was increased by deferoxamine and 2,2′-bipyridyl, but not by apotransferrin. These results suggest that downregulation of transferrin receptor-1 expression is insufficient to prevent iron-mediated death when neurons are exposed to plasma concentrations of TBI. Chelator therapy may be beneficial for acute CNS injuries associated with loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. PMID:21939754

  10. Attenuation of the lysosomal death pathway by lysosomal cholesterol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Appelqvist, Hanna; Nilsson, Cathrine; Garner, Brett; Brown, Andrew J; Kågedal, Katarina; Ollinger, Karin

    2011-02-01

    In the past decade, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) has emerged as a significant component of cell death signaling. The mechanisms by which lysosomal stability is regulated are not yet fully understood, but changes in the lysosomal membrane lipid composition have been suggested to be involved. Our aim was to investigate the importance of cholesterol in the regulation of lysosomal membrane permeability and its potential impact on apoptosis. Treatment of normal human fibroblasts with U18666A, an amphiphilic drug that inhibits cholesterol transport and causes accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes, rescued cells from lysosome-dependent cell death induced by the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH), staurosporine (STS), or cisplatin. LMP was decreased by pretreating cells with U18666A, and there was a linear relationship between the cholesterol content of lysosomes and their resistance to permeabilization induced by MSDH. U18666A did not induce changes in expression or localization of 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins known to protect the lysosomal membrane. Induction of autophagy also was excluded as a contributor to the protective mechanism. By using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with lysosomal cholesterol overload due to a mutation in the cholesterol transporting protein Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1), the relationship between lysosomal cholesterol accumulation and protection from lysosome-dependent cell death was confirmed. Cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes attenuates apoptosis by increasing lysosomal membrane stability.

  11. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  12. Metabolic regulation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the green algae: identification of potential targets for engineering to improve oil yield.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Elton C; Wilkie, Ann C; Kirst, Matias; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-08-01

    The great need for more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased our research interests in algal biofuels. Microalgal cells, characterized by high photosynthetic efficiency and rapid cell division, are an excellent source of neutral lipids as potential fuel stocks. Various stress factors, especially nutrient-starvation conditions, induce an increased formation of lipid bodies filled with triacylglycerol in these cells. Here we review our knowledge base on glycerolipid synthesis in the green algae with an emphasis on recent studies on carbon flux, redistribution of lipids under nutrient-limiting conditions and its regulation. We discuss the contributions and limitations of classical and novel approaches used to elucidate the algal triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory network in green algae. Also discussed are gaps in knowledge and suggestions for much needed research both on the biology of triacylglycerol accumulation and possible avenues to engineer improved algal strains.

  13. Interdisciplinary Determination of Ice Sheet Accumulation Patterns: Combined Atmospheric Modeling and Field and Remote Sensing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, C. A.; Bindschadler, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    This research is focusing on two related areas that are fundamental to the NASA PARCA (Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment) program. The primary research area is the determination of the amount, rate, and timing of accumulation at distributed sites in the dry snow zone of Greenland and evaluation of these results in light of accumulation modeling results. The secondary research area is the calibration of the isotope "thermometer" at these ice sheet sites as well as the determination of long-term temperature trends in Greenland.

  14. Radiation accumulation of F{sub 2} color centers in LiF crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lisitsyna, L. A.

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents the results of the research of the F{sub 2} centers accumulation dose dependences in the LiF crystals, the kinetics of absorption relaxation initiated by exposure to a single electron pulse in the band maxima of different electron centers obtained by time-resolved spectrometry with nanosecond resolution. An analytical description of the F{sub 2} center accumulation in an absorbed dose range ≤10{sup 3} Gy is provided.

  15. Foreign accents: suggested competencies for improving communicative pronunciation.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Lorna D

    2005-05-01

    In the past 20 years, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have joined their English as a Second Language (ESL) colleagues to address the pronunciation skills of second language speakers of English. This paper introduces SLPs to the ESL term "communicative pronunciation" as the underpinning for the commonly accepted terms "accent modification" or "accent reduction." Initially, professionals in both speech pathology and ESL felt that accent intervention was outside the scope of speech pathology practice, though that stance is softening. If an essential part of our mission as speech pathologists is to improve communicative competence for all persons, then making pronunciation more intelligible falls under that heading. This article on foreign accents limits discussion to: (1) the rationale for intervening with foreign accented adults; (2) an outline of a broader scope and definition of effective instruction for this population; (3) suggestions for trainer preparation; (4) recommendations for productive literature searches; and (5) a brief discussion of principles guiding assessment and instruction planning. The article includes relevant research and references outside the field of speech pathology that should stimulate future productive research efforts as well as more in-depth papers on specific instruction and assessment issues. While this article is intended to stand alone, readers may benefit from the content and references in another article in this issue by the same author.

  16. How to avoid unbounded drug accumulation with fractional pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hennion, Maud; Hanert, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that certain drugs follow an anomalous kinetics that can hardly be represented by classical models. Instead, fractional-order pharmacokinetics models have proved to be better suited to represent the time course of these drugs in the body. Unlike classical models, fractional models can represent memory effects and a power-law terminal phase. They give rise to a more complex kinetics that better reflects the complexity of the human body. By doing so, they also spotlight potential issues that were ignored by classical models. Among those issues is the accumulation of drug that carries on indefinitely when the infusion rate is constant and the elimination flux is fractional. Such an unbounded accumulation could have important clinical implications and thus requires a solution to reach a steady state. We have considered a fractional one-compartment model with a continuous intravenous infusion and studied how the infusion rate influences the total amount of drug in the compartment. By taking an infusion rate that decays like a power law, we have been able to stabilize the amount of drug in the compartment. In the case of multiple dosing administration, we propose recurrence relations for the doses and the dosing times that also prevent drug accumulation. By introducing a numerical discretization of the model equations, we have been able to consider a more realistic two-compartment model with both continuous infusion and multiple dosing administration. That numerical model has been applied to amiodarone, a drug known to have an anomalous kinetics. Numerical results suggest that unbounded drug accumulation can again be prevented by using a drug input function that decays as a power law.

  17. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  18. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels.

  19. Measurement of Transverse Beam Size in Accumulator as a Function of Momenta During Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1992-01-22

    The horizontal and vertical emittance as a function of momentum was measured in the accumulator while stacking with a small stack. The data suggests that the transverse emittance of the beam is blown up between the injection orbit and the stacking orbit. The technique shows promise, and should be repeated with a large stack to measure the emittance in the accumulator at a time when we have large losses.

  20. Factors Affecting Wealth Accumulation in Hispanic Households: A Comparative Analysis of Stock and Home Asset Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Angela; Kelly, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research addresses differences between Hispanic ("N" = 2,333) and White ("N" = 15,521) households in the ownership and allocation of two representative measures of wealth accumulation, stock and homeownership. Using data from the 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this research estimates a…

  1. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  2. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  3. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  4. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  5. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  6. 19 CFR 10.1017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.1017 Section 10.1017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

  7. 19 CFR 10.1017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.1017 Section 10.1017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

  8. 19 CFR 10.1017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.1017 Section 10.1017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

  9. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  10. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  11. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  12. Genetics Home Reference: actin-accumulation myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibers and are important for muscle contraction. Attachment (binding) and release of the overlapping thick and thin filaments allows them to move relative to each other so that the muscles can contract. ACTA1 gene mutations that cause actin-accumulation myopathy ...

  13. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  14. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  15. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  16. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  17. Hippocampal Networks Habituate as Novelty Accumulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Ballard, Ian C.; Macduffie, Katherine E.; Krebs, Ruth M.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2013-01-01

    Novelty detection, a critical computation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, necessarily depends on prior experience. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate dynamic changes in MTL activation and functional connectivity as experience with novelty accumulates. fMRI data were…

  18. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  19. Copper accumulation in the crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the crayfish, O. rusticus could fulfill Nehring's (1976) criteria for a good biological monitor of heavy metal pollution. Since there is some evidence that the cupric ion is the most toxic form of aqueous copper, crayfish-accumulated copper was compared to both total and cupric copper in the culture water.

