Science.gov

Sample records for accumulation remain unclear

  1. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT. PMID:27109264

  2. Respirators versus medical masks: evidence accumulates but the jury remains out

    PubMed Central

    Killingley, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Killingley (2011). Respiratory versus medical masks: evidence accumulates but the jury remains out. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2011.00237.x. PMID:21477131

  3. Unclear loss of consciousness after clobutinol intake.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-08-10

    The case of a 13-month-old boy with a diagnosis of unclear unconsciousness is reported on. As the physical examination did not lead to any explanation of his condition, the administration of drugs in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy was suspected. Complex forensic-toxicological analyses using HPLC/UV, LC/MS/MS, and GC/MS identified ambroxol and clobutinol, two drugs that are indicated for acute respiratory diseases. No other central active compounds were detected. The accusation of intentional bodily injury raised against the parents could be rebutted, since the boy's unconsciousness could be explained with a rare but harmful side effect of the antitussive clobutinol. PMID:19464130

  4. Glycosylated chicken ZP2 accumulates in the egg coat of immature oocytes and remains localized to the germinal disc region of mature eggs.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Shunsuke; Kohno, Yoshinori; Iwata, Yuki; Arai, Mayumi; Okumura, Hiroki; Oshima, Kenzi; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an egg coat, which is a specific extracellular egg matrix consisting of several glycoproteins with a conserved zona pellucida (ZP) domain. Two mammalian egg coat subunits, ZP2 and ZP3, have been suggested to act as sperm receptors. In bird eggs, however, ZP2 has never been identified in the egg coat of mature oocytes and ovulated eggs. Here we report that chicken ZP2 is expressed in immature small follicles and remains as an egg-coat component locally in the germinal disc region of mature eggs. RT-PCR analysis indicated marked expression of the ZP2 and ZP4 genes in the granulosa cells of immature white follicles, whereas the ZP3 and ZPD genes showed marked expression in the cells of maturing yellow follicles. ZP2 was identified in the egg coat isolated from immature follicles as a heavily N-glycosylated glycoprotein of ∼200 kDa, which was enzymatically converted to a 70-kDa deglycosylated form. Immunoblotting and immunohistological analyses showed that ZP2 was localized around the germinal disc region of mature follicles. ZP2 was accumulated in the egg coat of immature white follicles at the earlier stages of oocyte development and became a minor component in the egg coat of maturing yellow follicles, except for the germinal disc region. Localization of ZP2 in the germinal disc region of mature eggs, where sperm bind to the egg coat at high density, suggests some role for ZP2 in the preferential binding and penetration of sperm in the germinal disc region of bird eggs. PMID:25253730

  5. Obamacare 2012: prognosis unclear for interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), informally referred to as ObamaCare, is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. ACA has substantially changed the landscape of medical practice in the United States and continues to influence all sectors, in particular evolving specialties such as interventional pain management. ObamaCare has been signed into law amidst major political fallouts, has sustained a Supreme Court challenge and emerged bruised, but still very much alive. While proponents argue that ObamaCare will provide insurance for almost everyone, with an improvement in the quality of and reduction in the cost of health care,, opponents criticize it as being a massive bureaucracy laden with penalties and taxes, that will ultimately eliminate personal medicine and individual practices. Based on the 2 years since the passage of ACA in 2010, the prognosis for interventional pain management is unclear. The damage sustained to interventional pain management and the majority of medicine practices is irreparable. ObamaCare may provide insurance for all, but with cuts in Medicare to fund Obamacare, a limited expansion of Medicaid, the inadequate funding of exchanges, declining employer health insurance coverage and skyrocketing disability claims, the coverage will be practically nonexistent. ObamaCare is composed of numerous organizations and bureaucracies charged with controlling the practice of medicine through the extension of regulations. Apart from cutting reimbursements and reducing access to interventional pain management, administration officials are determined to increase the role of midlevel practitioners and reduce the role of individual physicians by liberalizing the scope of practice regulations and introducing proposals to reduce medical education and training. PMID:22996858

  6. Unclear Abdominal Discomfort: Pivotal Role of Carbohydrate Malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Marco; van der Voort, Ivo; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Carbohydrate malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and in healthy volunteers and can cause gastrointestinal symptoms mimicking irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of symptomatic lactose and fructose malabsorption in a large population of patients with IBS-like symptoms based on Rome II criteria. Methods Patients with unclear abdominal discomfort (n = 2,390) underwent lactose (50 g) and fructose (50 g) hydrogen (H2) breath tests and depending on the results further testing with 25 g fructose or 50 g glucose, or upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. Additionally, this population was investigated regarding the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) based on glucose breath test and celiac disease. Results Of the 2,390 patients with IBS-like symptoms, 848 (35%) were symptomatic lactose malabsorbers and 1,531 (64%) symptomatic fructose malabsorbers. A combined symptomatic carbohydrate malabsorption was found in 587 (25%) patients. Severe fructose malabsorbers (pathologic 25 g fructose test) exhaled significantly higher H2 concentrations in the 50 g test than patients with negative 25 g fructose test (P < 0.001). Out of 460/659 patients with early significant H2 increase in the lactose and fructose test who underwent a glucose breath test, 88 patients had positive results indicative of SIBO and they were significantly older than patients with negative test result (P < 0.01). Celiac disease was found in 1/161 patients by upper endoscopy. Conclusions Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated condition in patients with IBS-like symptoms although diagnosis can be easily confirmed by H2 breath testing. PMID:24840375

  7. 78 FR 66621 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants, 76 FR 23732 (Apr. 28, 2011). Among other... Swap Entities, 76 FR 27564 (May 11, 2011). The Commission is continuing to consider this proposal in... a Commodity Broker Bankruptcy, 75 FR 75432 (Dec. 3, 2010). \\10\\ The comment period closed...

