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Sample records for accumulation rea system

  1. Application of relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) on managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, M.; Hübner, J.; Ruppert, J.; Brand, W. A.; Foken, T.

    2014-05-01

    Relaxed eddy accumulation is applied for measuring fluxes of trace gases for which there is a lack of sensors fast enough in their resolution for eddy-covariance. On managed grasslands, the length of time between management events and the application of relaxed eddy accumulation has an essential influence on the determination of the proportionality factor b and thereby on the resulting flux. In this study this effect is discussed for the first time. Also, scalar similarity between proxy scalars and scalars of interest is affected until the ecosystem has completely recovered. Against this background, CO2 fluxes were continuously measured and 13CO2 isofluxes were determined with a high measurement precision on two representative days in summer 2010. This enabled the evaluation of the 13CO2 flux portion of the entire CO2 flux, in order to estimate potential influences on tracer experiments in ecosystem sciences and to compare a common method for the partitioning of the net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration based on temperature and light response with an isotopic approach directly based on the isotope discrimination of the biosphere.

  2. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  3. Application of Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method to estimate CO2 and CH4 surface fluxes in the city of Krakow, southern Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Pieniazek, Katarzyna; Jasek, Alina; Chmura, Lukasz; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the recent years in studies aimed at quantifying carbon cycling in urban centres. Worldwide migration of human population from rural to urban areas and corresponding growth of extensive urban agglomerations and megacities leads to intensification of anthropogenic emissions of carbon and strong disruption of natural carbon cycle on these areas. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the carbon "metabolism" of such regions is required. Apart of better quantification of surface carbon fluxes, also a thorough understanding of the functioning of biosphere under strong anthropogenic influence is needed. Nowadays, covariance methods are widely applied for studying gas exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation method (REA), combined with the CO2 and CH4 CRDS analyser allows simultaneous measurements of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane within the chosen footprint of the detection system, thus making possible thorough characterisation of the overall exchange of those gases between the atmosphere and the urban surface across diverse spatial and temporal scales. Here we present preliminary results of the study aimed at quantifying surface fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in Krakow, southern Poland. The REA system for CO2 and CH4 flux measurements has been installed on top of a 20m high tower mounted on the roof of the faculty building, close to the city centre of Krakow. The sensors were installed ca 42 m above the local ground. Gill Windmaster-Pro sonic anemometer was coupled with self-made system, designed by the Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland, for collecting air samples in two pairs of 10-liter Tedlar bags, and with Picarro G2101-i CRDS analyser. The air was collected in 30-min intervals. The CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios in these cumulative downdraft and updraft air samples were determined by the CRDS analyser after each sampling interval. Based on the measured mixing ratios difference and the

  4. Information accumulation system by inheritance and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. K.

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests a new model, called as the IAS (Information Accumulation System), for the description of the dynamic process that people use to accumulate their information (knowledge or opinion) for specific issues. Using the concept of information, both the internal and the external mechanism of the opinion dynamics are treated on a unified frame. The information is quantified as a real number with fixed bounds. New concepts, such as inheritance and differential absorption, are incorporated in IAS in addition to the conventional diffusive interaction between people. Thus, the dynamics of the IAS are governed by following three factors: inheritance rate, diffusivity and absorption rate. The original set of equations was solved with an agent based modeling technique. In addition, the individual equations for each of the agents were assembled and transformed into a set of equations for the ensemble averages, which are greatly reduced in number and can be solved analytically. The example simulations showed interesting results such as the critical behavior with respect to diffusivity, the information polarization out of zero-sum news and the dependence of the solutions on the initial conditions alone. The results were speculated in relation to today’s modern society where the diffusivity of information has been greatly increased through the internet and mobile phones.

  5. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  6. Accumulator isolator prevents malfunctioning of faulty hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, G. D.

    1967-01-01

    Special isolator valve prevents malfunction of a closed hydraulic system by converting the initial accumulator-reservoir to a reservoir function only when the system loses oil, or gaseous nitrogen precharge, or has a jammed piston. This permits near-normal operation until the defect is corrected.

  7. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  8. A dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation system for long-term measurement of mercury flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, S.; Fritsche, J.; Alewell, C.; Schmutz, M.; Nilsson, M. B.; Jocher, G.; Sommar, J.; Rinne, J.; Bishop, K.

    2016-02-01

    The fate of anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere is influenced by the exchange of elemental Hg with the earth surface. This exchange holds the key to a better understanding of Hg cycling from local to global scales, which has been difficult to quantify. To advance research about land-atmosphere Hg interactions, we developed a dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system. REA is an established technique for measuring turbulent fluxes of trace gases and aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer. Accurate determination of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes has proven difficult due to technical challenges presented by extremely small concentration differences (typically < 0.5 ng m-3) between updrafts and downdrafts. We present an advanced REA design that uses two inlets and two pairs of gold cartridges for continuous monitoring of GEM fluxes. This setup reduces the major uncertainty created by the sequential sampling in many previous designs. Additionally, the instrument is equipped with a GEM reference gas generator that monitors drift and recovery rates. These innovations facilitate continuous, autonomous measurement of GEM flux. To demonstrate the system performance, we present results from field campaigns in two contrasting environments: an urban setting with a heterogeneous fetch and a boreal peatland during snowmelt. The observed average emission rates were 15 and 3 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. We believe that this dual-inlet, single detector approach is a significant improvement of the REA system for ultra-trace gases and can help to advance our understanding of long-term land-atmosphere GEM exchange.

  9. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  10. Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems

    PubMed Central

    Baaske, Philipp; Weinert, Franz M.; Duhr, Stefan; Lemke, Kono H.; Russell, Michael J.; Braun, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We simulate molecular transport in elongated hydrothermal pore systems influenced by a thermal gradient. We find extreme accumulation of molecules in a wide variety of plugged pores. The mechanism is able to provide highly concentrated single nucleotides, suitable for operations of an RNA world at the origin of life. It is driven solely by the thermal gradient across a pore. On the one hand, the fluid is shuttled by thermal convection along the pore, whereas on the other hand, the molecules drift across the pore, driven by thermodiffusion. As a result, millimeter-sized pores accumulate even single nucleotides more than 108-fold into micrometer-sized regions. The enhanced concentration of molecules is found in the bulk water near the closed bottom end of the pore. Because the accumulation depends exponentially on the pore length and temperature difference, it is considerably robust with respect to changes in the cleft geometry and the molecular dimensions. Whereas thin pores can concentrate only long polynucleotides, thicker pores accumulate short and long polynucleotides equally well and allow various molecular compositions. This setting also provides a temperature oscillation, shown previously to exponentially replicate DNA in the protein-assisted PCR. Our results indicate that, for life to evolve, complicated active membrane transport is not required for the initial steps. We find that interlinked mineral pores in a thermal gradient provide a compelling high-concentration starting point for the molecular evolution of life. PMID:17494767

  11. Coulomb Stress Accumulation along the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bridget; Sandwell, David

    2003-01-01

    Stress accumulation rates along the primary segments of the San Andreas Fault system are computed using a three-dimensional (3-D) elastic half-space model with realistic fault geometry. The model is developed in the Fourier domain by solving for the response of an elastic half-space due to a point vector body force and analytically integrating the force from a locking depth to infinite depth. This approach is then applied to the San Andreas Fault system using published slip rates along 18 major fault strands of the fault zone. GPS-derived horizontal velocity measurements spanning the entire 1700 x 200 km region are then used to solve for apparent locking depth along each primary fault segment. This simple model fits remarkably well (2.43 mm/yr RMS misfit), although some discrepancies occur in the Eastern California Shear Zone. The model also predicts vertical uplift and subsidence rates that are in agreement with independent geologic and geodetic estimates. In addition, shear and normal stresses along the major fault strands are used to compute Coulomb stress accumulation rate. As a result, we find earthquake recurrence intervals along the San Andreas Fault system to be inversely proportional to Coulomb stress accumulation rate, in agreement with typical coseismic stress drops of 1 - 10 MPa. This 3-D deformation model can ultimately be extended to include both time-dependent forcing and viscoelastic response.

  12. Space nuclear system volume accumulator development (SNAP program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering, design, and fabrication status of the volume accumulator units to be employed in the NaK primary and secondary coolant loops of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system are described. Three identical VAU's are required - two for the primary coolant loop, and one for the secondary coolant loop. The VAU's utilize nested-formed bellows as the flexing member, are hermetically sealed, provide double containment and utilize a combination of gas pressure force and bellows spring force to obtain the desired pressure regulation of the coolant loops. All parts of the VAU, except the NaK inlet tube, are to be fabricated from Inconel 718.

  13. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. PMID:25036667

  14. Systemic ceramide accumulation leads to severe and varied pathological consequences.

    PubMed

    Alayoubi, Abdulfatah M; Wang, James C M; Au, Bryan C Y; Carpentier, Stéphane; Garcia, Virginie; Dworski, Shaalee; El-Ghamrasni, Samah; Kirouac, Kevin N; Exertier, Mathilde J; Xiong, Zi Jian; Privé, Gilbert G; Simonaro, Calogera M; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Schuchman, Edward H; Turner, Patricia V; Hakem, Razqallah; Levade, Thierry; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2013-06-01

    Farber disease (FD) is a severe inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by deficient lysosomal acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity, resulting in ceramide accumulation. Ceramide and metabolites have roles in cell apoptosis and proliferation. We introduced a single-nucleotide mutation identified in human FD patients into the murine Asah1 gene to generate the first model of systemic ACDase deficiency. Homozygous Asah1(P361R/P361R) animals showed ACDase defects, accumulated ceramide, demonstrated FD manifestations and died within 7-13 weeks. Mechanistically, MCP-1 levels were increased and tissues were replete with lipid-laden macrophages. Treatment of neonates with a single injection of human ACDase-encoding lentivector diminished the severity of the disease as highlighted by enhanced growth, decreased ceramide, lessened cellular infiltrations and increased lifespans. This model of ACDase deficiency offers insights into the pathophysiology of FD and the roles of ACDase, ceramide and related sphingolipids in cell signaling and growth, as well as facilitates the development of therapy. PMID:23681708

  15. Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  17. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF ARSENIC FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  18. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF CONTAMINANTS FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  19. Gold enrichment in active geothermal systems by accumulating colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark; Harðardóttir, Vigdis; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Brown, Kevin L.

    2016-04-01

    The origins of high-grade hydrothermal ore deposits are debated, but active geothermal systems provide important clues to their formation. The highest concentrations of gold are found in geothermal systems with direct links to island arc magmatism. Yet, similar concentrations have also been found in the absence of any input from arc magmas, for example, in the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Here we analyse brine samples taken from deep wells at Reykjanes and find that gold concentrations in the reservoir zone have increased over the past seven years from an average of 3 ppb to 14 ppb. The metal concentrations greatly exceed the maximum solubility of gold in the reservoir under saturated conditions and are now nearly two orders of magnitude higher than in mid-ocean ridge black smoker fluids--the direct analogues of Reykjanes deep liquids. We suggest that ongoing extraction of brine, the resulting pressure drop, and increased boiling have caused gold to drop out of solution and become trapped in the reservoir as a colloidal suspension. This process may explain how the stock of metal in the reservoirs of fossil geothermal systems could have increased over time and thus become available for the formation of gold-rich ore deposits.

  20. System and method for accumulative double sided incremental forming

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Jian; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2015-10-27

    A forming system includes first and second tools, moving assemblies, and a control unit. The moving assemblies move the first tool and the second tool relative to the sheet. The control unit is configured to control movement of the first tool and the second tool by the one or more moving assemblies by moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in a first deformation direction to deform the sheet, then moving the first and second tools laterally relative to the sheet to a subsequent location while engaging the sheet, then moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in the first deformation direction or an opposite second deformation direction to deform the sheet, and then continue moving the first and second tools to deform the sheet in order to create a three-dimensional component from the sheet.

  1. An experimental investigation of nonresonance photon accumulation in a system of spherical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. S.; Atlukhanov, M. G.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ushkova, M. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    A new, nonresonant approach to photon accumulation in a system of two spherical mirrors is demonstrated experimentally. A high accumulation coefficient is obtained experimentally, and sufficient efficiency of this technique for application in such areas as spectroscopy, photochemistry, and photon neutralization of negative-ion beams is demonstrated. The photon accumulation efficiency is determined mainly by mirror reflectivity. It is nearly independent of the quality of the coupled-in radiation and does not require very high precision in aligning optical elements. The experimentally obtained data agree with theoretical calculations.

  2. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  3. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  4. Accumulation of metals by microorganisms — processes and importance for soil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledin, Maria

    2000-08-01

    Metal accumulation by solid substances can counteract metal mobilization in the environment if the solid substance is immobile. Microorganisms have a high surface area-to-volume ratio because of their small size and therefore provide a large contact area that can interact with metals in the surrounding environment. Microbial metal accumulation has received much attention in the last years due to the potential use of microorganisms for cleaning metal-polluted water. However, considerably less attention has been paid to the role of microorganisms for metal mobility in soil even though the same processes may occur there. Therefore, this paper highlights this area. The different accumulation processes that microorganisms perform are analyzed and their potential significance in soil systems is discussed. Different kinds of mechanisms can be involved in the accumulation of metals by microorganisms, e.g. adsorption, precipitation, complexation and active transport into the cell. Physicochemical parameters like pH and ionic composition, as well as biological factors are of importance for the magnitude of accumulation. Often large amounts of metals can be accumulated with varying specificity, and microorganisms may provide nucleation sites for mineral formation. Several studies of microbial metal accumulation have been made with different methods and aims. Most of these studies concern single-component systems with one organism at a time. Data from accumulation experiments with pure cultures of microorganisms have been used to model the overall metal retention in soil. A further development is experimental model systems using various solid soil components in salt medium. Microbial metal accumulation is difficult to study in situ, but some experimental methods have been applied as tools for studying real soil systems, e.g. litter bags buried in soil containing microorganisms, a method where discs with microorganisms have been put onto agar plates with soil extracts, and

  5. Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, A.; Nemitz, E.; Flynn, M. J.; Blatter, A.; Jones, S. K.; Sørensen, L. L.; Hensen, B.; Pryor, S.; Jensen, B.; Otjes, R. P.; Cobussen, J.; Loubet, B.; Erisman, J. W.; Gallagher, M. W.; Neftel, A.; Sutton, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    The exchange of NH3 between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH3, since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or advection). During the Braunschweig integrated experiment four different continuous-sampling REA systems were operated during a period of about 10 days and were compared against a reference provided by independent application of the Aerodynamic Gradient Method (AGM). The experiment covered episodes before, after cutting and fertilising and provided a wide range of fluxes -60 3600 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 for testing the REA systems. The REA systems showed moderate to good correlation with the AGM estimates, with r2 values for the linear regressions between 0.3 and 0.82. For the period immediately after fertilization, the REA systems showed average fluxes 20% to 70% lower than the reference. At periods with low fluxes REA and AGM can agree within a few %. Overall, the results show that the continuous REA technique can now be used to measure NH3 surface exchange fluxes. While REA requires greater analytical precision in NH3 measurement than the AGM, a key advantage of REA is that auto-referencing periods can be introduced to remove bias between sampling inlets. However, while the data here indicate differences consistent with advection effects, further improvements in sampling precision are needed to allow measurement of flux divergence. Wet chemical techniques will be developed further since they use the sticky and reactive properties of NH3 that impedes development of cheaper optical systems.

  6. Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, A.; Nemitz, E.; Flynn, M. J.; Blatter, A.; Jones, S. K.; Sørensen, L. L.; Hensen, B.; Pryor, S. C.; Jensen, B.; Otjes, R. P.; Cobussen, J.; Loubet, B.; Erisman, J. W.; Gallagher, M. W.; Neftel, A.; Sutton, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    The exchange of Ammonia (NH3) between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH3, since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or advection). During the Braunschweig integrated experiment four different continuous-sampling REA systems were operated during a period of about 10 days and were compared against a reference provided by independent application of the Aerodynamic Gradient Method (AGM). The experiment covered episodes before and after both cutting and fertilizing and provided a wide range of fluxes -60-3600 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 for testing the REA systems. The REA systems showed moderate to good correlation with the AGM estimates, with r2 values for the linear regressions between 0.3 and 0.82. For the period immediately after fertilization, the REA systems showed average fluxes 20% to 70% lower than the reference. At periods with low fluxes REA and AGM can agree within a few %. Overall, the results show that the continuous REA technique can now be used to measure NH3 surface exchange fluxes. While REA requires greater analytical precision in NH3 measurement than the AGM, a key advantage of REA is that reference sampling periods can be introduced to remove bias between sampling inlets. However, while the data here indicate differences consistent with advection effects, significant improvements in sampling precision are essential to allow robust determination of flux divergence in future studies. Wet chemical techniques will be developed further since they use the adsorptive and reactive properties of NH3 that impedes development of cheaper optical systems.

  7. An Adaptive Method for Reducing Clock Skew in an Accumulative Z-Axis Interconnect System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary; Boyce, Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper will present several methods for adjusting clock skew variations that occur in a n accumulative z-axis interconnect system. In such a system, delay between modules in a function of their distance from one another. Clock distribution in a high-speed system, where clock skew must be kept to a minimum, becomes more challenging when module order is variable before design.

  8. European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System: An Alternative Way to Calculate the ECTS Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosges, Thomas; Barchiesi, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) has been developed and instituted to facilitate student mobility and academic recognition. This paper presents, discusses, and illustrates the pertinence and the limitation of the current statistical distribution of the ECTS grades, and we propose an alternative way to calculate the ECTS…

  9. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  10. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-20

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  11. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  12. Competing mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl acid accumulation in plants revealed using an Arabidopsis model system.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia E; LeFevre, Gregory H; Timofte, Anca E; Hussain, Fatima A; Sattely, Elizabeth S; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) bioaccumulate in plants, presenting a human exposure route if present in irrigation water. Curiously, accumulation of PFAAs in plant tissues is greatest for both the short-chain and long-chain PFAAs, generating a U-shaped relationship with chain length. In the present study, the authors decouple competing mechanisms of PFAA accumulation using a hydroponic model plant system (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to a suite of 10 PFAAs to determine uptake, depuration, and translocation kinetics. Rapid saturation of root concentrations occurred for all PFAAs except perfluorobutanoate, the least-sorptive (shortest-chain) PFAA. Shoot concentrations increased continuously, indicating that PFAAs are efficiently transported and accumulate in shoots. Tissue concentrations of PFAAs during depuration rapidly declined in roots but remained constant in shoots, demonstrating irreversibility of the translocation process. Root and shoot concentration factors followed the U-shaped trend with perfluoroalkyl chain length; however, when normalized to dead-tissue sorption, this relationship linearized. The authors therefore introduce a novel term, the "sorption normalized concentration factor," to describe PFAA accumulation in plants; because of their hydrophobicity, sorption is the determining factor for long-chain PFAAs, whereas the shortest-chain PFAAs are most effectively transported in the plant. The present study provides a mechanistic explanation for previously unexplained PFAA accumulation trends in plants and suggests that shorter-chained PFAAs may bioaccumulate more readily in edible portions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1138-1147. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26383989

  13. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. PMID:26233656

  14. Impact assessment of various rearing systems on fish health using multibiomarker response and metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Deviller, G; Palluel, O; Aliaume, C; Asanthi, H; Sanchez, W; Franco Nava, M A; Blancheton, J-P; Casellas, C

    2005-05-01

    European sea bass were reared in three different systems: one flow-through (FTS), one recirculating (RAS), and one recirculating with a high-rate algae pond (RAS + HRAP). After 1 year of rearing, the final fish weight was 15% lower in the RAS compared to the FTS. The accumulation of a growth-inhibiting substance in the RAS is the main hypothesis explaining this difference. As in environmental risk assessment, fish bioaccumulation markers and biomarkers were used to demonstrate exposure to and effects of the rearing water in the three rearing systems. Thirty fish per system were sacrificed before their condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI) were calculated. Nine biomarkers, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were measured in liver and twelve metals including As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn, for which there are regulations regarding human consumption, were measured in liver and muscle. In all systems, CF and LSI were not significantly different and no correlation was found with biomarker activity or metal concentration. EROD and SOD activities were significantly increased in RAS. Accumulation of seven and four metals in muscle and liver, respectively, was significantly higher in the RAS relative to FTS. The HRAP prevented metal accumulation except for chromium and arsenic. Eight metal concentrations were significantly higher in liver than in muscle. Concentrations of toxic metals were similar to reported values and below FAO/WHO recommended values for human consumption. PMID:15814314

  15. Nitric oxide mediates isoflavone accumulation and the antioxidant system enhancement in soybean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Zhou, Yulin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between endogenous NO signal transduction pathways, the antioxidant system and isoflavone accumulation induced by UV-B radiation in soybean sprouts. Results showed that UV-B-triggered NO generation induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating the activity and gene expression of key enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL; chalcone isomerase, CHI; chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS) that participate in isoflavone biosynthesis and enhanced the antioxidant system by regulating levels of antioxidants (glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione S-transferase, GST; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione GSH; ascorbic acid, ASC), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT) and their gene expression. These effects were inhibited by the addition of a specific NO-scavenger, carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO). The inhibition was reversed through application of the exogenous NO donor, SNP. Overall, NO is an essential signaling molecule, mediating UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation and the antioxidant system enhancement in soybean sprouts. PMID:26988515

  16. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  17. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Steve A.

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  18. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  19. Aphid-induced accumulation of trehalose in Arabidopsis thaliana is systemic and dependent upon aphid density.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Simon; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Bennett, Mark; Mansfield, John W; Powell, Glen

    2013-04-01

    Trehalose is a disaccharide sugar that is now considered to be widely distributed among higher plants. Trehalose has been attributed a number of roles, including control of basic plant processes, such as photosynthesis, and conferring tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as desiccation and high salinity. Trehalose is also a common storage sugar used by insects. In this study, we used laboratory investigations to examine various aspects of trehalose dynamics in an aphid-host plant system (Arabidopsis and the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae). Trehalose concentrations were measured by [1-H]-NMR. Myzus persicae reared on Arabidopsis, but not on black mustard or spring cabbage, contained considerable quantities of trehalose (5 % w/w dry matter). In Arabidopsis foliage, feeding by aphids induced a density-dependent accumulation of trehalose up to 5 mg g(-1) dry weight. Leaves that were not challenged directly by aphids also exhibited increased trehalose concentrations, indicating that this accumulation was systemic. Trehalose was measured at high concentrations in the phloem sap of plants challenged by aphids, suggesting that aphid feeding induced the plant to produce significant quantities of trehalose, which moved through the plant and into the aphids via the phloem sap. Trehalose was also excreted in the aphid honeydew. Further work is required to clarify whether this trehalose accumulation in Arabidopsis has a direct role or a signalling function in plant tolerance of, or resistance to, aphid feeding, and if a similar accumulation of this sugar occurs when other species or genotypes of aphids are reared on this host plant. PMID:23242075

  20. [Cationic specificity of a Ca2+-accumulating system in smooth muscle cell mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Veklich, T O; Kosterin, S O; Shynlova, O P

    2002-01-01

    In the experiments conducted with application of an isotopic technique (45Ca2+) on the myometrium cells suspension treated by digitonin solution (0.1 mg/ml) some properties of Ca ions accumulation system in the mitochondria--cationic and substrate specificity as well as effects of Mg2+ and some other bivalent metals ions on the Ca2+ accumulation velocity have been estimated. Ca ions accumulation from the incubation medium containing 3 mM sodium succinate Na, 2 mM Pi (as potassium K(+)-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C), 0.01 mM (40CaCl2 + 45CaCl2) and 100 nM thapsigargin--selective inhibiting agent of endoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump were demonstrated as detected just only in presence of Mg, while not Ni, Co or Cu ions. The increase of Mg2+ concentration from 1 x 10(-6) to 10(-3) M induced the ATP dependent transport activation in the myometrium mitochondria. Under [Mg2+] increase till 40 mM this cation essentially decreased Ca2+ accumulation (by 65% from the maximal value). The optimum for Ca2+ transport in the myometrium cells suspension is Mg2+ 10 mM concentration. Ka activation apparent constant along Mg2+ value (in presence 3 mM ATP and 3 mM sodium succinate) is 4.27 mM. The above listed bivalent metals decreased Mg2+, ATP-dependent accumulation of calcium, values of inhibition apparent constants for ions Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ were--2.9 x 10(-4) M, 5.1 x 10(-5) M and 4.2 x 10(-6) M respectively. For Mg2+, ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in the uterus myocytes mitocondria a high substrate specificity is a characteristic phenomenon in elation to ATP: GTP, CTP and UTP practically fail to provide for Ca accumulation process. PMID:12199098

  1. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  2. Enrichment of denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms in anaerobic/anoxic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2003-02-20

    Denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms (DGAO) were successfully enriched in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) running with anaerobic/anoxic cycles and acetate feeding during the anaerobic period. Acetate was completely taken up anaerobically, which was accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and the production of poly-beta-hydroxy-alkanoates (PHA). In the subsequent anoxic stage, nitrate or nitrite was utilized as electron acceptor for the oxidation of PHA, resulting in glycogen replenishment and cell growth. The above phenotype showed by the enrichment culture demonstrates the existence of DGAO. Further, it was found that the anaerobic behavior of DGAO could be predicted well by the anaerobic GAO model of Filipe et al. (2001) and Zeng et al. (2002a). The final product of denitrification during anoxic stage was mainly nitrous oxide (N(2)O) rather than N(2). The data strongly suggests that N(2)O production may be caused by the inhibition of nitrous oxide reductase by an elevated level of nitrite accumulated during denitrification. The existence of these organisms is a concern in biological nutrient removal systems that typically have an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic reactor sequence since they are potential competitors to the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. PMID:12491525

  3. Accumulation of metals in the soil of an overland flow wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Packer, Ana Paula; Filho, Bruno Coraucci; Mattiazzo, Maria Emilia; de Figueiredo, Roberto F

    2002-12-01

    Accumulation of Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated in a soil profile of an overland flow system used for the post-treatment of urban wastewater. A pilot version of the overland flow system received urban wastewater from five up-flow anaerobic filters filled with bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides) rings. The anaerobic effluent was applied as feed over 18 months at rates varying from 7 to 28 L min(-1), to a vegetated slope length covered with Tifton 85 (Cynodon) sp. grass. Soil and plant samples were collected in triplicate from the top to the bottom of the slope. In addition, the soils were sampled at the depths 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The metal concentrations found in the overall system were compared to those obtained in a control area located at the beginning of the slope onto which nothing was applied. A month of monitoring the urban wastewater of Limeira City (São Paulo State, Brazil) showed a drastic change in metals concentration due to the irregular discharge of industrial waste. This irregular discharge introduces Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn into the system used to treat domestic wastewater. The mass balance indicates the accumulation of metals in the soil and the translocation to the plants; also that they could be evapotranspirated, percolated and discharged. PMID:12509052

  4. The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps. The current regulatory...

  5. Slip distribution, strain accumulation and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear strain localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of strain

  6. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2014-01-01

    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way. PMID:24901627

  7. Polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms in one EBPR system for liquid dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Pruden, Amy; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F

    2014-07-01

    Two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) treating liquid dairy manure were operated with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT), but with different aeration cycles. During eight months of operation, both SBRs achieved good removal of total phosphorus (P) (TP; 56.8 and 73.5% for SBR1 and SBR2 respectively) and of orthophosphate (OP; 76.2 vs. 82.7%, P < 0.05). Growth dynamics of presumptive phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). SBR1 was enriched with a greater abundance of PAOs while SBR2 was characterized by a greater abundance of GAOs. These results demonstrate the capability of EBPR of dairy manure and challenge conventional wisdom, since greater abundance of PAOs in EBPR system was not associated with improved OP removal and greater abundance of GAOs did not indicate deterioration of the EBPR system. PMID:25112034

  8. Accumulation and translocation peculiarities of (137)Cs and (40)K in the soil--plant system.

    PubMed

    Marčiulionienė, Danutė; Lukšienė, Benedikta; Jefanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Long-term investigations (1996-2008) were conducted into the (137)Cs and (40)K in the soil of forests, swamps and meadows in different regions of Lithuania, as well as in the plants growing in these media. The (137)Cs and (40)K activity concentrations, the (137)Cs/(40)K activity concentration ratio and accumulation, and translocation in the system, i.e. from the soil to plant roots to above-ground plant part of these radionuclides, were evaluated after gamma-spectrometric measurements using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Based on the obtained data, it can be asserted that in the tested plant species, the (137)Cs and (40)K accumulation, the transfer from soil to roots and translocation within the plants depend on the plant species and environmental ecological conditions. The (137)Cs/(40)K activity concentration ratios in the same plant species in different regions of Lithuania are different and this ratio depends on the biotope (forest, swamp or meadow) in which the plant grows and on the location of the growing region. Based on the determined trends of statistically reliable inverse dependence between the activity concentrations in both soil and plants, it can be stated that the exchange of (137)Cs and (40)K in plants and soil is different. Different accumulations and translocations of investigated radionuclides in the same plant species indicate diverse biological metabolism of (137)Cs and its chemical analogue (40)K in plants. A competitive relationship exists between (137)Cs and (40)K in plants as well as in the soil. PMID:26301832

  9. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Zeeman, Grietje; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste (water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste (water) sources at 20 and 35 degrees C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste (water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste (water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (< 200 mgCOD/L at 20 degrees C and < 100 mgCOD/L at 35 degrees C). Based on the results of the two options, it was found that the concentrated waste (water) sources have better performance than the diluted waste (water) sources, like VBW waste (water). Furthermore, smaller volume will be required for the AC system. PMID:21902047

  10. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  11. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black water and kitchen organic-wastes.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Leeuwen, M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Sanders, W; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (AC1) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) was collected by two vacuum toilet/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the major part (71-73%) of influent total COD of the two systems. The batch-experiments results showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of the waste(water) (> 85%). The AC systems demonstrated stable performance. There was no inhibition effect of NH4 and VFA concentration decreased in time. Total COD removal of 58% was achieved in both systems, after 105 days at 20 degrees C. Moreover, if only the supernatant in AC1 is withdrawn and the settled sludge stays for the next runs, only 20% of the influent total COD will be in the supernatant. In AC2, 74% of influent ortho-P was removed by precipitation. Therefore, the settled sludge in the AC2 had a high total-P concentration of 1,300 mg/L. The C:N:P ratios of the supernatant and the sludge were 26:13:1 and 35:4.5:1, respectively, in the AC1, and were 28:14:1 and 32:2.4:1, respectively, in AC2. PMID:16784201

  12. Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19 mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89 mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41 mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

  13. Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ming; Sato, Yoshiharu; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Zhang, Bin; Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a serious disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development caused by the failure of ENS precursor migration into the distal bowel. We now demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is crucial for GDNF-induced ENS precursor migration, cell polarization and lamellipodia formation, and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4–/–) mice. Ret heterozygosity increases the incidence and severity of distal bowel aganglionosis induced by vitamin A deficiency in Rbp4–/– animals. Furthermore, RA reduces phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) accumulation in migrating cells, whereas Pten overexpression slows ENS precursor migration. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that vitamin A deficiency is a non-genetic risk factor that increases Hirschsprung disease penetrance and expressivity, suggesting that some cases of Hirschsprung disease might be preventable by optimizing maternal nutrition. PMID:20110328

  14. Hydraulic accumulator-motor-generator energy regeneration system for a hybrid hydraulic excavator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tianliang; Wang, Qingfeng

    2012-11-01

    Though the traditional energy regeneration system(ERS) which used a hydraulic motor and a generator in hybrid excavators can regenerate part of the energy, the power of the motor and the generator should be larger and the time for regenerating energy is so short. At first, the structure of new ERS that combines the advantages of an electric and hydraulic accumulator is analyzed. The energy can be converted into both the electric energy and the hydraulic energy at the lowering of the boom and the generator can still works when the boom stops going down. Then, a method how to set the working pressure of the hydraulic accumulator is proposed. To avoid the excess loss, extra noise and shock pressure, a two-level pressure threshold method that the generator starts to work at the rising edge of the high pressure threshold and stops working at the falling edge of the low pressure threshold is presented to characterize the working mode of the generator. The control strategies on how to control the boom velocity at the lowering of the boom and how to improve the recovery efficiency when the boom stops going down are presented. The test bench of hybrid excavator with ERS is constructed, with which the studies on the influences of ERS on energy conversion efficiency and control performance are carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed ERS features better speed control performance of the boom than traditional ERS. It is also observed that an estimated 45% of the total potential energy could be regenerated at the lowering of the boom in the proposed ERS, and the power level of the generator and the hydraulic motor could be reduced by 60%. Hence, the proposed ERS has obvious advantages over the traditional ERS on the improvement of energy regeneration time, energy efficiency, control performance and economy.