  20. Impacts of zooplankton composition and algal enrichment on the accumulation of mercury in an experimental freshwater food web.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Paul C; Folt, Carol L; Chen, Celia Y; Klaue, Bjoern; Blum, Joel D

    2005-03-01

    There is a well documented accumulation of mercury in fish to concentrations of concern for human consumption. Variation in fish Hg burden between lakes is often high and may result from differences in Hg transfer through lower levels of the food web where mercury is bioconcentrated to phytoplankton and transferred to herbivorous zooplankton. Prior research derived patterns of mercury accumulation in freshwater invertebrates from field collected animals. This study provides results from controlled mesocosm experiments comparing the effects of zooplankton composition, algal abundance, and the chemical speciation of mercury on the ability of zooplankton to accumulate mercury from phytoplankton and transfer that mercury to planktivores. Experiments were conducted in 550-L mesocosms across a gradient of algal densities manipulated by inorganic nutrient additions. Enriched, stable isotopes of organic (CH3(200HgCl)) and inorganic (201HgCl2) mercury were added to mesocosms and their concentrations measured in water, seston, and three common zooplankton species. After 2 weeks, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations were two to three times lower in the two copepod species, Leptodiaptomus minutus and Mesocyclops edax than in the cladoceran, Daphnia mendotae. All three zooplankton species had higher MMHg concentrations in mesocosms with low versus high initial algal abundance. However, despite higher concentrations of inorganic mercury (HgI) in seston from low nutrient mesocosms, there were no significant differences in the HgI accumulated by zooplankton across nutrient treatments. Bioaccumulation factors for MMHg in the plankton were similar to those calculated for plankton in natural lakes and a four-compartment (aqueous, seston, macrozooplankton, and periphyton/sediments) mass balance model after 21 days accounted for approximately 18% of the CH3(200Hg) and approximately 33% of the 201Hg added. Results from our experiments corroborate results from field studies and

  1. Enhanced brain accumulation of pazopanib by modulating P-gp and Bcrp1 mediated efflux with canertinib or erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Qin, Bin; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary objective of this investigation was to delineate the differential impact of efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) on brain disposition and plasma pharmacokinetics of pazopanib. In addition, this research investigated whether inhibition of these efflux transporters with clinically relevant efflux modulators canertinib or erlotinib could be a viable strategy for improving pazopanib brain delivery. In vitro assays with MDCKII cell monolayers suggested that pazopanib is a high affinity substrate for Bcrp1 and a moderate substrate for P-gp. Co-incubation with specific transport inhibitors restored cell accumulation and completely abolished the directionality of pazopanib flux. Brain and plasma pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in FVB wild type mice in the absence and presence of specific transport inhibitors. Drug levels in plasma and brain were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method using vandetanib as an internal standard. In vivo studies indicated that specific inhibition of either P-gp (by zosuquidar or LY335979) or Bcrp1 (by Ko143) alone did not significantly alter pazopanib brain accumulation. However, dual P-gp/Bcrp1 inhibition by elacridar (GF120918), significantly enhanced pazopanib brain penetration by ~5-fold without altering its plasma concentrations. Thus, even though Bcrp1 showed higher affinity towards pazopanib in vitro, in vivo at the mouse BBB both P-gp and Bcrp1 act in concert to limit brain accumulation of pazopanib. Furthermore, erlotinib and canertinib as clinically relevant efflux modulators efficiently abrogated directionality in pazopanib efflux in vitro and their co-administration resulted in 2–2.5-fold increase in pazopanib brain accumulation in vivo. Further pre-clinical and clinical investigations are warranted as erlotinib or canertinib may have a synergistic pharmacological effect in addition to their primary role of pazopanib

  2. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  3. Increase in carbon accumulation in a boreal peatland following a period of wetter climate and long-term decrease in nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Utstøl-Klein, Simon; Halvorsen, Rune; Ohlson, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Rates of peat growth and carbon (C) accumulation in a Sphagnum-dominated boreal peatland in south-east Norway were compared over two time periods each 17 yr long, that is, an earlier period from 1978 to 1995 and a recent period from 1995 to 2012. Our research was based on 109 peat cores. By using exactly the same study area and sampling protocols to obtain data for the two time periods, we were able to obtain a clear picture of the spatio-temporal patterns of peat accumulation. We show that peat growth and C accumulation were significantly higher in the recent than in the earlier time period. Interestingly, nitrogen (N) deposition was lower in the recent than in the earlier time period, while precipitation increased in the recent time period. Temperatures did not show any consistent trends over the time periods. Although our data do not allow assessment of the relative importance of declining N deposition vs increasing precipitation as drivers of peat accumulation, our results suggest that peatland C sequestration is not significantly inhibited by N pollution at current precipitation and N deposition levels.

  4. Lipid Accumulation in Hypoxic Tissue Culture Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gerald B.; Barcza, Maureen A.; Bush, Marilyn E.

    1977-01-01

    Lipid droplets have long been recognized by light microscopy to accumulate in hypoxic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In the present tissue culture experiments, correlative electron microscopic observations and lipid analyses were performed to determine the nature and significance of lipid accumulation in hypoxia. Strain L mouse fibroblasts were grown in suspension culture, both aerobically and under severe oxygen restriction obtained by gassing cultures daily with an 8% CO2-92% nitrogen mixture. After 48 hours, hypoxic cells showed an increase in total lipid/protein ratio of 42% over control cells. Most of this increase was accounted for by an elevation in the level of cellular triglyceride from 12.3 ± 0.9 μg/mg cell protein in aerobic cultures to 41.9 ± 0.7 in the hypoxic cultures, an increase of 240%. Levels of cellular free fatty acids (FFA) were 96% higher in the hypoxic cultures. No significant changes in the levels of cellular phospholipid or cholesterol were noted. Electron microscopic examination revealed the accumulation of homogeneous cytoplasmic droplets. The hypoxic changes were reversible upon transferring the cultures to aerobic atmospheres with disappearance of the lipid. These experiments indicate that hypoxic injury initially results in triglyceride and FFA accumulation from an inability to oxidize fatty acids taken up from the media and not from autophagic processes, as described in other types of cell injury associated with the sequestration of membranous residues and intracellular cholesterol and phospholipid accumulation. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 1Figure 2 PMID:196505

  5. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  6. The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Marco; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect. Here, we investigate if the temperate, deciduous species Symplocos paniculata is able to accumulate Al by growing seedlings and saplings in a hydroponic setup at pH 4 with and without Al. Pyrocatechol-violet (PCV) and aluminon staining was performed to visualize Al accumulation in various plant tissues. Both seedlings and saplings accumulate Al in their tissues if available. Mean Al levels in leaves were 4107 (±1474 mg kg−1) and 4290 (±4025 mg kg−1) for the seedlings and saplings, respectively. The saplings treated without Al showed a high mortality rate unlike the Al accumulating ones. The seedlings, however, showed no difference in growth and vitality between the two treatments. The saplings treated with Al showed new twig, leaf and root development, resulting in a considerable biomass increase. PCV and aluminon staining indicated the presence of Al in leaf, wood and bark tissue of the plants. S. paniculata shares the capacity to accumulate Al with its tropical sister species and is suggested to be a facultative accumulator. Whether or not Al has a beneficial effect remains unclear, due to developmental differences between seedlings and saplings. Al is suggested to be transported via the xylem transport system into the leaves, which show the highest Al levels. Radial transport via ray parenchyma to bark tissue is also likely given the high Al concentrations in the bark tissue. PMID:27613876

  7. Extracellular potassium accumulation in voltage-clamped frog ventricular muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cleemann, L; Morad, M

    1979-01-01

    1. Application of voltage clamp pulses (1--10 sec) to frog ventricular strips causes temporary changes in the extracellular K concentration. 2. The changes in the extracellular K concentration can be estimated from (a) slowly decaying post-clamp after-potentials, (b) changes in the action potential duration, and (c) measurements with a K-selective micro-electrode. 3. The depolarization of the resting potential and the shortening of the action potential are present in approximately the same proportions during voltage-clamp induced extracellular K accumulation and during perfusion with a K-ricn Ringer solution but small consistent differences are noticed. 4. The measurements of the after-potential, the action potential shortening, and the K-electrode response were analysed as indicators of extracellular K+ activity and it was concluded that the after-potential provides the most convenient and reliable estimate of the absolute magnitude of the voltage-clamp induced extracellular K accumulation. 5. The depolarizing after-potentials decay more slowly than the hyperpolarizing after-potentials but it is found that this reflects the selectivity of the membrane to K+ concentrations as predicted by the Nernst or the Goldman equations. 6. Analysis of the redistribution of accumulated K+ from the decay of the after-potential suggests that the major part of the redistribution process can be described by a single time constant (2--4 sec). A much longer time constant is required for a smaller component of the 'tail' in order to bring [K]o to the normal resting state. 7. N-shaped relations similar to the 'steady state' current-voltage relation are obtained when the post-clamp after-potential, the action potential shortening, and the K-electrode response are plotted versus the clamped membrane potential. The maxima of these curves are located around -40 mV and the minima around -20 mV. 8. In spite of a significant outward membrane current (1--1.5 microamperemeter) in the minimum

  8. Modeling, Optimization, and Detailed Design of a Hydraulic Flywheel-Accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmaier, Kyle Glenn

    Improving mobile energy storage technology is an important means of addressing concerns over fossil fuel scarcity and energy independence. Traditional hydraulic accumulator energy storage, though favorable in power density, durability, cost, and environmental impact, suffers from relatively low energy density and a pressure-dependent state of charge. The hydraulic flywheel-accumulator concept utilizes both the hydro-pneumatic and rotating kinetic energy domains by employing a rotating pressure vessel. This thesis provides an in-depth analysis of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator concept and an assessment of the advantages it offers over traditional static accumulator energy storage. After specifying a practical architecture for the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator, this thesis addresses the complex fluid phenomena and control implications associated with multi-domain energy storage. To facilitate rapid selection of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator dimensions, computationally inexpensive material stress models are developed for each component. A drive cycle simulation strategy is also developed to assess the dynamic performance of the device. The stress models and performance simulation are combined to form a toolset that facilitates computationally-efficient model-based design. The aforementioned toolset has been embedded into a multi-objective optimization algorithm that aims to minimize the mass of the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator system and to minimize the losses it incurs over the course of a drive cycle. Two optimizations have been performed - one with constraints that reflect a vehicle-scale application, and one with constraints that reflect a laboratory application. At both scales, the optimization results suggest that the hydraulic flywheel-accumulator offers at least an order of magnitude improvement over traditional static accumulator energy storage, while operating at efficiencies between 75% and 93%. A particular hydraulic flywheel-accumulator design