  8. 17 CFR 260.7a-32 - Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing. 260.7a-32 Section 260.7a-32 Commodity and Securities... OF 1939 Incorporation by Reference § 260.7a-32 Incorporation by reference rendering...

  9. 17 CFR 260.7a-32 - Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing. 260.7a-32 Section 260.7a-32 Commodity and Securities... OF 1939 Incorporation by Reference § 260.7a-32 Incorporation by reference rendering...

  10. 17 CFR 260.7a-32 - Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing. 260.7a-32 Section 260.7a-32 Commodity and Securities... OF 1939 Incorporation by Reference § 260.7a-32 Incorporation by reference rendering...

  11. 17 CFR 260.7a-32 - Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing. 260.7a-32 Section 260.7a-32 Commodity and Securities... OF 1939 Incorporation by Reference § 260.7a-32 Incorporation by reference rendering...

  12. 17 CFR 260.7a-32 - Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incorporation by reference rendering document incomplete, unclear, or confusing. 260.7a-32 Section 260.7a-32 Commodity and Securities... OF 1939 Incorporation by Reference § 260.7a-32 Incorporation by reference rendering...

  13. 77 FR 41109 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    .... \\1\\ See 76 FR 23732. \\2\\ The WGMR is comprised of representatives from over 25 domestic and... transactions.\\6\\ \\4\\ See 76 FR 23732. \\5\\ The WGMR is comprised of representatives from over 25 domestic and... requirements on uncleared swaps for swap dealers (``SDs'') and major swap participants (``MSPs'').\\1\\...

  14. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population. PMID:27348992

  15. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  16. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  17. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  18. Phosphate application to firing range soils for Pb immobilization: the unclear role of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris; Grubb, Dennis G

    2007-06-01

    Phosphate treatment has emerged as a widely accepted approach to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils and waste media, relying on the formation of the highly insoluble mineral pyromorphite as solubility-controlling phase for Pb. As such, phosphate treatment has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for firing ranges where Pb occurs in its metallic forms and several other phases (carbonates, oxides). While pyromorphite thermodynamically has the potential to control Pb solubility at low levels, its formation is kinetically controlled by pH, the solubility of the phosphate source, and the solubility of Pb species. Treatability studies have shown that excess quantities of soluble and acidic phosphate sources, such as phosphoric acid, are necessary for successful in situ treatment. Even under these conditions, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), the only reliable method to identify and quantify Pb speciation, showed that Pb conversion to pyromorphite in in situ treated soils was less than 45% after 32 months. Furthermore, the use of lime (CaO) to restore soil pH in acidified soil treatments inhibited further conversion. Additionally, phosphate treatment is known to reduce bioavailability through pyromorphite formation in the intestinal tract, and the phytoaccumulation of Pb; both desirable effects for Pb-impacted areas. Given the costs of phosphate treatment, the use of biogenic phosphate sources, such as bone meal, may be a more environmentally sustainable approach toward this end. In the many studies focusing on phosphate treatment, the attendant P leaching and eutrophication have been largely overlooked, along with other issues such as the enhanced leaching of oxyanionic contaminants, such as Se, As and W. The success and sustainability of applying phosphate as a BMP in firing range soils therefore remain questionable. PMID:17360110

  19. [Facial pain- a rare cause. Impacted lower third molars causing primarily "unclear" facial pain: a case report].

    PubMed

    Gander, Thomas; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea; Mascolo, Luana; Kruse, Astrid L; Grätz, Klaus W; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain often causes special difficulties to patients and dentists. Numerous differential diagnoses require the utilization of a coordinated diagnostic concept. Often, multiple causes lead to the need for a complex treatment plan. Impacted third molars are a potential cause of a variety of complications. Caries, pulp necrosis, and periapical infection are some of the infrequent causes of such pain. The presented case shows just such a constellation, resulting in primarily "unclear" orofacial pain. A diagnostic sequence generally leads to the correct diagnosis and thereby allows for fast and effective therapy. This shows how important structured diagnostics are, especially in cases of "unclear" pain. PMID:24114596

  20. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae. PMID:26855321

  1. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  2. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  3. Splenic scintigraphy for further differentiation of unclear (68) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT findings: Strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Werner, Christoph; Winkens, Thomas; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Splenic scintigraphy has been described to be a powerful tool in unclear (68 ) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT findings, allowing differentiation between somatostatin receptor (Sst)-positive tissue deriving from neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and functioning splenic tissue. However, our own experiences sometimes show a lack of identification on splenic scintigraphy, especially in small lesions, leading to uncertainties regarding the safe identification of NET or splenic tissue. Here, we report on 10 cases with (68) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT and (99m) Tc-heat-denaturated red blood cell (HDRBC) scintigraphy and we illustrate the strengths and limitations of (99m) Tc-HDRBC scintigraphy in this context. PMID:27188232

  4. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  5. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  6. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  7. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired... fluid. Accumulators must meet the applicable requirements in § 54.01-5 (c)(3), (c)(4), and (d) of this chapter or the remaining requirements in part 54. (b) If the accumulator is of the gas and fluid...