  15. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs. PMID:26936790

  16. Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and nitrite ([Formula: see text]) contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19 mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89 mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41 mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

  17. Impact of particles on sediment accumulation in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, J H G; Schippers, D; Verberk, J Q J C; van Dijk, J C

    2008-10-01

    Discolouration of drinking water is one of the main reasons customers complain to their water company. Though corrosion of cast iron is often seen as the main source for this problem, the particles originating from the treatment plant play an important and potentially dominant role in the generation of a discolouration risk in drinking water distribution systems. To investigate this thesis a study was performed in a drinking water distribution system. In two similar isolated network areas the effect of particles on discolouration risk was studied with particle counting, the Resuspension Potential Method (RPM) and assessment of the total accumulated sediment. In the 'Control Area', supplied with normal drinking water, the discolouration risk was regenerated within 1.5 year. In the 'Research Area', supplied with particle-free water, this will take 10-15 years. An obvious remedy for controlling the discolouration risk is to improve the treatment with respect to the short peaks that are caused by particle breakthrough. PMID:18789809

  18. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m−2 hr−1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  19. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  20. Design of Accumulators and Liquid/Gas Charging of Single Phase Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to

  1. [Accumulation of porphyrins in cells of system of blood induced by 5-aminolaevulinic acid].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, E S; Vasilevich, I B; Vorobeĭ, A V

    2011-01-01

    The levels and rates of accumulation of porphyrins in lymphoid cells and bone marrow cells treated with exogenous 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) were studied. The dependence of the quantity of porphyrins accumulated in cell on ALA concentrations in the medium had maximum at 0.7-1.0 mM ALA for all the cell types studied (splenocytes, thymocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells). The rate of accumulation of uro-, copro- and protoporphyrins depended on cell types. The lowest and the highest levels were found in splenocytes and highest in bone marrow cells respectively. It is suggested that photodynamic therapy employing ALA is potentially dangerous for blood cells. PMID:21870605

  2. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaggu, Esnati J; Sanders, Wendy; Lettinga, Gatze

    2007-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the latrines once per month. To improve the situation, two plastic tanks (while one is in use, the other one is on stand-by) of 3000 l capacity each, named as Improved Pit-Latrines Without Urine Separation (IMPLWUS), were used as latrine pits. They received faeces+urine+wash water; basically, an accumulation system. Septic tank seed sludge was used. The dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD(dis)) remaining when the reactor was closed after 380 days was about 8 g COD/l, volatile fatty acids were 100 mg COD/l and total ammonium nitrogen was about 2.8 g N/l, implying the possibility of methanogenesis inhibition. Stability results indicated a need for more degradation time after reactor closure. Estimated biogas production from wastewater generated by 10 people was 544 g COD-CH(4)/day, not enough for cooking purposes. PMID:17175158

  3. Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  4. Nitrogen accumulation tracks carbon in multispecies system under elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.B.; Polley, H.W.; Mayeux, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    The woody legume Acacia smallii (huisache), and two perennial grasses, Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem) and Stipa leucotricha (Texas wintergrass) were grown as monocultures and in mixture under CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370, 700, and 1000 {mu}L/L for more than two years. The fine sandy loam soil was unfertilized, enriched in N15, and inoculated with huisache rhizobia. Elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated nitrogen fixation by huisache. After one year 33%, 64% and 76% of foliar N in the woody legume was ascribable to nitrogen fixation in the 370, 700 and 1000 {mu}L/L treatments, respectively. Percent nitrogen content of shoots decreased as CO{sub 2} increased (28% in 700 {mu}L/L and 34% 1000 {mu}L/L) relative to 370 {mu}L/L but the total nitrogen/plant increased 74% and 108% for these same concentrations due to greater plant biomass produced in the elevated CO{sub 2}. In the grass mixtures atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the wintergrass from mixtures was reduced relative to monocultures while the %N concentration was increased. These results suggest that a positive feedback between elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen accumulation may exist in multispecies systems containing legumes which can enhance the response of terrestrial carbon fixation to rising CO{sub 2}.

  5. Interseismic strain accumulation and the earthquake potential on the southern San Andreas fault system.

    PubMed

    Fialko, Yuri

    2006-06-22

    The San Andreas fault in California is a mature continental transform fault that accommodates a significant fraction of motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The two most recent great earthquakes on this fault ruptured its northern and central sections in 1906 and 1857, respectively. The southern section of the fault, however, has not produced a great earthquake in historic times (for at least 250 years). Assuming the average slip rate of a few centimetres per year, typical of the rest of the San Andreas fault, the minimum amount of slip deficit accrued on the southern section is of the order of 7-10 metres, comparable to the maximum co-seismic offset ever documented on the fault. Here I present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation across the southern San Andreas fault system using a well-populated catalogue of space-borne synthetic aperture radar data. The data reveal a nearly equal partitioning of deformation between the southern San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, with a pronounced asymmetry in strain accumulation with respect to the geologically mapped fault traces. The observed strain rates confirm that the southern section of the San Andreas fault may be approaching the end of the interseismic phase of the earthquake cycle. PMID:16791192

  6. Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  7. Error awareness revisited: accumulation of multimodal evidence from central and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The differences between erroneous actions that are consciously perceived as errors and those that go unnoticed have recently become an issue in the field of performance monitoring. In EEG studies, error awareness has been suggested to influence the error positivity (Pe) of the response-locked event-related brain potential, a positive voltage deflection prominent approximately 300 msec after error commission, whereas the preceding error-related negativity (ERN) seemed to be unaffected by error awareness. Erroneous actions, in general, have been shown to promote several changes in ongoing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, yet such investigations have only rarely taken into account the question of subjective error awareness. In the first part of this study, heart rate, pupillometry, and EEG were recorded during an antisaccade task to measure autonomic arousal and activity of the CNS separately for perceived and unperceived errors. Contrary to our expectations, we observed differences in both Pe and ERN with respect to subjective error awareness. This was replicated in a second experiment, using a modified version of the same task. In line with our predictions, only perceived errors provoke the previously established post-error heart rate deceleration. Also, pupil size yields a more prominent dilatory effect after an erroneous saccade, which is also significantly larger for perceived than unperceived errors. On the basis of the ERP and ANS results as well as brain-behavior correlations, we suggest a novel interpretation of the implementation and emergence of error awareness in the brain. In our framework, several systems generate input signals (e.g., ERN, sensory input, proprioception) that influence the emergence of error awareness, which is then accumulated and presumably reflected in later potentials, such as the Pe. PMID:21268673

  8. Hg0 evasion from boreal mires determined with chamber methods and a novel REA design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, Stefan; Fritsche, Johannes; Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats B.; Alewell, Christine; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic mercury has accumulated in superficial organic soils of boreal mires, hotspots of methylmercury production. We hypothesize that emission from the peat surface is an important factor in regulating the pool of mercury in mires and ultimately the loading of methylmercury to surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we used both dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) and a dual-intake, single analyzer Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system to quantify the land-atmosphere exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) from a mixed acid mire system situated near Vindeln in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Teflon and polycarbonate DFCs were used to (i) investigate the effect of sulfur and nitrogen addition as well as warming and changed moisture regimes on Hg0 flux and (ii) to quantify typical all-day summertime fluxes. The novel REA design was developed for long-term, all-year flux monitoring and uses twin inlets at the same level for simultaneous accumulation of up and downdrafts on a pair of gold traps which are then analyzed sequentially on the same detector while another pair of gold traps takes over the accumulation. The exchange of Hg0 from the peatland surface was measured continuously with DFC during cloudless conditions in July 2014 and averaged 0.62 ± 1.3 ng m-2 h-1. The flux revealed a significant diurnal pattern and a strong linear relationship with air temperature inside (R2= 0.65, p < 0.001) and outside (R2= 0.58, p < 0.001) the DFC. Hg0 exchange was significantly lower on experimental plots exposed to elevated sulfur deposition. This indicated either earlier Hg evasion or Hg binding to sulfur in organic matter, making Hg less susceptible to volatilization and more prone to transport in runoff. The REA measurements revealed a seasonal pattern of Hg0 fluxes over the year with net evasion during growing season and dominating deposition from autumn to spring. We managed to perform the first conditional sampling of Hg0 flux over a boreal mire using REA and were

  9. CXCL13 promotes isotype-switched B cell accumulation to the central nervous system during viral encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Phares, Timothy W; DiSano, Krista D; Stohlman, Stephen A; Segal, Benjamin M; Bergmann, Cornelia C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated CXCL13 within the central nervous system (CNS) correlates with humoral responses in several neuroinflammatory diseases, yet its role is controversial. During coronavirus encephalomyelitis CXCL13 deficiency impaired CNS accumulation of memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) but not naïve/early-activated B cells. However, despite diminished germinal center B cells and follicular helper T cells in draining lymph nodes, ASC in bone marrow and antiviral serum antibody were intact in the absence of CXCL13. The data demonstrate that CXCL13 is not essential in mounting effective peripheral humoral responses, but specifically promotes CNS accumulation of differentiated B cells. PMID:26795429

  10. Genetic suppression of a phosphomimic myosin II identifies system-level factors that promote myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yixin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Surcel, Alexandra; Miller, Christopher; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2014-01-01

    How myosin II localizes to the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium and metazoan cells remains largely unknown despite significant advances in understanding its regulation. We designed a genetic selection using cDNA library suppression of 3xAsp myosin II to identify factors involved in myosin cleavage furrow accumulation. The 3xAsp mutant is deficient in bipolar thick filament assembly, fails to accumulate at the cleavage furrow, cannot rescue myoII-null cytokinesis, and has impaired mechanosensitive accumulation. Eleven genes suppressed this dominant cytokinesis deficiency when 3xAsp was expressed in wild-type cells. 3xAsp myosin II's localization to the cleavage furrow was rescued by constructs encoding rcdBB, mmsdh, RMD1, actin, one novel protein, and a 14-3-3 hairpin. Further characterization showed that RMD1 is required for myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation, acting in parallel with mechanical stress. Analysis of several mutant strains revealed that different thresholds of myosin II activity are required for daughter cell symmetry than for furrow ingression dynamics. Finally, an engineered myosin II with a longer lever arm (2xELC), producing a highly mechanosensitive motor, could also partially suppress the intragenic 3xAsp. Overall, myosin II accumulation is the result of multiple parallel and partially redundant pathways that comprise a cellular contractility control system. PMID:25318674

  11. Nitrogen deficiency system is helpful in characterizing regulation mechanisms of ectopic triacylglycerol accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yu, Xiangchun; Song, Lianfen; An, Chengcai

    2011-12-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major storage component accumulated in seed. However the regulatory mechanism of TAG synthesis and accumulation in non-seed tissues remains unknown. Recently, we found that nitrogen (N) deficiency (0.1mM N) caused an inducement of TAG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seedlings. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) was essential for the activation of Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1(DGAT1) expression during N deficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. In this addendum, we further discussed the approaches to provide a net increase in total oil production in higher plants by using the low N platform. First, the N-deficient seedlings can be used to determine the key factors that regulate the ectopic expression of key genes in TAG metabolism. Second, the research on the relationship between TAG homeostasis and cell division will be helpful to find the key factors that specifically regulate TAG accumulation under the nutrient-limited condition. PMID:22112453

  12. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  13. Systemic growth of F. graminearum in wheat plants and related accumulation of deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Antonio; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Somma, Stefania; Campagna, Claudio; Ravaglia, Stefano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae). This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a) the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b) the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at vitreous

  14. Using gravity as a proxy for stress accumulation in complex fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Tyler Joseph

    The gravity signal contains information regarding changes in density at all depths and can be used as a proxy for the strain accumulation in fault networks. A general method for calculating the total, dilatational, and free-air gravity for fault systems with arbitrary geometry, slip motion, and number of fault segments is presented. The technique uses a Green's function approach for a fault buried within an elastic half-space with an underlying driver plate forcing the system. A stress-evolution time-dependent earthquake fault model was used to create simulated slip histories over the San Andreas Fault network in California. Using a sum of the gravity signals from each fault segment in the model, via coseismic gravity Green's functions, a time-dependent gravity model was created. The steady-state gravity from the long term plate motion generates a signal over five years with magnitudes of +/- ˜2 muGal; the current limit of portable instrument observations. Moderate to large events generate signal magnitudes in the range of ˜10 muGal to ˜80 muGal, well within the range of ground based observations. The complex fault network geometry of California significantly affects the spatial extent of the gravity signal from the three events studied. Statistical analysis of 55 000 years of simulated slip histories were used to investigate the use of the dilatational gravity signal as a proxy for precursory stress and strain changes. Results indicate that the precursory dilatational gravity signal is dependent upon the fault orientation with respect the tectonic loading plate velocity. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of preferential amplification of the shear stress or reduction of the normal stress, depending on the steady-state regime investigated. Finally, solutions for the corresponding gravity gradients of the coseismic dilatational gravity signals are developed for a vertical strike-slip fault. Gravity gradient solutions exhibit similar spatial distributions

  15. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  16. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources. PMID:25446876

  17. Understanding the Spatial Formation and Accumulation of Fats, Oils & Grease Deposits in the Sewer Collection System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially...

  18. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  19. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-26

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  20. Clofazimine Biocrystal Accumulation in Macrophages Upregulates Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Production To Induce a Systemic Anti-Inflammatory State.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gi S; Keswani, Rahul K; Sud, Sudha; Rzeczycki, Phillip M; Murashov, Mikhail D; Koehn, Tony A; Standiford, Theodore J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Rosania, Gus R

    2016-06-01

    Clofazimine (CFZ) is a poorly soluble antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of leprosy. In spite of its therapeutic value, CFZ therapy is accompanied by the formation of drug biocrystals that accumulate within resident tissue macrophages, without obvious toxicological manifestations. Therefore, to specifically elucidate the off-target consequences of drug bioaccumulation in macrophages, we compared the level of inflammasome activation in CFZ-accumulating organs (spleen, liver and lung) in mice after 2 and 8 weeks of CFZ treatment when the drug exists in soluble and insoluble (biocrystalline) forms, respectively. Surprisingly, the results showed a drastic reduction in caspase 1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) cleavage in the livers of mice treated with CFZ for 8 weeks (8-week-CFZ-treated mice) compared to 2-week-CFZ-treated and control mice, which was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in hepatic IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) production and a 21-fold increase in serum IL-1RA levels. In the lung and spleen, IL-1β cleavage and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression were unaffected by soluble or biocrystal CFZ forms. Functionally, there was a drastic reduction of carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the footpads and lungs, respectively, of 8-week-CFZ-treated mice. This immunomodulatory activity of CFZ biocrystal accumulation was attributable to the upregulation of IL-1RA, since CFZ accumulation had minimal effect in IL-1RA knockout mice or 2-week-CFZ-treated mice. In conclusion, CFZ accumulation and biocrystal formation in resident tissue macrophages profoundly altered the host's immune system and prompted an IL-1RA-dependent, systemic anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27021320

  1. Improving Data Quality with an Accumulated Reputation Model in Participatory Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruiyun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Xingwei; Cao, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices brings forth a sensing paradigm, participatory sensing, to collect and interpret sensory information from the environment. Participants join in multifarious sensing tasks and share their data. The sensing result can be obtained in light of shared data. It is not uncommon that some corrupted data is provided by participants, which makes sensing result unreliable accordingly. To address this nontrivial issue, we proposed the accumulated reputation model (ARM) to improve the accuracy of the sensing result. In ARM, participants' reputation will be computed and accumulated based on their sensing data. The sensing data from reputable participants make higher contributions to the sensing result. ARM performs well on calculating accurate sensing results, even in extreme scenarios, where there are many inexperienced or malicious participants. PMID:24658621

  2. Mortality, accumulation, and distribution of zinc in the gill system of the dogfish following zinc treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, S.; Blasch, J.

    1980-06-01

    Besides being an essential element, Zn has been shown to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute lethalities of Zn salts to teleosts have been reported, but few data regarding Zn toxicity to elasmobranchs can be found. To evaluate the effect of Zn on elasmobranchs and to compare the data with those on teleosts this paper studies Zn toxicity and the accumulation of the metal in the gills of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula exposed to 180 and 80 ppM of zinc.

  3. Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in subpial and periventricular astrocytes in multiple system atrophy of long duration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Mori, Fumiaki; Kon, Tomoya; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Tomiyama, Masahiko; Kurotaki, Hidekachi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    The histological hallmark of multiple system atrophy (MSA) is accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in oligodendrocytes. However, it is uncertain whether phosphorylated α-synuclein accumulates in astrocytes of MSA patients. We immunohistochemically examined the frontal and temporal lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord of patients with MSA (n = 15) and Lewy body disease (n = 20), and also in control subjects (n = 20). Accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated and aggregated α-synuclein was found in subpial and periventricular astrocytes in six of the 15 patients with MSA (40%). The structures were confined to the subpial surface of the ventro-lateral part of the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as the subependymal region of the lateral ventricles. They were not visualized by Gallyas-Braak staining, and were immunonegative for ubiquitin and p62. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the phosphorylated α-synuclein-immunoreactive structures in astrocytes were non-fibrillar and associated with granular and vesicular structures. The extent of phosphorylated α-synuclein-immunoreactive astrocytes was correlated with disease duration. No such structures were found in Lewy body disease or controls. Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein can occur in subpial and periventricular astrocytes in patients with MSA, especially in those with a long disease duration. PMID:26331967

  4. Using a double-frequency RF system to facilitate on-axis beam accumulation in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B. C.; Zhao, Z. T.; Tian, S. Q.; Zhang, M. Z.; Zhang, Q. L.

    2016-04-01

    An on-axis injection scheme using a double-frequency RF system in a storage ring with small dynamic aperture is proposed. By altering RF voltages, empty RF buckets can be created which will be used for on-axis injection. After bunches are injected, a reverse RF voltage altering process is performed and the injected bunches can be longitudinally dumped to the main RF buckets. The scheme allows reaping the advantages of the on-axis injection while still performing accumulation.

  5. [Effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation characteristics and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Wen-yu; Huang, Ni; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yan-ling; Wang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yang; Yan, Shou

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation and yield of soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2013, including three maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems. The relay strip intercropping systems were designed as soybean (Gongxuan 1) intercropped with Denghai 605 (RI1), Chuandan 418 (RI2) or Yayu 13 ( RI3), and the monocultured soybean was used as control. The results demonstrated that the dry matter accumulation rates of intercropped soybean in RI2 and RI3 treatments were lower than in RI1 treatment, and the leaf, stem and pod dry matter accumulation of intercropped soybean in RI1 treatment was 17.6%, 16.5% and 13.7% higher than that in RI2 treatment, and 34.6%, 33.1% and 28.4% higher than that in RI3 treatment, respectively. The distribution proportion of leaf and stem of intercropped soybean was in the order of RI1 > RI2 > RI3. However, the trend of the distribution proportion of pod was opposite. Compared with RI2 and RI3, the dry matter translocation amount, translocation proportion, contribution proportion of soybean vegetative organs to pod of soybean were improved in RI, treatment, and the pod per plant, seeds per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant and yield of soybean in RI, were higher than RI2 and RI3 by 6.8%, 11.5%, 4.4%, 15.9%, 15.6% and 14.3%, 22.2%, 6.7%, 33.4%, 36.8%, respectively. The results showed that the yield was positively related with the accumulation rate of dry matter, dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation ratio and the contribution of dry matter accumulation, and these indices were highest in RI treatment. The results indicated that the compact maize relay intercropped with soybean could effectively regulate the dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and improve the yield of soybean. PMID:26685605

  6. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Shiny; Henderson, Shannon; Reinhold, Dawn

    2014-05-01

    Commonly used in personal care products, triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are two chemicals with antimicrobial properties that have recently been recognized as environmental contaminants with the potential to adversely affect human health. The objective of the study described herein was to evaluate the potential of food crops to uptake TCC and TCS. Eleven food crops, grown in hydroponic nutrient media, were exposed to a mixture of 500 μg L(-1) TCC and TCS. After 4 weeks of exposure, roots accumulated 86-1,350 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials and shoots had accumulated 0.33-5.35 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials. Translocation from roots to shoots was less than 1.9 % for TCC and 3.7 % for TCS, with the greatest translocation for TCC observed for pepper, celery, and asparagus and for TCS observed for cabbage, broccoli, and asparagus. For edible tuber- or bulb-producing crops, the concentrations of both TCC and TCS were lower in the tubers than in the roots. Exposure calculations using national consumption data indicated that the average exposure to TCC and TCS from eating contaminated crops was substantially less than the exposure expected to cause adverse effects, but exceeded the predicted exposure from drinking water. Exposure to antimicrobials through food crops would be substantially reduced through limiting consumption of beets and onions. PMID:24464075

  7. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  8. Evaluation of sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery efficiencies in a new advanced wastewater treatment system using denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kondo, T; Nakagawa, K; Tsuneda, S; Hirata, A; Shimizu, Y; Inamori, Y

    2006-01-01

    A new biological nutrient removal process, anaerobic-oxic-anoxic (A/O/A) system using denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs), was proposed. To attain excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation tank and phosphorus adsorption column was operated for 92 days, and water quality of the effluent, sludge reduction efficiency, and phosphorus recovery efficiency were evaluated. As a result, TOC, T-N and T-P removal efficiency were 85%, 70% and 85%, respectively, throughout the operating period. These slightly lower removal efficiencies than conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) processes were due to the unexpected microbial population in this system where DNPAOs were not the dominant group but normal polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that could not utilize nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor became dominant. However, it was successfully demonstrated that 34-127% of sludge reduction and around 80% of phosphorus recovery were attained. In conclusion, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation and phosphorus adsorption systems is useful as a new advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to resolve the problems of increasing excess sludge and depleted phosphorus. PMID:16749446

  9. Ubiquitin-protein conjugates accumulate in the lysosomal system of fibroblasts treated with cysteine proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, F J; Osborn, N U; Wassell, J A; Heggie, P E; Laszlo, L; Mayer, R J

    1989-01-01

    Mouse fibroblasts (3T3-L1 cells) accumulate detergent- and salt-insoluble aggregates of proteins conjugated to ubiquitin when incubated in the presence of inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins, including E-64. These ubiquitin-protein conjugates co-fractionate with lysosomes on density gradients and are found in multivesicular dense bodies which by electron microscopy appear to be engaged in microautophagy. Both E-64 and ammonium chloride increase the intracellular concentration of free ubiquitin, but only E-64 leads to the formation of insoluble lysosomal ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The results are discussed in relation to the possible intracellular roles of ubiquitin conjugation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. p52-a PMID:2557825

  10. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  11. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Le, T. T. Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A. Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  12. TRITIUM MOVEMENT AND ACCUMULATION IN THE NGNP SYSTEM INTERFACE AND HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S

    2008-03-20

    Tritium movement and accumulation in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) employing either a high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) process or a thermochemical water-splitting Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process to produce hydrogen is estimated by a numerical code, THYTAN, as a function of design, operational and material parameters. Estimated tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product and in the process chemicals of the hydrogen plant using the HTE process are slightly higher than the limit in drinking water defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and in effluent at the boundary of an unrestricted area defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), respectively. Estimated tritium concentrations in the NGNP using the SI hydrogen production process are significantly higher, and are largely affected by undetermined parameters (i.e., tritium permeability of heat exchanger materials, hydrogen concentration in the helium energy transport fluids, equilibrium constant of the tritium isotope exchange reaction between HT and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). These parameters should be measured or estimated in the near future, as should the tritium generation and release rate from the NGNP nuclear reactor core. Decreasing the tritium permeation rate between the primary and secondary heat transport circuits is an effective measure to decrease the tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product, hydrogen plant process chemicals, and the tertiary heat transport fluid.

  13. Selection of denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms in IFAS systems: comparison of nitrite with nitrate as an electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Pouria; Munz, Giulio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate were compared as electron acceptors to select for denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) in two integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS 1 and IFAS 2) systems operated as sequencing batch reactors. The bench-scale experiment lasted one year and synthetic wastewater was used as feed. During anoxic conditions 20mgNO3(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-1 and 20mgNO2(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-2. Long term phosphorous and ammonia removal via nitritation were achieved in both systems and both attached and suspended biomass contributed to phosphorous and ammonia removal. DPAO showed no specific adaptation to the electron acceptor as evidenced by short term switch of feeding with nitrate or nitrite. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate was significantly higher with nitrite than with nitrate. Results showed that DPAO activity with nitrite could be integrated into attached and suspended biomass of IFAS systems in long term operation. PMID:24873702

  14. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  15. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26595097

  16. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  17. Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.

  18. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  19. System Dynamic Model for the Accumulation of Renewable Electricity using Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberga, Andra; Timma, Lelde; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    When the renewable energy is used, the challenge is match the supply of intermittent energy with the demand for energy therefore the energy storage solutions should be used. This paper is dedicated to hydrogen accumulation from wind sources. The case study investigates the conceptual system that uses intermitted renewable energy resources to produce hydrogen (power-to-gas concept) and fuel (power-to-liquid concept). For this specific case study hydrogen is produced from surplus electricity generated by wind power plant trough electrolysis process and fuel is obtained by upgrading biogas to biomethane using hydrogen. System dynamic model is created for this conceptual system. The developed system dynamics model has been used to simulate 2 different scenarios. The results show that in both scenarios the point at which the all electricity needs of Latvia are covered is obtained. Moreover, the methodology of system dynamics used in this paper is white-box model that allows to apply the developed model to other case studies and/or to modify model based on the newest data. The developed model can be used for both scientific research and policy makers to better understand the dynamic relation within the system and the response of system to changes in both internal and external factors.

  20. Mutation in nicotianamine aminotransferase stimulated the Fe(II) acquisition system and led to iron accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Longjun; Wang, Fang; Shou, Huixia; Huang, Fangliang; Zheng, Luqing; He, Fei; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ueno, Daisei; Ma, Jian Feng; Wu, Ping

    2007-12-01

    Higher plants acquire iron (Fe) from the rhizosphere through two strategies. Strategy II, employed by graminaceous plants, involves secretion of phytosiderophores (e.g. deoxymugineic acid in rice [Oryza sativa]) by roots to solubilize Fe(III) in soil. In addition to taking up Fe in the form of Fe(III)-phytosiderophore, rice also possesses the strategy I-like system that may absorb Fe(II) directly. Through mutant screening, we isolated a rice mutant that could not grow with Fe(III)-citrate as the sole Fe source, but was able to grow when Fe(II)-EDTA was supplied. Surprisingly, the mutant accumulated more Fe and other divalent metals in roots and shoots than the wild type when both were supplied with EDTA-Fe(II) or grown under water-logged field conditions. Furthermore, the mutant had a significantly higher concentration of Fe in both unpolished and polished grains than the wild type. Using the map-based cloning method, we identified a point mutation in a gene encoding nicotianamine aminotransferase (NAAT1), which was responsible for the mutant phenotype. Because of the loss of function of NAAT1, the mutant failed to produce deoxymugineic acid and could not absorb Fe(III) efficiently. In contrast, nicotianamine, the substrate for NAAT1, accumulated markedly in roots and shoots of the mutant. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of a number of the genes involved in Fe(II) acquisition was greatly stimulated in the naat1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that disruption of deoxymugineic acid biosynthesis can stimulate Fe(II) acquisition and increase iron accumulation in rice. PMID:17951455

  1. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  2. Dynamic and geometric phase accumulation by Gaussian-type modes in first-order optical systems.

    PubMed

    Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J

    2008-08-01

    Based on the ray transformation matrix formalism, we propose a simple method for the identification of the dynamic and geometric parts of the Gouy phase, acquired by an appropriate Gaussian-type beam while propagating through a first-order optical system. PMID:18670494

  3. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  4. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ``hot-spot,`` areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  5. Systems biology and metabolic modelling unveils limitations to polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in sugarcane leaves; lessons for C4 engineering.

    PubMed

    McQualter, Richard B; Bellasio, Chandra; Gebbie, Leigh K; Petrasovits, Lars A; Palfreyman, Robin W; Hodson, Mark P; Plan, Manuel R; Blackman, Deborah M; Brumbley, Stevens M; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-02-01

    In planta production of the bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one important way in which plant biotechnology can address environmental problems and emerging issues related to peak oil. However, high biomass C4 plants such as maize, switch grass and sugarcane develop adverse phenotypes including stunting, chlorosis and reduced biomass as PHB levels in leaves increase. In this study, we explore limitations to PHB accumulation in sugarcane chloroplasts using a systems biology approach, coupled with a metabolic model of C4 photosynthesis. Decreased assimilation was evident in high PHB-producing sugarcane plants, which also showed a dramatic decrease in sucrose and starch content of leaves. A subtle decrease in the C/N ratio was found which was not associated with a decrease in total protein content. An increase in amino acids used for nitrogen recapture was also observed. Based on the accumulation of substrates of ATP-dependent reactions, we hypothesized ATP starvation in bundle sheath chloroplasts. This was supported by mRNA differential expression patterns. The disruption in ATP supply in bundle sheath cells appears to be linked to the physical presence of the PHB polymer which may disrupt photosynthesis by scattering photosynthetically active radiation and/or physically disrupting thylakoid membranes. PMID:26015295

  6. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  7. LANDSAT Range Resource Information System. [a user evaluation of green forage and rainfall accumulation maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. E.; Harlan, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of test products were developed from LANDSAT data sets for North Central Texas that paralleled the needs of ranchers, technical personnel, and the media. The products and evaluation questionnaires were mailed to approximately 150 ranchers who had reported an interest in evaluating the information systems. In addition to the rancher group, fourteen media people and a thirty-three member group in the agri business/technical community was also chosen to receive test products. The group responses are analyzed. Examples of the test products and associated questionnaires are included.

  8. Systemic DNA Damage Accumulation Under in Vivo Tumor Growth can be Inhibited by the Antioxidant Tempol

    PubMed Central

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ferguson, Nicholas F.; Kryston, Thomas B.; Parekh, Palak; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recently we found that mice bearing subcutaneous non-metastatic tumors exhibited elevated levels of two types of complex DNA damage, i.e., double-strand breaks and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in various tissues throughout the body, both adjacent to and distant from the tumor site. This DNA damage was dependent on CCL2, a cytokine involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages, suggesting that this systemic DNA damage was mediated via tumor-induced chronic inflammatory responses involving cytokines, activation of macrophages, and consequent free radical production. If free radicals are involved, then a diet containing an antioxidant may decrease the distant DNA damage. Results Here we repeated our standard protocol in cohorts of two syngeneic tumor-bearing C57BL/6NCr mice that were on a Tempol-supplemented diet. We show that double-strand break and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesion levels were considerably decreased, about 2-3 fold, in the majority of tissues studied from the tumor-bearing mice fed the antioxidant Tempol compared to the control tumor-bearing mice. Similar results were also observed in nude mice suggesting that the Tempol effects are independent of functioning adaptive immunity. Conclusions This is the first in vivo study demonstrating the effect of a dietary antioxidant on abscopal DNA damage in tissues distant from a localized source of genotoxic stress. These findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of genomic instability and carcinogenesis caused by chronic stress-induced systemic DNA damage and for developing preventative strategies. PMID:25069035

  9. Effect of imprecise lag time and high-frequency attenuation on surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes determined with the relaxed eddy accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravek, A.; Trebs, I.; Foken, T.

    2013-09-01

    eddy accumulation (REA) systems that employ one single long inlet tube are prone to measurement uncertainties caused by (a) an imprecisely determined lag time between the change of sign in the vertical wind velocity and the switching of the splitter valves and (b) attenuation of high-frequency concentration fluctuations in the tube flow. However, there is currently no commonly applied procedure to address these uncertainties. In this study, we first evaluated the lag time error of the volume flow, mass flow, and cross-correlation method (online and offline) and experimentally determined the magnitude of high-frequency attenuation for a 21.5 m long inlet tube of an operating REA system. In a second step, we simulated the impact for different artificial lag time errors and low-pass filter strengths on the REA concentration differences and, thus, on the REA flux, using high-frequency time series of temperature, O3, CO2, and H2O. The reduction of scalar fluxes was mainly correlated with increasing switching frequencies and ranged for typical lag time errors of the investigated REA system between <5% and 50%, whereas the flux loss due to high-frequency attenuation was between <5% and 30%. The results were very similar for all scalar quantities. Based on our results, we derived empirical correction functions for both imprecise lag times and high-frequency attenuation, discuss their potential application to correct fluxes measured with other REA systems, and give a general procedure to address the uncertainties in future REA setups.