  9. Role of Pericytes in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Mintz, Akiva

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells ensure tissue regeneration, while overgrowth of adipogenic cells may compromise organ recovery and impair function. In myopathies and muscle atrophy associated with aging, fat accumulation increases dysfunction, and after chronic injury, the process of fatty degeneration, in which muscle is replaced by white adipocytes, further compromises tissue function and environment. Some studies suggest that pericytes may contribute to muscle regeneration as well as fat formation. This work reports the presence of two pericyte subpopulations in the skeletal muscle and characterizes their specific roles. Skeletal muscle from Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice show two types of pericytes, Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ (type-1) and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ (type-2), in close proximity to endothelial cells. We also found that both Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ cells colocalize with staining of two pericyte markers, PDGFRβ and CD146, but only type-1 pericyte express the adipogenic progenitor marker PDGFRα. Type-2 pericytes participate in muscle regeneration, while type-1 contribute to fat accumulation. Transplantation studies indicate that type-1 pericytes do not form muscle in vivo, but contribute to fat deposition in the skeletal muscle, while type-2 pericytes contribute only to the new muscle formation after injury, but not to the fat accumulation. Our results suggest that type-1 and type-2 pericytes contribute to successful muscle regeneration which results from a balance of myogenic and nonmyogenic cells activation. PMID:23517218

  10. Accumulation of cadmium ions in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Blazhenko, Oleksandra V; Zimmermann, Martin; Kang, Hyun Ah; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Penninckx, Michel J; Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2006-12-01

    Intracellular cadmium (Cd(2+)) ion accumulation and the ability to produce specific Cd(2+) ion chelators was studied in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Only one type of Cd(2+) intracellular chelators, glutathione (GSH), was identified, which suggests that sequestration of this heavy metal in H. polymorpha occurs similarly to that found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but different to Schizosaccharomys pombe and Candida glabrata which both synthesize phytochelatins. Cd(2+) ion uptake in the H. polymorpha wild-type strains appeared to be an energy dependent process. It was found that Deltagsh2 mutants, impaired in the first step of GSH biosynthesis, are characterized by increase in net Cd(2+) ion uptake by the cells, whereas Deltagsh1/Deltamet1 and Deltaggt1 mutants impaired in sulfate assimilation and GSH catabolism, respectively, lost the ability to accumulate Cd(2+) intracellularly. Apparently H. polymorpha, similarly to S. cerevisiae, forms a Cd-GSH complex in the cytoplasm, which in turn regulates Cd(2+) uptake. Genes GSH1/MET1 and GGT1 are involved in maturation and metabolism of cellular Cd-GSH complex, respectively. Transport of [(3)H]N-ethylmaleimide-S-glutathione ([(3)H]NEM-SG) conjugate into crude membrane vesicules, purified from the wild-type cells of H. polymorpha appeared to be MgATP dependent, uncoupler insensitive and vanadate sensitive. We suggest that MgATP dependent transporter involved in Cd-GSH uptake in H. polymorpha, is similar to S. cerevisiae Ycf1-mediated vacuolar transporter responsible for accumulation of organic GS-conjugates and Cd-GSH complex.

  11. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  12. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  13. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  14. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  15. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  16. Biochemical aspects of lipid accumulation in silicon deficient cyclotella cryptica

    SciTech Connect

    Roessler, P.G. )

    1987-06-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for lipid accumulation in silicon-deficient Cyclotella cryptica T13L cells. Studies using NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} as a tracer indicated that the fraction of newly assimilated carbon partitioned into lipids doubled after 4 h of Si deficiency, while the fraction partitioned into chrysolaminarin decreased by 51%. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that a slow redistribution of previously assimilated carbon into lipids also occurred. Several enzymes were assayed in cell-free extracts made from Si-replete and Si-deficient cells. Si deficiency did not affect the specific activity of UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first enzyme of the chrysolaminarin synthesis pathway, but led to a 31% reduction in the activity of chrysolaminarin synthase (UDP glucose: {beta}-1, 3-glucan {beta}-3-glucosyl transferase). The activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (the first committed step in lipid biosynthesis) increased by 87% in response to Si deficiency, suggesting either covalent activation or increased levels of this enzyme. The activities of citrate synthase and acetyl-CoA synthetase were not affected by Si deficiency. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in Si deficient cells may be due in part to changes in the activities of chrysolaminarin synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

  17. Kinetics of a chlorate-accumulating, perchlorate-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Margaret; Salamone, Anna; Nerenberg, Robert

    2008-05-01

    Kinetics parameters for perchlorate and chlorate reduction were determined for Dechlorosoma sp. HCAP-C, also known as Dechlorosoma sp. PCC, a novel perchlorate-reducing bacterium (PCRB) that accumulates significant amounts of chlorate during perchlorate reduction. This is the first report of such behavior, and we hypothesized the perchlorate reduction kinetics would be markedly different from other PCRB. In batch tests with initial perchlorate concentrations ranging from 200 to around 1400 mg/L, maximum chlorate accumulation ranged from 41 to 279 mg/L, and were consistently around 20% of the initial perchlorate concentration. For perchlorate, parameters were determined using a competitive inhibition model. The maximum specific substrate degradation rate qmaxP was 11.5mgClO4-/mgdry weight (DW)-d, and the half-maximum rate constant KP was 193 mgClO4-/L. For chlorate, the qmaxC was 8.3 mgClO3-/mgDW-d and the KC was 58.3 mgClO3-/L. The high KP values relative to conventional PCRB, values suggests that HCAP-C does not play a significant role at low perchlorate concentrations. However, the relatively high qmaxP, and the potential for syntrophic relationships with chlorate-reducing bacteria that relieve the effects of chlorate inhibition, suggest that HCAP-C could play a significant role at high perchlorate concentrations.

  18. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200 °C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. We stress that our results were obtained using coastal seawater and they can't necessarily

  19. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Frederick L; Krahnke, Jason S; Kim, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Airway mucus is part of the lung’s native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics. PMID:24493923

  20. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  1. Plaque accumulations caused by interdental stripping.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, R J; Jäger, A; Schwestka, R; Bertzbach, F

    1988-11-01

    Human enamel surfaces were stripped with orthodontic grinding and finishing materials, and evaluated with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Even under in vitro conditions with the finest finishing strips, it was not possible to produce an enamel surface free of the furrows that result from the initial abrasion caused by the coarse strip. Enamel surfaces stripped gradually from coarse to superfine were left in the mouths of patients for 12 weeks and evaluated with the SEM. The edges of the furrows were found to be smoother but the furrows remained wide and deep enough to facilitate more plaque accumulations than those on untreated surfaces. The use of dental floss did not result in prevention of plaque accumulations along the bottom of the furrows.

  2. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-05

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  3. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  4. Kinetic analysis of N-acylphosphatidylserine accumulation and implications for membrane assembly in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Cain, B D; Donohue, T J; Kaplan, S

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of N-acylphosphatidylserine (NAPS) in response to the inclusion of Tris in the growth medium of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides strain M29-5 has been examined. In the accompanying paper (Donohue et al., J. Bacteriol. 152:000--000, 1982), we show that in response to Tris, NAPS accumulated to as much as 40% of the total cellular phospholipid content. NAPS accumulation began immediately upon addition of Tris and was reflected as an abrupt 12-fold increase in the apparent rate of NAPS accumulation. We suggest that Tris altered the flow of metabolites through a preexisting and previously unknown metabolic pathway. NAPS accumulation ceased immediately upon the removal of Tris; however, accumulated NAPS remained largely metabolically stable. Importantly, under conditions in which NAPS was not accumulated, the intracytoplasmic membrane was shown to be virtually devoid of newly synthesized NAPS. The significance of this observation is discussed in terms of its physiological implications on phospholipid transfer and membrane biogenesis in R. sphaeroides. PMID:6982265

  5. Bax Inhibitor-1 regulates hepatic lipid accumulation via ApoB secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Park, Byung-Hyun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han Jung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1) on ApoB aggregation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. After 1 week on a HFD, triglycerides and cholesterol accumulated more in the liver and were not effectively secreted into the plasma, whereas after 8 weeks, lipids were highly accumulated in both the liver and plasma, with a greater effect in BI-1 KO mice compared with BI-1 WT mice. ApoB, a lipid transfer protein, was accumulated to a greater extent in the livers of HFD-BI-1 KO mice compared with HFD-BI-1 WT mice. Excessive post-translational oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), intra-ER ROS accumulation and folding capacitance alteration were also observed in HFD-BI-1 KO mice. Higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were consistently observed in KO mice compared with the WT mice. Adenovirus-mediated hepatic expression of BI-1 in the BI-1 KO mice rescued the above phenotypes. Our results suggest that BI-1-mediated enhancement of ApoB secretion regulates hepatic lipid accumulation, likely through regulation of ER stress and ROS accumulation. PMID:27297735

  6. Nitrogen retention and partitioning at the initiation of lipid accumulation in nitrogen-deficient algae.

    PubMed

    Adams, Curtis; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency promotes lipid accumulation in many oleaginous algae, but we have a poor understanding of the associations between the initiation of lipid accumulation and algal N retention and partitioning. Here, we report on total cell N, five bulk pools of N in the cell (protein, free amino acids, DNA, RNA, chl), and lipids from N saturation to growth cessation in three species. While the maximum level of N uptake differed among species, the ratio of minimum retained N to N retained at the initiation of lipid accumulation was consistent among species at 0.5 ± 0.04. This suggests that the cellular initiation of lipid accumulation was associated with a common magnitude of N deficiency among species. Concerning the partitioning of N, the concentration of RNA and the protein to RNA ratio were most similar among species at the initiation of lipid accumulation with averages of 3.2 ± 0.26 g · L(-1) (8.2% variation) and 16 ± 1.5 (9.2% variation), respectively. All other pools and physiologically relevant ratios were considerably more variable. The species commonalities in RNA and protein show a similar reduction in general cellular function due to N deficiency before cellular initiation of lipid accumulation. These results provide insight into the physiological drivers for lipid accumulation in N-deficient algae and data for modeling these associations.