  9. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  10. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. PMID:24612293

  11. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  12. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  13. Stuck in Unhealthy Places: How Entering, Exiting, and Remaining in Poor and Nonpoor Neighborhoods Is Associated with Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents from poor versus nonpoor neighborhoods are more likely to become obese during the transition to adulthood. It is unclear whether this pertains to all adolescents from poor neighborhoods or only those who remain in disadvantaged settings. Further, it is unknown how neighborhood poverty entries and exits are associated with obesity. Using census and interview data from 12,164 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health participants, I find that those who consistently live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to become or remain obese by adulthood than those who never live in poor neighborhoods. Exiting severe neighborhood poverty curtails this risk, while entering and remaining in neighborhood poverty in adulthood increases it. These patterns are more pronounced for young women and robust to adjustments for health behaviors and selection bias. Findings support accumulation of risks and social mobility perspectives and highlight how previous and current neighborhood contexts are relevant for health. PMID:26957132

  14. Sources of noise during accumulation of evidence in unrestrained and voluntarily head-restrained rats.

    PubMed

    Scott, Benjamin B; Constantinople, Christine M; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Tank, David W; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is often characterized by substantial variability, but its source remains unclear. We developed a visual accumulation of evidence task designed to quantify sources of noise and to be performed during voluntary head restraint, enabling cellular resolution imaging in future studies. Rats accumulated discrete numbers of flashes presented to the left and right visual hemifields and indicated the side that had the greater number of flashes. Using a signal-detection theory-based model, we found that the standard deviation in their internal estimate of flash number scaled linearly with the number of flashes. This indicates a major source of noise that, surprisingly, is not consistent with the widely used 'drift-diffusion modeling' (DDM) approach but is instead closely related to proposed models of numerical cognition and counting. We speculate that this form of noise could be important in accumulation of evidence tasks generally. PMID:26673896

  15. The mitochondrial theory of aging: do damaged mitochondria accumulate by delayed degradation?

    PubMed

    Kowald, A

    1999-08-01

    The mitochondrial theory of aging states that the slow accumulation of impaired mitochondria is the driving force of the aging process. In recent years, this theory has gained new support with the discovery of age-related mitochondrial DNA deletions. However, the underlying mechanism of the accumulation of defective mitochondria remained unclear. This has changed recently with the proposal of de Grey that damaged mitochondria have a decreased degradation rate. The resulting increase in biological half-life would be a strong selection advantage leading to the accumulation of defective mitochondria. In this article, I summarize current ideas on how damaged organelles can build up in a cell as well as the shortcomings of these ideas. Then the new hypothesis and its justification are described. It appears that de Grey's hypothesis is a very promising concept that elegantly solves inconsistencies of current models and is in accordance with experimental findings. PMID:10530786

  16. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  17. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  18. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  19. Pomegranate peel polyphenols inhibit lipid accumulation and enhance cholesterol efflux in raw264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengjuan; Li, Jianke; Wang, Lifang; Wu, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-13

    Macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmarks of early atherogenesis. Many plant polyphenols have been shown to inhibit macrophage foam cell formation and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. However, the effect of pomegranate peel polyphenols on foam cells remains unclear. In this study, the potential atheroprotective actions of pomegranate peel polyphenols on cholesterol accumulation and outflow in raw264.7 macrophages, and the mechanisms, were investigated. The results showed that the pomegranate peel polyphenols reduced ox-LDL internalization to diminish foam cell formation, as measured by oil-red O staining in raw264.7 macrophages, which may be due to decreasing the macrophage CD36 protein expression and not SR-A. In addition, pomegranate peel polyphenols promoted apoA-1-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux by up-regulating ABCA1 and LXRα at the mRNA and protein levels, independently of ABCG1 and PPARγ. PMID:27334099

  20. Subcellular Clearance and Accumulation of Huntington Disease Protein: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). As a result, mHtt forms aggregates that are abundant in the nuclei and processes of neuronal cells. Although the roles of mHtt aggregates are still debated, the formation of aggregates points to deficient clearance of mHtt in brain cells. Since the accumulation of mHtt is a prerequisite for its neurotoxicity, exploring the mechanisms for mHtt accumulation and clearance would advance our understanding of HD pathogenesis and help us develop treatments for HD. We know that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy play important roles in clearing mHtt; however, how mHtt preferentially accumulates in neuronal nuclei and processes remains unclear. Studying the clearance of mHtt in neuronal cells is a challenge because neurons are morphologically and functionally polarized, which means the turnover of mHtt may be distinct in different cellular compartments. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge about the clearance and accumulation of mHtt and strategies examining mHtt clearance and accumulation in different subcellular regions. PMID:27147961

  1. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  2. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  3. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  4. Lower Pliocene hominid remains from Sterkfontein.

    PubMed

    Partridge, T C; Granger, D E; Caffee, M W; Clarke, R J

    2003-04-25

    Cosmogenic aluminum-26 and beryllium-10 burial dates of low-lying fossiliferous breccia in the caves at Sterkfontein, South Africa, show that associated hominid fossils accumulated in the Lower Pliocene. These dates indicate that the skeleton StW 573 and newly discovered specimens from Jacovec Cavern have much the same age: approximately 4 million years. These specimens are thus of an age similar to Australopithecus anamensis from East Africa. PMID:12714736