  10. Continuous determination of land-atmosphere Hg0 exchange using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, Stefan; Fritsche, Johannes; Nilsson, Mats B.; Alewell, Christine; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The fate of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere is influenced by the exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) with the earth surface. However, it remains challenging to quantify these exchanges which hold the key to a better understanding of mercury cycling at different scales, from the entire earth to specific environments. To better test hypotheses about land-atmosphere Hg interactions, we applied dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) for short term measurements and developed a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) design for continuous flux monitoring. Accurate determination of Hg0 fluxes has proven difficult due to the technical challenges presented by the small concentration differences (< 1 ng m-3) between updrafts and downdrafts. To address this we present a dual-intake, single analyzer REA system including a calibration module for periodic quality-control measurements with reference gases. To demonstrate the system performance, we present results from two contrasting environments: In February 2012 REA monitored a heterogeneous urban surface in the center of Basel, Switzerland where an average flux of 14 ng m-2 h-1 was detected with a distinct diurnal pattern. In May 2012, the REA monitored a boreal mire in northern Sweden with different turbulence regimes and Hg0 sink/source characteristics. During the snowmelt period in May 2012 the Hg0 flux averaged at 2 ng m-2 h-1. In order to better quantify inputs and outputs of Hg from boreal landscapes, we subsequently monitored the land-atmosphere exchange of Hg0 during a course of a year and compared the fluxes occasionally with DFC measurements. The amount of Hg0 volatilized from boreal mires was at a similar level as the annual export of Hg in stream water, identifying the mire as net source of Hg to neighboring environments. We believe that this dual-inlet, single detector approach is a significant innovation which can help realize the potential of REA for continuous, long-term determination of land-atmosphere Hg0

  11. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  12. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  13. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  14. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  15. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Elisa; Girardello, Rossana; Bruno, Antonino; Manni, Isabella; Gini, Elisabetta; Pagani, Arianna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Ivaldi, Federico; Congiu, Terenzio; De Stefano, Daniela; Piaggio, Giulia; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections), functional (serum enzymes), and morphological (organs and tissues) alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) methods. We observed a transient accumulation of SWCNTs in the lungs, spleen, and kidneys of CD1 mice exposed to SWCNTs. A dose- and time-dependent accumulation was found in the liver, associated with increases in levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubinemia, which are metabolic markers associated with liver damage. Our data suggest that hepatic accumulation of SWCNTs associated with liver damage results in an M1 macrophage-driven inflammation. PMID:27621623

  16. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Principi, Elisa; Girardello, Rossana; Bruno, Antonino; Manni, Isabella; Gini, Elisabetta; Pagani, Arianna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Ivaldi, Federico; Congiu, Terenzio; De Stefano, Daniela; Piaggio, Giulia; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections), functional (serum enzymes), and morphological (organs and tissues) alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) methods. We observed a transient accumulation of SWCNTs in the lungs, spleen, and kidneys of CD1 mice exposed to SWCNTs. A dose- and time-dependent accumulation was found in the liver, associated with increases in levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubinemia, which are metabolic markers associated with liver damage. Our data suggest that hepatic accumulation of SWCNTs associated with liver damage results in an M1 macrophage-driven inflammation. PMID:27621623

  17. Sustained Accumulation of Microtubule-Binding Chemotherapy Drugs in the Peripheral Nervous System: Correlations with Time Course and Neurotoxic Severity.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Krystyna M; Vornov, James J; Wu, Ying; Nomoto, Kenichi; Littlefield, Bruce A; DesJardins, Christopher; Yu, Yanke; Lai, George; Reyderman, Larisa; Wong, Nancy; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many antineoplastic agents, but the mechanisms underlying the toxicities are unclear. At their MTDs, the microtubule-binding drugs paclitaxel and ixabepilone induce more severe neuropathy in mice relative to eribulin mesylate, paralleling their toxicity profiles in clinic. We hypothesized that the severity of their neurotoxic effects might be explained by the levels at which they accumulate in the peripheral nervous system. To test this hypothesis, we compared their pharmacokinetics and distribution in peripheral nerve tissue. After administration of a single intravenous dose, each drug was rapidly cleared from plasma but all persisted in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve (SN) for up to 72 hours. Focusing on paclitaxel and eribulin, we performed a 2-week MTD-dosing regimen, followed by a determination of drug pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and multiple functional measures of peripheral nerve toxicity for 4 weeks. Consistent with the acute dosing study, both drugs persisted in peripheral nervous tissues for weeks, in contrast to their rapid clearance from plasma. Notably, although eribulin exhibited greater DRG and SN penetration than paclitaxel, the neurotoxicity observed functionally was consistently more severe with paclitaxel. Overall, our results argue that sustained exposure of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents in peripheral nerve tissues cannot by itself account for their associated neurotoxicity. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3332-9. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197173

  18. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance. PMID:26122572

  19. Accumulation of Hsc70 and Hsp70 in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in patients with multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Honjo, Yasuyuki; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Budka, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones which can be induced by several kinds of stresses, and Hsc70 and Hsp70 are two major members of the family of 70 kDa HSPs. A major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) is alpha-synuclein, and Hsp70 has been observed in the LBs of brains with Parkinson's disease. Hsp70 has also been demonstrated to have the ability to suppress alpha-synuclein toxicity in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the precise role of Hsc70 and Hsp70 in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), which is another alpha-synuclein-related disease, we performed immunohistochemical studies on Hsc70 and Hsp70 using autopsied brains from 7 normal subjects and 15 patients with MSA. In the normal human brains, both neurons and glial cells, including oligodendrocytes, showed only weak Hsc70 and Hsp70 immunoreactivities. In contrast, in the brains with MSA, numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) were intensely immunostained with Hsc70, and strong Hsc70 immunoreactivity was also found in glial intranuclear inclusions (GNIs), neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NNIs) as well as dystrophic neurites. The immunolabeling pattern for Hsp70 in the MSA brains was slightly different from that of Hsc70, and Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in many reactive astrocytes as well as some glial and neuronal inclusions. Our results suggest that the widespread accumulation of Hsc70 and Hsp70 may occur in brains with MSA, and that Hsc70 and Hsp70 may be associated with the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:17240362

  20. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  1. PARP INHIBITION ALLEVIATES DIABETES-INDUCED SYSTEMIC OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEURAL TISSUE 4-HYDROXYNONENAL ADDUCT ACCUMULATION: CORRELATION WITH PERIPHERAL NERVE FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Lupachyk, Sergey; Shevalye, Hanna; Maksimchyk, Yury; Drel, Viktor R.; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in systemic oxidative stress and 4-hydoxynonenal adduct accumulation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were maintained with or without treatment with the PARP inhibitor, 1,5-isoquinolinediol, 3 mg kg−1d−1, for 10 weeks after initial 2 weeks. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated protein content in peripheral nerve and spinal cord (Western blot analysis) and dorsal root ganglion neurons and non-neuronal cells (fluorescent immunohistochemistry), as well as by indices of peripheral nerve function. Diabetic rats displayed increased urinary isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion (ELISA), 4-hydroxynonenal adduct accumulation in endothelial and Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes of the spinal cord, and neurons and glial cells of the dorsal root ganglia (double-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry) as well as motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity deficits, thermal hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. PARP inhibition counteracted diabetes-induced systemic oxidative stress and 4-hydroxynonenal adduct accumulation in peripheral nerve and spinal cord (Western blot analysis) and dorsal root ganglion neurons (perikarya, fluorescent immunohistochemistry) which correlated with improvement of large and small nerve fiber function. The findings reveal the important role of PARP activation in systemic oxidative stress and 4-hydroxynonenal adduct accumulation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:21300148

  2. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  3. An engineered lipid remodeling system using a galactolipid synthase promoter during phosphate starvation enhances oil accumulation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Mie; Madoka, Yuka; Fujiwara, Ryota; Murakawa, Masato; Yoshitake, Yushi; Ikeda, Keiko; Koizumi, Ryota; Endo, Keiji; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) depletion is a serious problem for plant growth. Membrane lipid remodeling is a defense mechanism that plants use to survive Pi-depleted conditions. During Pi starvation, phospholipids are degraded to supply Pi for other essential biological processes, whereas galactolipid synthesis in plastids is up-regulated via the transcriptional activation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 3 (MGD3). Thus, the produced galactolipids are transferred to extraplastidial membranes to substitute for phospholipids. We found that, Pi starvation induced oil accumulation in the vegetative tissues of various seed plants without activating the transcription of enzymes involved in the later steps of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Moreover, the Arabidopsis starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant, pgm-1, accumulated higher TAG levels than did wild-type plants under Pi-depleted conditions. We generated transgenic plants that expressed a key gene involved in TAG synthesis using the Pi deficiency–responsive MGD3 promoter in wild-type and pgm-1 backgrounds. During Pi starvation, the transgenic plants accumulated higher TAG amounts compared with the non-transgenic plants, suggesting that the Pi deficiency–responsive promoter of galactolipid synthase in plastids may be useful for producing transgenic plants that accumulate more oil under Pi-depleted conditions. PMID:26379690

  4. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  5. Silencing of WIPK and SIPK mitogen-activated protein kinases reduces tobacco mosaic virus accumulation but permits systemic viral movement in tobacco possessing the N resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Seo, Shigemi; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Seto, Hideharu; Meshi, Tetsuo; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ohashi, Yuko

    2010-08-01

    Infection of tobacco cultivars possessing the N resistance gene with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) results in confinement of the virus by necrotic lesions at the infection site. Although the mitogen-activated protein kinases WIPK and SIPK have been implicated in TMV resistance, evidence linking them directly to disease resistance is, as yet, insufficient. Viral multiplication was reduced slightly in WIPK- or SIPK-silenced plants but substantially in WIPK/SIPK-silenced plants, and was correlated with an increase in salicylic acid (SA) and a decrease in jasmonic acid (JA). Silencing of WIPK and SIPK in a tobacco cultivar lacking the N gene did not inhibit viral accumulation. The reduction in viral accumulation was attenuated by expressing a gene for an SA-degrading enzyme or by exogenously applying JA. Inoculation of lower leaves resulted in the systemic spread of TMV and formation of necrotic lesions in uninoculated upper leaves. These results suggested that WIPK and SIPK function to negatively regulate local resistance to TMV accumulation, partially through modulating accumulation of SA and JA in an N-dependent manner, but positively regulate systemic resistance. PMID:20615114

  6. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. PMID:21420710

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D.

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  8. Magnesium and manganese interactively modulate parthenolide accumulation and the antioxidant defense system in the leaves of Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hojati, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is a critical factor affecting accumulation of terpenoids in plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two essential nutrients for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes are scarce. Here, the interactional effects between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on plant growth, oxidative status, parthenolide accumulation and expression of key genes involved in parthenolide biosynthesis including 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (HMGR), germacrene A synthase (GAS), germacrene A oxidase (GAO), costunolide synthase (COS) and parthenolide synthase (PTS) in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different Mn and Mn levels were assessed. Plant growth and leaf pigment concentrations were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the Mn level. Deprivation and the addition of both Mg and Mn induce oxidative stress. Mg supply also alleviated the adverse effects of Mn excess on plant growth and oxidative status. In addition, parthenolide biosynthesis decreased under deprivation of Mg or Mn, but the addition of Mn up to 50μM under 2mM Mg supply considerably increased its accumulation. The parthenolide accumulation trend might reflect the up-regulation of terpenoid-related genes and enzyme activities as well as the oxidative status of feverfew leaves. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on parthenolide biosynthesis through the activation of terpene synthases, which concomitantly modulate by oxidative status. PMID:27450490

  9. HNO 3 fluxes to a deciduous forest derived using gradient and REA methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Jensen, B.; Jensen, N. O.; Sørensen, L. L.

    Summertime nitric acid concentrations over a deciduous forest in the midwestern United States are reported, which range between 0.36 and 3.3 μg m -3. Fluxes to the forest are computed using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique and gradient methods. In accord with previous studies, the results indicate substantial uncertainties in the gradient-based calculations. The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) derived fluxes are physically reasonable and are shown to be of similar magnitude to dry deposition estimates from gradient sampling. The REA derived mean deposition velocity is approximately 3 cm s -1, which is also comparable to growing season estimates derived by Meyers et al. for a similar deciduous forest. Occasional inverted concentration gradients and fluxes are observed but most are not statistically significant. Data are also presented that indicate substantial through canopy penetration of nitric acid.

  10. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  11. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulators. 58.30-25 Section 58.30-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is...

  12. Productivity and selective accumulation of carotenoids of the novel extremophile microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grown with different carbon sources in batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cuaresma, María; Casal, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Vílchez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of extremophile microorganisms has attracted interest due to their ability to accumulate high-value compounds. Chlamydomonas acidophila is an acidophile green microalga isolated by our group from Tinto River, an acidic river that flows down from the mining area in Huelva, Spain. This microalga accumulates high concentrations of lutein, a very well-known natural antioxidant. The aim of this study is to assess use of different carbon sources (CO(2), glucose, glycerol, starch, urea, and glycine) for efficient growth of and carotenoid production by C. acidophila. Our results reveal that growth of the microalga on different carbon sources resulted in different algal biomass productivities, urea being as efficient as CO(2) when used as sole carbon source (~20 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). Mixotrophic growth on glucose was also efficient in terms of biomass production (~14 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). In terms of carotenoid accumulation, mixotrophic growth on urea resulted in even higher productivity of carotenoids (mainly lutein, probably via α-carotene) than obtained with photoautotrophic cultures (70% versus 65% relative abundance of lutein, respectively). The accumulated lutein concentrations of C. acidophila reported in this work (about 10 g/kg dry weight, produced in batch systems) are among the highest reported for a microalga. Glycerol and glycine seem to enhance β-carotene biosynthesis, and when glycine is used as carbon source, zeaxanthin becomes the most accumulated carotenoid in the microalga. Strategies for production of lutein and zeaxanthin are suggested based on the obtained results. PMID:20811803

  13. Flow past an accumulator unit of an underwater energy storage system: Three touching balloons in a floral configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.

    2014-12-01

    An LES simulation of flow over an accumulator unit of an underwater compressed air energy storage facility was conducted. The accumulator unit consists of three touching underwater balloons arranged in a floral configuration. The structure of the flow was examined via three dimensional iso surfaces of the Q criterion. Vortical cores were observed on the leeward surface of the balloons. The swirling tube flows generated by these vortical cores were depicted through three dimensional path lines. The flow dynamics were visualized via time series snapshots of two dimensional vorticity contours perpendicular to the flow direction; revealing the turbulent swinging motions of the aforementioned shedding-swirling tube flows. The time history of the hydrodynamic loading was presented in terms of lift and drag coefficients. Drag coefficient of each individual balloon in the floral configuration was smaller than that of a single balloon. It was found that the total drag coefficient of the floral unit of three touching balloons, i.e. summation of the drag coefficients of the balloons, is not too much larger than that of a single balloon whereas it provides three times the storage capacity. In addition to its practical significance in designing appropriate foundation and supports, the instantaneous hydrodynamic loading was used to determine the frequency of the turbulent swirling-swinging motions of the shedding vortex tubes; the Strouhal number was found to be larger than that of a single sphere at the same Reynolds number.

  14. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  15. Significant associations between hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisheng; Horigome, Hitoshi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Satoko; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers and investigate their relationship with physical constitution and cardiovascular risk factors in a normal schoolchildren population. This study comprised 148 healthy Japanese children aged 9-10 years (males 73; females 75). We performed laboratory tests including blood levels of leptin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers [plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), coagulation factor VII (FVII), coagulation factor X (FX), fibrinogen (Fbg), protein C, protein S], as well as common biochemical markers in the morning after an overnight fast. We investigated the mean, 10th, 50th and 90th percentile values of these markers. All parameters were compared between two groups, that is those with body mass index (BMI) 90th percentile or higher and BMI less than 90th percentile, and between subgroups based on the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression was used to assess associations between these hematological parameters and the components related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, leptin, hs-CRP, and all hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers (PAI-1, FVII, FX, Fbg, protein C, protein S) tested were significantly higher in the group with BMI 90th percentile or higher, and increased with accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that these values were associated with one or more components related to MetS. Reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers in Japanese schoolchildren were obtained. Many hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers showed significant association with BMI and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in normal Japanese schoolchildren. PMID:25185676

  16. Effects of arsenic species and concentrations on arsenic accumulation by different fern species in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Ma, L Q; Santos, Jorge; Rathinasabapathi, B; Stamps, B; Littell, R C

    2005-01-01

    Two hydroponic experiments were conducted to evaluate factors affecting plant arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation. In the first experiment; two As hyperaccumulators (Pteris vittata and P. cretica mayii) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg L(-1) arsenite (AsIII) and monomethyl arsenic acid (MMA) for 4 wk. Total As concentrations in plants (fronds and roots) and solution were determined In the second experiment P. vittata and Nephrolepis exaltata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) were exposed to 5 mgL(-1) arsenate (AsV) and 20 mgL(-1) AsIIIfor 1 and 15 d. Total As and AsIII concentrations in plants were determined Compared to P. cretica mayii, P. vittata was more efficient in arsenic accumulation (1075-1666 vs. 249-627mg kg(-1) As in the fronds) partially because it is more efficient in As translocation. As translocation factor (As concentration ratio in fronds to roots) was 3.0-5.6 for P. vittata compared to 0.1 to 4.8 for P. cretica. Compared to N. exaltata, P. vittata was significantly more efficient in arsenic accumulation (38-542 vs. 4.8-71 mg kg(-1) As in thefronds) as well asAs translocation (1.3-5.6 vs. 0.2-0.5). In addition, P. vittata was much more efficient in As reduction from AsV to AsIII (83-84 vs. 13-24% AsIII in the fronds). Little As reduction occurred after 1-d exposure to AsV in both species indicates that As reduction was not instantaneous even in an As hyperaccumulator. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that both As translocation and As reduction are important for plant As hyperaccumulation. PMID:16285413

  17. Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia flux from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K. A.; Ham, J. M.

    Improved measurements of ammonia losses from cattle feedlots are needed to quantify the national NH 3 emissions inventory and evaluate management techniques for reducing emissions. Speciation cartridges composed of glass honeycomb denuders and filter packs were adapted to measure gaseous NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+ fluxes using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). Laboratory testing showed that a cartridge equipped with four honeycomb denuders had a total capture capacity of 1800 μg of NH 3. In the field, a pair of cartridges was deployed adjacent to a sonic anemometer and an open-path gas analyzer on a mobile tower. High-speed valves were attached to the inlets of the cartridges and controlled by a datalogger so that up- and down-moving eddies were independently sampled based on direction of the vertical wind speed and a user-defined deadband. Air flowed continuously through the cartridges even when not sampling by means of a recirculating air handling system. Eddy covariance measurement of CO 2 and H 2O, as measured by the sonic and open-path gas analyzer, were used to determine the relaxation factor needed to compute REA-based fluxes. The REA system was field tested at the Beef Research Unit at Kansas State University in the summer and fall of 2007. Daytime NH 3 emissions ranged between 68 and 127 μg m -2 s -1; fluxes tended to follow a diurnal pattern correlated with latent heat flux. Daily fluxes of NH 3 were between 2.5 and 4.7 g m -2 d -1 and on average represented 38% of fed nitrogen. Aerosol NH 4+ fluxes were negligible compared with NH 3 emissions. An REA system designed around the high-capacity speciation cartridges can be used to measure NH 3 fluxes from cattle feedlots and other strong sources. The system could be adapted to measure fluxes of other gases and aerosols.

  18. Concomitant Induction of Systemic Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in Cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum (T-203) and Accumulation of Phytoalexins

    PubMed Central

    Yedidia, Iris; Shoresh, Michal; Kerem, Zohar; Benhamou, Nicole; Kapulnik, Yoram; Chet, Ilan

    2003-01-01

    Most studies on the reduction of disease incidence in soil treated with Trichoderma asperellum have focused on microbial interactions rather than on plant responses. This study presents conclusive evidence for the induction of a systemic response against angular leaf spot of cucumber (Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans) following application of T. asperellum to the root system. To ascertain that T. asperellum was the only microorganism present in the root milieu, plants were grown in an aseptic hydroponic growth system. Disease symptoms were reduced by as much as 80%, corresponding to a reduction of 2 orders of magnitude in bacterial cell densities in leaves of plants pretreated with T. asperellum. As revealed by electron microscopy, bacterial cell proliferation in these plants was halted. The protection afforded by the biocontrol agent was associated with the accumulation of mRNA of two defense genes: the phenylpropanoid pathway gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and the lipoxygenase pathway gene encoding hydroxyperoxide lyase (HPL). This was further supported by the accumulation of secondary metabolites of a phenolic nature that showed an increase of up to sixfold in inhibition capacity of bacterial growth in vitro. The bulk of the antimicrobial activity was found in the acid-hydrolyzed extract containing the phenolics in their aglycone form. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phenolic compounds showed a marked change in their profile in the challenged, preelicited plants relative to that in challenged controls. The results suggest that similar to beneficial rhizobacteria, T. asperellum may activate separate metabolic pathways in cucumber that are involved in plant signaling and biosynthesis, eventually leading to the systemic accumulation of phytoalexins. PMID:14660384

  19. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sandra S.; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W.; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  20. Originating Visions and Visionaries of the REA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Helen Allan

    2003-01-01

    One hundred years ago an assembly of four hundred met at Chicago's Auditorium Hotel to create the Religious Education Association. This article traces the influences of William Rainey Harper, John Dewey, and George Albert Coe in the REA's formation, and explores social and intellectual conditions shaping this movement in its beginnings. The author…

  1. A Comparison of GHG Flux Measurements by Relaxed Eddy Accumulation and Eddy Covariance Methods Using FTIR and QCL Analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, A. T.; Laborde, M.; Hensen, A.; van den Bulk, P.; Famulari, D.; Griffith, D. W.; Nemitz, E.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation results obtained with a novel system for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements using an Ecotech Spectronus FTIR analyzer (Griffth et al, 2012) will be compared to eddy covariance fluxes using an Aerodyne QCL and a Licor 6262 NDIR analyzer. The REA FTIR system can be easily combined with other standard (e.g. NDIR) analyzers suited for eddy covariance measurements to allow for scaling of the obtained up/down concentration differences with the directly measured fluxes. Furthermore the FTIR system allows for on-line simultaneous high precision concentration measurement of a large number of different gases and even isotope composition, next to the measurement of CO2, CH4 and N2O mixing ratios. The final design goal for the REA FTIR system is an attractive fully automated, low maintenance system for long-term monitoring of Greenhouse Gas fluxes at the hourly time scale and a spatial scale of about 1 km2. During a campaign of four weeks in June 2013 (in the framework of the InGOS EU project) at a grazed grassland site at Easter Bush, Scotland (UK), simultaneous surface flux measurements of N2O and additionally CO2 and CH4 have been performed using our systems and a number of setups from other groups.. Weather conditions during the campaign were excellent and after the application of fertilizer at the field and some rainfall the increased emission of N2O was detected clearly by all systems. Both the eddy covariance and REA methods performed well during the campaign and the measured fluxes compare satisfactorily. In general the resulting fluxes from the FTIR system are lower then the QCL based results. Reasons for these deviations will be discussed together with implications of the results for the design of future REA measurements using the FTIR system. Griffith, D.W.T., N.M. Deutscher, C.G.R. Caldow, G. Kettlewell, M. Riggenbach and S. Hammer, A Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser for atmospheric applications. Atmospheric Measurement

  2. Silver nanoparticles induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and alteration of antioxidant systems in the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Sheng; Qiu, Xiao-Ni; Li, Gen-Bao; Li, Wei; Yin, Li-Yan

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used commercially because of their antibacterial properties. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in the toxicity of AgNPs to bacteria, animals, and algae. The authors used Spirodela polyrhiza to investigate whether AgNPs can induce oxidative stress in higher plants. Results showed that there was a dose-dependent increase in levels of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, and the antioxidant glutathione content in 6-nm AgNP treatments. Catalase activity and malondialdehyde content in 6-nm AgNP treatments was significantly higher than the control at silver concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) . Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and antioxidant glutathione and malondialdehyde content were not significantly different at 10 mg L(-1) of AgNPs (6 nm and 20 nm). Treatment with 20 µg L(-1) Ag(+) (the amount almost equal to 10 mg L(-1) AgNPs released) did not change the reactive oxygen species level or antioxidant enzymes activity. Micron-sized Ag particles had no effect on S. polyrhiza. Transmission electron microscopy showed that, compared with the control, chloroplasts in S. polyrhiza treated with 6-nm and 20-nm AgNPs accumulated starch grains and had reduced intergranal thylakoids. These results clearly indicate that AgNPs are able to cause oxidative stress and affect the chloroplast structure and function of S. polyrhiza, and this effect was not caused by Ag(+) released from particles. PMID:24619507

  3. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found. PMID:22391126

  4. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable. PMID:21123926

  5. Toward finding a universally applicable parameterization of the β factor for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Teresa; Hrdina, Amy; Thomas, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The traditional eddy covariance (EC) technique requires the use of fast responding sensors (≥ 10 Hz) that do not exist for many chemical species found in the atmosphere. In this case, the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method offers a means to calculate fluxes of trace gases and other scalar quantities (Businger and Oncley, 1990) and was originally derived from the eddy accumulation method (EA) first proposed by Desjardins (1972). While REA lessens the requirements for sensors and sampling and thus offers practical appeal, it introduces a dependence of the computed flux from a proportionality factor β. The accuracy of the REA fluxes hinges upon the correct determination of β, which was found to vary between 0.40 and 0.63 (Milne et al., 1999, Ammann and Meixner, 2002, Ruppert et al., 2006). However, formulating a universally valid parameterization for β instead of empirical evaluation has remained a conundrum and has been a main limitation for REA. In this study we take a fresh look at the dependencies and mathematical models of β by analyzing eddy covariance (EC) data and REA simulations for two field experiments in drastically contrasting environments: an exclusively physically driven environment in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and a biologically active system in a grassland in Germany. The main objective is to work toward a model parameterization for β that can be applied over wide range of surface conditions and forcings without the need for empirical evaluation, which is not possible for most REA applications. Our study discusses two different models to define β: (i) based upon scalar-scalar similarity, in which a different scalar is measured with fast-response sensors as a proxy for the scalar of interest, here referred to as β0; and (ii) computed solely from the vertical wind statistics, assuming a linear relationship between the scalar of interest and the vertical wind speed, referred to as βw. Results are presented for the carbon

  6. Temporal dynamics of methyltransferase and restriction endonuclease accumulation in individual cells after introducing a restriction-modification system

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Natalia; Sabantsev, Anton; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Yana; Maikova, Anna; Vedyaykin, Alexey; Rodic, Andjela; Djordjevic, Marko; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems encode a restriction endonuclease that cleaves DNA at specific sites, and a methyltransferase that modifies same sites protecting them from restriction endonuclease cleavage. Type II R-M systems benefit bacteria by protecting them from bacteriophages. Many type II R-M systems are plasmid-based and thus capable of horizontal transfer. Upon the entry of such plasmids into a naïve host with unmodified genomic recognition sites, methyltransferase should be synthesized first and given sufficient time to methylate recognition sites in the bacterial genome before the toxic restriction endonuclease activity appears. Here, we directly demonstrate a delay in restriction endonuclease synthesis after transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a plasmid carrying the Esp1396I type II R-M system, using single-cell microscopy. We further demonstrate that before the appearance of the Esp1396I restriction endonuclease the intracellular concentration of Esp1396I methyltransferase undergoes a sharp peak, which should allow rapid methylation of host genome recognition sites. A mathematical model that satisfactorily describes the observed dynamics of both Esp1396I enzymes is presented. The results reported here were obtained using a functional Esp1396I type II R-M system encoding both enzymes fused to fluorescent proteins. Similar approaches should be applicable to the studies of other R-M systems at single-cell level. PMID:26687717

  7. Mutation in Nicotianamine Aminotransferase Stimulated the Fe(II) Acquisition System and Led to Iron Accumulation in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Longjun; Wang, Fang; Shou, Huixia; Huang, Fangliang; Zheng, Luqing; He, Fei; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ueno, Daisei; Ma, Jian Feng; Wu, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Higher plants acquire iron (Fe) from the rhizosphere through two strategies. Strategy II, employed by graminaceous plants, involves secretion of phytosiderophores (e.g. deoxymugineic acid in rice [Oryza sativa]) by roots to solubilize Fe(III) in soil. In addition to taking up Fe in the form of Fe(III)-phytosiderophore, rice also possesses the strategy I-like system that may absorb Fe(II) directly. Through mutant screening, we isolated a rice mutant that could not grow with Fe(III)-citrate as the sole Fe source, but was able to grow when Fe(II)-EDTA was supplied. Surprisingly, the mutant accumulated more Fe and other divalent metals in roots and shoots than the wild type when both were supplied with EDTA-Fe(II) or grown under water-logged field conditions. Furthermore, the mutant had a significantly higher concentration of Fe in both unpolished and polished grains than the wild type. Using the map-based cloning method, we identified a point mutation in a gene encoding nicotianamine aminotransferase (NAAT1), which was responsible for the mutant phenotype. Because of the loss of function of NAAT1, the mutant failed to produce deoxymugineic acid and could not absorb Fe(III) efficiently. In contrast, nicotianamine, the substrate for NAAT1, accumulated markedly in roots and shoots of the mutant. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of a number of the genes involved in Fe(II) acquisition was greatly stimulated in the naat1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that disruption of deoxymugineic acid biosynthesis can stimulate Fe(II) acquisition and increase iron accumulation in rice. PMID:17951455

  8. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  9. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    PubMed

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent. PMID:14531430

  10. The contribution of remotely triggered displacement events to the long-term strain accumulation along the Atacama Fault System, N-Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, P.; Schurr, B.; Sobiesiak, M.; Ewiak, O.; Oncken, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Atacama Fault System (AFS) in N-Chile is an active trench-parallel fault system, located above approximately the down-dip end of coupling of the north Chilean subduction zone. The average long-term displacement rate for the last 100 000 - 10 000 years ranges between 0.2 and 0.3 mm/yr as determined by various methods and authors. The mode of displacement accumulation through time for this type of fault is not well understood. Surface ruptures along individual segments of the main fault scarp unambiguously reveal that the AFS has seismically ruptured several times during its past, but recurrence intervals are at least one order of magnitude longer than the megathrust earthquake cycle of the underlying subduction interface. Nevertheless these trench parallel fault systems bear a potential of unexpected large seismic ruptures as demonstrated by prominent examples like the Kobe Earthquak in 1995 and Denali Earthquake in 2002. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative proportion of aseismic and seismic slip through time and to investigate the impact of subduction zone earthquakes on the slip behavior of the AFS. Since 2008 we continuously monitor four active fault segments of the AFS with an array of 11 creepmeter stations, two of them co-located with Broadband seismometers. The displacement across the fault is continuously monitored with 2 samples/min with a resolution of 1μm. The displacement time series reveals that no continuous creep can be detected for 10 of the 11 stations. Instead we observe sudden displacement events correlated in time with far field megathrust earthquakes or local earthquakes on the plate interface or in the overriding crust. The most prominent event recorded on the creepmeters was the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake in 2010 located 1500km to 1800km away from the creepmeter array. All of the stations showed a triggered sudden displacement event 6-8 min after the main shock. Correlation with seismological data from a nearby IPOC station

  11. Accumulation of M1-like macrophages in type 2 diabetic islets is followed by a systemic shift in macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Cucak, Helena; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86(low) macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease. PMID:24009176

  12. Aortic cholesterol accumulation correlates with systemic inflammation but not hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue inflammation in low-density lipoprotein receptor null mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Miller, Bradley; Matthan, Nirupa R; Goktas, Zeynep; Wu, Dayong; Reed, Debra B; Yin, Xiangling; Grammas, Paula; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Shen, Chwan-Li; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerotic plaque, yet the involvement of liver and visceral adipose tissue inflammatory status in atherosclerotic lesion development has yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that an atherogenic diet would increase inflammatory response and lipid accumulation in the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) and would correlate with systemic inflammation and aortic lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor null (LDLr-/-) mice. For 32 weeks, LDLr-/- mice (n = 10/group) were fed either an atherogenic (high saturated fat and cholesterol) or control (low fat and cholesterol) diet. Hepatic and GAT lipid content and expression of inflammatory factors were measured using standard procedures. Compared with the control diet, the atherogenic diet significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC), primarily esterified cholesterol, and GAT triglyceride content. These changes were accompanied by increased expression of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5, CD36, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 and scavenger receptor B class 1, and they decreased the expression of cytochrome P450, family 7 and subfamily a, polypeptide 1 in GAT. Aortic TC content was positively associated with hepatic TC, triglyceride, and GAT triglyceride contents as well as plasma interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations. Although when compared with the control diet, the atherogenic diet increased hepatic tumor necrosis factor α production, they were not associated with aortic TC content. These data suggest that the LDLr-/- mice responded to the atherogenic diet by increasing lipid accumulation in the liver and GAT, which may have increased inflammatory response. Aortic TC content was positively associated with systemic inflammation but not hepatic and GAT inflammatory status. PMID:24267047

  13. [Accumulation of Mercury in Soil-maize System of Non-ferrous Metals Smelting Area and Its Related Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Na; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2015-10-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution, especially the mercury pollution, has been widespread concern in non-ferrous metallurgical area. This study focused on the content, distribution and pollution status of Hg in maize soil of Huludao city. Meanwhile, Hg contents in the various organs of maize were analyzed. Hg concentration in soil ranged from 0.25 to 3.49 mg x kg(-1) with the average content of 1.78 mg x kg(-1), which was 48 times as high as the background value of Liaoning soil. Around 2-3m range of zinc plant, the pattern of spatial distribution showed that the content of Hg was gradually increased with the increase of the distance to Huludao zinc plant. The result of geoaccumulation index reflected that Hg pollution is up to moderate pollution level on the whole. 54. 6% of the total sample were belonged to the serious pollution level. The potential ecological risk index of Hakanson was applied to assess the ecological risk of Hg. The target hazard quotient method (THQ) was used to assess the health risk for human, the results revealed that there was no significant health risk by consumption corn. Mercury is very difficult to transport in soil-maize system, and there is no obvious health risks to adults. But the risk coefficient of children, which is up to 0.056. is much higher than adults. PMID:26841621

  14. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  15. Biomass accumulation rates of Amazonian secondary forest and biomass of old-growth forests from Landsat time series and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, Eileen H.; Lefsky, Michael A.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the age of humid lowland tropical forests in Rondônia, Brazil, from a somewhat densely spaced time series of Landsat images (1975-2003) with an automated procedure, the Threshold Age Mapping Algorithm (TAMA), first described here. We then estimate a landscape-level rate of aboveground woody biomass accumulation of secondary forest by combining forest age mapping with biomass estimates from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Though highly variable, the estimated average biomass accumulation rate of 8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 agrees well with ground-based studies for young secondary forests in the region. In isolating the lowland forests, we map land cover and general types of old-growth forests with decision tree classification of Landsat imagery and elevation data. We then estimate aboveground live biomass for seven classes of old-growth forest. TAMA is simple, fast, and self-calibrating. By not using between-date band or index differences or trends, it requires neither image normalization nor atmospheric correction. In addition, it uses an approach to map forest cover for the self-calibrations that is novel to forest mapping with satellite imagery; it maps humid secondary forest that is difficult to distinguish from old-growth forest in single-date imagery; it does not assume that forest age equals time since disturbance; and it incorporates Landsat Multispectral Scanner imagery. Variations on the work that we present here can be applied to other forested landscapes. Applications that use image time series will be helped by the free distribution of coregistered Landsat imagery, which began in December 2008, and of the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite Vegetation Product, which simplifies the use of GLAS data. Finally, we demonstrate here for the first time how the optical imagery of fine spatial resolution that is viewable on Google Earth provides a new source of reference data for remote sensing applications related to land cover.