  7. Accumulation of Ku70 at DNA double-strand breaks in living epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2011-10-15

    Ku70 and Ku80 play an essential role in the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway, i.e., nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ). No accumulation mechanisms of Ku70 at DSBs have been clarified in detail, although the accumulation mechanism of Ku70 at DSBs plays key roles in regulating the NHEJ activity. Here, we show the essential domains for the accumulation and function of Ku70 at DSBs in living lung epithelial cells. Our results showed that EGFP-Ku70 accumulation at DSBs began immediately after irradiation. Our findings demonstrate that three domains of Ku70, i.e., the {alpha}/{beta}, DNA-binding, and Ku80-binding domains, but not the SAP domain, are necessary for the accumulation at or recognition of DSBs in the early stage after irradiation. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the leucine at amino acid 385 of Ku70 in the Ku80-binding domain, but not the three target amino acids for acetylation in the DNA-binding domain, is involved in the localization and accumulation of Ku70 at DSBs. Furthermore, accumulations of XRCC4 and XLF, but not that of Artemis, at DSBs are dependent on the presence of Ku70. These findings suggest that Artemis can work in not only the Ku-dependent repair process, but also the Ku-independent process at DSBs in living epithelial cells.

  8. Enhanced cAMP accumulation by a phorbol ester in cerebral cortical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, J.F.; Davis, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) was found to be selective in its ability to alter cAMP accumulations in cultured rat cerebral cortical cells. Basal levels of cAMP in cultured neuronal and nonneuronal cells preincubated in the absence or presence of PMA were 14 pmol/mg protein and 16 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Adenosine increased cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. cAMP accumulation in response to low concentrations of adenosine was not significantly altered by pretreatment with PMA but marked potentiation of adenosine elicited accumulations was observed at 10 and 100 ..mu..M adenosine. Longer preincubation with PMA resulted in a decreased ability of PMA to enhance adenosine elicited accumulations of cAMP. PMA did not significantly alter cAMP accumulation by forskolin (FOR) and enhanced norepinephrine stimulated cAMP by only 2-fold. For similarly potentiated adenosine/sub 2/ (A/sub 2/)- receptor elicited accumulation of cAMP which could be further enhanced by PMA. These results suggest that the effects of the phorbol ester are more specific for potentiating adenosine stimulated cAMP accumulation and may occur as a result of a more efficient coupling between the A/sub 2/-receptor, N-protein and adenylate cyclase.

  9. Preferential Osmolyte Accumulation: a Mechanism of Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Diazotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Magdy A.; Smith, Linda Tombras; Smith, Gary M.

    1990-01-01

    A common cellular mechanism of osmotic-stress adaptation is the intracellular accumulation of organic solutes (osmolytes). We investigated the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in the diazotrophic bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are adversely affected by high osmotic strength (i.e., soil salinity and/or drought). We used natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify all the osmolytes accumulating in these strains during osmotic stress generated by 0.5 M NaCl. Evidence is presented for the accumulation of trehalose and glutamate in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4, proline and glutamate in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6, and trehalose and proline in K. pneumoniae. Glycine betaine was accumulated in all strains grown in culture media containing yeast extract as the sole nitrogen source. Alternative nitrogen sources (e.g., NH4Cl or casamino acids) in the culture medium did not result in measurable glycine betaine accumulation. We suggest that the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in these organisms entails the accumulation of osmolytes in hyperosmotically stressed cells resulting from either enhanced uptake from the medium (of glycine betaine, proline, and glutamate) or increased net biosynthesis (of trehalose, proline, and glutamate) or both. The preferred osmolyte in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4 shifted from glutamate to trehalose as a consequence of a prolonged osmotic stress. Also, the dominant osmolyte in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6 shifted from glutamate to proline accumulation as the osmotic strength of the medium increased. PMID:16348295

  10. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits.

  11. Conostegia xalapensis (Melastomataceae): an aluminum accumulator plant.

    PubMed

    González-Santana, Iris Hayde; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Cram-Heydrich, Silke; Cruz-Ortega, Rocio

    2012-02-01

    In acidic soils, an excess of Al³⁺ is toxic to most plants. The Melastomataceae family includes Al-accumulator genera that tolerate high Al³⁺ by accumulating it in their tissues. Conostegia xalapensis is a common shrub in Mexico and Central America colonizing mainly disturbed areas. Here, we determined whether C. xalapensis is an Al accumulator, and whether it has internal tolerance mechanisms to Al. Soil samples collected from two pastures in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, had low pH and high Al³⁺ concentrations along with low Ca²⁺ levels. Leaves of C. xalapensis from pastures showed up to 19,000 mg Al kg⁻¹ DW (dry weight). In laboratory experiments, 8-month-old seedlings treated with 0.5 and 1.0 mM AlCl₃ for 24 days showed higher number of lateral roots and biomass. Pyrocatechol violet and hematoxylin staining evidenced that Al localized in epidermis and mesophyll cells in leaves and in epidermis and vascular pith in roots. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of Al-treated leaves corroborated that Al is in abaxial and adaxial epidermis and in mesophyll cells (31.2%) in 1.0 mM Al-treatment. Roots of Al-treated plants had glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activity higher, and low levels of O₂*⁻ and H₂O₂. C. xalapensis is an Al-accumulator plant that can grow in acidic soils with higher Al³⁺ concentrations, and can be considered as an indicator species for soils with potential Al toxicity.

  12. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  13. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  14. Tissue-Specific, Development-Dependent Phenolic Compounds Accumulation Profile and Gene Expression Pattern in Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Lei; Meng, Fei; Wang, Yunsheng; Tan, Huarong; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chaoling; Wan, Xiaochun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.)] play a crucial role in dominating tea flavor and possess a number of key pharmacological benefits on human health. The present research aimed to study the profile of tissue-specific, development-dependent accumulation pattern of phenolic compounds in tea plant. A total of 50 phenolic compounds were identified qualitatively using liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry technology. Of which 29 phenolic compounds were quantified based on their fragmentation behaviors. Most of the phenolic compounds were higher in the younger leaves than that in the stem and root, whereas the total amount of proanthocyanidins were unexpectedly higher in the root. The expression patterns of 63 structural and regulator genes involved in the shikimic acid, phenylpropanoid, and flavonoid pathways were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and cluster analysis. Based on the similarity of their expression patterns, the genes were classified into two main groups: C1 and C2; and the genes in group C1 had high relative expression level in the root or low in the bud and leaves. The expression patterns of genes in C2-2-1 and C2-2-2-1 groups were probably responsible for the development-dependent accumulation of phenolic compounds in the leaves. Enzymatic analysis suggested that the accumulation of catechins was influenced simultaneously by catabolism and anabolism. Further research is recommended to know the expression patterns of various genes and the reason for the variation in contents of different compounds in different growth stages and also in different organs. PMID:23646127

  15. Accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisca; Nadal, Martí; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Fàbrega, Francesc; Domingo, José L; Barceló, Damià; Farré, Marinella

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmental pollutants with an important bioaccumulation potential. However, their metabolism and distribution in humans are not well studied. In this study, the concentrations of 21 PFASs were analyzed in 99 samples of autopsy tissues (brain, liver, lung, bone, and kidney) from subjects who had been living in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The samples were analyzed by solvent extraction and online purification by turbulent flow and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of PFASs was confirmed in all human tissues. Although PFASs accumulation followed particular trends depending on the specific tissue, some similarities were found. In kidney and lung, perfluorobutanoic acid was the most frequent compound, and at highest concentrations (median values: 263 and 807ng/g in kidney and lung, respectively). In liver and brain, perfluorohexanoic acid showed the maximum levels (median: 68.3 and 141ng/g, respectively), while perfluorooctanoic acid was the most contributively in bone (median: 20.9ng/g). Lung tissues accumulated the highest concentration of PFASs. However, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid were more prevalent in liver and bone, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the accumulation of different PFASs in samples of various human tissues from the same subjects is here reported for the very first time. The current results may be of high importance for the validation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, which are being developed for humans. However, further studies on the distribution of the same compounds in the human body are still required.

  16. Premature chromatin condensation upon accumulation of NIMA.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, M J; Norbury, C; Nurse, P

    1994-01-01

    The NIMA protein kinase of Aspergillus nidulans is required for the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Mutants lacking NIMA arrest without morphological characteristics of mitosis, but they do contain an activated p37nimX kinase (the Aspergillus homologue of p34cdc2). To gain a better understanding of NIMA function we have investigated the effects of expressing various NIMA constructs in Aspergillus, fission yeast and human cells. Our experiments have shown that the instability of the NIMA protein requires sequences in the non-catalytic C-terminus of the protein. Removal of this domain results in a stable protein that, once accumulated, promotes a lethal premature condensation of chromatin without any other aspects of mitosis. Similar effects were also observed in fission yeast and human cells accumulating Aspergillus NIMA. This phenotype is independent of cell cycle progression and does not require p34cdc2 kinase activity. As gain of NIMA function by accumulation results in premature chromatin condensation, and loss of NIMA function results in an inability to enter mitosis, we propose that NIMA functions in G2 to promote the condensation of chromatin normally associated with entry into mitosis. Images PMID:7957060

  17. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits.