  5. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  6. Neuronal and glial accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko; Iseki, Eizo; Togo, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsuse, Omi; Katsuyama, Kayoko; Kanzaki, Seiichi; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    A number of the lysosomal storage diseases that have now been characterized are associated with intra-lysosomal accumulation of lipids, caused by defective lysosomal enzymes. We have previously reported neuronal accumulation of both alpha- and beta-synucleins in brain tissue of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Although alpha-synuclein has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, its functions remain largely unclear. In our present study, we have examined a cohort of human lipidosis cases, including Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, beta-galactosialidosis and adrenoleukodystrophy, for the expression of alpha- and beta-synucleins and the associated lipid storage levels. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in brain tissue in not only cases of lysosomal storage diseases, but also in instances of adrenoleukodystrophy, which is a peroxisomal disease. alpha-synuclein was detected in both neurons and glial cells of patients with these two disorders, although its distribution was found to be disease-dependent. In addition, alpha-synuclein-positive neurons were also found to be NeuN-positive, whereas NeuN-negative neurons did not show any accumulation of this protein. By comparison, the accumulation of beta-synuclein was detectable only in the pons of Sandhoff disease cases. This differential accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses may be related to functional differences between these two proteins. In addition, the accumulation of alpha-synuclein may also be a condition that is common to lysosomal storage diseases and adrenoleukodystrophies that show an enhanced expression of this protein upon the elevation of stored lipids. PMID:17653558

  7. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  8. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae. PMID:26350402

  9. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  10. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  11. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  12. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  13. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  14. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take. PMID:3540171

  15. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  16. Remains of Comet-Shoemaker/Levy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration of the Comet-Shoemaker/Levy collision shows the first piece of the remains of the comet crashing into Jupiter. This event occurred in 1994 after tidal forces from Jupiter caused the comet to break up into 21 separate pieces. Although on a very different scale, the physical mechanism for the breakup of Shoemaker/Levy also caused the tidal disruption of the star in RX J1242-11. (Illustration: SEDS/D. Seal (edited by CXC/M. Weiss)

  17. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  18. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  19. The accumulation pattern of ferruginol in the heartwood-forming Cryptomeria japonica xylem as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Hashida, Koh; Imai, Takanori; Kushi, Masayoshi; Saito, Kaori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heartwood formation is a unique phenomenon of tree species. Although the accumulation of heartwood substances is a well-known feature of the process, the accumulation mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation process of ferruginol, a predominant heartwood substance of Cryptomeria japonica, in heartwood-forming xylem. Methods The radial accumulation pattern of ferruginol was examined from sapwood and through the intermediate wood to the heartwood by direct mapping using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The data were compared with quantitative results obtained from a novel method of gas chromatography analysis using laser microdissection sampling and with water distribution obtained from cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ferruginol initially accumulated in the middle of the intermediate wood, in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary. It accumulated throughout the entire earlywood in the inner intermediate wood, and in both the earlywood and the latewood in the heartwood. The process of ferruginol accumulation continued for more than eight annual rings. Ferruginol concentration peaked at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, while the concentration was less in the latewood compared wiht the earlywood in each annual ring. Ferruginol tended to accumulate around the ray parenchyma cells. In addition, at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, the accumulation was higher in areas without water than in areas with water. Conclusions TOF-SIMS clearly revealed ferruginol distribution at the cellular level. Ferruginol accumulation begins in the middle of intermediate wood, initially in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary, then throughout the entire earlywood, and finally across to the whole annual ring in the heartwood. The heterogeneous timing of ferruginol accumulation could be related to the distribution of ray parenchyma cells

  20. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  1. Cadmium re-distribution from pod and root zones and accumulation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Song, Ningning; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; van der Zee, S E A T M

    2016-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes may differ greatly with regard to cadmium (Cd) accumulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the key factors that may contribute to Cd re-distribution and accumulation in peanut genotypes with different Cd accumulating patterns, a split-pot soil experiment was conducted with three common Chinese peanut cultivars (Fenghua-6, Huayu-20, and Huayu-23). The growth medium was separated into pod and root zones with varied Cd concentrations in each zone to determine the re-distribution of Cd after it is taken up via different routes. The peanut cultivars were divided into two groups based on Cd translocation efficiency as follows: (1) high internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivar (Fenghua-6) and (2) low internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23). Compared with Fenghua-6, low Cd translocation cultivars Huayu-20 and Huayu-23 showed higher biomass production, especially in stems and leaves, leading to dilution of metal concentrations. Results also showed that Cd concentration in roots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentrations in soils when Cd was applied in the root zone. However, there were no significant differences in the root Cd concentrations between different pod zone Cd treatments and the control, suggesting that root uptake, rather than pod uptake, is responsible for Cd accumulation in the roots of peanuts. Significant differences of Cd distribution were observed between pod and root zone Cd exposure treatments. The three peanut cultivars revealed higher kernel over total Cd fractions for pod than for root zone Cd exposure if only extra applied Cd was considered. This suggests that uptake through peg and pod shell might, at least partially, be responsible for the variation in Cd re-distribution and accumulation among peanut cultivars. Cd uptake by plants via two routes (i.e., via roots and via pegs and pods, respectively) and internal Cd translocation

  2. Mouse SIRT3 Attenuates Hypertrophy-Related Lipid Accumulation in the Heart through the Deacetylation of LCAD

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tongshuai; Liu, Junni; Li, Na; Wang, Shujian; Liu, Hui; Li, Jingyuan; Zhang, Yun; Bu, Peili

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to pressure, volume stress, and loss of contractile mass from prior infarction. Metabolic changes in cardiac hypertrophy include suppression of fatty acid oxidation and enhancement of glucose utilization, which could result in lipid accumulation in the heart. SIRT3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in controlling the acetylation status of many enzymes participating in energy metabolism. However, the role of SIRT3 in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy-related lipid accumulation remains unclear. In this study, hypertrophy-related lipid accumulation was investigated using a mouse cardiac hypertrophy model induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). We showed that mice developed heart failure six weeks after TAC. Furthermore, abnormal lipid accumulation and decreased palmitate oxidation rates were observed in the hypertrophic hearts, and these changes were particularly significant in SIRT3-KO mice. We also demonstrated that the short form of SIRT3 was downregulated in wild-type (WT) hypertrophic hearts and that this change was accompanied by a higher acetylation level of long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), which is a key enzyme participating in fatty acid oxidation. In addition, SIRT3 may play an essential role in attenuating lipid accumulation in the heart through the deacetylation of LCAD. PMID:25748450