  16. Enhanced AOX accumulation and aquatic toxicity during 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation in a Co(II)/peroxymonosulfate/Cl⁻ system.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changling; Xiao, Dongxue; Liu, Wenqian; Lou, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Jianshe

    2016-02-01

    Chloride ion is known to affect on degradation kinetics in different ways during HO· and SO4(·-)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, its effect on absorbable organic halogen (AOX) evolution and acute toxicity of treated water remains unknown, despite the importance of the two parameters in evaluating the applicability of AOPs. In the present study, Co/peroxymonosulfate (Co/PMS) and UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatment of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was compared in terms of AOX formation, chlorinated byproducts and acute toxicity. Both Co/PMS and UV/H2O2 systems were more reactive under acidic conditions, resulting in elevated AOX levels when compared with those at neutral pH. The presence of high levels of chloride led to an accumulation and increase of AOX in the Co/PMS system. The toxicity of chlorinated byproducts was evaluated using Photobacterium phosphoreum, and the results revealed a sharp increase in acute toxicity of Co/PMS reaction solutions on addition of chloride ion. However, addition of Cl(-) had no apparent impact on AOX and toxicity of UV/H2O2 reaction solutions. These findings may have significant technical implications for selecting feasible technologies to treat high salinity wastewater. PMID:26613359

  17. Suppression of T Cell Activation and Collagen Accumulation by an Anti-IFNAR1 mAb, Anifrolumab, in Adult Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiang; Higgs, Brandon W; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Karsdal, Morten A; Yao, Yihong; Roskos, Lorin K; White, Wendy I

    2015-10-01

    Type I IFNs are implicated in the pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recently, a Phase I open-label trial was conducted with an anti-IFNAR1 receptor antibody (anifrolumab) in adult SSc patients. In this study, we aim to assess the downstream effects of anifrolumab and elucidate the role of type I IFN in SSc. Serum proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) markers were measured in relation to IFN pathway activation status and SSc disease activity. Our results demonstrated a robust overexpression of multiple serum proteins in SSc patients, particularly those with an elevated baseline type I IFN gene signature. Anifrolumab administration was associated with significant downregulation of T cell-associated proteins and upregulation of type III collagen degradation marker. Whole-blood and skin microarray results also indicated the inhibition of T cell receptor and ECM-related transcripts by anifrolumab. In summary, our study demonstrates suppressive effects of anifrolumab on T cell activation and collagen accumulation through which tissue fibrosis may be reduced in SSc patients. The relationship between these peripheral markers and the clinical response to anifrolumab may be examined in larger double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. PMID:25993119

  18. Potential of salt-accumulating and salt-secreting halophytic plants for recycling sodium chloride in human urine in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Shklavtsova, E. S.; Balnokin, Yu. V.; Popova, L. G.; Myasoedov, N. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-07-01

    This study addresses the possibility of growing different halophytic plants on mineralized human urine as a way to recycle NaCl from human wastes in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). Two halophytic plant species were studied: the salt-accumulating Salicornia europaea and the salt-secreting Limonium gmelinii. During the first two weeks, plants were grown on Knop's solution, then an average daily amount of urine produced by one human, which had been preliminarily mineralized, was gradually added to the experimental solutions. Nutrient solutions simulating urine mineral composition were gradually added to control solutions. NaCl concentrations in the stock solutions added to the experimental and control solutions were 9 g/L in the first treatment and 20 g/L in the second treatment. The mineralized human urine showed some inhibitory effects on S. europaea and L. gmelinii. The biomass yield of experimental plants was lower than that of control ones. If calculated for the same time period (120 d) and area (1 m 2), the amount of sodium chloride taken up by S. europaea plants would be 11.7 times larger than the amount taken up by L. gmelinii plants (486 g/m 2 vs. 41 g/m 2). Thus, S. europaea is the better choice of halophyte for recycling sodium chloride from human wastes in BLSS.

  19. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  20. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  1. Heavy metal and waste metabolite accumulation and their affect on rainbow trout performance in a replicated water reuse system operated at low or high system flushing rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A six-month trial was conducted to compare the effects of high and low make-up water flushing rates on rainbow trout performance and water quality in replicated water reuse aquaculture systems (WRAS). Six identical 9.5 m3 WRAS, containing a single 5.3 m3 tank and operated at a total recirculating fl...

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial design of whole experiment consisted of six vegetable crops (tomato, egg plant, spinach, amaranthus, carrot and radish) x two treatments (organic farming in open field and organic farming in glasshouse (OFG)) x seven independent harvest of each crop. The results indicated that except for Pb, atmospheric deposition of heavy metals increased consistently on time scale. Concentrations of heavy metals in cultivated soil horizon and in edible parts of open field grown vegetables increased over time and were significantly higher than those recorded in OFG plots. Increased contents of heavy metals in open field altered soil porosity, bulk density, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activities. Vegetable concentrations of heavy metal appeared in the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd and were maximum in leaves (spinach and amaranths) followed by fruits (tomato and egg plant) and minimum in roots (carrot and radish). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the major contribution of most heavy metals to vegetable leaves was from atmosphere. For roots however, soil appeared to be equally important. The study suggests that if the present trend of atmospheric deposition is continued, it will lead to a destabilizing effect on this sustainable agricultural practice and will increase the dietary intake of toxic metals. PMID:18202901

  3. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. PMID:27432725

  4. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  5. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  6. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  7. Life style-related diseases of the digestive system: endocrine disruptors stimulate lipid accumulation in target cells related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koichiro; Sakamoto, Hirotada; Nishikawa, Kenji; Sakuma, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Yohko; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2007-10-01

    Many reports indicated that endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect several hormonal functions in various living things. Here, we show the effect of EDs on lipid accumulation in target cells involved in the onset of metabolic syndrome. Treatment with nonylphenol and bisphenol A, typical EDs, stimulated the accumulation of triacylglycerol in differentiated adipocytes from 3T3-L1, preadipocytes, in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Up-regulation of gene expressions involved in lipid metabolism and metabolic syndrome were observed in adipocytes treated with EDs. Similarly, stimulatory effects of EDs were also observed on the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7. These observations indicate that exposure to EDs stimulates the lipid accumulation in target cells involved in the metabolic syndrome and may cause the dysfunction of those cells, resulting in induction of metabolic syndrome. PMID:17928741

  8. Toward finding a universally applicable parameterization of the β factor for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Teresa; Hrdina, Amy; Thomas, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The traditional eddy covariance (EC) technique requires the use of fast responding sensors (≥ 10 Hz) that do not exist for many chemical species found in the atmosphere. In this case, the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) method offers a means to calculate fluxes of trace gases and other scalar quantities (Businger and Oncley, 1990) and was originally derived from the eddy accumulation method (EA) first proposed by Desjardins (1972). While REA lessens the requirements for sensors and sampling and thus offers practical appeal, it introduces a dependence of the computed flux from a proportionality factor β. The accuracy of the REA fluxes hinges upon the correct determination of β, which was found to vary between 0.40 and 0.63 (Milne et al., 1999, Ammann and Meixner, 2002, Ruppert et al., 2006). However, formulating a universally valid parameterization for β instead of empirical evaluation has remained a conundrum and has been a main limitation for REA. In this study we take a fresh look at the dependencies and mathematical models of β by analyzing eddy covariance (EC) data and REA simulations for two field experiments in drastically contrasting environments: an exclusively physically driven environment in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and a biologically active system in a grassland in Germany. The main objective is to work toward a model parameterization for β that can be applied over wide range of surface conditions and forcings without the need for empirical evaluation, which is not possible for most REA applications. Our study discusses two different models to define β: (i) based upon scalar-scalar similarity, in which a different scalar is measured with fast-response sensors as a proxy for the scalar of interest, here referred to as β0; and (ii) computed solely from the vertical wind statistics, assuming a linear relationship between the scalar of interest and the vertical wind speed, referred to as βw. Results are presented for the carbon

  9. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  10. 22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK STRUCTURE ATOP PARKING STRUCTURE (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Environmental impact of multi-wall carbon nanotubes in a novel model of exposure: systemic distribution, macrophage accumulation, and amyloid deposition

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Bruno, Antonino; Principi, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Gini, Elisabetta; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Bassani, Barbara; De Flora, Silvio; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated and employed for industrial use because of their peculiar physical properties, which make them ideal for many industrial applications. However, rapid growth of CNT employment raises concerns about the potential risks and toxicities for public health, environment, and workers associated with the manufacture and use of these new materials. Here we investigate the main routes of entry following environmental exposure to multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; currently the most widely used in industry). We developed a novel murine model that could represent a surrogate of a workplace exposure to MWCNTs. We traced the localization of MWCNTs and their possible role in inducing an innate immune response, inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory conditions. Following environmental exposure of CD1 mice, we observed that MWCNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidney via the bloodstream. Since recent experimental studies show that CNTs are associated with the aggregation process of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether MWCNTs are able to induce amyloid fibril production and accumulation. Amyloid deposits in spatial association with macrophages and MWCNT aggregates were found in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys of exposed animals. Our data suggest that accumulation of MWCNTs in different organs is associated with inflammation and amyloid accumulation. In the brain, where we observed rapid accumulation and amyloid fibril deposition, exposure to MWCNTs might enhance progression of neurodegenerative and other amyloid-related diseases. Our data highlight the conclusion that, in a novel rodent model of exposure, MWCNTs may induce macrophage recruitment, activation, and amyloid deposition, causing potential damage to several organs. PMID:26457053

  12. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    , density of accumulation, and the geometry of the accumulation zone. The density of accumulation and the geometry of the accumulation zone are calculated using a characterization of the fracture system based on field measurements made in the proposed repository (BSC 2001k). The model predicts that accumulation would spread out in a conical accumulation volume. The accumulation volume is represented with layers as shown in Figure 1. This model does not directly feed the assessment of system performance. The output from this model is used by several other models, such as the configuration generator, criticality, and criticality consequence models, prior to the evaluation of system performance.

  13. Background radiation accumulation and lower limit of detection in thermoluminescent beta-gamma dosimeters used by the centralized external dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Sonder, E.; Ahmed, A.B.

    1991-12-01

    A value for ``average background radiation`` of 0.75 mR/week has been determined from a total of 1680 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD`s) exposed in 70 houses for periods up to one year. The distribution of results indicates a rather large variation among houses, with a few locations exhibiting backgrounds double the general average. Some discrepancies in the short-term background accumulation of TLD`s have been explained as being due to light leakage through the dosimeter cases. In addition the lower limit of detection (L{sub D}) for deep and shallow dose equivalents has been determined for these dosimeters. The L{sub D} for occupational exposure depends strongly on the time a dosimeter is exposed to background radiation in the field. The L{sub D} can vary from a low of 2.4 mrem for high energy gamma rays when the background accumulation period is less than a few weeks to values as high as 66 mrem for uranium beta particles when background has been allowed to accumulate for more than 21 weeks.

  14. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  15. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. PMID:27136060

  16. THE KINETICS OF PENETRATION : VIII. TEMPORARY ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, W J; Kamerling, S E

    1934-03-20

    A model is described which throws light on the mechanism of accumulation. In the model used an external aqueous phase A is separated by a non-aqueous phase B (representing the protoplasm) from the artificial sap in C. A contains KOH and C contains HCl: they tend to mix by passing through the non-aqueous layer but much more KOH moves so that most of the KCl is formed in C, where the concentration of potassium becomes much greater than in A. This accumulation is only temporary for as the system approaches equilibrium the composition of A approaches identity with that of C, since all the substances present can pass through the non-aqueous layer. Such an approach to equilibrium may be compared to the death of the cell as the result of which accumulation disappears. During the earlier stages of the experiment potassium tends to go in as KOH and at the same time to go out as KCl. These opposing tendencies do not balance until the concentration of potassium inside becomes much greater than outside (hence potassium accumulates). The reason is that KCl, although its driving force be great, moves very slowly in B because its partition coefficient is low and in consequence its concentration gradient in B is small. This illustrates the importance of partition coefficients for penetration in models and in living cells. It also indicates that accumulation depends on the fact that permeability is greater for the ingoing compound of the accumulating substance than for the outgoing compound. Other things being equal, accumulation is increased by maintaining a low pH in C. Hence we may infer that anything which checks the production of acid in the living cell may be expected to check accumulation and growth. This model recalls the situation in Valonia and in most living cells where potassium accumulates as KCl, perhaps because it enters as KOH and forms KA in the sap (where A is an organic anion). In some plants potassium accumulates as KA but when HCl exists in the external

  17. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  18. Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses of the Oil-Accumulating Basidiomycete Yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus: Insights into Substrate Utilization and Alternative Evolutionary Trajectories of Fungal Mating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bracharz, Felix; Lorenzen, Jan; Kracht, Octavia N.; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Deshpande, Shweta; Lipzen, Anna; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Sun, Sheng; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial fermentation of agro-industrial waste holds great potential for reducing the environmental impact associated with the production of lipids for industrial purposes from plant biomass. However, the chemical complexity of many residues currently prevents efficient conversion into lipids, creating a high demand for strains with the ability to utilize all energy-rich components of agricultural residues. Here, we present results of genome and transcriptome analyses of Trichosporon oleaginosus. This oil-accumulating yeast is able to grow on a wide variety of substrates, including pentoses and N-acetylglucosamine, making it an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. Transcriptomics shows specific changes in gene expression patterns under lipid-accumulating conditions. Furthermore, gene content and expression analyses indicate that T. oleaginosus is well-adapted for the utilization of chitin-rich biomass. We also focused on the T. oleaginosus mating type, because this species is a member of the Tremellomycetes, a group that has been intensively analyzed as a model for the evolution of sexual development, the best-studied member being Cryptococcus neoformans. The structure of the T. oleaginosus mating-type regions differs significantly from that of other Tremellomycetes and reveals a new evolutionary trajectory paradigm. Comparative analysis shows that recruitment of developmental genes to the ancestral tetrapolar mating-type loci occurred independently in the Trichosporon and Cryptococcus lineages, supporting the hypothesis of a trend toward larger mating-type regions in fungi. PMID:26199329

  19. Influence of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid on starch accumulation in the synthetic mutualistic Chlorella sorokiniana-Azospirillum brasilense system under heterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the relations between tryptophan production, the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the metabolism and accumulation of starch during synthetic mutualism between the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and the microalgae growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, created by co-immobilization in alginate beads. Experiments used two wild-type A. brasilense strains (Cd and Sp6) and an IAA-attenuated mutant (SpM7918) grown under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-starved conditions tested under dark, heterotrophic and aerobic growth conditions. Under all incubating conditions, C. sorokiniana, but not A. brasilense, produced tryptophan. A significant correlation between IAA-production by A. brasilense and starch accumulation in C. sorokiniana was found, since the IAA-attenuated mutant was not producing increased starch levels. The highest ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity, starch content and glucose uptake were found during the interaction of A. brasilense wild type strains with the microalgae. When the microalgae were grown alone, they produced only small amounts of starch. Supplementation with synthetic IAA to C. sorokiniana grown alone enhanced the above parameters, but only transiently. Activity of α-amylase decreased under nitrogen-replete conditions, but increased under nitrogen-starved conditions. In summary, this study demonstrated that, during synthetic mutualism, the exchange of tryptophan and IAA between the partners is a mechanism that governs several changes in starch metabolism of C. sorokiniana, yielding an increase in starch content. PMID:26924113

  20. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity. PMID:26741538

  1. Field study on the uptake, accumulation, translocation and risk assessment of PAHs in a soil-wheat system with amendments of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Ma, Yibing

    2016-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted to explore the uptake and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by wheat plants following sewage sludge application. Two types of application methods (single or annual application) and four application rates (5, 10, 20, and 40t/ha/year) were investigated. The contents of 16 PAHs in soils, wheat roots and straws increased as the rate of sewage sludge application increased and were in the range of 20.7 to 241, 166 to 700, and 110 to 260ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Meanwhile, for the PAH contents in grains (81.2-95.2ng/g dw), no statistically significant differences were observed among different treatments. A single application of a large quantity of sewage sludge would likely increase the accumulation of PAHs in soil as well as their subsequent uptake and translocation by wheat. Profile analysis indicated that the transfer and accumulation of lower weight PAHs in wheat plants were greater. Regarding PAHs, sewage sludge application at 40t/ha/year for 6years did not significantly increase the risks of intake by wheat grain grown on sludge-amended soils. PMID:27093123

  2. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20 mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. PMID:26946284

  3. The SPECT imaging shows the accumulation of neural progenitor cells into internal organs after systemic administration in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Riikka S; Narkilahti, Susanna; Huhtala, Tuulia; Liimatainen, Timo; Suuronen, Tiina; Närvänen, Ale; Suuronen, Riitta; Hovatta, Outi; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2008-08-01

    The regenerative potential of stem cells from various sources has been under intense investigation in the experimental models of cerebral ischemia. To end up with a restorative therapeutic treatment, it is crucial to get the cell transplants to the site of injury. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of small animal SPECT/CT in assessing the definite accumulation of (111)In-oxine-labeled human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitors and rat hippocampal progenitors after intravenous or intra-arterial administration (femoral vein vs. common carotid artery) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and sham-operated rats. Cell detection was carried out immediately and 24h after the infusion using a SPECT/CT device. The results showed that after intravenous injections both cell types accumulated primarily into internal organs, instead of brain. In contrast, after intra-arterial injection, a weak signal was detected in the ischemic hemisphere. Additional studies showed that the detection sensitivity of SPECT/CT device was approximately 1000 (111)In-oxine-labeled cells and labeling did not affect the cell viability. In conclusion, a small animal SPECT is powerful technique to study the whole body biodistribution of cell-based therapies. Our data showed that intravenous administration is not an optimal route to deliver neural progenitor cell-containing transplants into the brain after MCAO in rats. PMID:18572314

  4. A Simulation Model Articulation of the REA Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurier, Wim; Poels, Geert

    This paper demonstrates how the REA enterprise ontology can be used to construct simulation models for business processes, value chains and collaboration spaces in supply chains. These models support various high-level and operational management simulation applications, e.g. the analysis of enterprise sustainability and day-to-day planning. First, the basic constructs of the REA ontology and the ExSpect modelling language for simulation are introduced. Second, collaboration space, value chain and business process models and their conceptual dependencies are shown, using the ExSpect language. Third, an exhibit demonstrates the use of value chain models in predicting the financial performance of an enterprise.

  5. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  6. Chambers versus Relaxed Eddy Accumulation: an intercomparison study of two methods for short-term measurements of biogenic CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Chmura, Lukasz; Necki, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    The presented work is a part of comprehensive study aimed at thorough characterization of carbon cycle in the urban environment of Krakow, southern Poland. In the framework of this study two independent methods were employed to quantify biogenic CO2 flux in the city: (i) closed chambers, and (ii) Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA). The results of a three-day intensive intercomparison campaign performed in July 2013 and utilizing both measurement methods are reported here. The chamber method is a widely used approach for measurements of gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The system implemented in this study consisted of a single chamber operating in a closed-dynamic mode, combined with Vaisala CarboCAP infrared CO2 sensor in a mobile setup. An alternative flux measurement method, covering larger area is represented by REA, which is a modification of the eddy covariance method. It consists of a 3D anemometer (Gill Windmaster Pro) and the system collecting updraft and downdraft samples to 5-litre Tedlar bags. The CO2 mixing ratios in the collected samples are measured by Picarro G2101i analyzer. The setup consists of two sets of bags so that the sampling can be performed continuously with 15-min temporal resolution. A 48-hectares open meadow located close the city center was chosen as a test site for comparison of the two methods of CO2 flux measurements outlined above. In the middle of the meadow a 3-metre high tripod was installed with the anemometer and REA inlet system. For a period of 46 hours the system was measuring net CO2 flux from the surrounding area. A meteorological conditions and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also recorded. In the same time, CO2 flux from several points around the REA inlet was measured with the chamber system, resulting in 93 values for both respiration and net CO2 flux. Chamber results show rather homogenous distribution of the soil CO2 flux (the mean value equal to 40.9 ± 2.2 mmol/m2h), with

  7. Hippocampal Networks Habituate as Novelty Accumulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Ballard, Ian C.; Macduffie, Katherine E.; Krebs, Ruth M.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2013-01-01

    Novelty detection, a critical computation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, necessarily depends on prior experience. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate dynamic changes in MTL activation and functional connectivity as experience with novelty accumulates. fMRI data were…

  8. Systemic high-mobility group box 1 administration suppresses skin inflammation by inducing an accumulation of PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, Eriko; Fujita, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Tamai, Katsuto

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mobilizes platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) mesenchymal cells from bone marrow (BM) into circulation. However, whether HMGB1-induced endogenous PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells stimulate skin regeneration has been unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of the HMGB1/BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cell axis in the regeneration of mouse skin grafts. We found that intravenous HMGB1 administration induced an accumulation of endogenous BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells followed by significant inflammatory suppression in the grafts. In contrast, mice with reduced BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells showed massive inflammation of the grafts compared to mice that had normal levels of these cells even after HMGB1 administration, suggesting that BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells contribute to the HMGB1-induced anti-inflammatory effect. We also found that intravenously administered HMGB1 augmented the local migration of BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cells from circulation to skin graft by inducing the expression of CXCR4, an SDF-1 receptor, on these cells. Finally, we showed the therapeutic activity of the HMGB1/BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cell axis in an allergic contact dermatitis model. The results illustrated the contribution of the HMGB1/BM-PDGFRα+ mesenchymal cell axis in suppressing the inflammation of injured/inflamed skin. These findings may provide future perspectives on the use of HMGB1-based medicines for intractable diseases. PMID:26046579

  9. Mercury species accumulation and trophic transfer in biological systems using the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) as a case of study.

    PubMed

    Patiño Ropero, M J; Rodríguez Fariñas, N; Mateo, R; Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C

    2016-04-01

    The impact of mercury (Hg) pollution in the terrestrial environments and the terrestrial food chains including the impact on human food consumption is still greatly under-investigated. In particular, studies including Hg speciation and detoxification strategies in terrestrial animals are almost non-existing, but these are key information with important implications for human beings. Therefore, in this work, we report on Hg species (inorganic mercury, iHg, and monomethylmercury, MeHg) distribution among terrestrial animal tissues obtained from a real-world Hg exposure scenario (Almadén mining district, Spain). Thus, we studied Hg species (iHg and MeHg) and total selenium (Se) content in liver and kidney of red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 41) and wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 16). Similar mercury species distribution was found for both red deer and wild boar. Major differences were found between tissues; thus, in kidney, iHg was clearly the predominant species (more than 81%), while in liver, the species distribution was less homogeneous with a percentage of MeHg up to 46% in some cases. Therefore, Hg accumulation and MeHg transfer were evident in terrestrial ecosystems. The interaction between total Se and Hg species has been evaluated by tissue and by animal species. Similar relationships were found in kidney for both Hg species in red deer and wild boar. However, in liver, there were differences between animals. The possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:26160125

  10. Design of a compact all-permanent magnet ECR ion source injector for ReA at the MSU NSCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Alfonse N.; Leitner, Daniela; Glennon, Patrick; Ottarson, Jack; Lawton, Don; Portillo, Mauricio; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wenstrom, John; Lajoie, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The design of a compact all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source injector for the ReAccelerator Facility (ReA) at the Michigan State University (MSU) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is currently being carried out. The ECR ion source injector will complement the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder as an off-line stable ion beam injector for the ReA linac. The objective of the ECR ion source injector is to provide continuous-wave beams of heavy ions from hydrogen to masses up to 136Xe within the ReA charge-to-mass ratio (Q / A) operational range from 0.2 to 0.5. The ECR ion source will be mounted on a high-voltage platform that can be adjusted to obtain the required 12 keV/u injection energy into a room temperature radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for further acceleration. The beam line consists of a 30 kV tetrode extraction system, mass analyzing section, and optical matching section for injection into the existing ReA low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. The design of the ECR ion source and the associated beam line are discussed.

  11. Path-dependent economic evolution with capital accumulation and education.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with wealth accumulation and human capital accumulation. The economic system consists of one production sector and one university. The university carries out education. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, and division of labor under perfect economic competition and the government intervention in education. We provide conditions for the existence of equilibrium points and stability of the nonlinear dynamic system. The simulation results demonstrate path-dependent processes of the nonlinear evolution. Some insights into East Asia's industrializing processes are provided. PMID:16011826

  12. Carbonate Fluxes to the Eastern Equatorial Pacific during the Eocene: using the GENIE Earth System Model to investigate carbonate accumulation event mechanisms and dynamics revealed by the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pälike, H.; Lyle, M. W.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Edgar, K. M.; Science Party, I.; Iodp Expeditions 320/321 Science Party

    2010-12-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) recovered sediments and data from a set of Sites that form a palaeo-depth transect for most of Cenozoic time. We are using the data from IODP Expedition 320 and ODP Leg 199 sites to refine the dynamics of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the Eocene. We are able to use the PEAT depth transect approach to determine the intensity of carbonate fluxes at the seafloor for the previously identified carbonate accumulation events (CAEs) of Lyle et al (ODP Leg 199 SR, 2005). Using the reconstructed depths for the drilled sites we are able to determine the amplitude of the CCD fluctuations to be about 500m in depth, and carbonate accumulation rates fluctuate between near zero and ~1.5 g/cm2/kyr. Each event lasts for a time period of around 1 Myr, with sharp transitions into and out of these cycles of enhanced carbonate accumulation. To investigate the potential mechanisms for these events we use an Earth System Model of Intermediate complexity (GENIE), as previously employed to study the carbon cycle during the PETM (Panchuk et al., Geology 2008). Using estimated values for ocean water Ca and Mg concentrations, we ran ensemble simulations for different pCO2 concentrations, different Alkalinity and different CaCO3:POC scenarios. We find that different CaCO3:POC ratios are able to explain many of the observed dissolution/preservation events, and are able to use these to constrain other parameters in the Earth System.

  13. Accumulation, transfer, and potential sources of mercury in the soil-wheat system under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengli; Nan, Zhongren; Prete, Daniel; Ma, Jianmin; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-15

    There is limited information on accumulation, transfer, and source of mercury in wheats under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China. The present study collected 26 pairs of topsoil and whole wheat samples (roots, stems, leaves, shells, and grains) from Dongdagou stream watershed and upper Xidagou stream watershed, Baiyin City, northwest China. Hg concentrations from these samples were used to identify their relationships with soil properties, interactions with other metals, localization of Hg in the different wheat tissues, bio-concentration and transfer of Hg, and major sources of Hg in wheat. Results show that Hg levels in 11 out of 26 sampled soils (42.3% of soil samples) exceeded Hg limit of grade II soil environmental quality standards in China (1.0mg·kg(-1)). Likewise, it was also found that Hg in over 50% of wheat grain samples reached or exceeded the maximum permissible food safety levels (0.02mg·kg(-1)) according to the General Standard of Contaminants in Food in China (GB 2762-2012). The spatial distribution pattern of Hg in wheats grains was different from that in the sampled soils. Hg concentrations in different wheat tissues were highest in roots, followed by leaves, stalks, shells, and grains, respectively. Bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Hg in almost all grains samples were one or two orders of magnitude lower than that in roots, except for two wheat samples. The translocation factors (TF) of Hg in wheat tissues on average were leaves>stems>shells>grains. The spatial distribution of Hg and its correlation with other heavy metal detected simultaneously in the soil samples suggested that the Hg soil contamination was probably caused by past sewage irrigation practices and atmospheric deposition. Correlation analysis revealed that the principle source of Hg in wheat roots was very likely from Hg contaminated soils. PMID:27300562

  14. Strain accumulation and fluid-rock interaction in a naturally deformed diamictite, Willard thrust system, Utah (USA): Implications for crustal rheology and strain softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonkee, W. Adolph; Czeck, Dyanna M.; Nachbor, Amelia C.; Barszewski, Christine; Pantone, Spenser; Balgord, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Kimberly R.

    2013-05-01

    Structural and geochemical patterns of heterogeneously deformed diamictite in northern Utah (USA) record interrelations between strain accumulation, fluid-rock interaction, and softening processes across a major fault (Willard thrust). Different clast types in the diamictite have varying shape fabrics related to competence contrasts with estimated effective viscosity ratios relative to micaceous matrix of: ˜6 and 8 for large quartzite clasts respectively in the Willard hanging wall and footwall; ˜5 and 2 for less altered and more altered granitic clasts respectively in the hanging wall and footwall; and ˜1 for micaceous clasts that approximate matrix strain. Within the footwall, matrix X-Z strain ratios increase from ˜2 to 8 westward along a distinct deformation gradient. Microstructures record widespread mass transfer, alteration of feldspar to mica, and dislocation creep of quartz within matrix and clasts. Fluid influx along microcracks and mesoscopic vein networks increased westward and led to reaction softening and hydrolytic weakening, in conjunction with textural softening from alignment of muscovite aggregates. Consistent Si, Al, and Ti concentrations between matrix, granitic clasts, and protoliths indicate limited volume change. Mg gain and Na loss reflect alteration of feldspar to phengitic muscovite. Within the hanging wall, strain is overall lower with matrix X-Z strain ratios of ˜2 to 4. Microstructures record mass transfer and dislocation creep concentrated in the matrix. Greater Al and Ti concentrations and lower Si concentrations in matrix indicate volume loss by quartz dissolution. Na gain in granitic clasts reflects albitization. Large granitic clasts have less mica alteration and greater competence compared to smaller clasts. Differences in strain and alteration patterns across the Willard thrust fault suggest overall downward (up-temperature) fluid flow in the hanging wall and upward (down-temperature) fluid flow in the footwall.

  15. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  16. From Elitism to Inclusive Education: Development of Outcomes-Based Learning and Post-Secondary Credit Accumulation and Transfer Systems in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Ron

    This report provides observations and lessons learned by a study-visit team from the Centre for Curriculum, Transfer and Technology (Canada) and the British Columbian Council on Admissions and Transfer. The study-visit was a reconnaissance of the reform of the post-school education and training system in the United Kingdom (UK), chiefly in England…

  17. Wilson disease and other neurodegenerations with metal accumulations.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Petr; Litwin, Tomasz; Czlonkowska, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Trace elements, such as iron, copper, manganese, and calcium, which are essential constituents necessary for cellular homeostasis, become toxic when present in excess quantities. In this article, we describe disorders arising from endogenous dysregulation of metal homeostasis leading to their tissue accumulation. Although subgroups of these diseases lead to regional brain metal accumulation, mostly in globus pallidus, which is susceptible to accumulate divalent metal ions, other subgroups cause systemic metal accumulation affecting the whole brain, liver, and other parenchymal organs. The latter group comprises Wilson disease, manganese transporter deficiency, and aceruloplasminemia and responds favorably to chelation treatment. PMID:25432729

  18. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  19. Contaminant Accumulation in Many New England Lead Pipe Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers' taps. The objective of this s...

  20. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. PMID:23816453

  1. Flux of organic compounds from grass measured by relaxed eddy accumulation technique.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Marcus; Ek-Olausson, Birgitta; Ljungström, Evert; Langer, Sarka

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of some Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from grass were measured at a golf course in western Sweden, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) technique. The sampling was done by collecting VOC onto adsorbent tubes and the analysis was performed by thermal desorption followed by GC/MS. High emissions were observed after cutting. Transient fluxes of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (0.51 microg m(-2) s(-1)), (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (0.14 microg m(-2) s(-1)) and (Z)-3-hexenal (0.40 microg m(-2) s(-1)) were measured, even at low temperatures. The REA technique requires a relatively large fetch area that is sometimes not available. Therefore, a procedure for correcting measured fluxes from a limited fetch is suggested. PMID:14710940

  2. Design Analysis of the Ares 1 Pogo Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Luke A.; Giel, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Several accumulator designs and gas charge systems are considered in order to suppress POGO within the Ares I vehicle Upper Stage Liquid Ox ygen System. The thermodynamic and flow analysis completed to evaluat e candidate designs are presented and the results are used to evaluat e the ability of each concept to meet the levied suppression requirements. One annular accumulator design meets all suppression requirement s while also providing manufacturability and operability advantages. Of the two proposed charge systems to provide and maintain gas within the accumulator, a passive level control design meets the charge req uirements and maximizes reliability.

  3. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  4. R2R3-NaMYB8 Regulates the Accumulation of Phenylpropanoid-Polyamine Conjugates, Which Are Essential for Local and Systemic Defense against Insect Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schöttner, Mathias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gális, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Although phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates (PPCs) occur ubiquitously in plants, their biological roles remain largely unexplored. The two major PPCs of Nicotiana attenuata plants, caffeoylputrescine (CP) and dicaffeoylspermidine, increase dramatically in local and systemic tissues after herbivore attack and simulations thereof. We identified NaMYB8, a homolog of NtMYBJS1, which in BY-2 cells regulates PPC biosynthesis, and silenced its expression by RNA interference in N. attenuata (ir-MYB8), to understand the ecological role(s) of PPCs. The regulatory role of NaMYB8 in PPC biosynthesis was validated by a microarray analysis, which revealed that transcripts of several key biosynthetic genes in shikimate and polyamine metabolism accumulated in a NaMYB8-dependent manner. Wild-type N. attenuata plants typically contain high levels of PPCs in their reproductive tissues; however, NaMYB8-silenced plants that completely lacked CP and dicaffeoylspermidine showed no changes in reproductive parameters of the plants. In contrast, a defensive role for PPCs was clear; both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera littoralis) caterpillars feeding on systemically preinduced young stem leaves performed significantly better on ir-MYB8 plants lacking PPCs compared with wild-type plants expressing high levels of PPCs. Moreover, the growth of M. sexta caterpillars was significantly reduced when neonates were fed ir-MYB8 leaves sprayed with synthetic CP, corroborating the role of PPCs as direct plant defense. The spatiotemporal accumulation and function of PPCs in N. attenuata are consistent with the predictions of the optimal defense theory: plants preferentially protect their most fitness-enhancing and vulnerable parts, young tissues and reproductive organs, to maximize their fitness. PMID:20089770

  5. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  6. Constant-Differential-Pressure Two-Fluid Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piecuch, Benjamin; Dalton, Luke T.

    2010-01-01

    A two-fluid accumulator has been designed, built, and demonstrated to provide an acceptably close approximation to constant differential static pressure between two fluids over the full ranges of (1) accumulator stroke, (2) rates of flow of the fluids, and (3) common static pressure applied to the fluids. Prior differential- pressure two-fluid accumulators are generally not capable of maintaining acceptably close approximations to constant differential pressures. The inadequacies of a typical prior differential-pressure two-fluid accumulator can be summarized as follows: The static differential pressure is governed by the intrinsic spring rate (essentially, the stiffness) of an accumulator tank. The spring rate can be tailored through selection of the tank-wall thickness, selection of the number and/or shape of accumulator convolutions, and/or selection of accumulator material(s). Reliance on the intrinsic spring rate of the tank results in three severe limitations: (1) The spring rate and the expulsion efficiency tend to be inversely proportional to each other: that is to say, as the stiffness (and thus the differential pressure) is increased, the range of motion of the accumulator is reduced. (2) As the applied common static pressure increases, the differential pressure tends to decrease. An additional disadvantage, which may or may not be considered limiting, depending on the specific application, is that an increase in stiffness entails an increase in weight. (3) The additional weight required by a low expulsion efficiency accumulator eliminates the advantage given to such gas storage systems. The high expulsion efficiency provided by this two-fluid accumulator allows for a lightweight, tightly packaged system, which can be used in conjunction with a fuel cell-based system.

  7. Volume accumulator design analysis computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The computer codes, VANEP and VANES, were written and used to aid in the design and performance calculation of the volume accumulator units (VAU) for the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. VANEP computes the VAU design which meets the primary coolant loop VAU volume and pressure performance requirements. VANES computes the performance of the VAU design, determined from the VANEP code, at the conditions of the secondary coolant loop. The codes can also compute the performance characteristics of the VAU's under conditions of possible modes of failure which still permit continued system operation.