  18. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  19. Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Late Pleistocene North America hosted at least two divergent and ecologically distinct species of mammoth: the periglacial woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and the subglacial Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). To date, mammoth genetic research has been entirely restricted to woolly mammoths, rendering their genetic evolution difficult to contextualize within broader Pleistocene paleoecology and biogeography. Here, we take an interspecific approach to clarifying mammoth phylogeny by targeting Columbian mammoth remains for mitogenomic sequencing. Results We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a classic Columbian mammoth, as well as the first complete mitochondrial genome of a North American woolly mammoth. Somewhat contrary to conventional paleontological models, which posit that the two species were highly divergent, the M. columbi mitogenome we obtained falls securely within a subclade of endemic North American M. primigenius. Conclusions Though limited, our data suggest that the two species interbred at some point in their evolutionary histories. One potential explanation is that woolly mammoth haplotypes entered Columbian mammoth populations via introgression at subglacial ecotones, a scenario with compelling parallels in extant elephants and consistent with certain regional paleontological observations. This highlights the need for multi-genomic data to sufficiently characterize mammoth evolutionary history. Our results demonstrate that the use of next-generation sequencing technologies holds promise in obtaining such data, even from non-cave, non-permafrost Pleistocene depositional contexts. PMID:21627792

  20. Congener specificity in the accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in zucchini plants grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Wakai, Taketo; Gion, Keiko; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo

    2011-01-01

    Zucchini cultivars Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera cv. Patty Green and subsp. pepo cv. Gold Rush were cultivated hydroponically in a nutrient solution supplemented with a mixture of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Patty Green and Gold Rush showed low and high accumulation of these compounds in the aerial parts respectively. In both cultivars, the accumulation of each congener negatively depended on its hydrophobicity. This suggests that desorption and solubilization were partly responsible for congener specificity of accumulation, since this was not found in soil experiments. In contrast, no clear difference in accumulation in the roots was observed between the cultivars, whereas the translocation factors, which are indicators of efficient translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, differed among the congeners hydrophobicity-dependently. There were positive correlations between accumulation in the roots and the hydrophobicity of the polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in both cultivars. These results indicate that translocation was also partly responsible for the congener specificity and accumulation concentrations.

  1. 32 CFR 1804.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1804.4 Section 1804... EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 General § 1804.4 Suggestions and complaints. NACIC welcomes suggestions or complaints... Order 12958. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues...

  2. 32 CFR 1908.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1908.04 Section 1908... ORDER 12958 General § 1908.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints... suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The...

  3. 29 CFR 778.333 - Suggestion system awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion system awards. 778.333 Section 778.333 Labor... Prizes As Bonuses § 778.333 Suggestion system awards. The question has been raised whether awards made to employees for suggestions submitted under a suggestion system plan are to be regarded as part of the...

  4. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Executive Order. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify...

  5. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the Executive Order. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify...

  6. 32 CFR 1804.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1804.4 Section 1804... EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 General § 1804.4 Suggestions and complaints. NACIC welcomes suggestions or complaints... Order 12958. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues...

  7. 29 CFR 778.333 - Suggestion system awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestion system awards. 778.333 Section 778.333 Labor... Prizes As Bonuses § 778.333 Suggestion system awards. The question has been raised whether awards made to employees for suggestions submitted under a suggestion system plan are to be regarded as part of the...

  8. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1909.04 Section 1909... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... 12958. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues...

  9. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1909.04 Section 1909... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... 12958. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the specific purpose and the issues...

  10. A Comparison of Authoritarian and Permissive Wording of Hypnotic Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Robert B.; Church, Jay K.

    The authoritarian/permissive dimension of hypnosis refers to the manner in which hypnotic suggestions are phrased. In the authoritarian mode suggestions imply the subject is under control of the hypnotist; permissive suggestions are phrased to emphasize the subject's own thinking. To compare the permissive suggestions of the Creative Imagination…

  11. Identification of betacyanin and effects of environmental factors on its accumulation in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhao, Ji-Qiang; Chen, Min; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2006-04-01

    Effects of temperature, light, salinity and developmental phases on the accumulation of red pigments in the C(3) halophyte Suaeda salsa were studied, and the physical and chemical characteristics of the red pigments were also analyzed. The results indicate that: these red pigments are insoluble in organic solvents but free in water, the pigments are red-violet and stable under acidic condition while yellow and unstable under alkaline condition, and they absorb the highest value at wavelength near 538 nm, light suppresses their accumulation and enhances their decomposition. These results suggest that these red pigments are betacyanins. Darkness, low temperatures and high salinity enhance betacyanin accumulation in Suaeda salsa, and darkness in the germination phase is one of the most important environmental factors for the betacyanin accumulation.

  12. Relationship between cisplatin or nedaplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and renal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Taniuchi, Saburo; Okahara, Shigeki; Nakamura, Masuhisa; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-08-01

    Nedaplatin is known to exhibit antitumor activity similar to that of cisplatin. However, concerning side effects, nedaplatin causes renal toxicity less frequently than cisplatin. In this study, we compared the incidence of renal toxicity between cisplatin and nedaplatin by investigating the difference in kidney tissue accumulation. Kidney tissue accumulation of cisplatin administered at 3.75 mg/kg was similar to that of nedaplatin administered at 24 mg/kg. At these doses, the plasma creatinine level and urinary excretion of glucose and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) similarly increased. There was a correlation between kidney accumulation of cisplatin and nedaplatin and the increases in plasma creatinine level and urinary excretion of NAG. Therefore, our results suggest that nedaplatin less frequently causes renal toxicity in comparison to cisplatin due to lower kidney accumulation.

  13. Uptake and Accumulation of Polystyrene Microplastics in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Toxic Effects in Liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Yanping; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-04-05

    Microplastics have become emerging contaminants, causing widespread concern about their potential toxic effects. In this study, the uptake and tissue accumulation of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) in zebrafish were detected, and the toxic effects in liver were investigated. The results showed that after 7 days of exposure, 5 μm diameter MPs accumulated in fish gills, liver, and gut, while 20 μm diameter MPs accumulated only in fish gills and gut. Histopathological analysis showed that both 5 μm and 70 nm PS-MPs caused inflammation and lipid accumulation in fish liver. PS-MPs also induced significantly increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, indicating that oxidative stress was induced after treatment with MPs. In addition, metabolomic analysis suggested that exposure to MPs induced alterations of metabolic profiles in fish liver and disturbed the lipid and energy metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on fish.

  14. MicroRNAs Circulate in the Hemolymph of Drosophila and Accumulate Relative to Tissue microRNAs in an Age-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Dhahbi, Joseph M.; Atamna, Hani; Li, Rui; Yamakawa, Amy; Guerrero, Noel; Lam, Hanh T.; Mote, Patricia; Spindler, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, extracellular miRNAs circulate in biofluids as stable entities that are secreted by normal and diseased tissues, and can enter cells and regulate gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster is a proven system for the study of human diseases. They have an open circulatory system in which hemolymph (HL) circulates in direct contact with all internal organs, in a manner analogous to vertebrate blood plasma. Here, we show using deep sequencing that Drosophila HL contains RNase-resistant circulating miRNAs (HL-miRNAs). Limited subsets of body tissue miRNAs (BT-miRNAs) accumulated in HL, suggesting that they may be specifically released from cells or particularly stable in HL. Alternatively, they might arise from specific cells, such as hemocytes, that are in intimate contact with HL. Young and old flies accumulated unique populations of HL-miRNAs, suggesting that their accumulation is responsive to the physiological status of the fly. These HL-miRNAs in flies may function similar to the miRNAs circulating in mammalian biofluids. The discovery of these HL-miRNAs will provide a new venue for health and disease-related research in Drosophila. PMID:27042094

  15. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  16. Accumulation of the mycotoxin patulin in the presence of gluconic acid contributes to pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Kobiler, Ilana; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest fruit maceration through secretion of D-gluconic acid (GLA) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. GLA involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to P. expansum pathogenicity remain unclear. The roles of GLA and patulin accumulation in P. expansum pathogenicity were studied using i) glucose oxidase GOX2-RNAi mutants exhibiting decreased GOX2 expression, GLA accumulation, and reduced pathogenicity; ii) IDH-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of IDH (the last gene in patulin biosynthesis), reduced patulin accumulation, and no effect on GLA level; and iii) PACC-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of both GOX2 and IDH that reduced GLA and patulin production. Present results indicate that conditions enhancing the decrease in GLA accumulation by GOX2-RNAi and PACC-RNAi mutants, and not low pH, affected patulin accumulation, suggesting GLA production as the driving force for further patulin accumulation. Thus, it is suggested that GLA accumulation may modulate patulin synthesis as a direct precursor under dynamic pH conditions modulating the activation of the transcription factor PACC and the consequent pathogenicity factors, which contribute to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L; Finucane, Hilary K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kennedy, James L; Knight, Jo

    2016-09-01

    There has been intense debate over the immunological basis of schizophrenia, and the potential utility of adjunct immunotherapies. The major histocompatibility complex is consistently the most powerful region of association in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and has been interpreted as strong genetic evidence supporting the immune hypothesis. However, global pathway analyses provide inconsistent evidence of immune involvement in schizophrenia, and it remains unclear whether genetic data support an immune etiology per se. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that variation in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated with schizophrenia, we identify 6 immune candidates (DPP4, HSPD1, EGR1, CLU, ESAM, NFATC3) encoding proteins with alternative, nonimmune roles in the brain. While our findings do not refute evidence that has accumulated in support of the immune hypothesis, they suggest that genetically mediated alterations in immune function may not play a major role in schizophrenia susceptibility. Instead, there may be a role for pleiotropic effects of a small number of immune genes that also regulate brain development and plasticity. Whether immune alterations drive schizophrenia progression is an important question to be addressed by future research, especially in light of the growing interest in applying immunotherapies in schizophrenia.