  3. Prelamin A accumulation and stress conditions induce impaired Oct-1 activity and autophagy in prematurely aged human mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Infante, Arantza; Gago, Andrea; de Eguino, Garbiñe Ruiz; Calvo-Fernández, Teresa; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi; Schlangen, Karin; Fullaondo, Ane; Aransay, Ana M; Martín, Abraham; Rodríguez, Clara I

    2014-04-01

    Aging, a time-dependent functional decline of biological processes, is the primary risk factor in developing diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or degenerative diseases. There is a real need to understand the human aging process in order to increase the length of disease-free life, also known as "health span". Accumulation of progerin and prelamin A are the hallmark of a group of premature aging diseases but have also been found during normal cellular aging strongly suggesting similar mechanisms between healthy aging and LMNA-linked progeroid syndromes. How this toxic accumulation contributes to aging (physiological or pathological) remains unclear. Since affected tissues in age-associated disorders and in pathological aging are mainly of mesenchymal origin we propose a model of human aging based on mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) which accumulate prelamin A. We demonstrate that prelamin A-accumulating hMSCs have a premature aging phenotype which affects their functional competence in vivo. The combination of prelamin A accumulation and stress conditions enhance the aging phenotype by dysregulating the activity of the octamer binding protein Oct-1This experimental model has been fundamental to identify a new role for Oct-1 in hMSCs aging. PMID:24753226

  4. Extracellular ATP induces intracellular alpha-synuclein accumulation via P2X1 receptor-mediated lysosomal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ming; Moussaud, Simon; Jiang, Peizhou; McLean, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    The pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (αsyn) in susceptible neurons in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. The etiology of PD remains unclear. Because brain injury has been suggested to facilitate αsyn aggregation, we investigated whether cellular breakdown products from damaged cells can act on neighboring healthy cells and cause intracellular αsyn accumulation/aggregation. Using two neuronal cell models we found that extracellular ATP induced a significant increase in intracellular αsyn levels between 24 to 48 hours after treatment. Further investigation revealed that the observed αsyn accumulation is a result of lysosome dysfunction caused by extracellular ATP-induced elevation of lysosomal pH. Interestingly, P2X1 receptor appears to mediate the cells’ response to extracellular ATP. Although Ca2+ influx via P2X1 receptor is necessary for αsyn accumulation, Ca2+ influx per se is not sufficient for increased αsyn accumulation. These findings provide new insight into our knowledge of the role of P2X receptors in PD pathogenesis and may be helpful in identifying new therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:25480524

  5. Extracellular ATP induces intracellular alpha-synuclein accumulation via P2X1 receptor-mediated lysosomal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ming; Moussaud, Simon; Jiang, Peizhou; McLean, Pamela J

    2015-02-01

    The pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (αsyn) in susceptible neurons in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. The etiology of PD remains unclear. Because brain injury has been suggested to facilitate αsyn aggregation, we investigated whether cellular breakdown products from damaged cells can act on neighboring healthy cells and cause intracellular αsyn accumulation and/or aggregation. Using 2 neuronal cell models, we found that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induced a significant increase in intracellular αsyn levels between 24 and 48 hours after treatment. Further investigation revealed that the observed αsyn accumulation is a result of lysosome dysfunction caused by extracellular ATP-induced elevation of lysosomal pH. Interestingly, P2X1 receptor appears to mediate the cells' response to extracellular ATP. Although Ca(2+) influx via P2X1 receptor is necessary for αsyn accumulation, Ca(2+) influx per se is not sufficient for increased αsyn accumulation. These findings provide new insight into our knowledge of the role of P2X receptors in PD pathogenesis and may be helpful in identifying new therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:25480524

  6. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  7. The identification of submerged skeletonized remains.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Both, Katrin; Simpson, Ellie

    2008-03-01

    Examination was undertaken of skeletonized remains contained within 2 rubber boots dredged by a fishing boat from a depth of 145 m, approximately 185 km off the southern Australian coast in the Great Australian Bight. The boots had been manufactured in Australia in July 1993 and were of a type commonly used by local fishermen. Examination of the lower legs and feet revealed well-preserved bones with arthritic changes in keeping with an older male. DNA analyses using reference samples taken from relatives of fishermen who had disappeared in the area resulted in the identification of the victim as a 52-year-old prawn fisherman who had been swept off a boat over a decade earlier. DNA stability had been maintained by the low light, cold temperatures, and alkaline pH of the ocean floor. Integration of pathologic, anthropologic, and biologic analyses with police investigations enabled a positive identification to be made despite the unusual nature of the location of the remains and the time lapse since the disappearance of the victim. PMID:19749621

  8. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them. PMID:26971523

  9. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and other mammals. Its inhaled infectious dose is very low and can result in very high mortality. Historically, subsp. tularensis was developed as a biological weapon and there are now concerns about its abuse as such by terrorists. A live attenuated vaccine developed pragmatically more than half a century ago from the less virulent holarctica subsp. is the sole prophylactic available, but it remains unlicensed. In recent years several other potential live, killed and subunit vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice for their efficacy against respiratory challenge with subsp. tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face. PMID:21526941