  8. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  9. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  10. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  11. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  12. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  13. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  14. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  15. Accumulation of Contaminants in the Distribution System.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of arsenic from water using iron-related processes including coagulation with iron salts, iron removal with oxidation/filtration, and specific iron resins is established. These processes are effective because iron solids including minerals and chemical floc have strong ad...

  16. ACCUMULATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of arsenic from water using iron-related processes including coagulation with iron salts, iron removal with oxidation/filtration, and specific iron resins is established. These processes are effective because iron solids including minerals and chemical floc have strong ad...

  17. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  18. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  19. A "Quiet Activist" during the Second-Wave Feminist Movement: Katharine Rea--AHistorical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this historical case study dissertation is to discover the story of Dr. Katharine Rea in her role as dean of women and later faculty member in the higher education and student personnel program at the University of Mississippi. As the dean of women in the 1960s Rea was responsible for the well-being and quality of the educational…

  20. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  1. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  2. Flavonoid Accumulation Patterns of Transparent Testa Mutants of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Wendy Ann; Brown, Dana E.; Tague, Brian W.; Muday, Gloria K.; Taiz, Lincoln; Murphy, Angus S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells. PMID:11402185

  3. Frailty: Scaling from Cellular Deficit Accumulation?

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Kenneth; Mitnitski, Arnold; Howlett, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Cells age in association with deficit accumulation via mechanisms that are far from fully defined. Even so, how deficits might scale up from the subcellular level to give rise to clinically evident age-related changes can be investigated. This 'scaling problem' can be viewed either as a series of little-related events that reflect discrete processes--such as the development of particular diseases--or as a stochastic process with orderly progression at the systems level, regardless of which diseases are present. Some recent evidence favors the latter hypothesis, but determining the best approach to study how deficits scale remains a key goal for understanding aging. In consequence, approaching the problem of frailty as one of the scaling of subcellular deficits has implications for understanding aging. Considering the cumulative effects of many small deficits appears to allow for the observation of important aspects of the behavior of systems that are close to failure. Mathematical modeling offers useful possibilities in clarifying the extent to which different clinical scales measure different phenomena. Even so, to be useful, mathematical modelling must be clinically coherent in addition to mathematically sound. In this regard, queuing appears to offer some potential for investigating how deficits originate and accumulate. PMID:26301975

  4. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. PMID:26334198

  5. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  6. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  7. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance. PMID:26207887

  8. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance and Upgrades of the Fermilab Accumulator Stacktail Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P. F.; Cullerton, Ed; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Sun Ding; Tinsley, David

    2006-03-20

    We report on the performance and planned upgrades to the Fermilab Accumulator Stacktail Stochastic Cooling System. The current system has achieved a maximum flux of 16.5e10/hour, limited by the input flux of antiprotons. The upgrades are designed to handle flux in excess of 40e10/hour.

  10. Performance and upgrades of the Fermilab Accumulator stacktail stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P.F.; Cullerton, Ed; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Sun, Ding; Tinsley, David; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    We report on the performance and planned upgrades to the Fermilab Accumulator Stacktail Stochastic Cooling System. The current system has achieved a maximum flux of 16.5e10/hour, limited by the input flux of antiprotons. The upgrades are designed to handle flux in excess of 40e10/hour.

  11. Improved absolute calibration of LOPES measurements and its impact on the comparison with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Fuchs, B.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hiller, R.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Morello, C.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Palmieri, N.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    LOPES was a digital antenna array detecting the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. The calibration of the absolute amplitude scale of the measurements was done using an external, commercial reference source, which emits a frequency comb with defined amplitudes. Recently, we obtained improved reference values by the manufacturer of the reference source, which significantly changed the absolute calibration of LOPES. We reanalyzed previously published LOPES measurements, studying the impact of the changed calibration. The main effect is an overall decrease of the LOPES amplitude scale by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.2, affecting all previously published values for measurements of the electric-field strength. This results in a major change in the conclusion of the paper 'Comparing LOPES measurements of air-shower radio emission with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations' published by Apel et al. (2013) : With the revised calibration, LOPES measurements now are compatible with CoREAS simulations, but in tension with REAS 3.11 simulations. Since CoREAS is the latest version of the simulation code incorporating the current state of knowledge on the radio emission of air showers, this new result indicates that the absolute amplitude prediction of current simulations now is in agreement with experimental data.

  12. Multiple Beneficial Roles of Repressor of Estrogen Receptor Activity (REA) in Suppressing the Progression of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuechao; Chen, Yiru; Kuang, Ye; Bagchi, Milan K; Taylor, Robert N; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, inflammation-driven gynecologic disorder in which endometrial tissue creates inflammatory lesions at extrauterine sites, leading to pelvic pain and impaired fertility. Although dysregulated estrogen receptor (ER) signaling has been implicated, understanding of this disease is incomplete and current therapies are of limited benefit. Using an immunocompetent syngeneic murine model, we used combinations of donor uterine tissue and/or recipient host mice with partial genetic deletion of the ER coregulator, repressor of ER activity (REA) (also known as prohibitin 2), to investigate roles of REA in the contributions of donor uterine tissue and host cell influences on endometriosis establishment and progression. Ectopic lesions derived from donor tissue with half the wild-type gene dosage of REA (REA(+/-)) grown in REA(+/-) hosts displayed enhanced proliferation, vascularization, and markedly increased neuron innervation and inflammatory responses, including elevated cytokine production, nuclear factor kappa B activation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and immune cell infiltration. Although lesion progression was greatest when REA was reduced in both donor tissue and host animals, other donor/host combinations indicated that distinct stimulatory inputs were derived from ectopic tissue (proliferative signals) and host cells (inflammatory signals). Importantly, depletion of REA in primary human endometriotic stromal cells led to elevated proliferation and expression of cell cycle regulators. Notably, REA was significantly lower in human endometriotic tissue versus normal human endometrium. Thus, REA modulates cross talk among multiple cell types in the uterine tissue and host background, serving as a brake on the estradiol-ER axis and restraining multiple aspects that contribute to the pathologic progression of endometriosis. PMID:26653759

  13. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  14. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  15. Predicting Accumulations of Ice on Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin; Potapczuk, Mark; Addy, Gene; Wright, William

    2003-01-01

    LEWICE is a computer program that predicts the accumulation of ice on two-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces under conditions representative of the flight of an aircraft through an icing cloud. The software first calculates the airflow surrounding the body of interest, then uses the airflow to compute the trajectories of water droplets that impinge on the surface of the body. The droplet trajectories are also used to compute impingement limits and local collection efficiencies, which are used in subsequent ice-growth calculations and are also useful for designing systems to protect against icing. Next, the software predicts the shape of accumulating ice by modeling transfers of mass and energy in small control volumes. The foregoing computations are repeated over several computational time steps until the total icing exposure time is reached. Results of computations by LEWICE have been compared with an extensive database of measured ice shapes obtained from experiments, and have been shown to closely approximate those shapes under most conditions of interest to the aviation community.

  16. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira )

    1994-01-01

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  18. Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; McConkey, Marie E.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that accumulate during development and are thought to function as constitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) leaves and investigated several physiological processes that could regulate their accumulation: the rate of biosynthesis, the rate of metabolic loss, and the rate of volatilization. Monoterpene accumulation was found to be restricted to leaves of 12 to 20 d of age, the period of maximal leaf expansion. The rate of monoterpene biosynthesis determined by 14CO2 incorporation was closely correlated with monoterpene accumulation, as determined by gas chromatographic analysis, and appeared to be the principal factor controlling the monoterpene level of peppermint leaves. No significant catabolic losses of monoterpenes were detected throughout leaf development, and monoterpene volatilization was found to occur at a very low rate, which, on a monthly basis, represented less than 1% of the total pool of stored monoterpenes. The composition of volatilized monoterpenes differed significantly from that of the total plant monoterpene pool, suggesting that these volatilized products may arise from a separate secretory system. With the demonstration that the rate of biosynthesis is the chief process that determines monoterpene accumulation in peppermint, efforts to improve production in this species can now focus on the genes, enzymes, and cell differentiation processes that regulate monoterpene biosynthesis. PMID:10631264

  19. R-acetoin accumulation and dissimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Zhou, Jidong; Chen, Chuan; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Pengfu; Hao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and R-acetoin is an intermediate of 2,3-butanediol production. R-acetoin accumulation and dissimilation in K. pneumoniae was studied here. A budC mutant, which has lost 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity, accumulated high levels of R-acetoin in culture broth. However, after glucose was exhausted, the accumulated R-acetoin could be reused by the cells as a carbon source. Acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system, encoded by acoABCD, was responsible for R-acetoin dissimilation. acoABCD mutants lost the ability to grow on acetoin as the sole carbon source, and the acetoin accumulated could not be dissimilated. However, in the presence of another carbon source, the acetoin accumulated in broth of acoABCD mutants was converted to 2,3-butanediol. Parameters of R-acetoin production by budC mutants were optimized in batch culture. Aerobic culture and mildly acidic conditions (pH 6-6.5) favored R-acetoin accumulation. At the optimized conditions, in fed-batch fermentation, 62.3 g/L R-acetoin was produced by budC and acoABCD double mutant in 57 h culture, with an optical purity of 98.0 %, and a substrate conversion ratio of 28.7 %. PMID:26059458

  20. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  1. Practicing New Convergences: The REA and "Religious Education" into the Next Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author offers her thoughts on the emerging "practices" of REA and the association's sponsorship of "convergences," and offers specific recommendations on how best to foster such convergences in light of the organizational vision.

  2. Effects of CX3CR1 and Fractalkine Chemokines in Amyloid Beta Clearance and p-Tau Accumulation in Alzheimer,s Disease (AD) Rodent Models: Is Fractalkine a Systemic Biomarker for AD?

    PubMed

    Merino, José Joaquín; Muñetón-Gómez, Vilma; Alvárez, María-Isabel; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the major source of cytokines in Alzheimer,s disease (AD). CX3CR1 is a delta chemokine receptor found in microglia and its neuronal ligand, Fractalkine, has two isoforms: an anchored-membrane isoform, and a soluble isoform. The reduced soluble fractalkine levels found in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) of aged rats, may be a consequence of neuronal loss. This soluble fractalkine maintains microglia in an appropiate state by interacting with CX3CR1. The ablation of the CX3CR1 gene in mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP/PS-1) increased cytokine levels, enhanced Tau pathology and worsened behavioural performance in these mice. However, CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in a gene dose-dependent Aβ clearance in the brain, and induced microglial activation. In addition, CX3CR1 deficiency can have benefical effects by preventing neuronal loss in the 3xTg model. In fact, CX3CR1 deficiency increases microglial phagocytosome activity by inducing selective protofibrillar amyloid-beta phagocytosis in microglial cells in transgenic AD models. On the other hand, the fractalkine membrane isoform plays a differential role in amyloid beta clearance and Tau deposition. This anchored membrane FKN signalling might increase amyloid pathology while soluble fractalkine levels could prevent taupathies. However, in human AD, the only published study has reported higher systemic fractalkine levels in AD patients with cognitive impairment. In mouse models, inflammatory activation of microglia accelerates Tau pathology. Studies in transgenic mice with fractalkine null mice suggest that APP/PS-1 mice deficient for the anchored membrane-fractalkine isoform exhibited enhanced neuronal MAPT phosphorylation despite their reduced amyloid burden. The soluble fractalkine overexpression with adenoviral vectors reduced tau pathology and prevented neurodegeneration in a Tg4510 model of taupathy Finally, animals with Aβ (1-42) infused by lentivirus (cortex) or

  3. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  4. Glider Data Based Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Reiner; Mourre, Baptiste

    2013-04-01

    In September 2012, the CMRE conducted a REA experiment off the French Provence coast, the major elements of which were a ship-based oceanographic survey, the deployment of a fleet of underwater gliders and nowcast/forecast studies with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The objective was to provide in-situ data for assimilation in ROMS and to validate the ROMS forecasts against the observations. The observational data consisted of 63 CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) casts, data from six simultaneously operating Slocum gliders, trajectories of 19 surface drifters, time series data from seven moorings, and underway measurements with shipborne ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) and thermosalinograph. ROMS was set up with 32 layers in the vertical and ~1.9 km horizontal resolution, it was one-way nested in the Mediterranean Forecast System (MFS at 1/6 degree resolution), and the surface boundary conditions were provided by the COSMO atmospheric prediction model. Three different forecast strategies were pursued: (1) ROMS initialization from MFS and without assimilation of observations, (2) initialization from a quasi-synoptic data set of CTD and glider data, melded with MFS, and (3) initialization from MFS and with assimilation of glider data. The major intent of the first strategy was to demonstrate the impact of higher resolution, and to provide a background for the comparison with the other strategies. All three strategies performed well; the evaluation of the individual forecast skills of either strategy and the comparison among each other is in progress.

  5. Why Don't Well-Educated Adults Understand Accumulation? A Challenge to Researchers, Educators, and Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Sterman, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation is a fundamental process in dynamic systems: inventory accumulates production less shipments; the national debt accumulates the federal deficit. Effective decision making in such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between stocks and the flows that alter them. However, highly educated people are often unable to infer…

  6. [Denitrifying and phosphorus accumulating mechanisms of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) for wastewater treatment--a review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongting; Li, Min

    2015-03-01

    Eutrophication has raised increasing concerns due to its adverse effects on creatures. It is widely accepted that microbes are capable of removing nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) via denitrification and P accumulation. So far, several strains can do this work. Therefore, more studies are focused on looking for micro-organisms that have both denitrification and P accumulation ability. Whether exposed to aerobic or anaerobic environment, microbial N and P removal mechanisms differ. Proton Motive Force and Electron Acceptor Theory are involved in the chemical process, whereas denitrifying enzymes polyphosphate kinases are regarded as the leading participators in the enzymatic systems. Studies have shown the influences of N on P accumulation, but further investigation should identify the influences of P on N removal. Here we reviewed the aspects of N and P removal mechanisms in denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and their potential to remove N and P from water system. Moreover, future works on clarifying denitrifying phosphorus accumulating mechanisms in depth and improving efficiency of removing N and P by DPAOs are provided. PMID:26065268

  7. Radar detection of surface oil accumulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Oneill, P.; Wilson, M.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard is developing AIREYE, an all weather, day/night airborne surveillance system, for installation aboard future medium range surveillance aircraft. As part of this program, a series of controlled tests were conducted off southern California to evaluate the oil slick detection capabilities of two Motorola developed, side looking radars. The systems, a real aperture AN/APS-94D and a synthetic aperture coherent on receive (COR) were flown over the Santa Barbara Channel on May 19, 1976. Targets imaged during the coincident overflights included natural oil seepage, simulated oil spills, oil production platforms, piers, mooring buoys, commercial boats and barges at other targets. Based on an analysis of imagery from the coincident radar runs, COR provides better detection of natural and man made oil slicks, whereas the AN/APS-94D consistently exhibited higher surface target detection results. This and other tests have shown that active microwave systems have considerable potential for aiding in the detection and analysis of surface oil accumulations.

  8. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-12-01

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

  9. Overlaps and Accumulation in the Use of Rehabilitation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkki, Jutta M.; Rissanen, Pekka; Raitanen, Jani A.; Viitanen, Elina A.

    2011-01-01

    The Finnish rehabilitation system is considered fragmented and multisectoral, and thus it may produce "multiclients" receiving inefficient and overlapping services. This paper addresses the overlaps and accumulation in the delivery of rehabilitation services in Finnish rehabilitation subsystems. Data were drawn from several administrative…

  10. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  11. 7 CFR 1773.39 - Utility plant and accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.39 Utility plant and accumulated depreciation. (a) General. The audit of... indirect costs and overhead charges to determine if they conform to the Uniform System of Accounts;...

  12. 7 CFR 1773.39 - Utility plant and accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.39 Utility plant and accumulated depreciation. (a) General. The audit of... indirect costs and overhead charges to determine if they conform to the Uniform System of Accounts;...

  13. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  14. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  15. Light-Driven Electron Accumulation in a Molecular Pentad.

    PubMed

    Orazietti, Margherita; Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Hamm, Peter; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation and temporary storage of redox equivalents with visible light as an energy input is of pivotal importance for artificial photosynthesis because key reactions, such as CO2 reduction or water oxidation, require the transfer of multiple redox equivalents. We report on the first purely molecular system, in which a long-lived charge-separated state (τ≈870 ns) with two electrons accumulated on a suitable acceptor unit can be observed after excitation with visible light. Importantly, no sacrificial reagents were employed. PMID:27336756

  16. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  17. Enhancement of spin accumulation in ballistic transport regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shufeng

    2015-12-01

    The conventional spin-diffusion equation, based on the presence of spin-split local chemical potentials, has successfully described spin accumulation attendant to diffusive transport in spintronics. A recent experiment shows that spin accumulation far exceeds the limit set by such spin-diffusive theory when the mean free path is longer than the spin dephasing length. By introducing the momentum and spin dependent chemical potential, we develop a generalized spin transport equation that is capable of addressing spin transport in systems where ballistic processes are embedded in the overall diffusive conductor. We find that the ballistic spin injection through a barrier into a diffusive nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling can enhance spin accumulation by an order of magnitude when compared to the conventional theory.

  18. Atypical Polyphosphate Accumulation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Polyphosphate accumulation by Paracoccus denitrificans was examined under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. Polyphosphate synthesis by this denitrifier took place with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor and in the presence of an external carbon source. Cells were capable of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis, but no polyphosphate was produced when PHB-rich cells were incubated under anoxic conditions in the absence of an external carbon source. By comparison of these findings to those with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms thought to be responsible for phosphate removal in activated sludge systems, it is concluded that P. denitrificans is capable of combined phosphate and nitrate removal without the need for alternating anaerobic/aerobic or anaerobic/anoxic switches. Studies on additional denitrifying isolates from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor suggested that polyphosphate accumulation is widespread among denitrifiers. PMID:10698794

  19. Accumulation of BSA in Packed-bed Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Samantha; Hu, Chuntian; Hartman, Ryan

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimers and Parkinsons are two diseases that are associated with protein deposition in the brain, causing loss of either cognitive or muscle functioning. Protein deposition diseases are considered progressive diseases since the continual aggregation of protein causes the patient's symptoms to slowly worsen over time. There are currently no known means of treatment for protein deposition diseases. Our goal is to understand the potential for packed-bed microfluidics to study protein accumulation. Measurement of the resistance to flow through micro-scale packed-beds is critical to understanding the process of protein accumulation. Aggregation in bulk is fundamentally different from accumulation on surfaces. Our study attempts to distinguish between either mechanism. The results from our experiments involving protein injection through a microfluidic system will be presented and discussed. Funding received by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  20. The neural basis of value accumulation in intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christian A; Turner, Brandon M; Van Zandt, Trisha; McClure, Samuel M

    2015-09-01

    Making intertemporal choices (choosing between rewards available at different points in time) requires determining and comparing the subjective values of available rewards. Several studies have found converging evidence identifying the neural systems that encode subjective value in intertemporal choice. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for the process that produces intertemporal decisions on the basis of subjective values have not been investigated. Using model-based and connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the value-accumulation process by which subjective value guides intertemporal decisions. Our results show that the dorsomedial frontal cortex, bilateral posterior parietal cortex, and bilateral lateral prefrontal cortex are all involved in the accumulation of subjective value for the purpose of action selection. Our findings establish a mechanistic framework for understanding frontoparietal contributions to intertemporal choice and suggest that value-accumulation processes in the frontoparietal cortex may be a general mechanism for value-based choice. PMID:26179826

  1. First charge breeding of a rare-isotope beam with the electron-beam ion trap of the ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Baumann, T. M.; Cooper, K.; Kittimanapun, K.; Rodriguez, A. J.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Williams, S. J.; Wittmer, W.; Leitner, D.; Bollen, G.

    2014-02-01

    An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder is being brought into operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The EBIT is part of the ReA post-accelerator for reacceleration of rare isotopes, which are thermalized in a gas "stopping" cell after being produced at high energy by projectile fragmentation. The ReA EBIT has a distinctive design; it is characterized by a high-current electron gun and a two-field superconducting magnet to optimize the capture and charge-breeding efficiency of continuously injected singly charged ion beams. Following a brief overview of the reaccelerator system and the ReA EBIT, this paper presents the latest commissioning results, particularly, charge breeding and reacceleration of the highly charged rare isotopes, 76Ga24 +, 25 +.

  2. Ultra-High-Speed Image Signal Accumulation Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Son, Dao Vu Truong; Akino, Toshiaki Koike; Akino, Toshiro; Nishi, Kenji; Kureta, Masatoshi; Arai, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Averaging of accumulated data is a standard technique applied to processing data with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), such as image signals captured in ultra-high-speed imaging. The authors propose an architecture layout of an ultra-high-speed image sensor capable of on-chip signal accumulation. The very high frame rate is enabled by employing an image sensor structure with a multi-folded CCD in each pixel, which serves as an in situ image signal storage. The signal accumulation function is achieved by direct connection of the first and the last storage elements of the in situ storage CCD. It has been thought that the multi-folding is achievable only by driving electrodes with complicated and impractical layouts. Simple configurations of the driving electrodes to overcome the difficulty are presented for two-phase and four-phase transfer CCD systems. The in situ storage image sensor with the signal accumulation function is named Image Signal Accumulation Sensor (ISAS). PMID:22319344

  3. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accumulation time. 262.34 Section 262.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d),...

  4. Rare isotope beam energy measurements and scintillator developments for ReA3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling-Ying

    The ReAccelerator for 3 MeV/u beams (ReA3) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) in Michigan State University can stop rare isotope beams produced by in-flight fragmentation and reaccelerate them in a superconducting linac. The precise knowledge of the energy and the energy spread of the ion beams extracted from the ReA3 linac is essential for experimental requirement in many applications. Beam energy determination methods such as implantation on a Si detector and/or using calibrated linac settings are precise within a few tens of keV/u. In order to determine beam energies with good resolution of less than 0.5 % FWHM, a 45 degree bending magnet with a movable slit is used to determine the absolute beam energy based on the magnetic rigidity. Two methods have been developed for the energy calibration of the beam analyzing magnet: gamma-ray nuclear resonance reactions and a time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The resonance energies of gamma-ray resonant reactions provide well-known and precise calibration points. The gamma ray yields of the 27Al(p,gamma)28Si at Ep= 992 keV and 632 keV resonances and 58Ni(p,gamma)59Cu at Ep= 1843 keV resonance have been measured with the high efficiency CAESAR (CAESium iodide ARray) and SuN (Summing NaI(Tl)) detectors. By fitting the observed resonant gamma-ray yields, not only the beam energy can be precisely correlated with the magnetic field but also beam energy spread can be obtained. The measured beam energy spread is consistent with beam optics calculations. A time-of-flight system for determining the absolute energy of ion beams and calibrating the 45 degree magnetic analyzer has been developed in ReA3 by using two identical secondary electron monitors (grid-MCP detectors) with appropriate separation. The TOF technique is applicable to the variety of beam energies and ion particles. Velocities of ion beam are determined by simultaneously measuring the arrival time of beam bunches at the two detectors with

  5. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  6. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  7. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-06-28

    Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  8. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  9. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  10. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  11. The accumulation and structure of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, Bertram

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence for the accumulation of the terrestrial planets and comets from solid grains, with emphasis on the various proposals for the formation of cometary nuclei. With three exceptions, all hypotheses conclude or imply that a single compact object forms. Several hypotheses start with Goldreich-Ward-type gravitational instabilities. The collapse for this case also occurs at low velocities in the cm/s to m/s range. Experiment and theory show that under these conditions, low-density, filamentary clusters form that are fractal aggregates with a fractal dimension approximately equal to 2. In order to form cometary nuclei, the initial temperature must be about 50 K and not undergo a significant temperature rise during the accumulation process. The calculations show that accumulation will occur at low temperatures. Models of cometary nuclei are reviewed, and a simple model of the structure that results fom the accumulation of fluffy aggregates is described.

  12. Sludge accumulation pattern inside oxidation ditch case study.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Moharram; El-Morsy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The sludge accumulation pattern of an oxidation ditch (OD) plant treating municipal wastewater was observed under dry and wet weather conditions, during 3 years of operation. The accumulation patterns along the ditches and their rates were revealed. In addition, the composition of the accumulation was investigated. Finally, the ratio of sand and volatile particles, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, as well as the removal efficiency were also observed against the accumulated sludge. Further, a laboratory-scale channel was used to investigate the settleability of grit after mixing with variable values of MLSS. The observed results indicated that the economical design and operation of ODs using a velocity value between 0.3-0.35 m/s is not recommended, to avoid the settling of all solids. High values of MLSS and sludge age need high horizontal velocity (more than 0.35 m/s) and more power to avoid settling problems and system failure. The influence of flow velocity on the sludge settleability was studied, enabling better planning of future ditch design and operation. PMID:24960009

  13. Indole Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Limits Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce an array of metabolites (including lignin monomers and soluble UV-protective metabolites) from phenylalanine through the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. A subset of plants, including many related to Arabidopsis thaliana, synthesizes glucosinolates, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing secondary metabolites that serve as components of a plant defense system that deters herbivores and pathogens. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana reduced epidermal fluorescence5 (ref5-1) mutant, identified in a screen for plants with defects in soluble phenylpropanoid accumulation, has a missense mutation in CYP83B1 and displays defects in glucosinolate biosynthesis and in phenylpropanoid accumulation. CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 are responsible for the production of the CYP83B1 substrate indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx), and we found that the phenylpropanoid content of cyp79b2 cyp79b3 and ref5-1 cyp79b2 cyp79b3 plants is increased compared with the wild type. These data suggest that levels of IAOx or a subsequent metabolite negatively influence phenylpropanoid accumulation in ref5 and more importantly that this crosstalk is relevant in the wild type. Additional biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that this inhibition impacts the early steps of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and restoration of phenylpropanoid accumulation in a ref5-1 med5a/b triple mutant suggests that the function of the Mediator complex is required for the crosstalk. PMID:25944103

  14. Boat detection using vector accumulation of particle motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Li, Na; Li, Youyi; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-11-01

    Recently, target detection in sea environment such as boat detection has become a popular research topic which is significant for marine vessels monitoring system. Many target detection methods have been widely applied to practical applications such as frame difference, traditional optical flow and background subtraction method. However, the existing target detection methods are not suitable to deal with the complex conditions of sea surface, such as irregular movement of the waves and illumination changes. In this paper, we developed an approach based on vector accumulation of particle motion mainly aiming at eliminating the effects of irregular movement of waves. Our proposed method applies vector accumulation of particle motion to optical flow field to obtain more accurate detection results under complex conditions. Firstly, the traditional optical flow method is used to acquire motion vector of every particle. Furthermore, the vectors of each flow point are abstracted to represent the recording of a fluid element in the flow over a certain period, succeeding is the accumulation of particle vectors. Finally, we calculate the mean of the vector accumulation to eliminate the effects of irregular movement of waves based on the video. Experimental results show the proposed method can gain better performance than traditional optical flow method.

  15. Research in Accrediting Efforts (Project REA). An Assessment of Awarding Academic Credit for Employment Training Activities in Illinois. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank G.

    The report describes and provides selected findings from Project REA (Research in Accrediting Efforts), which studied various aspects of manpower training under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) in Illinois. The first section outlines the goals of Project REA in identifying avenues for job training, methods for granting academic…

  16. Architecture of the Rix1-Rea1 checkpoint machinery during pre-60S-ribosome remodeling.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Garcia, Clara; Thoms, Matthias; Flemming, Dirk; Kater, Lukas; Berninghausen, Otto; Baßler, Jochen; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis is catalyzed by ∼200 assembly factors, which facilitate efficient production of mature ribosomes. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleoplasmic pre-60S particle containing the dynein-related 550-kDa Rea1 AAA(+) ATPase and the Rix1 subcomplex. This particle differs from its preceding state, the early Arx1 particle, by two massive structural rearrangements: an ∼180° rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein complex and the central protuberance (CP) rRNA helices, and the removal of the 'foot' structure from the 3' end of the 5.8S rRNA. Progression from the Arx1 to the Rix1 particle was blocked by mutational perturbation of the Rix1-Rea1 interaction but not by a dominant-lethal Rea1 AAA(+) ATPase-ring mutant. After remodeling, the Rix1 subcomplex and Rea1 become suitably positioned to sense correct structural maturation of the CP, which allows unidirectional progression toward mature ribosomes. PMID:26619264

  17. Back to the Future: Recapturing the Vision of REA in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, S. Steve

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing body of literature confirming the South and East-ward trajectory of Christianity in recent years, but what does such a shift have to do with the REA, and Religious Education in particular, as it embarks on the second century of its existence? The author of this paper takes a look back at the spirit behind the founding of…

  18. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  19. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  20. Geomorphic control of landscape carbon accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbloom, N.A.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Schimel, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use the CREEP process-response model to simulate soil organic carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in Iowa. Our primary objectives are to identify spatial patterns of carbon accumulation, and explore the effect of erosion on basin-scale C accumulation. Our results point to two general findings. First, redistribution of soil carbon by erosion results in a net increase in basin-wide carbon storage relative to a noneroding environment. Landscape-average mean residence times are increased in an eroding landscape owing to the burial/preservation of otherwise labile C. Second, field observations taken along a slope transect may overlook significant intraslope variations in carbon accumulation. Spatial patterns of modeled deep C accumulation are complex. While surface carbon with its relatively short equilibration time is predictable from surface properties, deep carbon is strongly influenced by the landscape's geomorphic and climatic history, resulting in wide spatial variability. Convergence and divergence associated with upland swales and interfluves result in bimodal carbon distributions in upper and mid slopes; variability in carbon storage within modeled mid slopes was as high as simulated differences between erosional shoulders and depositional valley bottoms. The bimodality of mid-slope C variability in the model suggests that a three-dimensional sampling strategy is preferable over the traditional two-dimensional analog or "catena" approach. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Landscape Evolution and Carbon Accumulation: Uniformitarianism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, N. A.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.; Schimel, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    What is the role of hillslope transport in long-term carbon accumulation in soils? How do parent material, climate, and landform interact to produce the landscapes we observe today and to what extent can we use present day conditions to infer the dominant processes of the past? We use the CREEP [Rosenbloom, N.A. et al., 2001] process-response model to ask these questions, exploring the time-evolution of landscape form, soil distribution, and carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in western Iowa [Harden, J.W. et al., 2002]. The CREEP model simulates differential transport of soil particles, blanket deposition of atmospheric 10Be with eolian dust, and passive advection of soil carbon and 10Be, enabling the preferential enrichment and burial of rapidly moving soil constituents. By comparing landscape-wide average accumulations of 10Be to borehole observations at three hillslope positions, we conclude that the distribution of clay-adsorbed 10Be cannot be explained by co-transport with clay particles alone. Rather, 10Be appears to behave as a more complex tracer than originally assumed, requiring an explicit, independent parameterization of wet deposition and transport. By comparison, model carbon accumulation strongly reflects patterns of clay redistribution indicating that in situ carbon turnover is faster than redistribution. Observed vertical distributions of soil properties, including 10Be, could only be explained by assuming variations in deposition and erosion rates, specifically periods of accumulation, followed by periods of transport. This effect might not be apparent if only landform shape, geometry, and soil depth were considered and vertical distributions of soil properties were not explicitly simulated. The current landscape reflects a history of strong shifts in erosion and accumulation rates that cannot be simulated using a uniform parameterization of long-term landscape-evolution processes.

  2. Coordinated regulation of biosynthetic and regulatory genes coincides with anthocyanin accumulation in developing eggplant fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Violet to black pigmentation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit is attributed to anthocyanin accumulation. Model systems support the interaction of biosynthetic and regulatory genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Anthocyanin structural gene transcription requires the expression of at least one m...

  3. Update on the Argonne positron accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1993-07-01

    The injector for the Advanced Photon Source incorporates a 450-MeV positron accumulator ring (PAR) to decrease the filling time with the 2-Hz synchrotron. In addition to accumulating positrons from the linac, the PAR damps the beam and reduces the bunch length. The PAR lattice has been redesigned to use zero-gradient dipoles, while retaining essentially the same damping partition. Extensive simulations have been performed to set tolerances that will give high capture efficiency, in spite of the large momentum spread of the incoming positron beam.

  4. Fingerprint enhancement based on MRF with curve accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Qi, Feihu

    2001-09-01

    The uniqueness of fingerprints has been used for identification for a long time. Automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) depends on minutiae to identify a person that rely heavily on the quality of fingerprint image. This paper presents a novel fingerprint enhancement scheme based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The MRF model is applied to capture local statistical regularities of ridges and then the curve accumulation based on the MRF model is presented to enhance the fingerprint. Such procedure is repeated until the statistics difference can be got between fingerprint ridges and valleys (accumulation). In the end, the adaptive binarisation is made. The results of experiments show that this method can effectively improve the clarity of ridge and valley structures of input fingerprint images and meanwhile preserve the minutiae very well.

  5. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  6. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  7. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  8. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  9. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  10. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  11. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  12. Copper accumulation in the crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the crayfish, O. rusticus could fulfill Nehring's (1976) criteria for a good biological monitor of heavy metal pollution. Since there is some evidence that the cupric ion is the most toxic form of aqueous copper, crayfish-accumulated copper was compared to both total and cupric copper in the culture water.

  13. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  14. ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR ELEVEN POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the fugacity approach (Mackay 1979), pollutant uptake by an organism is determined by the chemical fugacity differential between the organism and its environment. he Accumulation Factor [AF - (concentration of pollutant in animal tissue, Ct (ng/g dry wt)/animal lipid...

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  16. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  17. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  18. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  19. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.534 Section 10.534 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  20. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.458 Section 10.458 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement...

  1. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  2. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  3. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  4. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  5. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  6. 19 CFR 10.3017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.3017 Section 10.3017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...

  7. 19 CFR 10.3017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.3017 Section 10.3017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...

  8. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  9. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.534 Section 10.534 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  10. 19 CFR 10.812 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.812 Section 10.812 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade...