  18. GLUT2 Accumulation in Enterocyte Apical and Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Omar, Amal; Monteiro-Sepulveda, Milena; Poitou, Christine; Le Gall, Maude; Cotillard, Aurélie; Gilet, Jules; Garbin, Kevin; Houllier, Anne; Château, Danièle; Lacombe, Amélie; Veyrie, Nicolas; Hugol, Danielle; Tordjman, Joan; Magnan, Christophe; Serradas, Patricia; Clément, Karine; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In healthy rodents, intestinal sugar absorption in response to sugar-rich meals and insulin is regulated by GLUT2 in enterocyte plasma membranes. Loss of insulin action maintains apical GLUT2 location. In human enterocytes, apical GLUT2 location has not been reported but may be revealed under conditions of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subcellular location of GLUT2 in jejunal enterocytes was analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy imaging and Western blot in 62 well-phenotyped morbidly obese subjects and 7 lean human subjects. GLUT2 locations were assayed in ob/ob and ob/+ mice receiving oral metformin or in high-fat low-carbohydrate diet–fed C57Bl/6 mice. Glucose absorption and secretion were respectively estimated by oral glucose tolerance test and secretion of [U-14C]-3-O-methyl glucose into lumen. RESULTS In human enterocytes, GLUT2 was consistently located in basolateral membranes. Apical GLUT2 location was absent in lean subjects but was observed in 76% of obese subjects and correlated with insulin resistance and glycemia. In addition, intracellular accumulation of GLUT2 with early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) was associated with reduced MGAT4a activity (glycosylation) in 39% of obese subjects on a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Mice on a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet for 12 months also exhibited endosomal GLUT2 accumulation and reduced glucose absorption. In ob/ob mice, metformin promoted apical GLUT2 and improved glucose homeostasis. Apical GLUT2 in fasting hyperglycemic ob/ob mice tripled glucose release into intestinal lumen. CONCLUSIONS In morbidly obese insulin-resistant subjects, GLUT2 was accumulated in apical and/or endosomal membranes of enterocytes. Functionally, apical GLUT2 favored and endosomal GLUT2 reduced glucose transepithelial exchanges. Thus, altered GLUT2 locations in enterocytes are a sign of intestinal adaptations to human metabolic pathology. PMID:21852673

  19. Hydrogeological influences on petroleum accumulations in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Vizgirda, J.; Burke, L.

    1995-08-01

    The stratigraphic and topographic conditions in the Arabian Gulf are appropriate for the instigation and maintenance of an active hydrodynamic regime. The setting is that of a gentle basin surrounded by topographic highs. The central Arabian highlands to the west-southwest, the Tarus-Zagros mountains to the north, and the Oman mountains to the east rim the structural low occupied by the Gulf. Elevations in these areas reach maximum values of approximately 1000 meters. Paleozoic through Cenozoic strata stretch continuously across the basin, are relatively unfaulted, and outcrop in the topographic highs. Such a setting is propitious for a regional hydrodynamic system with meteoric recharge in the topographic highs and discharge in the middle of the Gulf. The prolific oil and gas accumulations of this region would be subject to influence by these hydrodynamic processes. The existence of such a hydrodynamic regime is documented by a variety of evidence, including potentiometric data, water salinity measurements, and observed tilts in oil-water contacts. Potentiometric data for several Tertiary and Cretaceous units on the Arabian platform, in the Gulf, and in Iraq show a pattern of consistently decreasing potential from topographic highs to lows. Water salinities show a consistent, but inverse, variation with the potentiometric data. Tilted oil-water contacts in Cretaceous and Jurassic reservoirs are observed in several fields of the Gulf region. The direction and magnitude of the observed tilts are consistent with the water potential and salinity data, and suggest that petroleum accumulations are being influenced by a regional hydrodynamic drive. Basin modelling is used to simulate petroleum generation and migration scenarios, and to integrate these histories with the structural evolution of the Gulf. The integrated modelling study illustrates the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the distribution of petroleum accumulations.

  20. Glycerol accumulation in edema formation following diffuse traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmer; Konakondla, Sanjay; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Peng, Changya; Schafer, Steven; Ding, Jamie Y; Dornbos, David; Sikharam, Chaitanya; Geng, Xiaokun; Guthikonda, Murali; Kreipke, Christian W; Rafols, José A; Ding, Yuchuan

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces brain edema via water and glycerol transport channels, called aquaporins (AQPs). The passage of glycerol across brain cellular compartments has been shown during edema. Using a modified impact/head acceleration rodent model of diffuse TBI, we assessed the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha in regulating AQP9 expression and glycerol accumulation during the edema formation. Adult (400-425 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats received a closed head injury with a weight drop (450 g, 2-m height) and were allowed to survive up to 48 hours. Some rat groups were administered 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2, a HIF-1alpha inhibitor) 30 minutes after injury and were euthanized at 4 and 24 hours after injury. Brain edema was measured directly by water content, and glycerol concentration was determined by the Cayman Glycerol Assay. HIF-1alpha and AQP9 protein levels were assessed by Western immunoblotting. This study demonstrated a significant (P<0·05) increase in brain water content at 4-48 hours following impact. Cerebral glycerol was significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated at as early as 1 hour and remained at high levels for up to 48 hours. Similarly, significant (P<0.05) increases in HIF-1alpha and AQP9 protein levels were found at 1 hour and up to 48 hours after injury. Compared to untreated but injured rats, inhibition of HIF-1alpha by 2ME2 significantly (P<0.05) reduced the TBI-induced AQP9 up-regulation. This reduction was temporally associated with significant (P<0.05) decreases in both edema and glycerol accumulation. The data suggested an associated induction of HIF-1alpha, AQP9, and extracellular glycerol accumulation in edema formation following diffuse TBI. The implication of HIF-1alpha and AQP9 underlying TBI-induced edema formation offers possibilities for novel TBI therapies.

  1. Accumulation of amyloid in cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Tai; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Kun-Ju; Hu, Chaur-Jong

    2015-02-15

    Recent epidemiology studies have indicated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can increase the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are pathological indicators of AD. The accumulation of Aβ is considered the first step of AD pathophysiology. Compelling studies have supported the hypothesis that TBI accelerates the formation and accumulation of Aβ. These findings could link TBI with AD, although the research that reported these findings had limitations, particularly regarding mild TBI (mTBI) patients. The effects of mTBI on Aβ accumulation remain uncertain because of a lack of mTBI pathology data. Using amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET), researchers can help to determine whether mTBI increases the accumulation of Aβ, which might be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of mTBI in AD, and could be a target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with TBI. In this study, we recruited 27 mTBI patients with mTBI in mean 6years before this study (21 mTBI patients without cognitive impairment, 6 mTBI patients with cognitive impairment,) and 10 controls. All of them underwent mini-mental state examination, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping, and amyloid-PET. The results show an increase of amyloid accumulation and allele frequency of APOE4 in the mTBI patients with cognitive impairment. These findings indicate that amyloid accumulation is an important indicator of cognitive impairment, and amyloid-PET should be a safe and useful tool for diagnosing amyloid-related cognitive impairment. APOE allele might play a role in the occurrence of cognitive impairment after mTBI. The contribution of mTBI to the amyloid accumulation requires further study, and mTBI patients should be recruited for longitudinal research with repeated amyloid-PET studies.

  2. A comparison of the accumulation of phenanthrene by marine amphipods in water versus sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Fusi, T.; Weber, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research is to compare the accumulation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene by marine amphipods from sediment and interstitial water versus from a water only exposure system. The equilibrium partitioning theory assumes that the exposure and response of benthic invertebrates are the same when exposed to the same contaminant concentration in water and interstitial water. In this series of experiments, three infaunal marine amphipod species; Eohaustorius estuarius (non tube-forming, burrowing amphipod), Leptocheirus plumulosus (burrow-building amphipod) and Grandidierella japonica (tube-building amphipod), were exposed to {sup 14}C-phenanthrene under three experimental conditions: (1) sediment spiked at a concentration resulting in an interstitial water concentration of 2.5 {micro}g/l phenanthrene; (2) sediment spiked at a concentration resulting in interstitial water concentration of 2.5 {micro}g/l and the overlying water spiked at 2.5 {micro}g/l phenanthrene; (3) a water only exposure with the water at a concentration of 2.5 {micro}g/l phenanthrene, The exposures were conducted in a static renewal system with the overlying and exposure water being replaced every 8 hours. The bioaccumulation of phenanthrene was followed over 72 hours. In all three species of amphipods, the accumulation of phenanthrene was significantly greater in the water only exposure than in the two sediment exposures. At 72 hours, the amphipod body burdens of phenanthrene in the water only exposures were, depending on the species, 7 to 24 times that of the sediment only exposures. The results suggest that water only exposures may overestimate sediment or interstitial exposure to phenanthrene and other nonionic, lipophilic compounds.