  10. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  11. Oil Accumulation by the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris as Revealed by the Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Tanaka, Michihiro; Abida, Heni; Maréchal, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Muto, Masaki; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Taniguchi, Takeaki; Fukuda, Yorikane; Nemoto, Michiko; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Wong, Pui Shan; Aburatani, Sachiyo; Fujibuchi, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Oleaginous photosynthetic organisms such as microalgae are promising sources for biofuel production through the generation of carbon-neutral sustainable energy. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving high-rate lipid production in these oleaginous organisms remain unclear, thus impeding efforts to improve productivity through genetic modifications. We analyzed the genome and transcriptome of the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580. Next-generation sequencing technology provided evidence of an allodiploid genome structure, suggesting unorthodox molecular evolutionary and genetic regulatory systems for reinforcing metabolic efficiencies. Although major metabolic pathways were shared with nonoleaginous diatoms, transcriptome analysis revealed unique expression patterns, such as concomitant upregulation of fatty acid/triacylglycerol biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation) in concert with ATP production. This peculiar pattern of gene expression may account for the simultaneous growth and oil accumulation phenotype and may inspire novel biofuel production technology based on this oleaginous microalga. PMID:25634988

  12. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  13. Chandra Reveals Remains of Giant Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo taken by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory that reveals the remains of an explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A that appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been an explosion that occurred about 10 million years ago. A composite image made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a sturning tableau of a turbulent galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of x-ray emitting multi-million degree gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes of active galaxies. The Chandra program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  14. Fast carry accumulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Simple iterative accumulator combined with gated-carry, carry-completion detection, and skip-carry circuits produces three accumulators with decreased carry propagation times. Devices are used in machine control, measurement equipment, and computer applications to increase speed of binary addition. NAND gates are used in combining network.

  15. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase, and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development. PMID:26322056

  16. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  17. Sources of noise during accumulation of evidence in unrestrained and voluntarily head-restrained rats

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Benjamin B; Constantinople, Christine M; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Tank, David W; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is often characterized by substantial variability, but its source remains unclear. We developed a visual accumulation of evidence task designed to quantify sources of noise and to be performed during voluntary head restraint, enabling cellular resolution imaging in future studies. Rats accumulated discrete numbers of flashes presented to the left and right visual hemifields and indicated the side that had the greater number of flashes. Using a signal-detection theory-based model, we found that the standard deviation in their internal estimate of flash number scaled linearly with the number of flashes. This indicates a major source of noise that, surprisingly, is not consistent with the widely used 'drift-diffusion modeling' (DDM) approach but is instead closely related to proposed models of numerical cognition and counting. We speculate that this form of noise could be important in accumulation of evidence tasks generally. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11308.001 PMID:26673896

  18. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C.; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A.; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  19. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  20. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  1. Severely dystrophic axons at amyloid plaques remain continuous and connected to viable cell bodies.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, Robert; Nogradi, Antal; Babetto, Elisabetta; Janeckova, Lucie; Walker, Simon A; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Misgeld, Thomas; Coleman, Michael P

    2009-02-01

    Synapse loss precedes cell death in Alzheimer's disease, but the timing of axon degeneration relative to these events, and the causal relationships remain unclear. Axons become so severely dystrophic near amyloid plaques that their interruption, causing permanent loss of function, extensive synapse loss, and potentially cell death appears imminent. However, it remains unclear whether axons are truly interrupted at plaques and whether cell bodies fail to support their axons and dendrites. We traced TgCRND8 mouse axons longitudinally through, distal to, and proximal from dystrophic regions. The corresponding neurons not only survived but remained morphologically unaltered, indicating absence of axonal damage signalling or a failure to respond to it. Axons, no matter how dystrophic, remained continuous and initially morphologically normal outside the plaque region, reflecting support by metabolically active cell bodies and continued axonal transport. Immunochemical and ultrastructural studies showed dystrophic axons were tightly associated with disruption of presynaptic transmission machinery, suggesting local functional impairment. Thus, we rule out long-range degeneration axons or dendrites as major contributors to early synapse loss in this model, raising the prospect of a therapeutic window for functional rescue of individual neurons lasting months or even years after their axons become highly dystrophic. We propose that multi-focal pathology has an important role in the human disease in bringing about the switch from local, and potentially recoverable, synapse loss into permanent loss of neuronal processes and eventually their cell bodies. PMID:19059977

  2. Accumulation of serial forces on TCR and CD8 frequently applied by agonist antigenic peptides embedded in MHC molecules triggers calcium in T cells.

    PubMed

    Pryshchep, Sergey; Zarnitsyna, Veronika I; Hong, Jinsung; Evavold, Brian D; Zhu, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    T cell activation by Ag is one of the key events in adaptive immunity. It is triggered by interactions of the TCR and coreceptor (CD8 or CD4) with antigenic peptides embedded in MHC (pMHC) molecules expressed on APCs. The mechanism of how signal is initiated remains unclear. In this article, we complement our two-dimensional kinetic analysis of TCR-pMHC-CD8 interaction with concurrent calcium imaging to examine how ligand engagement of TCR with and without the coengagement of CD8 initiates signaling. We found that accumulation of frequently applied forces on the TCR via agonist pMHC triggered calcium, which was further enhanced by CD8 cooperative binding. Prolonging the intermission between sequential force applications impaired calcium signals. Our data support a model where rapid accumulation of serial forces on TCR-pMHC-CD8 bonds triggers calcium in T cells. PMID:24890718

  3. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  4. The effects of temperature and nitrogen and sulfur additions on carbon accumulation in a nutrient-poor boreal mire: Decadal effects assessed using 210Pb peat chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olid, Carolina; Nilsson, Mats B.; Eriksson, Tobias; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2014-03-01