  11. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in

  12. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  13. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    PubMed

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  14. Dry deposition of PM2.5 sulfate above a hilly forest using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Ichiro; Mizukami, Kou; Ban, Satomi; Takahashi, Akira

    2015-04-01

    Sulfur compounds continue to be an important component of atmospheric deposition in East Asia. In order to better understand the dry deposition of PM2.5 sulfate, which is one of the most significant transboundary air pollutants in this region, we measured the dry deposition flux of PM2.5 sulfate above a hilly forest of the Field Museum Tamakyuryo (FM Tama) site in suburban Tokyo. We used the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method and took measurements during the summer, from 26 July to 2 August 2013, and the autumn, from 18 to 22 November 2013. We primarily focused on the evaluation of dry deposition above a forest on complex terrain. The total flux and 80% of the runs showed downward flux. The deposition velocities measured by the REA method during times when the wind direction was from a relatively uniform sloping surface over the forest were more reasonable than those measured when the wind direction was from a more complex surface. Using a resistance model that includes the effect of growth of hygroscopic aerosols, we inferred the deposition velocities during two experimental periods. When the fluxes were averaged for a long time (i.e., about 2 weeks) the inferred fluxes and deposition velocities were in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Although averages over long periods showed good agreement, the measured deposition velocities were distributed in a wider range than those inferred by the model. An increased range of deposition velocities was associated with flux footprints from complex terrain. It is possible that the agreements between measured and inferred fluxes or deposition velocities at the site are because the depositions of sulfate are largely controlled by surface factors rather than aerodynamic resistance.

  15. Four-year measurement of methane flux over a temperate forest with a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakabe, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Hamotani, K.; Takahashi, K.; Iwata, H.; Itoh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are generally assumed to be an atmospheric methane (CH4) sink (Le Mer and Roger, 2001). However, under Asian monsoon climate, forests are subject to wide spatiotemporal range in soil water status, where forest soils often became water-saturated condition heterogeneously. In such warm and humid conditions, forests may act as a CH4 source and/or sink with considerable spatiotemporal variations. Micrometeorological methods such as eddy covariance (EC) method continuously measure spatially-representative flux at a canopy scale without artificial disturbance. In this study, we measured CH4 fluxes over a temperate forest during four-year period using a CH4 analyzer based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy detection with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method (Hamotani et al., 1996, 2001). We revealed the amplitude and seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes. The REA method is the attractive alternative to the EC method to measure trace-gas flux because it allows the use of analyzers with an optimal integration time. We also conducted continuous chamber measurements on forest floor to reveal spatial variations in soil CH4 fluxes and its controlling processes. The observations were made in an evergreen coniferous forest in central Japan. The site has a warm temperate monsoon climate with wet summer. Some wetlands were located in riparian zones along streams within the flux footprint area. For the REA method, the sonic anemometer (SAT-550, Kaijo) was mounted on top of the 29-m-tall tower and air was sampled from just below the sonic anemometer to reservoirs according to the direction of vertical wind velocity (w). After accumulating air for 30 minutes, the air in the reservoirs was pulled into a CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-840, Li-Cor) and a CH4 analyzer (FMA-200, Los Gatos Research). Before entering the analyzers, the sampled air was dried using a gas dryer (PD-50 T-48; Perma Pure Inc.). The REA flux is obtained from the difference in the mean concentrations

  16. On the Cenozoic silica accumulation in the Far East seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenkova, N. G.

    2011-04-01

    According to the summarized data on the distribution of the Cenozoic siliceous sediments inl the Japanese and Okhotsk seas, the silica accumulation in them initiated in the early Miocene and Oligocene, respectively. This process was preceded by relatively sharp cooling in the Eocene, which stimulated the development of the diatom flora. The global circulation system in the World Ocean favored the upwelling of deep waters in the North Pacific. These nutrient-enriched oceanic waters invaded the marginal seas to determine their high bioproducticvity and intense silica accumulation. In the terminal Pliocene, the share of biogenic silica in the sediments became sharply reduced. This phenomenon corresponds to the onset of the continental glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere 2.6 Ma ago. The water column became stratified to form a distinct halocline, which reduced the bioproductivity. In the present-day Sea of Japan, the water exchange with the Pacific is limited by the shallow and narrow straits between these basins. The Sea of Okhotsk is connected with the ocean by deep straits so that deep nutrient-rich oceanic waters intrude into this basin providing its high bioproductivity. Dissimilar to the Neogene sediments, the Quaternary sequences demonstrate periodicity in the silica accumulation: it was strongly suppressed due to the ice cover during the glaciations and recommenced during the warm interglacial periods.

  17. Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations, Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Columbus basin, on the eastern shelf of Trinidad, lies at the eastern extremity of a belt of severe deformation along the northern boundary of South America that has been affected by compressional and wrench tectonics in the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Two major structural trends are present in the Columbus basin: a series of ENE-trending anticlines and NNW-oriented normal faults. The basin was filled during the late Miocene to Holocene with sediments deposited by an ancestral Orinoco River draining a hinterland to the southwest. The Pliocene-Pleistocene section, which contains the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Columbus basin, was laid down in three coarsening-upward sedimentary sequences followed by a late Pleistocene transgressive sequence. Traps for hydrocarbon accumulation were formed by an easterly trending Pliocene-Pleistocene wrench system with associated ENE-oriented anticlines combined with NNW-oriented normal faults. Oil was sourced in the late Miocene lower Cruse Formation, whereas gas was derived both from Pliocene-Pleistocene pro-delta shales and as a late high temperature phase of lower Cruse hydrocarbon generation. The NNW faults formed migration conduits from the oil source rock to Pliocene-Pleistocene reservoirs. The temporal relationship of faulting to oil generation is a major factor affecting the distribution of oil and gas. The size of hydrocarbon accumulations is limited to some extent by a lack of an effective hydrocarbon seal, particularly in the western half of the basin.

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations, Columbus Basin, Offshore Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.

    1983-07-01

    The Columbus basin, situated on the eastern shelf of Trinidad, lies at the eastern extremity of a belt of severe deformation along the northern boundary of South America that has been affected by compressional and wrench tectonics in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Two major structural trends are present in the Columbus basin: a series of east-northeast trending anticlines and northnorthwest oriented normal faults. The basin was filled during late Miocene to Holocene time with sediments deposited by an ancestral Orinoco River draining a hinterland to the southwest. The Pliocene-Pleistocene section, which contains the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Columbus basin, was deposited in three coarseningupward sedimentary sequences followed by a late Pleistocene transgressive sequence. Traps for hydrocarbon accumulation were formed by an easterly trending Pliocene-Pleistocene wrench system with associated east-northeast-oriented anticlines combined with north-northwest-oriented normal faults. Oil was sourced in the late Miocene lower Cruse Formation, whereas gas was derived both from Pliocene-Pleistocene pro-delta shales and as a late high-temperature phase of lower Cruse hydrocarbon generation. The northnorthwest faults formed migration conduits from the oil source rock to Pliocene-Pleistocene reservoirs. The temporal relationship of faulting to oil generation is a major factor affecting the distribution of oil and gas. The size of hydrocarbon accumulations is limited to some extent by a lack of an effective hydrocarbon seal, particularly in the western half of the basin.

  19. Visual accumulation tube for size analysis of sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, B.C.; Christensen, R.P.

    1956-01-01

    The visual-accumulation-tube method was developed primarily for making size analyses of the sand fractions of suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Because the fundamental property governing the motion of a sediment particle in a fluid is believed to be its fall velocity. the analysis is designed to determine the fall-velocity-frequency distribution of the individual particles of the sample. The analysis is based on a stratified sedimentation system in which the sample is introduced at the top of a transparent settling tube containing distilled water. The procedure involves the direct visual tracing of the height of sediment accumulation in a contracted section at the bottom of the tube. A pen records the height on a moving chart. The method is simple and fast, provides a continuous and permanent record, gives highly reproducible results, and accurately determines the fall-velocity characteristics of the sample. The apparatus, procedure, results, and accuracy of the visual-accumulation-tube method for determining the sedimentation-size distribution of sands are presented in this paper.

  20. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  1. The ReA electron-beam ion trap charge breeder for reacceleration of rare isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Fogleman, J.; Krause, S.; Nash, S.; Rencsok, R.; Tobos, L.; Perdikakis, G.; Portillo, M.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Wittmer, W.; Wu, X.; Bollen, G.; Leitner, D.; Syphers, M.; Collaboration: ReA Team

    2013-04-19

    ReA is a post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. ReA is designed to reaccelerate rare isotopes to energies of a few MeV/u following production by projectile fragmentation and thermalization in a gas cell. The facility consists of four main components: an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder, an achromatic charge-over-mass (Q/A) separator, a radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator, and a superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator. The EBIT charge breeder was specifically designed to efficiently capture continuous beams of singly charged ions injected at low energy (<60 keV), charge breed in less than 50 ms, and extract highly charged ions to the Q/A separator for charge-state selection and reacceleration through the accelerator structures. The use of highly charged ions to reach high beam energies is a key aspect that makes ReA a compact and cost-efficient post-accelerator. The EBIT is characterized by a high-current electron gun, a long multi-electrode trap structure and a dual magnet to provide both the high electron-beam current density necessary for fast charge breeding of short-lived isotopes as well as the high capture probability of injected beams. This paper presents an overview and the status of the ReA EBIT, which has extracted for reacceleration tests stable {sup 20}Ne{sup 8+} ion beams produced from injected gas and more recently {sup 39}K{sup 16+} beams by injecting stable {sup 39,41}K{sup +} ions from an external ion source.

  2. The ReA electron-beam ion trap charge breeder for reacceleration of rare isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Fogleman, J.; Krause, S.; Nash, S.; Rencsok, R.; Tobos, L.; Perdikakis, G.; Portillo, M.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Wittmer, W.; Wu, X.; Bollen, G.; Leitner, D.; Syphers, M.; ReA Team

    2013-04-01

    ReA is a post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. ReA is designed to reaccelerate rare isotopes to energies of a few MeV/u following production by projectile fragmentation and thermalization in a gas cell. The facility consists of four main components: an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder, an achromatic charge-over-mass (Q/A) separator, a radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator, and a superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator. The EBIT charge breeder was specifically designed to efficiently capture continuous beams of singly charged ions injected at low energy (<60 keV), charge breed in less than 50 ms, and extract highly charged ions to the Q/A separator for charge-state selection and reacceleration through the accelerator structures. The use of highly charged ions to reach high beam energies is a key aspect that makes ReA a compact and cost-efficient post-accelerator. The EBIT is characterized by a high-current electron gun, a long multi-electrode trap structure and a dual magnet to provide both the high electron-beam current density necessary for fast charge breeding of short-lived isotopes as well as the high capture probability of injected beams. This paper presents an overview and the status of the ReA EBIT, which has extracted for reacceleration tests stable 20Ne8+ ion beams produced from injected gas and more recently 39K16+ beams by injecting stable 39,41K+ ions from an external ion source.

  3. Maize reas1 Mutant Stimulates Ribosome Use Efficiency and Triggers Distinct Transcriptional and Translational Responses.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Qun; Li, Xia; Yao, Dongsheng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guifeng; Song, Rentao

    2016-02-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process in all cells. Impaired ribosome biogenesis causes developmental defects; however, its molecular and cellular bases are not fully understood. We cloned a gene responsible for a maize (Zea mays) small seed mutant, dek* (for defective kernel), and found that it encodes Ribosome export associated1 (ZmReas1). Reas1 is an AAA-ATPase that controls 60S ribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after ribosome maturation. dek* is a weak mutant allele with decreased Reas1 function. In dek* cells, mature 60S ribosome subunits are reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the proportion of actively translating polyribosomes in cytosol is significantly increased. Reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and the increased elongation factor 1α level indicate an enhancement of general translational efficiency in dek* cells. The mutation also triggers dramatic changes in differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs. Discrepancy was observed between differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs, indicating distinct cellular responses at transcription and translation levels to the stress of defective ribosome processing. DNA replication and nucleosome assembly-related gene expression are selectively suppressed at the translational level, resulting in inhibited cell growth and proliferation in dek* cells. This study provides insight into cellular responses due to impaired ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26645456

  4. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. PMID:26201081

  5. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl− efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl− against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl− accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl− efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl− accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl− transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl− transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl− transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl−/HCO3− exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na+–Cl− cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl− component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl− accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17656441

  6. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-09-15

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl(-) efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl(-) against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl(-) accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl(-) efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl(-) accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl(-) transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl(-) transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl(-) transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl(-) component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl(-) accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17656441

  7. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. PMID:25814321

  8. Protective effect of dietary chitosan on cadmium accumulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Shon, Woo-Jeong; Park, Mi-Na; Lee, Yeon-Sook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cadmium is a toxic metal that is an occupational and environmental concern especially because of its human carcinogenicity; it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. Even low levels of exposure to cadmium could be harmful owing to its extremely long half-life in the body. Cadmium intoxication may be prevented by the consumption of dietary components that potentially reduce its accumulation in the body. Dietary chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from animal sources; it has been known for its ability to bind to divalent cations including cadmium, in addition to other beneficial effects including hypocholesterolemic and anticancer effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of dietary chitosan in reducing cadmium accumulation using an in vivo system. MATERIALS/METHODS Cadmium was administered orally at 2 mg (three times per week) to three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: control, low-dose, and high-dose (0, 3, and 5%, respectively) chitosan diet groups for eight weeks. Cadmium accumulation, as well as tissue functional and histological changes, was determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, rats fed the chitosan diet showed significantly lower levels of cadmium in blood and tissues including the kidneys, liver, and femur. Biochemical analysis of liver function including the determination of aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels showed that dietary chitosan reduced hepatic tissue damage caused by cadmium intoxication and prevented the associated bone disorder. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that dietary chitosan has the potential to reduce cadmium accumulation in the body as well as protect liver function and bone health against cadmium intoxication. PMID:26865912

  9. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  10. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  11. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  12. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  13. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  14. Episodic, ENSO-orchestrated sediment accumulation of Amazonian floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R.; Maurice-Bourgoin, L.; Dunne, T.; Nittrouer, C.; Montgomery, D.; Vauchel, P.

    2003-04-01

    normalsize Large, sand-bedded rivers sequester a significant proportion of their sediment load in floodplains, but the magnitudes and mechanisms of storage are undocumented and unpredicted. The Beni River, which drains 70,000 km^2 of the northern Bolivian Andes into the Amazon Basin, interacts with its 50,000 km^2 of pristine forested floodplain, depositing ěrb" "100 Mt/yr of sediment (net loss) as it traverses a large foreland basin. An adjacent river, the Mamore, drains an additional 600,000-km^2 basin, much of which is floodplain. For the Beni, this study quantifies system-wide floodplain accumulation rates with a novel methodology for ^2^1^0Pb geochronology. Locations within 300 m of the channel average at least 5 cm of annual accumulation, with rates declining to 1 cm/yr at more than 3 km distance. For both the Beni and Mamore, particulate loss is dominated by episodic sedimentation on the large expanse of distal floodplain, and predominately occurs as 20- to 120-cm thick lenses, interpreted as crevasse splays, with system-wide recurrence intervals of about a decade. Tropical ocean temperature, rainfall, and streamflow records link these episodic accumulation events to the largest ENSO cold phase floods, which are also significant conveyors of particulate flux. Unlike previously studied floodplains, study sites rarely exhibit quasi-annual accumulation (only 5 out of 112 dated cores portray constant sedimentation); the dense tropical rainforest, standing water on the floodplain, and natural levees may impede sediment transport overbank during all but the most extreme levee-breaching floods, and even then only near discrete splays. For the Mamore River, accumulation of sediment on floodplains appears to have ceased around 1971, coincident with a major regional climate change. Because the Beni and Mamore are the principal sediment and water sources of the Madeira River (and analogous to similarly important Peruvian rivers), in turn the largest sediment source

  15. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  16. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Frederick L; Krahnke, Jason S; Kim, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Airway mucus is part of the lung’s native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics. PMID:24493923

  17. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  18. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  19. Zinc Accumulation and Behavior in Tuyere Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Tianqiu; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhong, Jianbo; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Guangwei; Ren, Shan; Yang, Tianjun

    2014-10-01

    A case study of zinc oxide, which represents the first report on the occurrence, crystalline features, formation mechanism, and influence of this mineral in tuyere coke, was conducted in this study. A number of zinc oxides, some of which were in hexagonal wurtzite habit, were observed to distribute mainly in coke pores, cracks, surfaces, and around coke minerals. The accumulation of zinc in tuyere coke may enhance the degradation of coke and increase the generation and accumulation of coke fine in a blast furnace, which would cause bad effect on blast furnace operation. Investigations into zinc behavior in tuyere coke can be important for further interpretations of coke degradation in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace.

  20. Capsinoids suppress fat accumulation via lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qin; Xia, Chen; Xiangying, Hu; Quan, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Capsaicin, found in red peppers, has been reported to have anti‑obesity, anti‑hypertension, anti‑diabetes and anti‑inflammatory functions. In the present study, we determined the effect of non‑pungent capsinoids on the metabolism of adipocytes. We demonstrated that capsinoids suppressed fat accumulation in vivo and in vitro in mice. Liver, the main tissue of lipid metabolism, was treated by capsinoids, and HMG‑CoA reductase, CPT‑1, FAT/CD36 and GLUT4 were found to be increased significantly, which demonstrated promotion of the lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. In addition, by adding capsinoids, the induced adipocytes also demonstrated significantly increased levels of HMG‑CoA reductase, CPT‑1, FAT/CD36 and GLUT4. Oil red O staining also demonstrated that capsinoids decreased fat accumulation in the adipocytes. In conclusion, these results indicate that capsinoids may be worth investigating as a potential cure for obesity. PMID:25421144

  1. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  2. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  3. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  4. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  5. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  6. Episodic strain accumulation in southern california.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W

    1976-11-12

    Reexamination of horizontal geodetic data in the region of recently discovered aseismic uplift has demonstrated that equally unusual horizontal crustal deformation accompanied the development of the uplift. During this time interval compressive strains were oriented roughly normal to the San Andreas fault, suggesting that the uplift produced little shear strain accumulation across this fault. On the other hand, the orientation of the anomalous shear straining is consistent with strain accumulation across northdipping range-front thrusts like the San Fernando fault. Accordingly, the horizontal and vertical crustal deformation disclosed by geodetic observation is interpreted as a short epoch of rapid strain accumulation on these frontal faults. If this interpretation is correct, thrust-type earthquakes will eventually release the accumulated strains, but the geodetic data examined here cannot be used to estimate when these events might occur. However, observation of an unusual sequence of tilts prior to 1971 on a level line lying to the north of the magnitude 6.4 San Fernando earthquake offers some promise for precursor monitoring. The data are adequately explained by a simple model of up-dip aseismic slip propagation toward the 1971 epicentral region. These observations and the simple model that accounts for them suggest a conceptually straightforward monitoring scheme to search for similar uplift and tilt precursors within the uplifted region. Such premonitory effects could be detected by a combination of frequenlty repeated short (30 to 70 km in length) level line measurements, precise gravity traverses, and continuously recording gravimeters sited to the north of the active frontal thrust faults. Once identified, such precursors could be closely followed in space and time, and might then provide effective warnings of impending potentially destructive earth-quakes. PMID:17832524

  7. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated. PMID:25370619

  8. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  9. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  10. Extrapulmonary sites of radiogallium accumulation in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Palestro, C.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Tierstein, A.S. )

    1990-12-01

    In an effort to detect extrapulmonary sites of radiogallium accumulation in cases of sarcoidosis, 145 separate Ga-67 citrate studies of 114 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were examined. The most characteristic extrapulmonary radiogallium uptake pattern was the panda sign in 47 patients (41%). The most common site of prominent extrapulmonary radiogallium uptake was the lacrimal glands in 101 patients (88%). Second most common was activity in one or more superficial lymph node regions such as the cervical, axillary, femoral, or inguinal in 19 patients (17%). Other extrapulmonary sites included breast uptake in 6 out of 80 women (8%), prominent splenic and nasal uptake in 9 (8%) patients, periportal accumulation in 7 (6%), and cutaneous/subcutaneous activity in 4 (4%). Because many of these individuals were receiving corticosteroids, the natural (untreated) prevalence of extrapulmonary findings may be even higher. Although the sensitivity and specificity of extrapulmonary radiogallium accumulation has still to be determined, many of the sites may be accessible to biopsy both for diagnostic purposes and to follow the effects of medications. It is therefore suggested that whole-body imaging be performed when radiogallium is administered to patients with suspected or known sarcoidosis.

  11. Identification of a Cd accumulator Conyza canadensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Saha, Uttam Kumar; Xiao, Hong; Hu, Yahu; Ren, Liping; Ping, Gu

    2009-04-15

    One of key steps of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soils is still the identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator. In a former published article, Conyza canadensis L. Cronq. expressed some basic properties of Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, concentration gradient experiment and two sample-analyzing experiments were used to identify whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. When grown on soil spiked with Cd at the rate of 10 and 25 mg kg(-1) in concentration gradient experiment, C. canadensis had both Cd enrichment factor (EF) and Cd translocation factor (TF) greater than 1, while the shoot biomass did not differ significantly as compared to the control. On the other hand, with Cd-spiking rates of 10 and 25 mg kg(-1), the Cd concentration in the shoot did not exceed 100 mg kg(-1), which is considered as the minimum shoot Cd concentration to qualify as a hyperaccumulator. In the sample-analysis experiments from a Pb-Zn mine area and wastewater irrigation region, C. canadensis also showed Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on the results accomplished, we propose C. canadensis as a Cd-accumulator. PMID:18653276

  12. Sodium Influx and Accumulation in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Essah, Pauline A.; Davenport, Romola; Tester, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis is frequently used as a genetic model in plant salt tolerance studies, however, its physiological responses to salinity remain poorly characterized. This study presents a characterization of initial Na+ entry and the effects of Ca2+ on plant growth and net Na+ accumulation in saline conditions. Unidirectional Na+ influx was measured carefully using very short influx times in roots of 12-d-old seedlings. Influx showed three components with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+, diethylpyrocarbonate, and osmotic pretreatment. Pharmacological agents and known mutants were used to test the contribution of different transport pathways to Na+ uptake. Influx was stimulated by 4-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid; was inhibited by flufenamate, quinine, and cGMP; and was insensitive to modulators of K+ and Ca2+ channels. Influx did not differ from wild type in akt1 and hkt1 insertional mutants. These data suggested that influx was mediated by several different types of nonselective cation channels. Na+ accumulation in plants grown in 50 mm NaCl was strongly reduced by increasing Ca2+ activity (from 0.05-3.0 mm), and plant survival was improved. However, plant biomass was not affected by shoot Na+ concentration, suggesting that in Arabidopsis Na+ toxicity is not dependent on shoot Na+ accumulation. These data suggest that Arabidopsis is a good model for investigation of Na+ transport, but may be of limited utility as a model for the study of Na+ toxicity. PMID:12970496

  13. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  14. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging. PMID:23032767

  15. Regulation of tubulin and actin synthesis and accumulation during Blastocladiella emersonii development.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A M; Juliani, M H

    1988-06-01

    Actin and alpha and beta-tubulin have been identified in Blastocladiella emersonii by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The kinetics of synthesis of these proteins were compared by pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine and with the accumulation of their corresponding mRNAs, translated in a cell-free system. Large increases occur in the rates of actin and alpha- and beta-tubulin biosynthesis during sporulation and there is an accumulation of the corresponding mRNAs. In parallel to the increased synthesis, these cytoskeletal proteins accumulate during the late stage of sporulation. PMID:3409324

  16. 17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear corridor between Units 3 and 4, view to the west. The compressor motor is located just right of center in photograph. The pressure tank on the right side of the photograph is a reserve pressure tank for governor system. The pressure tank on the left side of the photograph is the original instrument air pressure tank. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  17. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure. PMID:23477409

  18. Ice core evidence for a recent increase in snow accumulation in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Lenaerts, Jan; Sheldon, Simon Geoffrey; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of snow accumulation, a crucial component of Antarctic mass balance. Coastal areas are particularly under-represented in such records, despite their relatively high and sensitive accumulation rates. Here we present records from a 120 m ice core drilled on Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica in 2012. We date the ice core bottom back to 1745 ± 2 AD. δ18O and δD stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles, and verified independently by electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) to detect volcanic horizons. The resulting annual layer history is combined with the core density profile to calculate accumulation history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean long-term accumulation is 0.425 ± 0.035 m water equivalent (w.e.) a‑1 (average corrected value). Reconstructed annual accumulation rates show an increase from 1955 onward to a mean value of 0.61 ± 0.02 m w.e. a‑1 between 1955 and 2012. This trend is compared to other reported accumulation data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Applying the Community Earth System Model demonstrated that sea ice and atmosphere patterns largely explain the accumulation variability. This is the first and longest record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica showing a steady increase during the 20th and 21st centuries, thereby confirming modelling predictions.

  19. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  20. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  1. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  2. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  3. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  4. Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments

    PubMed Central

    Glaze, Christopher M; Kable, Joseph W; Gold, Joshua I

    2015-01-01

    In our dynamic world, decisions about noisy stimuli can require temporal accumulation of evidence to identify steady signals, differentiation to detect unpredictable changes in those signals, or both. Normative models can account for learning in these environments but have not yet been applied to faster decision processes. We present a novel, normative formulation of adaptive learning models that forms decisions by acting as a leaky accumulator with non-absorbing bounds. These dynamics, derived for both discrete and continuous cases, depend on the expected rate of change of the statistics of the evidence and balance signal identification and change detection. We found that, for two different tasks, human subjects learned these expectations, albeit imperfectly, then used them to make decisions in accordance with the normative model. The results represent a unified, empirically supported account of decision-making in unpredictable environments that provides new insights into the expectation-driven dynamics of the underlying neural signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08825.001 PMID:26322383

  5. Accumulation of plastic strain in Zircaloy-4 at low homologous temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tetsuya; Satoh, Yuhki; Abe, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Time-dependent strain accumulation in Zircaloy-4 was evaluated at 294 K, i.e., homologous temperature (T/Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature) of 0.14, to ascertain the mechanical response in fuel cladding material, even at the time of storage. Although diffusion processes are suppressed, considerable strain accumulation was observed at less than 0.2% offset stress. Transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction analyses were used to investigate the dominant microstructural mechanism. Results showed that the heterogeneous dislocation structure generated strain accumulation, where straightly aligned dislocation arrays on the prismatic plane move freely and few deformation twins were formed in the grain interior. Furthermore, few dislocation tangles were observed because the slip systems were limited to one. Therefore, Zircaloy-4 shows weak work-hardening at the low homologous temperature because of the fewer interactions among dislocations, leading to unexpected strain accumulation under constant load conditions.

  6. Accumulation of plastic strain in Zircaloy-4 at low homologous temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tetsuya; Satoh, Yuhki; Abe, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Time-dependent strain accumulation in Zircaloy-4 was evaluated at 294 K, i.e., homologous temperature (T/Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature) of 0.14, to ascertain the mechanical response in fuel cladding material, even at the time of storage. Although diffusion processes are suppressed, considerable strain accumulation was observed at less than 0.2% offset stress. Transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction analyses were used to investigate the dominant microstructural mechanism. Results showed that the heterogeneous dislocation structure generated strain accumulation, where straightly aligned dislocation arrays on the prismatic plane move freely and few deformation twins were formed in the grain interior. Furthermore, few dislocation tangles were observed because the slip systems were limited to one. Therefore, Zircaloy-4 shows weak work-hardening at the low homologous temperature because of the fewer interactions among dislocations, leading to unexpected strain accumulation under constant load conditions.

  7. Saline wastewater treatment by Chlorella vulgaris with simultaneous algal lipid accumulation triggered by nitrate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Gong, Yu-Peng; Fang, Wen-Zhe; Bi, Zi-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, a marine microalgae strain adaptable to 0-50 g L(-1) of salinity, was selected for studying the coupling system of saline wastewater treatment and lipid accumulation. The effect of total nitrogen (T N) concentration was investigated on algal growth, nutrients removal as well as lipid accumulation. The removal efficiencies of TN and total phosphorus (TP) were found to be 92.2-96.6% and over 99%, respectively, after a batch cultivation of 20 days. To illustrate the response of lipid accumulation to nutrients removal, C. vulgaris was further cultivated in the recycling experiment of tidal saline water within the photobioreactor. The lipid accumulation was triggered upon the almost depletion of nitrate (<5 mg L(-1)), till the final highest lipid content of 40%. The nitrogen conversion in the sequence of nitrate, nitrite, and then to ammonium in the effluents was finally integrated with previous discussions on metabolic pathways of algal cell under nitrogen deficiency. PMID:26117237

  8. Hydrogeological influences on petroleum accumulations in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Vizgirda, J.; Burke, L.

    1995-08-01

    The stratigraphic and topographic conditions in the Arabian Gulf are appropriate for the instigation and maintenance of an active hydrodynamic regime. The setting is that of a gentle basin surrounded by topographic highs. The central Arabian highlands to the west-southwest, the Tarus-Zagros mountains to the north, and the Oman mountains to the east rim the structural low occupied by the Gulf. Elevations in these areas reach maximum values of approximately 1000 meters. Paleozoic through Cenozoic strata stretch continuously across the basin, are relatively unfaulted, and outcrop in the topographic highs. Such a setting is propitious for a regional hydrodynamic system with meteoric recharge in the topographic highs and discharge in the middle of the Gulf. The prolific oil and gas accumulations of this region would be subject to influence by these hydrodynamic processes. The existence of such a hydrodynamic regime is documented by a variety of evidence, including potentiometric data, water salinity measurements, and observed tilts in oil-water contacts. Potentiometric data for several Tertiary and Cretaceous units on the Arabian platform, in the Gulf, and in Iraq show a pattern of consistently decreasing potential from topographic highs to lows. Water salinities show a consistent, but inverse, variation with the potentiometric data. Tilted oil-water contacts in Cretaceous and Jurassic reservoirs are observed in several fields of the Gulf region. The direction and magnitude of the observed tilts are consistent with the water potential and salinity data, and suggest that petroleum accumulations are being influenced by a regional hydrodynamic drive. Basin modelling is used to simulate petroleum generation and migration scenarios, and to integrate these histories with the structural evolution of the Gulf. The integrated modelling study illustrates the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the distribution of petroleum accumulations.

  9. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  10. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulated production expenditures. 1.263A-11 Section 1.263A-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-11 Accumulated production expenditures. (a) General rule. Accumulated...

  11. 47 CFR 32.3410 - Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases. 32... Accounts § 32.3410 Accumulated amortization—capitalized leases. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization associated with the investment contained in Account 2681, Capital Leases. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 86.426-78 - Service accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service accumulation. 86.426-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.426-78 Service accumulation. (a) The procedure for service accumulation will be the Durability Driving Schedule as specified in appendix IV to...

  13. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  14. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  15. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  16. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  17. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  18. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  19. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  20. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant....

  2. Accumulation, internalization and therapeutic efficacy of neuropilin-1-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Eric E; Ingham, Elizabeth S; Zhang, Hua; Mahakian, Lisa M; Fite, Brett Z; Gagnon, M Karen; Tam, Sarah; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Cardiff, Robert D; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2014-03-28

    Advancements in liposomal drug delivery have produced long circulating and very stable drug formulations. These formulations minimize systemic exposure; however, unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy has remained limited due to the slow diffusion of liposomal particles within the tumor and limited release or uptake of the encapsulated drug. Here, the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide, with affinity for the receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP), which is expressed on both endothelial and cancer cells, was conjugated to liposomes to enhance the tumor accumulation. Using a pH sensitive probe, liposomes were optimized for specific NRP binding and subsequent cellular internalization using in vitro cellular assays. Liposomes conjugated with the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide (termed C-LPP liposomes) bound to the NRP-positive primary prostatic carcinoma cell line (PPC-1) but did not bind to the NRP-negative PC-3 cell line, and binding was observed with liposomal peptide concentrations as low as 0.16mol%. Binding of the C-LPP liposomes was receptor-limited, with saturation observed at high liposome concentrations. The identical peptide sequence bearing an amide terminus did not bind specifically, accumulating only with a high (2.5mol%) peptide concentration and adhering equally to NRP positive and negative cell lines. The binding of C-LPP liposomes conjugated with 0.63mol% of the peptide was 83-fold greater than liposomes conjugated with the amide version of the peptide. Cellular internalization was also enhanced with C-LPP liposomes, with 80% internalized following 3h incubation. Additionally, fluorescence in the blood pool (~40% of the injected dose) was similar for liposomes conjugated with 0.63mol% of carboxyl-terminated peptide and non-targeted liposomes at 24h after injection, indicating stable circulation. Prior to doxorubicin treatment, in vivo tumor accumulation and vascular targeting were increased for peptide-conjugated liposomes compared to non-targeted liposomes based

  3. A revised accumulated cyclone energy index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chou, Chia; Chiu, Ping-Gin

    2009-07-01

    A new estimate of the wind energy associated with a tropical cyclone (TC), along with the revised accumulated cyclone energy (RACE) index, is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the conventional means employed in computing the ACE index, in which the wind energy is measured at the radius of maximum wind, the new estimate considers the mean wind energy averaged over a circular area based on the modified Rankine vortex structure. An examination of the seasonal TC activity using the JTWC best-track records over the western North Pacific suggests that, as long as there is a strong variability in TC activity (characterized by a substantial year-to-year variability in the RACE/ACE time series), employing a more precise estimate of the cyclone wind energy is not just physically reasonable, it can also be practically useful.