  3. Accumulation and inactivation of avian influenza virus by the filter-feeding invertebrate Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meixell, Brandt W; Borchardt, Mark A; Spencer, Susan K

    2013-12-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds.

  4. Accumulation and Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus by the Filter-Feeding Invertebrate Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The principal mode of avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission among wild birds is thought to occur via an indirect fecal-oral route, whereby individuals are exposed to virus from the environment through contact with virus-contaminated water. AIV can remain viable for an extended time in water; however, little is known regarding the influence of the biotic community (i.e., aquatic invertebrates) on virus persistence and infectivity in aquatic environments. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the ability of an aquatic filter-feeding invertebrate, Daphnia magna, to accumulate virus from AIV-dosed water under the hypothesis that they represent a potential vector of AIV to waterfowl hosts. We placed live daphnids in test tubes dosed with low-pathogenicity AIV (H3N8 subtype isolated from a wild duck) and sampled Daphnia tissue and the surrounding water using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) at 3- to 120-min intervals for up to 960 min following dosing. Concentrations of viral RNA averaged 3 times higher in Daphnia tissue than the surrounding water shortly after viral exposure, but concentrations decreased exponentially through time for both. Extracts from Daphnia tissue were negative for AIV by cell culture, whereas AIV remained viable in water without Daphnia present. Our results suggest daphnids can accumulate AIV RNA and effectively remove virus particles from water. Although concentrations of viral RNA were consistently higher in Daphnia tissue than the water, additional research is needed on the time scale of AIV inactivation after Daphnia ingestion to fully elucidate Daphnia's role as a potential vector of AIV infection to aquatic birds. PMID:24038705

  5. Spectral Exploration of Calcium Accumulation in Organic Matter in Gray Desert Soil from Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ma, Yucui; Wang, Xihe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Hua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) in the fringes of the mid-latitude desert. In this paper, soil samples from a long-term field experiment conducted from 1990 to 2013 at a research station in Urumqi, China by different fertilizer treatments, were used to determine soil properties and soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) by chemical analysis, fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The binding features of DOM under the addition of Ca(2+) were analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer further to explore the response of the DOM to increasing concentrations of Ca(2+). Long-term application of chemical fertilizers and goat manure increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 1.34- and 1.86-fold, respectively, relative to the non-fertilized control (8.95 g.kg(-1)). Compared with the control, application of chemical fertilizers and manure significantly increased the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, humic and fulvic acid-like substances in DOM but decreased the amounts of trivalent metals (Al and Fe) and protein-like substances. Although crystalline Al/Fe nanoparticles and amorphous or short-range-order Si/Al nanoparticles existed in all DOM samples, crystalline Ca/Si nanoparticles were predominant in the samples treated with goat manure. Although organic matter and Si-O-containing nanoparticles were involved in the binding of Ca(2+) to DOM, application of chemical fertilizers weakened Ca(2+) association with components of the amide II group (1510 cm(-1)) and Si-O linkage (1080 cm(-1)), whereas application of goat manure enhanced the affinity of Ca(2+) for Si-O linkage. Our results suggested that the enrichment of Ca in gray desert soil possibly helps accumulate SOM by forming crystalline Ca/Si nanoparticles in addition to Ca(2+) and organic matter complexes.

  6. Bio-Defense Now: 56 Suggestions for Immediate Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    RAM Measures.........................................................22 Vaccinate All Military...25 viii Research New Prophylaxis and Vaccines ....................................................25 Institute the 922 Concept...Aerial Port of Debarkation AVIP Anthrax Vaccination Immunization Program AVRP Anthrax Vaccine Research Program BACE Bio-Attack Climatology

  7. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  8. Relationships Between Photosynthetic Activity and Silica Accumulation with Ages of Leaf in Sasa veitchii (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Hiroyuki; Hikosaka, Kouki; Suzuki, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Bamboos have long-lived, evergreen leaves that continue to accumulate silica throughout their life. Silica accumulation has been suggested to suppress their photosynthetic activity. However, nitrogen content per unit leaf area (Narea), an important determinant of maximum photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area (Pmax), decreases as leaves age and senescence. In many species, Pmax decreases in parallel with the leaf nitrogen content. It is hypothesized that if silica accumulation affects photosynthesis, then Pmax would decrease faster than Narea, leading to a decrease in photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, PNUE) with increasing silica content in leaves. Methods The hypothesis was tested in leaves of Sasa veitchii, which have a life span of 2 years and accumulate silica up to 41 % of dry mass. Seasonal changes in Pmax, stomatal conductance, Narea and silica content were measured for leaves of different ages. Key Results Although Pmax and PNUE were negatively related with silica content across leaves of different ages, the relationship between PNUE and silica differed depending on leaf age. In second-year leaves, PNUE was almost constant although there was a large increase in silica content, suggesting that leaf nitrogen was a primary factor determining the variation in Pmax and that silica accumulation did not affect photosynthesis. PNUE was strongly and negatively correlated with silica content in third-year leaves, suggesting that silica accumulation affected photosynthesis of older leaves. Conclusions Silica accumulation in long-lived leaves of bamboo did not affect photosynthesis when the silica concentration of a leaf was less than 25 % of dry mass. Silica may be actively transported to epidermal cells rather than chlorenchyma cells, avoiding inhibition of CO2 diffusion from the intercellular space to chloroplasts. However, in older leaves with a larger silica content, silica was also

  9. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  10. Genetic counselling in ALS: facts, uncertainties and clinical suggestions.

    PubMed

    Chiò, Adriano; Battistini, Stefania; Calvo, Andrea; Caponnetto, Claudia; Conforti, Francesca L; Corbo, Massimo; Giannini, Fabio; Mandrioli, Jessica; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Ajmone, Clara; Mastro, Enza; Pain, Debora; Mandich, Paola; Penco, Silvana; Restagno, Gabriella; Zollino, Marcella; Surbone, Antonella

    2014-05-01

    The clinical approach to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been largely modified by the identification of novel genes, the detection of gene mutations in apparently sporadic patients, and the discovery of the strict genetic and clinical relation between ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). As a consequence, clinicians are increasingly facing the dilemma on how to handle genetic counselling and testing both for ALS patients and their relatives. On the basis of existing literature on genetics of ALS and of other late-onset life-threatening disorders, we propose clinical suggestions to enable neurologists to provide optimal clinical and genetic counselling to patients and families. Genetic testing should be offered to ALS patients who have a first-degree or second-degree relative with ALS, FTD or both, and should be discussed with, but not offered to, all other ALS patients, with special emphasis on its major uncertainties. Presently, genetic testing should not be proposed to asymptomatic at-risk subjects, unless they request it or are enrolled in research programmes. Genetic counselling in ALS should take into account the uncertainties about the pathogenicity and penetrance of some genetic mutations; the possible presence of mutations of different genes in the same individual; the poor genotypic/phenotypic correlation in most ALS genes; and the phenotypic pleiotropy of some genes. Though psychological, social and ethical implications of genetic testing are still relatively unexplored in ALS, we recommend multidisciplinary counselling that addresses all relevant issues, including disclosure of tests results to family members and the risk for genetic discrimination.

  11. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; MOLLAMOHAMMADI, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia) leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomical locations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI. PMID:25657764

  12. Volume accumulator design analysis computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The computer codes, VANEP and VANES, were written and used to aid in the design and performance calculation of the volume accumulator units (VAU) for the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. VANEP computes the VAU design which meets the primary coolant loop VAU volume and pressure performance requirements. VANES computes the performance of the VAU design, determined from the VANEP code, at the conditions of the secondary coolant loop. The codes can also compute the performance characteristics of the VAU's under conditions of possible modes of failure which still permit continued system operation.

  13. Storing wind energy into electrical accumulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordescu, M.; Petrescu, D. I.; Erdodi, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Shall be determined, in this work, the energy stored in the accumulators electrical, AE, at a wind system operating at wind speeds time-varying. mechanical energy caught in the turbine from the wind, (TV), is transformed into electrical energy by the generator synchronous with the permanent magnets, GSMP. The Generator synchronous with the permanent magnets saws, via a rectifier, energy in a battery AE, finished in a choice of two: variant 1-unregulated rectifier and variant of the 2-controlled rectifier and task adapted. Through simulation determine the differences between the two versions

  14. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  15. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  16. Study Suggests Heartburn Meds-Superbug Infections Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164301.html Study Suggests Heartburn Meds-Superbug Infections Link Recurring bouts of C. difficile were ... likely to suffer recurrent bouts of a common "superbug" infection, a new study suggests. Proton pump inhibitors, ...