    Boreal peatlands are a major long-term reservoir of atmospheric carbon (C) and play an important role in the global C cycle. It is unclear how C accumulation in peatlands responds to changing temperatures and nutrients (specifically, nitrogen and sulfur). In this study, we assessed how the C input rate and C accumulation rate in decadal old peat layers respond to increased air temperatures (+3.6°C) during the growing season and the annual additions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) (30 and 20 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively) over 12 years of field treatments in a boreal mire. An empirical mass balance model was applied to 210Pb-dated peat cores to evaluate changes in C inputs, C mass loss, and net C accumulation rates in response to the treatments. We found that (i) none of the treatments generated a significant effect on peat mass loss decay rates, (ii) C input rates were positively affected by N additions and negatively affected by S additions, (iii) the C accumulation rate in the uppermost (10 to 12 cm) peat was increased by N additions and decreased by S additions, and (iv) only air temperature significantly affected the main effects induced by N and S additions. Based on our findings, we argue that C accumulation rates in surface peat layers of nutrient-poor boreal mires can increase despite the predicted rise in air temperatures as long as N loads increase and acid atmospheric S remains low.

  5. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  6. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  7. Tau accumulation in astrocytes in progressive supranuclear palsy is a degenerative rather than a reactive process.

    PubMed

    Togo, Takashi; Dickson, Dennis W

    2002-10-01

    Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have a distinctive morphology and are referred to as tufted astrocytes (TA). We hypothesized that TA may be a degenerative change in reactive astrocytes. To test this hypothesis we examined the relationship of TA to gliosis in PSP. We first examined the distribution of gliosis [glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes], TA, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and pretangles in brain sections of neuropathologically pure PSP cases. Second, we examined PSP cases complicated by infarcts or Alzheimer's disease, since these cases would have reactive astrocytes associated with lesions. We used double immunostaining for GFAP and tau for cases with vascular lesions, and triple immunostaining for GFAP, tau and beta-amyloid protein for sections with senile plaques. There was no correlation between the distribution of gliosis and TA, with gliosis prominent in globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, and TA prominent in motor cortex and striatum. On the other hand, gliosis paralleled the distribution of NFT, but not the distribution of pretangles, suggesting that NFT contributes to gliosis in PSP. Although reactive astrocytes were present around infarcts and senile plaques, TA were not associated with these lesions. Tau accumulation in astrocytes in PSP was not preferential to (and was actually independent of) reactive astrocytes. This is consistent with the notion that tau accumulation in astrocytes is a degenerative rather than reactive process. Unlike NFT, astrocytic degeneration does not seem to contribute to gliosis or neuronal loss in PSP, and its clinical significance remains unclear. PMID:12200627

  8. Iron Overload Coordinately Promotes Ferritin Expression and Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haizhen; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jieyu; Zhang, Linqiang; Huang, Jingfei; Zhang, Yuru; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The trace element iron is crucial for living organisms, since it plays essential roles in numerous cellular functions. Systemic iron overload and the elevated level of ferritin, a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores and releases iron to maintain the iron homeostasis in cells, has long been epidemiologically associated with obesity and obesity-related diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that iron overload induces the expression of sgk-1, encoding the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, to promote the level of ferritin and fat accumulation. Mutation of cyp-23A1, encoding a homolog of human cytochrome P450 CYP7B1 that is related to neonatal hemochromatosis, further enhances the elevated expression of ftn-1, sgk-1, and fat accumulation. sgk-1 positively regulates the expression of acs-20 and vit-2, genes encoding homologs of the mammalian FATP1/4 fatty acid transport proteins and yolk lipoproteins, respectively, to facilitate lipid uptake and translocation for storage under iron overload. This study reveals a completely novel pathway in which sgk-1 plays a central role to synergistically regulate iron and lipid homeostasis, offering not only experimental evidence supporting a previously unverified link between iron and obesity, but also novel insights into the pathogenesis of iron and obesity-related human metabolic diseases. PMID:27017620

  9. Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

    2014-05-13

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation. PMID:24757058

  10. Purification and characterization of glutamate N-acetyltransferase involved in citrulline accumulation in wild watermelon.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kentaro; Akashi, Kinya; Yokota, Akiho

    2005-10-01

    Citrulline is an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger that can accumulate at concentrations of up to 30 mm in the leaves of wild watermelon during drought in the presence of strong light; however, the mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In this study, we characterized wild watermelon glutamate N-acetyltransferase (CLGAT) that catalyses the transacetylation reaction between acetylornithine and glutamate to form acetylglutamate and ornithine, thereby functioning in the first and fifth steps in citrulline biosynthesis. CLGAT enzyme purified 7000-fold from leaves was composed of two subunits with different N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analysis of the corresponding cDNA revealed that these two subunits have molecular masses of 21.3 and 23.5 kDa and are derived from a single precursor polypeptide, suggesting that the CLGAT precursor is cleaved autocatalytically at the conserved ATML motif, as in other glutamate N-acetyltransferases of microorganisms. A green fluorescence protein assay revealed that the first 26-amino acid sequence at the N-terminus of the precursor functions as a chloroplast transit peptide. The CLGAT exhibited thermostability up to 70 degrees C, suggesting an increase in enzyme activity under high leaf temperature conditions during drought/strong-light stresses. Moreover, CLGAT was not inhibited by citrulline or arginine at physiologically relevant high concentrations. These findings suggest that CLGAT can effectively participate in the biosynthesis of citrulline in wild watermelon leaves during drought/strong-light stress. PMID:16218965