  4. Evidence of aluminium accumulation in aluminium welders.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Ahrengart, L; Lidums, V; Pettersson, E; Sjögren, B

    1991-01-01

    Using atomic absorption spectrometry the aluminium concentrations in blood and urine and in two iliac bone biopsies obtained from welders with long term exposure to fumes containing aluminium were measured. The urinary excretion of two workers who had welded for 20 and 21 years varied between 107 and 351 micrograms Al/l, more than 10 times the concentration found in persons without occupational exposure. Urinary aluminium excretion remained high many years after stopping exposure. Blood and bone aluminium concentrations (4-53 micrograms Al/l and 18-29 micrograms Al/g respectively) were also raised but not to the same extent as urine excretion. It is concluded that long term exposure to aluminium by inhalation gives rise to accumulation of aluminium in the body and skeleton of health persons, and that the elimination of retained aluminium is very slow, in the order of several years. PMID:1954151

  5. Oxycodone accumulation in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Foral, Pamela A; Ineck, Joseph R; Nystrom, Kelly K

    2007-02-01

    Oxycodone and oxycodone-containing analgesics are often used for the relief of pain. In the presence of renal dysfunction, the half-life of oxycodone and metabolites can be prolonged. We describe the case of a 41-year-old chronic hemodialysis patient who received multiple doses of oxycodone/acetaminophen resulting in accumulation of the medication and consequent lethargy, hypotension and respiratory depression. These adverse effects were reversed with multiple bolus doses of naloxone, followed by a continuous infusion administered for 45 hours. Utilizing the Naranjo probability scale, the patient had a "probable" adverse drug reaction to the oxycodone. Oxycodone should be used with caution in patients with chronic renal failure. PMID:17330696

  6. Antagonism of eosinophil accumulation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2010-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that implicates eosinophils as important effector cells and immunomodulators in the inflammation characteristic of asthma. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated essential roles for cell adhesion molecules in eosinophil adhesion and transendothelial migration including the selectins, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 together with many of the 1 and β2 integrins. A large body of evidence has also implicated several cytokines and chemokines in the selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of asthmatic inflammation. Biopharmaceutical approaches have been used to identify inhibitory molecules that target key elements in the processes controlling eosinophil accumulation in asthma. This review will summarise, the problems and successes regarding recent patents and developments in adhesion-based therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing eosinophil-mediated inflammation in the asthmatic lung. PMID:20804449

  7. Geomycology. [fungal biosolubilization and accumulation of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puerner, N. J.; Siegel, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to have capabilities for reduction and alkylation of arsenate and selenate but their general capabilities for solubilizing and accumulating metallic substances have been given serious attention only in recent years. Common members of the Aspergillaceae cultured on boron, copper, lead and other metals or oxides can solubilize and concentrate the elements or their compounds. To account for biosolubilization of the metals, we have set up a model study, incubating selected metals, e.g., mercury, in solutions of various metabolites including L-lysine and citric acid. Results of 100-300 days incubation showed that many metals can in fact be readily solubilized, and in some cases more effectively at pH 6-7 than at pH 1.5-2.

  8. 10Be accumulation in a soil chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavich, M.J.; Brown, L.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the concentration of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be in soil samples from various horizons at six sites, including three independently dated Rappahannock River terraces and a previously undated Piedmont soil to which we have assigned an age. All of the incident 10Be can be accounted for in one of these soils and a second is within a factor of two. In three soils, whose concentrations vary widely with depth, a significant fraction of the incident 10Be cannot be accounted for. Incomplete sampling, and enhanced Be mobility caused by organic components, are the probable reasons for the low inventory of Be from these three soils. Overall, the data from these six sites indicate that 10Be accumulation could be used to assign ages to soils if Be is not mobilized and lost from the soil profile. ?? 1984.

  9. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  10. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  11. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  12. The postsynaptic spectrin/4.1 membrane protein "accumulation machine".

    PubMed

    Baines, A J; Keating, L; Phillips, G W; Scott, C

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of the function of the membrane-associated cytoskeleton has been suggested to be to trap and retain selected transmembrane proteins at points on the cell surface specified by cell adhesion molecules. In the process, cell adhesion molecules are cross-linked to each other, and so junctional complexes are strengthened. In this short review, we will discuss recent advances in understanding the role of this "accumulation machine" in postsynaptic structures. Function in the brain depends on correct ordering of synaptic intercellular junctions, and in particular the recruitment of receptors and other apparatus of the signalling system to postsynaptic membranes. Spectrin has long been known to be a component of postsynaptic densities, and recent advances in molecular cloning indicate that beta spectrins at PSDs are all "long" C-terminal isoforms characterised by pleckstrin homology domains. Isoforms of protein 4.1 are also present at synapses. All four 4.1 proteins are represented in PSD preparations, but it is 4.1R that is most enriched in PSDs. 4.1R binds to several proteins enriched in PSDs, including the characteristic PSD intermediate filament, alpha-internexin. Both 4.1 and spectrin interact with ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA and NMDA receptors, respectively): 4.1 stabilises AMPA receptors on the cell surface. By linking these receptors to the cytoskeletal and cell adhesion molecules that specify glutamatergic synapses, the membrane protein accumulation machine is suggested to direct the formation of postsynaptic signalling complexes. PMID:11598642

  13. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  14. SOD1 nanozyme with reduced toxicity and MPS accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhang; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Rheiner, Steven; Bae, Younsoo; Kabanov, Alexander V; Milligan, Carol; Manickam, Devika S

    2016-06-10

    We previously developed a "cage"-like nano-formulation (nanozyme) for copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) by polyion condensation with a conventional block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLL) followed by chemical cross-linking. Herein we report a new SOD1 nanozyme based on PEG-b-poly(aspartate diethyltriamine) (PEG-PAsp(DET), or PEG-DET for short) engineered for chronic dosing. This new nanozyme was spherical (Rg/Rh=0.785), and hollow (60% water composition) nanoparticles with colloidal properties similar to PLL-based nanozyme. It was better tolerated by brain microvessel endothelial/neuronal cells, and accumulated less in the liver and spleen. This formulation reduced the infarct volumes by more than 50% in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. However, it was not effective at preventing neuromuscular junction denervation in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To our knowledge, this work is the first report of using PEG-DET for protein delivery and a direct comparison between two cationic block copolymers demonstrating the effect of polymer structure in modulating the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) accumulation of polyion complexes. PMID:26928528

  15. Accumulation, metabolism and toxicity of parathion in tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Earlier work exposing tadpoles to organophosphorus pesticides indicated the great resistance of tadpoles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) to these chemicals and their surprising ability to accumulate parathion and fenthion from water. These qualities seemed to make them an ideal model with which to test a hypothesis advanced by Burke and Ferguson, who noted that parathion is more toxic to resistant mosquitofish in static water than in flowing water--a reversal of the pattern normally seen. They believed that highly toxic metabolite paraoxon was produced by the fish and that its buildup in static systems resulted in the unexpected mortality. Amphibians have been shown to produce paraoxon and to accumulate the parent compound parathion to levels that are potentially hazardous to other organisms. In the course of examining paraoxon production by tadpoles, it would also be possible to learn more about their patterns of parathion uptake and elimination. Retention of residues is also a matter of concern given the high levels observed in the earlier studies.

  16. Toxicity and accumulation of chromium in Ceratophyllum demersum L

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, P.; Chandra, P. )

    1990-03-01

    As a result of heavy metal pollution, significant degradation in water quality has occurred leading to acute scarcity of safe drinking water. Efforts have recently been made to develop simple but reliable biological systems to upgrade the water quality. In this process several aquatic plants effective in heavy metal uptake were identified. Recently, a few aquatic species have been reported to accumulate chromium. However, not much information is available on Cr uptake by the aquatic vascular plants. Chromium, which is one of the highly toxic metals is being released to the water bodies in high concentrations through the effluents from industries like leather, dye, paint, ink, electroplating and paper. The interest on C. demersum a submerged aquatic plant was aroused because of its common occurrence and luxuriant growth in a polluted water body which contained 0.05 to 0.22 ppm Cr. Plants analyzed from this site also showed high accumulation of Cr. In view of this it was considered worthwhile to evaluate chromium uptake ability of this plant under the laboratory conditions.

  17. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  18. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  19. The Retirement Equity Act, Survivor Benefits Protections, and Public Employee Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebig, Phoebe S.

    The Retirement Equity Act (REA) sets out requirements for joint and survivor annuity coverage for married individuals who participate in federally regulated retirement plans. REA-mandated provisions do not apply to state and local government retirement systems. Because state and local government employees constitute a significant part of the work…

  20. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bartkoski, Dirk A; Deibele, Craig E; Polsky, Yarom

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  1. Mechanisms and microbial structure of partial denitrification with high nitrite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-02-01

    Nitrite (NO2 (-)-N) accumulation in denitrification can provide the substrate for anammox, an efficient and cost-saving process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. This batch-mode study aimed at achieving high NO2 (-)-N accumulation over long-term operation with the acetate as sole organic carbon source and elucidating the mechanisms of NO2 (-)-N accumulation. The results showed that the specific nitrate (NO3 (-)-N) reduction rate (59.61 mg N VSS(-1) h(-1) at NO3 (-)-N of 20 mg/L) was much higher than specific NO2 (-)-N reduction rate (7.30 mg N VSS(-1) h(-1) at NO3 (-)-N of 20 mg/L), and the NO2 (-)-N accumulation proceeded well at the NO3 (-)-N to NO2 (-)-N transformation ratio (NTR) as high as 90 %. NO2 (-)-N accumulation was barely affected by the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to NO3 (-)-N concentration (C/N). With the addition of NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N accumulation occurred and the specific NO2 (-)-N reduction rate declined to a much lower level compared with the value in the absence of NO3 (-)-N. This indicated that the denitrifying bacteria in the system preferred to use NO3 (-)-N as electron acceptor rather than use NO2 (-)-N. In addition, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the genus of Thauera bacteria was dominant in the denitrifying community with high NO2 (-)-N accumulation and account for 67.25 % of total microorganism. This bacterium might be functional for high NO2 (-)-N accumulation in the presence of NO3 (-)-N. PMID:26526457

  2. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  3. Hydraulic accumulator-compressor for geopressured enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    A hydraulic accumulator-compressor vessel using geothermal brine under pressure as a piston to compress waste (CO.sub.2 rich) gas is used in a system having a plurality of gas separators in tandem to recover pipeline quality gas from geothermal brine. A first high pressure separator feeds gas to a membrance separator which separates low pressure waste gas from high pressure quality gas. A second separator produces low pressure waste gas. Waste gas from both separators is combined and fed into the vessel through a port at the top as the vessel is drained for another compression cycle. High pressure brine is then admitted into the vessel through a port at the bottom of the vessel. Check valves control the flow of low pressure waste gas into the vessel and high pressure waste gas out of the vessel.

  4. A True Eddy Accumulation - Eddy Covariance hybrid for measurements of turbulent trace gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebicke, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is state-of-the-art in directly and continuously measuring turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor. However, low signal-to-noise ratios, high flow rates and missing or complex gas analyzers limit it's application to few scalars. True eddy accumulation, based on conditional sampling ideas by Desjardins in 1972, requires no fast response analyzers and is therefore potentially applicable to a wider range of scalars. Recently we showed possibly the first successful implementation of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) measuring net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide of a grassland. However, most accumulation systems share the complexity of having to store discrete air samples in physical containers representing entire flux averaging intervals. The current study investigates merging principles of eddy accumulation and eddy covariance, which we here refer to as "true eddy accumulation in transient mode" (TEA-TM). This direct flux method TEA-TM combines true eddy accumulation with continuous sampling. The TEA-TM setup is simpler than discrete accumulation methods while avoiding the need for fast response gas analyzers and high flow rates required for EC. We implemented the proposed TEA-TM method and measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) above a mixed beech forest at the Hainich Fluxnet and ICOS site, Germany, using a G2301 laser spectrometer (Picarro Inc., USA). We further simulated a TEA-TM sampling system using measured high frequency CO2 time series from an open-path gas analyzer. We operated TEA-TM side-by-side with open-, enclosed- and closed-path EC flux systems for CO2, H2O and CH4 (LI-7500, LI-7200, LI-6262, LI-7700, Licor, USA, and FGGA LGR, USA). First results show that TEA-TM CO2 fluxes were similar to EC fluxes. Remaining differences were similar to those between the three eddy covariance setups (open-, enclosed- and closed-path gas analyzers). Measured TEA-TM CO2 fluxes from our physical

  5. Accumulation and detoxification of lead ions in legumes.

    PubMed

    Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Malecka, Arleta

    2002-05-01

    This study focuses on lead accumulation in roots, stems and leaves of three plant species of the Fabacea family: Vicia faba, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris grown hydroponically in a medium supplemented with 1 mM concentration of lead. The largest amount of lead, up to 75 mg Pb/g dry weight, was accumulated in roots of P. vulgaris. The highest rate of Pb ions uptake from the medium took place during the first 10 h of incubation with lead and after 96 h of incubation lead content in the medium decreased by half. Thus, it was suggested that P. vulgaris could be used in rhizofiltration--the use of plant roots to absorb pollutants from water contaminated with lead. At the same time we studied the influence of lead on acid soluble thiol, glutathione, homoglutathione contents and the synthesis of phyto- and homophytochelatins in roots of V. faba, P. sativum and P. vulgaris grown hydroponically. Activation of the detoxicative-phytochelatin system was observed in the cytosol of root cells of the tested plants. This system was composed of phytochelatins (PCs) in roots of V. faba, homophytochelatins (hPCs) in P. vulgaris roots and both PCs and hPCs in P. sativum roots. The total content of PCs and hPCs in roots of P. sativum was very high and reached around 4800 (expressed in nmol SH x g(-1)FW) and induction of their synthesis occurred after only 2 h of treatment with 1 mM Pb. PMID:12009318

  6. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  7. Selenium uptake by sulfur-accumulating bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Douglas C.; Casey, William H.; Sison, Jennette D.; Mack, E. Erin; Ahmad, Azeem; Pollack, Jeffrey S.

    1996-09-01

    Selenium is a trace metal in many rock-forming minerals but is a major environmental contaminant worldwide. Uptake of selenium by S-accumulating bacteria was examined in both pure cultures of Chromatium vinosum and in co-culture with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. We used dual cultures including these bacteria to concentrate selenium into intracellular globules. The bacterium D. desulfuricans reduces sulfate [SO 42- (aq)] to sulfide [H 2S(aq)] and also reduces selenate [SeO 42- (aq)] to selenide [H 2Se (aq)]. Once reduced, sulfide is enzymatically oxidized and formed into intracellular globules by C. vinosum. We found that the selenium also forms an intercellular solid but the reaction is thermodynamically driven and proceeds by reducing S° (s) with H 2Se(aq). Relative to the initial molar ratio of selenate and sulfate in the medium, selenium is concentrated 4.5 to 32-fold in the globules. Because solid selenium is so much more stable than sulfur at growth conditions, other S-depositing bacteria, such as Beggiatoa and Chlorobium, should also concentrate selenium via this reaction, providing a strategy for eliminating contamination or for concentrating low natural levels into a usable form.

  8. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (< -2MPa) substantially increased the concentration of FAAs and in particular alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. PMID:27107492

  9. Real-time accumulative computation motion detectors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  10. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  11. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  12. Surface roughness scattering in multisubband accumulation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation layers with very large concentrations of electrons where many subbands are filled became recently available due to ionic liquid and other new methods of gating. The low-temperature mobility in such layers is limited by the surface roughness scattering. However, theories of roughness scattering so far dealt only with the small-density single subband two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we develop a theory of roughness-scattering limited mobility for the multisubband large concentration case. We show that with growing 2D electron concentration n the surface dimensionless conductivity σ /(2 e2/h ) first decreases as ∝n-6 /5 and then saturates as ˜(d aB/Δ2)≫1 , where d and Δ are the characteristic length and height of the surface roughness and aB is the effective Bohr radius. This means that in spite of the shrinkage of the 2DEG thickness and the related increase of the scattering rate the 2DEG remains a good metal.

  13. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  14. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qihong; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Mao, Guangru; Pappas, Apostolos; Mack, M Catherine; Walters, Russel M; Southall, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement. PMID:26170709

  15. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  16. Intracellular accumulation of ethanol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Loueiro, V.; Ferreira, H.G.

    1983-09-01

    Ethanol produced in the course of a batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or added from the outside, affects adversely the specific rate of growth of the yeast population, its viability, its specific rate of fermentation, and the specific rates of the uptake of sugar and amino acids. The underlying mechanisms are many and include irreversible denaturation and hyperbolic noncompetitive inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, the exponential noncompetitive inhibition of glucose, maltose, and ammonium transport, the depression of the optimum and the maximum temperature for growth, the increase of the minimum temperature for growth, and the enhancement of thermal death and petite mutation. Nagodawithana and Steinkraus reported that added ethanol was less toxic for S. cerevisiae than ethanol produced by the yeast. The death rates were lower in the presence of added ethanol than those measured at similar external ethanol concentrations endogenously produced. They proposed that, due to an unbalance between the rates of production and the net outflux of ethanol, there would be an intracellular accumulation of ethanol which in turn would explain the apparently greater inhibitory potency of endogenously produced ethanol present in the medium. This hypothesis was supported by the findings of several authors who reported that the intracellular concentration of ethanol, in the course of batch fermentation, is much higher than its concentration in the extracellular medium. The present work is an attempt to clarify this matter. (Refs. 32).

  17. Trehalose Accumulation Triggers Autophagy during Plant Desiccation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brett; Njaci, Isaac; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Long, Hao; Dickman, Martin B; Zhang, Xiuren; Mundree, Sagadevan

    2015-12-01

    Global climate change, increasingly erratic weather and a burgeoning global population are significant threats to the sustainability of future crop production. There is an urgent need for the development of robust measures that enable crops to withstand the uncertainty of climate change whilst still producing maximum yields. Resurrection plants possess the unique ability to withstand desiccation for prolonged periods, can be restored upon watering and represent great potential for the development of stress tolerant crops. Here, we describe the remarkable stress characteristics of Tripogon loliiformis, an uncharacterised resurrection grass and close relative of the economically important cereals, rice, sorghum, and maize. We show that T. loliiformis survives extreme environmental stress by implementing autophagy to prevent Programmed Cell Death. Notably, we identified a novel role for trehalose in the regulation of autophagy in T.loliiformis. Transcriptome, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, immunoblotting and confocal microscopy analyses directly linked the accumulation of trehalose with the onset of autophagy in dehydrating and desiccated T. loliiformis shoots. These results were supported in vitro with the observation of autophagosomes in trehalose treated T. loliiformis leaves; autophagosomes were not detected in untreated samples. Presumably, once induced, autophagy promotes desiccation tolerance in T.loliiformis, by removal of cellular toxins to suppress programmed cell death and the recycling of nutrients to delay the onset of senescence. These findings illustrate how resurrection plants manipulate sugar metabolism to promote desiccation tolerance and may provide candidate genes that are potentially useful for the development of stress tolerant crops. PMID:26633550

  18. Trehalose Accumulation Triggers Autophagy during Plant Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Long, Hao; Dickman, Martin B; Zhang, Xiuren; Mundree, Sagadevan

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change, increasingly erratic weather and a burgeoning global population are significant threats to the sustainability of future crop production. There is an urgent need for the development of robust measures that enable crops to withstand the uncertainty of climate change whilst still producing maximum yields. Resurrection plants possess the unique ability to withstand desiccation for prolonged periods, can be restored upon watering and represent great potential for the development of stress tolerant crops. Here, we describe the remarkable stress characteristics of Tripogon loliiformis, an uncharacterised resurrection grass and close relative of the economically important cereals, rice, sorghum, and maize. We show that T. loliiformis survives extreme environmental stress by implementing autophagy to prevent Programmed Cell Death. Notably, we identified a novel role for trehalose in the regulation of autophagy in T.loliiformis. Transcriptome, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, immunoblotting and confocal microscopy analyses directly linked the accumulation of trehalose with the onset of autophagy in dehydrating and desiccated T. loliiformis shoots. These results were supported in vitro with the observation of autophagosomes in trehalose treated T. loliiformis leaves; autophagosomes were not detected in untreated samples. Presumably, once induced, autophagy promotes desiccation tolerance in T.loliiformis, by removal of cellular toxins to suppress programmed cell death and the recycling of nutrients to delay the onset of senescence. These findings illustrate how resurrection plants manipulate sugar metabolism to promote desiccation tolerance and may provide candidate genes that are potentially useful for the development of stress tolerant crops. PMID:26633550

  19. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  20. Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Tissue accumulation kinetics of ciclesonide-active metabolite and budesonide in mice.

    PubMed

    Mårs, Ulla; d'Argy, Roland; Hallbeck, Karin; Miller-Larsson, Anna; Edsbäcker, Staffan

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are mainstay treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, highly lipophilic ICS accumulate in systemic tissues, which may lead to adverse systemic effects. The accumulation of a new, highly lipophilic ICS, ciclesonide and its active metabolite (des-CIC) has not yet been reported. Here, we have compared tissue accumulation of des-CIC and an ICS of a moderate lipophilicity, budesonide (BUD), after 14 days of once-daily treatment in mice. Single, three or 14 daily doses of [(3) H]-des-CIC or [(3) H]-BUD were administered subcutaneously to male CD1 albino mice, which were killed at 4 hr, 24 hr or 5 days after the last dose. Distribution of tissue concentration of radioactivity was studied by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Pattern of radioactivity distribution across most tissues was similar for both corticosteroids after a single as well as after repeated dosing. However, tissue concentration of radioactivity differed between des-CIC and BUD. After a single dose, concentrations of radioactivity for both corticosteroids were low for most tissues but increased over 14 days of daily dosing. The tissue radioactivity of des-CIC at 24 hr and 5 days after the 14th dose was 2-3 times higher than that of BUD in majority of tissues. Tissue accumulation, assessed as concentration of tissue radioactivity 5 days after the 14th versus 3rd dose, showed an average ratio of 5.2 for des-CIC and 2.7 for BUD (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, des-CIC accumulated significantly more than BUD. Systemic accumulation may lead to increased risk of adverse systemic side effects during long-term therapy. PMID:23256845

  2. DISTRIBUTED AND ACCUMULATED REINFORCEMENT ARRANGEMENTS: EVALUATIONS OF EFFICACY AND PREFERENCE

    PubMed Central

    DELEON, ISER G.; CHASE, JULIE A.; FRANK-CRAWFORD, MICHELLE A.; CARREAU-WEBSTER, ABBEY B.; TRIGGS, MANDY M.; BULLOCK, CHRISTOPHER E.; JENNETT, HEATHER K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of, and preference for, accumulated access to reinforcers, which allows uninterrupted engagement with the reinforcers but imposes an inherent delay required to first complete the task. Experiment 1 compared rates of task completion in 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities when reinforcement was distributed (i.e., 30-s access to the reinforcer delivered immediately after each response) and accumulated (i.e., 5-min access to the reinforcer after completion of multiple consecutive responses). Accumulated reinforcement produced response rates that equaled or exceeded rates during distributed reinforcement for 3 participants. Experiment 2 used a concurrent-chains schedule to examine preferences for each arrangement. All participants preferred delayed, accumulated access when the reinforcer was an activity. Three participants also preferred accumulated access to edible reinforcers. The collective results suggest that, despite the inherent delay, accumulated reinforcement is just as effective and is often preferred by learners over distributed reinforcement. PMID:24782203

  3. Estimation of Accumulation Parameters for Urban Runoff Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Smith, Peter E.

    1981-12-01

    Many recently developed watershed models utilize accumulation and washoff equations to simulate the quality of runofffrom urban impervious areas. These models often have been calibrated by trial and error and with little understanding of model sensitivity to the various parameters. Methodologies for estimating best fit values of the washoff parameters commonly used in these models have been presented previously. In this paper, parameter identification techniques for estimating the accumulation parameters from measured runoff quality data are presented along with a sensitivity analysis of the parameters. Results from application of the techniques and the sensitivity analysis suggest a need for data quantifying the magnitude and identifying the shape of constituent accumulation curves. An exponential accumulation curve is shown to be more general than the linear accumulation curves used in most urban runoff quality models. When determining accumulation rates, attention needs to be given to the effects of residual amounts of constituents remaining after the previous period of storm runoff or street sweeping.

  4. Distributed and accumulated reinforcement arrangements: evaluations of efficacy and preference.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Iser G; Chase, Julie A; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B; Triggs, Mandy M; Bullock, Christopher E; Jennett, Heather K

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of, and preference for, accumulated access to reinforcers, which allows uninterrupted engagement with the reinforcers but imposes an inherent delay required to first complete the task. Experiment 1 compared rates of task completion in 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities when reinforcement was distributed (i.e., 30-s access to the reinforcer delivered immediately after each response) and accumulated (i.e., 5-min access to the reinforcer after completion of multiple consecutive responses). Accumulated reinforcement produced response rates that equaled or exceeded rates during distributed reinforcement for 3 participants. Experiment 2 used a concurrent-chains schedule to examine preferences for each arrangement. All participants preferred delayed, accumulated access when the reinforcer was an activity. Three participants also preferred accumulated access to edible reinforcers. The collective results suggest that, despite the inherent delay, accumulated reinforcement is just as effective and is often preferred by learners over distributed reinforcement. PMID:24782203

  5. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  6. Oxidative DNA damage accumulation in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Farinati, F; Cardin, R; Degan, P; Rugge, M; Di, M; Bonvicini, P; Naccarato, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial, multistep process, in which chronic inflammation plays a major role. 
Aims—In order to ascertain whether free radical mediated oxidative DNA damage is involved in such a process, concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a mutagenic/carcinogenic adduct, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an indirect measure of free radical mediated damage, were determined in biopsy specimens from patients undergoing endoscopy. 
Patients—Eighty eight patients were divided into histological subgroups as follows: 27 with chronic non-atrophic gastritis, 41 with atrophic gastritis, six with gastric cancer, and 14 unaffected controls. 
Methods—Intestinal metaplasia, Helicobacter pylori infection, and disease activity were semiquantitatively scored. 8OHdG concentrations were assessed by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and TBARS concentrations were fluorimetrically assayed. 
Results—8OHdG concentrations (mean number of adducts/105 dG residues) were significantly higher in chronic atrophic gastritis (p=0.0009). Significantly higher concentrations were also detected in the presence of severe disease activity (p=0.02), intestinal metaplasia (p=0.035), and H pylori infection (p=0.001). TBARS concentrations were also higher in atrophic gastritis, though not significantly so. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, 8OHdG concentrations correlated best with the presence and severity of H pylori infection (r=0.53, p=0.002). 
Conclusions—Chronic gastritis is characterised by the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage with mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. H pylori infection is the major determinant for DNA adduct formation. 

 Keywords: free radicals; oxidative DNA damage; gastric carcinogenesis; precancerous changes; peroxidative damage PMID:9577340

  7. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  8. RF Curves for Extraction from the Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dav; /Fermilab

    2002-03-10

    Since the start of Run IIa, the RF curves for the extraction process from the Accumulator have been based on an algorithm described in Pbar Note 636. There are a number of problems with this procedure that result in a dilution of the longitudinal phase space of the extracted beam. The procedure consists of a number of steps in which the frequency curve during each process is a linear time ramp. For a constant bend field, the synchronous phase angle is given as: {Lambda} = sin({phi}{sub s}) = -h/{eta} (1/f{sub rf}){sup 2}df{sub rf}/dt/qV/pc where h is the harmonic number of the RF. Equation (1) shows that if the frequency curve consists of a number of linear time ramps with different slopes, there will be discontinuities in the synchronous phase. These discontinuities in the synchronous phase will lead to dipole oscillations of the beam in the RF bucket. The discontinuities observed for the present RF curves are about 10 degrees. In the procedure outlined in Pbar Note 636, the RF bucket is formed on the high energy edge of the rectangular momentum distribution. As the RF bucket is pulled away from the core, it is also programmed to increase in area. If the distribution is not perfectly rectangular, or if the bucket is not formed at the edge of the distribution, the growing bucket will gather up more particles at the edges of the bucket resulting in a substantial increase of longitudinal emittance. Finally, it is fairly difficult to prepare a rectangular momentum distribution and keep it rectangular for extended periods of time. Once the rectangular distribution is prepared, the core momentum cooling must be turned off. If there is a delay in the extraction process, the sharp edges of the rectangular distribution will soon diffuse. With the momentum cooling disabled, the longitudinal emittance of the core will grow resulting in larger longitudinal emittances for the extracted beam.

  9. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. PMID:26004982

  10. Controls on methylmercury accumulation in northern Gulf of Mexico sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bian; Schaider, Laurel A.; Mason, Robert P.; Shine, James P.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Senn, David B.

    2015-06-01

    We examined Hg biogeochemistry in northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) sediments along a ∼400 km east-west transect off the Louisiana coast in order to characterize primary controls on net methylmercury (MeHg) production and accumulation in sediments and evaluate the potential influence of water column hypoxia. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations ranged from 52 to 340 pmol g-1 and 0.08 to 1.4 pmol g-1, respectively, and exhibited no clear east-west spatial trends, or trends related to water column hypoxia. Potential methylation and demethylation rate constants (km and kdm), from enriched isotope spikes (201Hg(II) and Me199Hg) to intact sediment cores, were substantially higher (0.02-0.19 d-1 and 39-63 d-1, respectively) than in other coastal sediment systems. The percentage of Hg present as MeHg in sediment cores (%MeHg = 0.04-1.1%) was comparable to other systems. Both %MeHg and km decreased with sediment depth and were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with organic carbon (OC). Together, OC and km explained 56% of the variation in [MeHg]. These results suggest that OC primarily acts as a MeHg-binding ligand in nGOM sediments, unlike some other coastal systems where OC has been shown to directly influence Hg methylation.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  12. Identification and Kinetics of Accumulation of Proteins Induced by Ethylene in Bean Abscission Zones 1

    PubMed Central

    del Campillo, Elena; Lewis, Lowell N.

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis system that combines a cationic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH near neutrality with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the spectrum of basic polypeptides that accumulate in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) abscission zones after treatment with ethylene. Results showed that, as abscission progressed, at least seven basic proteins accumulated in the abscission zone prior to the accumulation of 9.5 cellulase. Six of the seven proteins correspond to pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Among them, two isoforms of β-1,3-glucanase and multiple isoforms of chitinase were identified. A 22 kilodalton polypeptide that accumulated to high levels was identified as a thaumatin-like protein by analysis of its N-terminal sequence (up to 20 amino acids) and its serological relationship with heterologous thaumatin antibodies. A 15 kilodalton polypeptide serologically related to PR P1 (p14) from tomato was identified as bean PR P1 (p14)-like protein. The kinetics of accumulation of glucanases, chitinases, thaumatin-like and PR P1 (p14)-like proteins during ethylene treatment were similar and they showed that PR proteins accumulated in abscission zones prior to the increase in 9.5 cellulase. Addition of indoleacetic acid, a potent inhibitor of abscission, reduced the accumulation of these proteins to a similar extent (60%). The synchronized accumulation of this set of PR proteins, early in the abscission process, may play a role in induced resistance to possible fungal attack after a plant part is shed. The seventh protein does not correspond to any previously characterized PR protein. This new 45 kilodalton polypeptide accumulated in abscission zones on exposure to ethylene concomitantly with the increase in 9.5 cellulase. Its N-terminal sequence (up to 15 amino acids) showed some homology with the amino terminal sequence of chitinase. Polyclonal antibodies against chitinase recognized the 45

  13. Oxidative stress in marine bivalves tissues in response to accumulation of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chelomin, V.P.; Belcheva, N.N.; Zakartsev, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Using model aquarium experiments the authors have shown that the accumulation of heavy metals (copper and cadmium) by the tissues of marine bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mizuhopecten yessoensis) is followed by a complex of alterations in the lipid matrix of some membrane organelles. It is supposed that the disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes is the main mechanism in heavy metal-inducible damage, of membranes. This possibility is supported by results of levels of conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and Shiff`s bases, determined as indicators of lipid peroxidation in different tissues of molluscs, markedly increased with metal accumulation. Unlike to cadmium, the copper possess prooxidative activity, stimulating the peroxidation of membrane lipids directly. In spite of some distinctions the intracellular antioxidative systems (glutathione system and tocopherol) showed extreme sensitivity to the accumulation of both metals. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of these metals was followed by die changes of glutathione and tocopherol contents and the inhibition of glutathione-reductase. activity,, but it was not correlated with changes of Se-depending glutathioneperoxidase activity. As it results from kinetic data the most damages of glutathione system are revealed on this earliest stages of metal accumulation when metallothionein synthesis is on the low level. The amount of glutathione in the tissues was restored almost to their original level when metallothionein synthesis increases markedly. But, total amount of peroxides is retained on the high level for a long period of time. On the basis of results it is reasonable to assume that the accumulation of these metals by mollusc tissues does not proceed without leaving a trace. This process is a potential menace for increasing of destructive events in consequence of disturbance of balance of prooxidant and antioxidant processes.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1726-99 - Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance that is stable and representative of design intent. Sufficient mileage should be accumulated to... engines that have step function changes designed into the control system must use the 5,000 mile test..., the full useful life of the auxiliary power unit shall be defined as 50,000 miles for a Type A...

  15. A Basis for Credit? Developing a Post-16 Credit Accumulation and Transfer Framework. Feedback and Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin is an update of Britain's Further Education Unit (FEU) activities associated with the continuing development of a post-16 national credit and accumulation transfer (CAT) framework proposed in February 1992. It begins with a summary of feedback from the field: the central proposition--the need for a post-16 CAT system--was…

  16. DIETARY ACCUMULATION OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SOURCE BY A DEMERSAL FISH ('LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation and dietary transfer of PCBs from contaminated harbor sediments were studied in a laboratory food chain. Results demonstrate that contaminated sediments serve as a source of PCBs for uptake and trophic transfer in marine systems. Fish exposed to PCB-contaminated sedi...

  17. Perception as Evidence Accumulation and Bayesian Inference: Insights from Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    The authors argue that perception is Bayesian inference based on accumulation of noisy evidence and that, in masked priming, the perceptual system is tricked into treating the prime and the target as a single object. Of the 2 algorithms considered for formalizing how the evidence sampled from a prime and target is combined, only 1 was shown to be…

  18. 18 CFR 367.2282 - Account 228.2, Accumulated provision for injuries and damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 228.2, Accumulated provision for injuries and damages. 367.2282 Section 367.2282 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3200 - Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use. 32.3200 Section 32.3200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions...

  20. 47 CFR 32.3200 - Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use. 32.3200 Section 32.3200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3200 - Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use. 32.3200 Section 32.3200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions...

  2. 47 CFR 32.3200 - Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use. 32.3200 Section 32.3200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions...

  3. 47 CFR 32.3200 - Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use. 32.3200 Section 32.3200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions...