  17. Capturing Wind Speed and Snow Accumulation Gradients across Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstral, A. H.; Marks, D. G.; Gurney, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Wind speeds vary dramatically over short distances in mountain settings. Snow distribution is strongly affected by these disparate winds with drifts containing meters of snow-water-equivalence (SWE) often found adjacent to windward slopes containing minimal amounts of SWE. The heterogeneous snow distribution effects runoff, soil moisture, and vegetation patterns. Capturing these gradients in models is difficult due to the inherent complexity of wind fields and a general lack of data from high elevation, wind-exposed locations. This study was conducted in the Reynolds Mountain East research basin in southwest Idaho, USA. The basin is uniquely instrumented with a network of automated wind and snow depth sensors that capture a large range of variability. Additional manual snow surveys were conducted twice a year that captured the full gradient of snow distribution present in the basin. This unique dataset formed the foundation for establishing relationships between the variables of interest and readily available terrain and vegetation data. A significant relationship between upwind terrain structure and wind speed was established and further validated at two other sites. Snow accumulation rates were related to wind speed and terrain structure. Computationally efficient methods for distributing wind speed and snow accumulation from single point measurements were established from these findings. The algorithms were used to derive the spatial forcing fields for a distributed mass and energy balance snow model with effective results.

  18. Telomerase RNA accumulates in Cajal bodies in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yusheng; Tomlinson, Rebecca L; Lukowiak, Andrew A; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA component of the enzyme (hTR) provides the template for telomere synthesis, which is catalyzed by telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Little is known regarding the subcellular localization of hTR and hTERT and the pathway by which telomerase is assembled. Here we report the first glimpse of the detailed subcellular localization of endogenous hTR in human cells, which we obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our studies have revealed a distinctive hTR localization pattern in cancer cells. We have found that hTR accumulates within intranuclear foci called Cajal bodies in all typical tumor-derived cell lines examined (in which telomerase is active), but not in primary or ALT cells (where little or no hTERT is present). Accumulation of hTR in the Cajal bodies of primary cells is induced when hTERT is ectopically expressed. Moreover, we report that hTERT is also found in Cajal bodies. Our data suggest that Cajal bodies are involved in the assembly and/or function of human telomerase.

  19. Anandamide, but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol, accumulates during in vivo neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H; Schmid, P C; Bittigau, P; Lastres-Becker, I; Berrendero, F; Manzanares, J; Ikonomidou, C; Schmid, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, J J; Hansen, H S

    2001-09-01

    Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (endocannabinoids) may rescue neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. As these substances also accumulate in cultured immature neurons following neuronal damage, elevated endocannabinoid concentrations may be interpreted as a putative neuroprotective response. However, it is not known how glutamatergic insults affect in vivo endocannabinoid homeostasis, i.e. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as other constituents of their lipid families, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs), respectively. Here we employed three in vivo neonatal rat models characterized by widespread neurodegeneration as a consequence of altered glutamatergic neurotransmission and assessed changes in endocannabinoid homeostasis. A 46-fold increase of cortical NAE concentrations (anandamide, 13-fold) was noted 24 h after intracerebral NMDA injection, while less severe insults triggered by mild concussive head trauma or NMDA receptor blockade produced a less pronounced NAE accumulation. By contrast, levels of 2-AG and other 2-MAGs were virtually unaffected by the insults employed, rendering it likely that key enzymes in biosynthetic pathways of the two different endocannabinoid structures are not equally associated to intracellular events that cause neuronal damage in vivo. Analysis of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mRNA expression and binding capacity revealed that cortical subfields exhibited an up-regulation of these parameters following mild concussive head trauma and exposure to NMDA receptor blockade. This may suggest that mild to moderate brain injury may trigger elevated endocannabinoid activity via concomitant increase of anandamide levels, but not 2-AG, and CB(1) receptor density.

  20. Differences in calcium accumulation between human plantar and palmar aponeuroses.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Cho; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Morimoto, Mamoru; Tohno, Setsuko; Minami, Takeshi; Takano, Yasuo; Utsumi, Masako; Moriwake, Yumi; Nishiwaki, Fumio; Yamada, Masa-oki

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of calcium accumulation of human plantar and palmar aponeuroses, the authors determined the calcium content of human plantar and palmar aponeuroses by atomic absorption flame emission spectrophotometry. The subjects consisted of 9 men and 14 women, ranging in age from 61 to 93 yr. In the plantar aponeurosis, the calcium content was significantly higher in the anterior and posterior parts than in the middle part. It is known that pressure distribution under the sole of a foot is higher in the anterior and posterior parts than in the middle part. The present study suggests that the accumulation of calcium in the plantar aponeurosis is related with the pressure distribution under the sole of a foot. The calcium content increased progressively with aging in the anterior part of the plantar aponeurosis, but not in the middle and posterior parts. Regarding the palmar aponeurosis, the calcium content was significantly higher in the anterior and posterior parts in comparison with the middle part. It was found that the calcium content increased progressively with aging in the posterior part of the palmar aponeurosis, whereas it did not increase significantly with aging in the anterior and middle parts. Regarding the relationship between the calcium content of the aponeuroses and the bone mineral density, a significant correlation was found between the calcium content in the anterior part of the palmar aponeurosis and the bone mineral density of the scaphoid bone.

  1. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castañon, G. A.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patiño-Marin, N.; Reyes-Macías, J. F.; Vargas-Morales, J. M.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2013-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) ( p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  2. Accumulation of Phosphatidic Acid Increases Vancomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sutterlin, Holly A.; Zhang, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to the robust permeability barrier of the outer membrane, preventing entry of toxic molecules such as antibiotics. Mutations in lptD, the beta-barrel component of the LPS transport and assembly machinery, compromise LPS assembly and result in increased antibiotic sensitivity. Here, we report rare vancomycin-resistant suppressors that improve barrier function of a subset of lptD mutations. We find that all seven suppressors analyzed mapped to the essential gene cdsA, which is responsible for the conversion of phosphatidic acid to CDP-diacylglycerol in phospholipid biosynthesis. These cdsA mutations cause a partial loss of function and, as expected, accumulate phosphatidic acid. We show that this suppression is not confined to mutations that cause defects in outer membrane biogenesis but rather that these cdsA mutations confer a general increase in vancomycin resistance, even in a wild-type cell. We use genetics and quadrupole time of flight (Q-TOF) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to show that accumulation of phosphatidic acid by means other than cdsA mutations also increases resistance to vancomycin. We suggest that increased levels of phosphatidic acid change the physical properties of the outer membrane to impede entry of vancomycin into the periplasm, hindering access to its target, an intermediate required for the synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall. PMID:24957626

  3. 18 CFR 154.8 - Informal submission for staff suggestions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... staff suggestions. 154.8 Section 154.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... General Provisions and Conditions § 154.8 Informal submission for staff suggestions. Any natural gas... suggestions of the Commission staff prior to filing. Opinions of the Commission staff are not binding upon...

  4. 18 CFR 35.6 - Submission for staff suggestions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... suggestions. 35.6 Section 35.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 35.6 Submission for staff suggestions. Any public utility may submit a rate schedule, tariff or... suggestions and comments thereon prior to filing with the Commission....

  5. 18 CFR 154.8 - Informal submission for staff suggestions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... staff suggestions. 154.8 Section 154.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... General Provisions and Conditions § 154.8 Informal submission for staff suggestions. Any natural gas... suggestions of the Commission staff prior to filing. Opinions of the Commission staff are not binding upon...

  6. 18 CFR 35.6 - Submission for staff suggestions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... suggestions. 35.6 Section 35.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 35.6 Submission for staff suggestions. Any public utility may submit a rate schedule, tariff or... suggestions and comments thereon prior to filing with the Commission....

  7. 32 CFR 1803.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1803.4 Section 1803... SECTION 3.6 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 General § 1803.4 Suggestions and complaints. NACIC welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to its administration of the mandatory declassification review...

  8. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  9. Developmental Differences in Eyewitness Suggestibility and Memory for Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackil, Jennifer K.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    1995-01-01

    Examined children's ability to accurately monitor sources of suggested information. Age differences were found in the degree to which a misleading suggestion led subjects to believe they actually remembered seeing events that had in fact only been suggested to them. Proposes that these age differences reflect developmental differences in the…

  10. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  11. 32 CFR 1908.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1908.04 Section 1908... ORDER 12958 General § 1908.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints... Executive Order 12958. Many requesters will receive pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters...

  12. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  13. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  14. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  15. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  16. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  17. Suggestions for an Effective Drama-Based EFL Course at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jennifer; Seong, Myeong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest pragmatic instructions for conducting an English course that focuses on speaking and listening skills through using drama as a language teaching activity. Recent research on drama in the ESL/EFL classroom has been about the benefits of drama and methods one can use, but research on techniques, activities, and…

  18. The Difficulties of Female Primary School Administrators in the Administration Process and Solution Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, Didem; Altunay, Esen; Yalçinkaya, Mu¨nevver

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the administration experiences of female administrators, find out the troubles they have had during their administration process, and suggest some solutions according to these experiences. The qualitative method was used in this research and data was collected via the semi-structured interview form…

  19. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  20. Effects of information type on children's interrogative suggestibility: is Theory-of-Mind involved?

    PubMed

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Furia, Augusta

    2009-08-01

    This research was aimed at learning more about the different psychological mechanisms underlying children's suggestibility to leading questions, on the one hand, and children's suggestibility to negative feedback, on the other, by distinguishing between interview questions concerning different types of information. Results showed that, unlike the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to leading questions, the developmental pattern of children's suggestibility to negative feedback differed depending on whether the interview questions concerned external facts (physical states and events) or internal facts (mental states and events). This difference was not manifested in response to questions concerning central versus peripheral facts. Results are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that children's suggestibility to negative feedback is differently affected by "Theory-of-Mind" abilities than children's suggestibility to leading questions. Further research is needed in order to test this hypothesis.