  4. cAMP-mediated regulation of cholesterol accumulation in cystic fibrosis and Niemann-Pick type C cells

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Mary E.; Corey, Deborah A.; White, Nicole M.; Kelley, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify a mechanism regulating cholesterol accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) cells. Both CFTR activation and expression are regulated by the cAMP pathway, and it is hypothesized that a feedback response involving this pathway may be involved in the phenotype of cholesterol accumulation. To examine the role of the cAMP pathway in cholesterol accumulation, we treated two CF model cell lines with the Rp diastereomer of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS) and visualized by filipin staining. Rp-cAMPS treatment eliminated cholesterol accumulation in CF cells, whereas 8-bromo-cAMP treatment led to cholesterol accumulation in wild-type cells. To confirm these findings in an independent model system, we also examined the role of cAMP in modulating cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) fibroblasts. Expression of the protein related to NPC, NPC1, is also directly regulated by cAMP; therefore, it is postulated that NPC cells exhibit the same cAMP-mediated control of cholesterol accumulation. Cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells also was reduced by the presence of Rp-cAMPS. Expression of β-arrestin-2 (βarr2), a marker of cellular response to cAMP signaling, was significantly elevated in CF model cells, Cftr−/− MNE, primary tissue obtained by nasal scrapes from CF subjects, and in NPC fibroblasts compared with respective controls. PMID:18790990

  5. Transcriptional program for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Lomana, Adrian Lopez; Schäuble, Sascha; Valenzuela, Jacob; Imam, Saheed; Carter, Warren; Bilgin, Damla D.; Yohn, Christopher B.; Turkarslan, Serdar; Reiss, David J.; Orellana, Monica V.; Price, Nathan D.; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2015-12-02

    Algae accumulate lipids to endure different kinds of environmental stresses including macronutrient starvation. Although this response has been extensively studied, an in depth understanding of the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) that controls the transition into lipid accumulation remains elusive. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to elucidate the transcriptional program that coordinates the nitrogen starvation-induced metabolic readjustments that drive lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that nitrogen starvation triggered differential regulation of 2147 transcripts, which were co-regulated in 215 distinct modules and temporally ordered as 31 transcriptional waves. An early-stage response was triggered within 12 min that initiated growth arrest through activation of key signaling pathways, while simultaneously preparing the intracellular environment for later stages by modulating transport processes and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Subsequently, central metabolism and carbon fixation were remodeled to trigger the accumulation of triacylglycerols. Further analysis revealed that these waves of genome-wide transcriptional events were coordinated by a regulatory program orchestrated by at least 17 transcriptional regulators, many of which had not been previously implicated in this process. We demonstrate that the TRN coordinates transcriptional downregulation of 57 metabolic enzymes across a period of nearly 4 h to drive an increase in lipid content per unit biomass. Notably, this TRN appears to also drive lipid accumulation during sulfur starvation, while phosphorus starvation induces a different regulatory program. The TRN model described here is available as a community-wide web-resource at http://networks.systemsbiology.net/chlamy-portal. In conclusion, in this work, we have uncovered a comprehensive mechanistic model of the TRN controlling the transition from N starvation to lipid accumulation

  6. Transcriptional program for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garcia de Lomana, Adrian Lopez; Schäuble, Sascha; Valenzuela, Jacob; Imam, Saheed; Carter, Warren; Bilgin, Damla D.; Yohn, Christopher B.; Turkarslan, Serdar; Reiss, David J.; Orellana, Monica V.; et al

    2015-12-02

    Algae accumulate lipids to endure different kinds of environmental stresses including macronutrient starvation. Although this response has been extensively studied, an in depth understanding of the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) that controls the transition into lipid accumulation remains elusive. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to elucidate the transcriptional program that coordinates the nitrogen starvation-induced metabolic readjustments that drive lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that nitrogen starvation triggered differential regulation of 2147 transcripts, which were co-regulated in 215 distinct modules and temporally ordered as 31 transcriptional waves. An early-stage response was triggered within 12 minmore » that initiated growth arrest through activation of key signaling pathways, while simultaneously preparing the intracellular environment for later stages by modulating transport processes and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Subsequently, central metabolism and carbon fixation were remodeled to trigger the accumulation of triacylglycerols. Further analysis revealed that these waves of genome-wide transcriptional events were coordinated by a regulatory program orchestrated by at least 17 transcriptional regulators, many of which had not been previously implicated in this process. We demonstrate that the TRN coordinates transcriptional downregulation of 57 metabolic enzymes across a period of nearly 4 h to drive an increase in lipid content per unit biomass. Notably, this TRN appears to also drive lipid accumulation during sulfur starvation, while phosphorus starvation induces a different regulatory program. The TRN model described here is available as a community-wide web-resource at http://networks.systemsbiology.net/chlamy-portal. In conclusion, in this work, we have uncovered a comprehensive mechanistic model of the TRN controlling the transition from N starvation to lipid

  7. Neuronal and glial accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko; Iseki, Eizo; Togo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsuse, Omi; Katsuyama, Kayoko; Kanzaki, Seiichi; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    A number of the lysosomal storage diseases that have now been characterized are associated with intra-lysosomal accumulation of lipids, caused by defective lysosomal enzymes. We have previously reported neuronal accumulation of both alpha- and beta-synucleins in brain tissue of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Although alpha-synuclein has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, its functions remain largely unclear. In our present study, we have examined a cohort of human lipidosis cases, including Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, beta-galactosialidosis and adrenoleukodystrophy, for the expression of alpha- and beta-synucleins and the associated lipid storage levels. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in brain tissue in not only cases of lysosomal storage diseases, but also in instances of adrenoleukodystrophy, which is a peroxisomal disease. alpha-synuclein was detected in both neurons and glial cells of patients with these two disorders, although its distribution was found to be disease-dependent. In addition, alpha-synuclein-positive neurons were also found to be NeuN-positive, whereas NeuN-negative neurons did not show any accumulation of this protein. By comparison, the accumulation of beta-synuclein was detectable only in the pons of Sandhoff disease cases. This differential accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses may be related to functional differences between these two proteins. In addition, the accumulation of alpha-synuclein may also be a condition that is common to lysosomal storage diseases and adrenoleukodystrophies that show an enhanced expression of this protein upon the elevation of stored lipids. PMID:17653558

  8. Nature of decadal-scale sediment accumulation on the western shelf of the Mississippi River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reide Corbett, D.; McKee, Brent; Allison, Mead

    2006-11-01

    Sediment delivered to coastal systems by rivers (15×10 9 tons) plays a key role in the global carbon and nutrient cycles, as deltas and continental shelves are considered to be the main repositories of organic matter in marine sediments. The Mississippi River, delivering more than 60% of the total dissolved and suspended materials from the conterminous US, dominates coastal and margin processes in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Draining approximately 41% of the conterminous US, the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river system deliver approximately 2×10 8 tons of suspended matter to the northern Gulf shelf each year. Unlike previous work, this study provides a comprehensive evaluation of sediment accumulation covering majority of the shelf (<150 m water depth) west of the Mississippi Delta from 92 cores collected throughout the last 15 years. This provides a unique and invaluable data set of the spatial and modern temporal variations of the sediment accumulation in this dynamic coastal environment. Three types of 210Pb profiles were observed from short cores (15-45 cm) collected on the shelf. Proximal to Southwest Pass in 30-100 m water depths, non-steady-state profiles were observed indicating rapid accumulation. Sediment accumulation rates in this area are typically >2.5 cm yr -1 (>1.8 g cm -2 yr -1). Kasten cores (˜200 cm in length) collected near Southwest Pass also indicate rapid deposition (>4 cm yr -1; >3 g cm -2 yr -1) on a longer timescale than that captured in the box cores. Near shore (<20 m), profiles are dominated by sediments reworked by waves and currents with no accumulation (the exception is an area just south of Barataria Bay where accumulation occurs). The remainder of the shelf (distal of Southwest Pass) is dominated by steady-state accumulation beneath a ˜10-cm thick mixed layer. Sediment accumulation rates for the distal shelf are typically <0.7 cm yr -1 (<0.5 g cm -2 yr -1). A preliminary sediment budget based on the distribution of 210Pb

  9. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  10. Statistical models related to accumulated biomass of Hopea odorata in three soil series of ultisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarof, Fauziah; Fauzi, Mohd Adi Faiz Ahmad; Mohamed, Shamsiah

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents results on statistical distribution fitting and polynomial regression on accumulated biomass of seven year-old tree species Hopea odorata, which were planted in three different soil series of ultisols, namely Rengggam, Baling and Kuala Berang. Data were collected from a study conducted in a Hopea odorata plantation at FRIM Research Station, Segamat, Johor. Thirty tree stands in each soil series were randomly sampled to measure their growth performance and accumulated biomass. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests indicated that for all tree stands, diameter, height, above ground (stem, branch, leaves) and below ground (root) biomass were found to be best fitted with the four parameters Johnson's System Bounded (SB) distributions. Then, for each soil series, a polynomial regression model was estimated to describe the relationship between total accumulated biomass and functions of tree diameter and height.

  11. Pulmonary accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Powe, J.E.; Short, A.; Sibbald, W.J.; Driedger, A.A.

    1982-11-01

    The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) plays an integral role in the development of permeability pulmonary edema associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This report describes 3 patients with ARDS secondary to systemic sepsis who demonstrated an abnormal diffuse accumulation of Indium (/sup 111/In)-labeled PMNs in their lungs, without concomitant clinical or laboratory evidence of a primary chest infection. In one patient, the accumulation of the pulmonary activity during an initial pass suggested that this observation was related to diffuse leukoaggregation within the pulmonary microvasculature. A 4th patient with ARDS was on high-dose corticosteroids at the time of a similar study, and showed no pulmonary accumulation of PMNs, suggesting a possible reason for the reported beneficial effect of corticosteroids in human ARDS.

  12. Peatlands as Dynamic Biogeochemical Ecotones: Elemental Concentrations, Stoichiometries and Accumulation in Peatland Soils of Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Wang, M.; Talbot, J.; Riley, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands act as biogeochemical interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic systems and are 'hotspots', particularly for carbon cycling and the accumulation of nutrients and other elements within the peat profile. This results in storage of substantial amounts of carbon, nutrients and metals, particularly in northern peatlands. Using a data base of over 400 peat profiles and 1700 individual peat samples from bog, fen and swamp sites in Ontario, Canada, we examine the profile concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Al, and estimate the storage and accumulation of these elements. We show how these profiles, spatial patterns, stoichiometries and accumulation rates are controlled by biogeochemical processes and influenced by geochemical setting, hydrology, atmospheric input and pollution, and ecological and microbial transformations.

  13. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium (137Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4–5 months after the Fukushima Dai–ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of 137Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total 137Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more 137Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of 137Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of 137Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing. PMID:24682011

  14. Remote sensing of total dry-matter accumulation in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Red and photographic-infrared spectral data collected on 21 dates over the growing season with a hand-held radiometer were quantitatively correlated with total dry-matter accumulation in winter wheat. The spectral data were found to be highly related to vigor and condition of the plant canopy. Two periods of drought stress and subsequent recovery from it were readily apparent in the spectral data. Simple ratios of the spectral radiance data compensated for variations in solar intensities and, when integrated over the growing season, explained 79% of the variation in total above-ground accumulation of dry matter. A satellite system is proposed to provide large-area assessment of total dry accumulation or net primary production from terrestrial vegetation.

  15. Polymeric Micelles with Uniform Surface Properties and Tunable Size and Charge: Positive Charges Improve Tumor Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tong; Guan, Shuli; Gan, Zhihua; Zhang, Guan; Yu, Qingsong

    2016-05-01

    The influence of surface charge on biodistribution and tumor accumulation remains debatable because most research has been carried out by changing the surface functional groups of nanocarriers. In this work, to avoid the interference of different surface properties such as chemical composition and hydrophilicity, polymeric micelles with uniform PEG coatings and continuously tunable sizes or zeta potentials were developed via a facile route. Therefore, the influence of surface charge on the biological functions of micelles with the same size and surface properties could be well-explored. In this case, positive charge was found to enhance both tumor cellular uptake and tumor accumulation. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the improved tumor accumulation was mainly due to the tumor vasculature targeting of positively charged micelles. It is predicted that efficient drug delivery systems for both tumor vasculature and cancer cell targeting can be realized based on positively charged micelles. PMID:27008333

  16. Coordinate regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and indolic phytoalexin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Last, R L

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that couple regulation of secondary metabolic pathways to the synthesis of primary metabolic precursors. Camalexin, an indolic secondary metabolite, appears to be the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis. It was previously shown that camalexin accumulation is caused by infection with plant pathogens, by abiotic elicitors, and in spontaneous lesions in the accelerated cell death mutant acd2. We demonstrate that the accumulation of this phytoalexin is accompanied by the induction of the mRNAs and proteins for all of the tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes tested. A strong correlation was observed between the magnitude of camalexin accumulation and the induction of tryptophan biosynthetic proteins, indicating coordinate regulation of these processes. Production of disease symptoms is not sufficient for the response because systemic infection with cauliflower mosaic virus or cucumber mosaic virus did not induce the tryptophan pathway enzymes or camalexin accumulation. Salicylic acid appears to be required, but unlike other documented pathogenesis-related proteins, it is not sufficient for the coordinate induction. Results with trp mutants suggest that the tryptophan pathway is not rate limiting for camalexin accumulation. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the regulation of the tryptophan pathway in plants responds to needs for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:8989880

  17. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein promotes lipid accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, H B; Yu, K; Luo, J; Li, J; Tian, H B; Zhu, J J; Sun, Y T; Yao, D W; Xu, H F; Shi, H P; Loor, J J

    2015-10-01

    Milk fat originates from the secretion of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) synthesized within mammary epithelial cells. Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP; gene symbol PLIN2) is a CLD-binding protein that is crucial for synthesis of mature CLD. Our hypothesis was that ADRP regulates CLD production and metabolism in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) and thus plays a role in determining milk fat content. To understand the role of ADRP in ruminant milk fat metabolism, ADRP (PLIN2) was overexpressed or knocked down in GMEC using an adenovirus system. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of CLD. Supplementation with oleic acid (OA) enhanced its colocalization with CLD surface and enhanced lipid accumulation. Overexpression of ADRP increased lipid accumulation and the concentration of triacylglycerol in GMEC. In contrast, morphological examination revealed that knockdown of ADRP decreased lipid accumulation even when OA was supplemented. This response was confirmed by the reduction in mass of cellular TG when ADRP was knocked down. The fact that knockdown of ADRP did not completely eliminate lipid accumulation at a morphological level in GMEC without OA suggests that some other compensatory factors may also aid in the process of CLD formation. The ADRP reversed the decrease of CLD accumulation induced by adipose triglyceride lipase. This is highly suggestive of ADRP promoting triacylglycerol stability within CLD by preventing access to adipose triglyceride lipase. Collectively, these data provide direct in vitro evidence that ADRP plays a key role in CLD formation and stability in GMEC. PMID:26298750

  18. Effect of Breathing Motion on Radiotherapy Dose Accumulation in the Abdomen Using Deformable Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L.; Eccles, Cynthia L.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dawson, Laura A.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of breathing motion and dose accumulation on the planned radiotherapy dose to liver tumors and normal tissues using deformable image registration. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one free-breathing stereotactic liver cancer radiotherapy patients, planned on static exhale computed tomography (CT) for 27-60 Gy in six fractions, were included. A biomechanical model-based deformable image registration algorithm retrospectively deformed each exhale CT to inhale CT. This deformation map was combined with exhale and inhale dose grids from the treatment planning system to accumulate dose over the breathing cycle. Accumulation was also investigated using a simple rigid liver-to-liver registration. Changes to tumor and normal tissue dose were quantified. Results: Relative to static plans, mean dose change (range) after deformable dose accumulation (as % of prescription dose) was -1 (-14 to 8) to minimum tumor, -4 (-15 to 0) to maximum bowel, -4 (-25 to 1) to maximum duodenum, 2 (-1 to 9) to maximum esophagus, -2 (-13 to 4) to maximum stomach, 0 (-3 to 4) to mean liver, and -1 (-5 to 1) and -2 (-7 to 1) to mean left and right kidneys. Compared to deformable registration, rigid modeling had changes up to 8% to minimum tumor and 7% to maximum normal tissues. Conclusion: Deformable registration and dose accumulation revealed potentially significant dose changes to either a tumor or normal tissue in the majority of cases as a result of breathing motion. These changes may not be accurately accounted for with rigid motion.

  19. The HSP terminator of Arabidopsis thaliana induces a high level of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kurokawa, Natsuko; Duhita, Narendra; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Kato, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-28

    High-level accumulation of the target recombinant protein is a significant issue in heterologous protein expression using transgenic plants. Miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, was accumulated in transgenic tomatoes using an expression cassette in which the miraculin gene was expressed by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the heat shock protein (HSP) terminator (MIR-HSP). The HSP terminator was derived from heat shock protein 18.2 in Arabidopsis thaliana . Using this HSP-containing cassette, the miraculin concentration in T0 transgenic tomato lines was 1.4-13.9% of the total soluble protein (TSP), and that in the T1 transgenic tomato line homozygous for the miraculin gene reached 17.1% of the TSP. The accumulation level of the target protein was comparable to levels observed with chloroplast transformation. The high-level accumulation of miraculin in T0 transgenic tomato lines achieved by the HSP terminator was maintained in the successive T1 generation, demonstrating the genetic stability of this accumulation system. PMID:21861502

  20. Physiological changes and tissue metal accumulation in rainbow trout exposed to foodborne and waterborne metals

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, A.A.; Boese, C.J.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology); Woodward, D.F. )

    1994-12-01

    Sublethal physiological effects and metal residue accumulation in tissues were measured in adult and juvenile rainbow trout fed a metal-contaminated diet and/or exposed to waterborne metals for 21 d. The consumption of metal-contaminated invertebrates from the Clark Fork River, Montana, significantly affected scale loss and metal accumulation in gut tissue of adult trout. Survival, scale loss, and metal accumulation in gill and kidney tissue were affected by exposure to a waterborne mixture of Cd, Cu, and Pb at twice the acceptable levels and Zn at the maximum acceptable level established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of aquatic wildlife. A combination of dietary and waterborne metals also caused lipid peroxidation in the kidney of adult fish and decreased whole-body potassium of juvenile trout. In general, metal accumulation in tissues was higher in gill and kidney with waterborne exposures and was higher in stomach and pyloric caeca with dietary exposure. And metal concentrations in juvenile whole-body tissues accumulated significantly with a combination of waterborne and dietary metals. Although some physiological changes were noted (scale loss, lipid peroxidation of kidney), an exposure time longer than 21 d is probably needed to observe more extensive physiological changes. Regardless, results from this study suggest that a full assessment of metal exposure to fish populations in natural systems must include evaluation of dietary as well as waterborne metal contamination.

  1. Subcellular Clearance and Accumulation of Huntington Disease Protein: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). As a result, mHtt forms aggregates that are abundant in the nuclei and processes of neuronal cells. Although the roles of mHtt aggregates are still debated, the formation of aggregates points to deficient clearance of mHtt in brain cells. Since the accumulation of mHtt is a prerequisite for its neurotoxicity, exploring the mechanisms for mHtt accumulation and clearance would advance our understanding of HD pathogenesis and help us develop treatments for HD. We know that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy play important roles in clearing mHtt; however, how mHtt preferentially accumulates in neuronal nuclei and processes remains unclear. Studying the clearance of mHtt in neuronal cells is a challenge because neurons are morphologically and functionally polarized, which means the turnover of mHtt may be distinct in different cellular compartments. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge about the clearance and accumulation of mHtt and strategies examining mHtt clearance and accumulation in different subcellular regions. PMID:27147961

  2. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in world river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global food production crucially depends on phosphorus (P). In agricultural and urban landscapes, much P is anthropogenic, entering via trade, and then can be transported by a combination of fluvial and human processes. To date there have been few long-term, large-scale analyses combining both fluvial and human modes of P transport. Here we present reconstructed historical records of anthropogenic P entering and leaving soils and aquatic systems via a combination of trade, infrastructure, food waste, and fluvial fluxes. We then report the net annual P inputs, and the mass of P that has accumulated over the long-term, for entire river basins. Our analyses reveal rapid historical P accumulation for two mixed agricultural-urban landscapes (Thames Basin, UK, Yangtze Basin, China), and one rural agricultural landscape (Maumee Basin, USA). We also show that the human P fluxes massively dominate over the fluvial fluxes in these large basins. For Thames and Maumee Basins, recently there has been modest P depletion/drawdown of the massive P pool accumulated in prior decades, whereas the Yangtze Basin has consistently and rapidly accumulated P since 1980. These first estimates of the magnitude of historical P accumulation in contrasting settings illustrate the scope of management challenges surrounding the storage, fate, exploitation, and reactivation of legacy P that is currently present in the Earth's critical zone.

  3. COP1 is required for UV-B-induced nuclear accumulation of the UVR8 photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ruohe; Skvortsova, Mariya Y; Loubéry, Sylvain; Ulm, Roman

    2016-07-26

    The UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) promotes UV-B acclimation and tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8 localizes to both cytosol and nucleus, but its main activity is assumed to be nuclear. UV-B photoreception stimulates nuclear accumulation of UVR8 in a presently unknown manner. Here, we show that CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is required for UV-B-induced nuclear accumulation of UVR8, but bypassing the COP1 requirement for UVR8 nuclear accumulation did not rescue the cop1 mutant UV-B phenotype. Using a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-based fusion protein system to conditionally localize GR-UVR8 to the nucleus, we have demonstrated that both photoactivation and nuclear localization of UVR8 are required for UV-B-induced photomorphogenic responses. In contrast, there was no UV-B response when UV-B-activated UVR8 was artificially retained in the cytosol. In agreement with a predominantly nuclear activity, constitutively active UVR8(W285A) accumulated in the nucleus also in the absence of UV-B. Furthermore, GR-COP1 expression lines suggested that UV-B-activated UVR8 can be coimported into the nucleus by COP1. Our data strongly support localization of UVR8 signaling in the nucleus and a dual role for COP1 in the regulation of UV-B-induced UVR8 nuclear accumulation and in UVR8-mediated UV-B signaling. PMID:27407149

  4. Heavy metals in plants in constructed and natural wetlands: concentration, accumulation and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, J; Březinová, T

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in plants is a function of uptake capacity and intracellular binding sites. The concentrations of heavy metals in plants growing in constructed wetlands vary considerably between species and systems but in general, the concentrations are within the range commonly found in natural stands. The highest concentrations are mostly found in roots, followed by rhizomes, leaves and stems. Unfortunately, concentration values are commonly used to evaluate the 'accumulation' of heavy metals, but this approach is not correct. In order to evaluate heavy metal accumulation, the biomass of particular plant parts must be taken into consideration. In addition, there are two other factors, which need to be taken into consideration when accumulation is evaluated, namely seasonality and distribution within the plant shoot. It has been found that the seasonal distribution of heavy metals in the biomass varies between heavy metals and mostly does not follow the pattern known for nutrients. In addition, the concentration and accumulation of heavy metals vary considerably within the shoot and this fact should be taken into consideration when analyses are carried out. PMID:25633951

  5. Constraining the recent mass balance of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica, with airborne observations of snow accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, B.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B. E.; Das, S. B.; Steig, E. J.; Conway, H.; Gogineni, S.; Lewis, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; McConnell, J. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.; Leuschen, C.

    2014-07-01

    In Antarctica, uncertainties in mass input and output translate directly into uncertainty in glacier mass balance and thus in sea level impact. While remotely sensed observations of ice velocity and thickness over the major outlet glaciers have improved our understanding of ice loss to the ocean, snow accumulation over the vast Antarctic interior remains largely unmeasured. Here, we show that an airborne radar system, combined with ice-core glaciochemical analysis, provide the means necessary to measure the accumulation rate at the catchment-scale along the Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica. We used along-track radar-derived accumulation to generate a 1985-2009 average accumulation grid that resolves moderate- to large-scale features (>25 km) over the Pine Island-Thwaites glacier drainage system. Comparisons with estimates from atmospheric models and gridded climatologies generally show our results as having less accumulation in the lower-elevation coastal zone but greater accumulation in the interior. Ice discharge, measured over discrete time intervals between 1994 and 2012, combined with our catchment-wide accumulation rates provide an 18-year mass balance history for the sector. While Thwaites Glacier lost the most ice in the mid-1990s, Pine Island Glacier's losses increased substantially by 2006, overtaking Thwaites as the largest regional contributor to sea-level rise. The trend of increasing discharge for both glaciers, however, appears to have leveled off since 2008.

  6. Constraining the recent mass balance of Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica with airborne observations of snow accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, B.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B. E.; Das, S. B.; Steig, E. J.; Conway, H.; Gogineni, S.; Lewis, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; McConnell, J. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.; Leuschen, C.

    2014-02-01

    In Antarctica, uncertainties in mass input and output translate directly into uncertainty in glacier mass balance and thus in sea level impact. While remotely sensed observations of ice velocity and thickness over the major outlet glaciers have improved our understanding of ice loss to the ocean, snow accumulation over the vast Antarctic interior remains largely unmeasured. Here, we show that an airborne radar system, combined with ice-core glaciochemical analysis, provide the means necessary to measure the accumulation rate at the catchment-scale along the Amundsen Sea Coast of West Antarctica. We used along-track radar-derived accumulation to generate a 1985-2009 average accumulation grid that resolves moderate- to large-scale features (> 25 km) over the Pine Island-Thwaites glacier drainage system. Comparisons with estimates from atmospheric models and gridded climatologies generally show our results as having less accumulation in lower-elevation coastal zone but greater accumulation in the interior. Ice discharge, measured over discrete time intervals between 1994 and 2012, combined with our catchment-wide accumulation rates provide an 18 yr mass balance history for the sector. While Thwaites Glacier lost the most ice in the mid-1990s, Pine Island Glacier's losses increased substantially by 2006, overtaking Thwaites as the largest regional contributor to sea-level rise. The trend of increasing discharge for both glaciers, however, appears to have leveled off since 2008.

  7. The impact of aeration on the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Eusébio, Mário; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-12-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), aeration is the major energetic cost, thus its minimisation will improve the cost-effectiveness of the process. This study shows that both the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and aerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) affect the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs). At low DO levels, Accumulibacter PAOs were shown to have an advantage over Competibacter GAOs, as PAOs had a higher oxygen affinity and thus largely maintained their aerobic activity at low DO levels, while GAO activity decreased. Bioreactor operation at low DO levels was found to increase the PAO fraction of the sludge. Furthermore, an increase in aerobic HRT (at a DO level of 2 mg O2/L), promoted the proliferation of GAOs over PAOs, decreasing the EBPR efficiency. Overall, this study shows that low aeration can be beneficial for EBPR performance through selecting for PAOs over GAOs, which should be incorporated into WWTP models in order to minimise energetic costs and improve WWTP sustainability. PMID:25222333

  8. Ismetpasa and Destek regions; Creeping or accumulating strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavasoglu, Hakan; Alkan, M. Nurullah; Aladogan, Kayhan; Ozulu, I. Murat; Ilci, Veli; Sahin, Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Tiryakioglu, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the most destructive fault system all over the world. In the last century, many devastating seismic event happened on it and its shear zone (NAFZ). Especially, after the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes, the earth science studies increase to save human life. To better understand the mechanism of the active fault system, tectonic stress and strain are important phenomena. According to elastic rebound theory, the locked active faults release the accumulated strain abruptly in four periods; interseismic, preseismic, coseismic and postseismic. In the literature, this phase is called the earthquake cycle. On the other hand, there is another scenario (aseismic deformation or creep) to release the strain without any remarkable seismic event. For the creep procedure, the important subject is threshold of the aseismic slip rate. If it is equal or larger than long-term slip rate, the destructive earthquakes will not occur along the fault which has aseismic slip rate. On the contrary, if the creep motion is lower than long-term slip rate along the fault, the fault has potential to produce moderate-to-large size earthquakes. In this study, the regions, Ismetpasa and Destek, have been studied to determine the aseismic deformation using GPS data. The first and second GPS campaigns have been evaluated with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Preliminary results of the project (slip-rate along the NAF in this region and aseismic deformation) will be presented.

  9. Structureless Bundle Adjustment with Self-Calibration Using Accumulated Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalu, A.; Haala, N.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Bundle adjustment based on collinearity is the most widely used optimization method within image based scene reconstruction. It incorporates observed image coordinates, exterior and intrinsic camera parameters as well as object space coordinates of the observed points. The latter dominate the resulting nonlinear system, in terms of the number of unknowns which need to be estimated. In order to reduce the size of the problem regarding memory footprint and computational effort, several approaches have been developed to make the process more efficient, e.g. by exploitation of sparsity or hierarchical subdivision. Some recent developments express the bundle problem through epipolar geometry and scale consistency constraints which are free of object space coordinates. These approaches are usually referred to as structureless bundle adjustment. The number of unknowns in the resulting system is drastically reduced. However, most work in this field is focused on optimization towards speed and considers calibrated cameras, only. We present our work on structureless bundle adjustment, focusing on precision issues as camera calibration and residual weighting. We further investigate accumulation of constraint residuals as an approach to decrease the number of rows of the Jacobian matrix.

  10. Transient Simulation of Accumulating Particle Deposition in Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, James; Sellier, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal particles that deposit in pipe systems can lead to fouling which is an expensive problem in both the geothermal and oil & gas industries. We investigate the gradual accumulation of deposited colloids in pipe flow using numerical simulations. An Euler-Lagrangian approach is employed for modelling the fluid and particle phases. Particle transport to the pipe wall is modelled with Brownian motion and turbulent diffusion. A two-way coupling exists between the fouled material and the pipe flow; the local mass flux of depositing particles is affected by the surrounding fluid in the near-wall region. This coupling is modelled by changing the cells from fluid to solid as the deposited particles exceed each local cell volume. A similar method has been used to model fouling in engine exhaust systems (Paz et al., Heat Transfer Eng., 34(8-9):674-682, 2013). We compare our deposition velocities and deposition profiles with an experiment on silica scaling in turbulent pipe flow (Kokhanenko et al., 19th AFMC, 2014).

  11. Patterns of sediment and phosphorus accumulation in a riparian buffer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffers prevent sediment and phosphorus (P) from reaching streams, but their accumulation in buffers is seldom measured. This study's objectives were to determine accumulations of sediment and P in a multi-species riparian buffer, and characterize spatial-temporal patterns of P in soil wate...

  12. 30 CFR 77.202 - Dust accumulations in surface installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dust accumulations in surface installations. 77.202 Section 77.202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.202 Dust accumulations in surface installations. Coal...

  13. 26 CFR 1.665(b)-1A - Accumulation distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation distributions. 1.665(b)-1A Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(b)-1A Accumulation distributions. (a) In general. (1) For...

  14. 26 CFR 1.665(b)-1A - Accumulation distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation distributions. 1.665(b)-1A Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(b)-1A Accumulation distributions. (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis of the separation of the associated primary Plant Accounts or related categories, excluding...

  16. 17 CFR 256.282 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 9. Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes § 256.282 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a) The text of these accounts is designed primarily to cover deferrals of Federal income taxes. However, they are also to be used when making deferrals of state and local income taxes....

  17. 17 CFR 256.282 - Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 9. Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes § 256.282 Accumulated deferred income taxes. (a) The text of these accounts is designed primarily to cover deferrals of Federal income taxes. However, they are also to be used when making deferrals of state and local income taxes....

  18. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2 Section 1.1368-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2 Accumulated adjustments account (AAA)....

  19. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  20. Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn; Bask, Miia

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter,…

  1. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  2. Reducing Unnecessary Accumulation of Incomplete Grades: A Quality Improvement Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domocmat, Maria Carmela L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been noted that there is an increasing percentage of students accumulating incomplete (INC) grades. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the accumulation of incomplete grades of students and, utilizing the best practices of various universities worldwide, it intends to recommend solutions in limiting the number of…

  3. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  4. Evaluation of maize germplasm for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain threatens human food and animal feed safety. Breeding for reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation is one of the best strategies presently available to lower grain aflatoxin accumulation. Previously identified sources of germplasm with reduced grain aflatoxin acc...

  5. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS AND TOBACCO PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous field and laboratory studies with vascular plants have shown that perchlorate is transported from perchlorate fortified soils and is accumulated in the plant tissues and organs. This paper reports results of initial investigations on the accumulation of perchlorate in t...

  6. 24 CFR 232.550 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.550 Accumulation of next premium. The... date the next annual insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner....

  7. 24 CFR 241.1090 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1090 Accumulation of next premium. The security instrument shall... insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner. These payments shall continue only as long...

  8. 24 CFR 232.550 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.550 Accumulation of next premium. The... date the next annual insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner....

  9. 24 CFR 232.550 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.550 Accumulation of next premium. The... date the next annual insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner....

  10. 24 CFR 241.1090 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1090 Accumulation of next premium. The security instrument shall... insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner. These payments shall continue only as long...

  11. 24 CFR 232.550 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.550 Accumulation of next premium. The... date the next annual insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner....

  12. 24 CFR 241.1090 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1090 Accumulation of next premium. The security instrument shall... insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner. These payments shall continue only as long...

  13. 24 CFR 241.1090 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1090 Accumulation of next premium. The security instrument shall... insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner. These payments shall continue only as long...

  14. 24 CFR 232.550 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.550 Accumulation of next premium. The... date the next annual insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner....

  15. 24 CFR 241.1090 - Accumulation of next premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation of next premium. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1090 Accumulation of next premium. The security instrument shall... insurance premium payable by the lender to the Commissioner. These payments shall continue only as long...

  16. Ethanol accumulation in drought-stressed conifer seedlings.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of drought-stress on ethanol production and accumulation in tissues of three conifer species (Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine). Significant ethanol accumulation was observed for all three species at severe levels of drought stress (pre-dawn ...

  17. Parental Asset Accumulation Trajectories and Children's College Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Vernon

    2013-01-01

    The effects of parental assets on children's educational outcomes have mainly been explored from the perspective of asset holdings. However, the process of asset accumulation may also have effects. While asset-based policies are predicated on the premise of asset accumulation, little is known about the effects of different asset accumulation…

  18. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulation time limits. 273.35 Section 273.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A...

  19. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accumulation time limits. 273.15 Section 273.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A...

  20. Asset Accumulation and Family Size. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.; Ward, Michael P.

    The influence of childbearing on a family's ability to accumulate assets is examined in this paper. The first section presents a theoretical framework for analyzing the evolving life-time process of asset accumulation. This model highlights the principal factors that determine life cycle paths of consumption, income, savings, and the time…