  11. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans contribute to intracellular lipid accumulation in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wilsie, Larissa C; Chanchani, Shree; Navaratna, Deepti; Orlando, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Background Transport of fatty acids within the cytosol of adipocytes and their subsequent assimilation into lipid droplets has been thoroughly investigated; however, the mechanism by which fatty acids are transported across the plasma membrane from the extracellular environment remains unclear. Since triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins represent an abundant source of fatty acids for adipocyte utilization, we have investigated the expression levels of cell surface lipoprotein receptors and their functional contributions toward intracellular lipid accumulation; these include very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Results We found that expression of these three lipoprotein receptors increased 5-fold, 2-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively, during adipocyte differentiation. The major proteoglycans expressed by mature adipocytes are of high molecular weight (>500 kD) and contain both heparan and chondroitin sulfate moieties. Using ligand binding antagonists, we observed that HSPG, rather than VLDL-R or LRP, play a primary role in the uptake of DiI-lableled apoE-VLDL by mature adipocytes. In addition, inhibitors of HSPG maturation resulted in a significant reduction (>85%) in intracellular lipid accumulation. Conclusions These results suggest that cell surface HSPG is required for fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane of adipocytes. PMID:15636641

  12. Toxic Takifugu pardalis eggs found in Takifugu niphobles gut: Implications for TTX accumulation in the pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Shiro; Kozaki, Ao; Komori, Keitaro; Tsunashima, Tadasuke; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Kawane, Mitsuo; Sugita, Haruo

    2015-12-15

    Pufferfish (Takifugu spp.) possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). TTX has been detected in various organisms including food animals of pufferfish, and TTX-producing bacteria have been isolated from these animals. TTX in marine pufferfish accumulates in the pufferfish via the food web starting with marine bacteria. However, such accumulation is unlikely to account for the amount of TTX in the pufferfish body because of the minute amounts of TTX produced by marine bacteria. Therefore, the toxification process in pufferfish still remains unclear. In this article we report the presence of numerous Takifugu pardalis eggs in the intestinal contents of another pufferfish, Takifugu niphobles. The identity of T. pardalis being determined by direct sequencing for mitochondrial DNA. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the peak detected in the egg samples corresponded to TTX. Toxification experiments in recirculating aquaria demonstrated that cultured Takifugu rubripes quickly became toxic upon being fed toxic (TTX-containing) T. rubripes eggs. These results suggest that T. niphobles ingested the toxic eggs of another pufferfish T. pardalis to toxify themselves more efficiently via a TTX loop consisting of TTX-bearing organisms at a higher trophic level in the food web. PMID:26485535

  13. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  14. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  15. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  16. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  17. Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Xing, Lia; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-11-01

    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1M and 4M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for α-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues. PMID:26256360

  18. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives. PMID:23691472

  19. Virus-induced gene silencing reveals control of reactive oxygen species accumulation and salt tolerance in tomato by γ-aminobutyric acid metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hexigeduleng; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Fan, Pengxiang; Nie, Lingling; Li, Yinxin

    2015-03-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stress. However, the physiological function of GABA or its metabolic pathway (GABA shunt) in plants remains largely unclear. Here, the genes, including glutamate decarboxylases (SlGADs), GABA transaminases (SlGABA-Ts) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SlSSADH), controlling three steps of the metabolic pathway of GABA, were studied through virus-induced gene silencing approach in tomato. Silencing of SlGADs (GABA biosynthetic genes) and SlGABA-Ts (GABA catabolic genes) led to increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as salt sensitivity under 200 mm NaCl treatment. Targeted quantitative analysis of metabolites revealed that GABA decreased and increased in the SlGADs- and SlGABA-Ts-silenced plants, respectively, whereas succinate (the final product of GABA metabolism) decreased in both silenced plants. Contrarily, SlSSADH-silenced plants, also defective in GABA degradation process, showed dwarf phenotype, curled leaves and enhanced accumulation of ROS in normal conditions, suggesting the involvement of a bypath for succinic semialdehyde catabolism to γ-hydroxybutyrate as reported previously in Arabidopsis, were less sensitive to salt stress. These results suggest that GABA shunt is involved in salt tolerance of tomato, probably by affecting the homeostasis of metabolites such as succinate and γ-hydroxybutyrate and subsequent ROS accumulation under salt stress. PMID:25074245

  20. Different mechanisms of extracellular adenosine accumulation by reduction of the external Ca(2+) concentration and inhibition of adenosine metabolism in spinal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ryota; Akao, Sanae; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Astrocytes mainly participate in adenosine production, and extracellular adenosine accumulates under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Inhibition of intracellular adenosine metabolism and reduction of the external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]e) participate in adenosine accumulation, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying extracellular adenosine accumulation in cultured rat spinal astrocytes. The combination of adenosine kinase and deaminase (ADK/ADA) inhibition and a reduced [Ca(2+)]e increased the extracellular adenosine level. ADK/ADA inhibitors increased the level of extracellular adenosine but not of adenine nucleotides, which was suppressed by inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 2. Unlike ADK/ADA inhibition, a reduced [Ca(2+)]e increased the extracellular level not only of adenosine but also of ATP. This adenosine increase was enhanced by ENT2 inhibition, and suppressed by sodium polyoxotungstate (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor). Gap junction inhibitors suppressed the increases in adenosine and adenine nucleotide levels by reduction of [Ca(2+)]e. These results indicate that extracellular adenosine accumulation by ADK/ADA inhibition is due to the adenosine release via ENT2, while that by reduction of [Ca(2+)]e is due to breakdown of ATP released via gap junction hemichannels, after which ENT2 incorporates adenosine into the cells. PMID:26003082

  1. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  2. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  3. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Wendy; Ho, Michelle Liane; Desai, Rajiv; Tham, Andrea; Chen, Robert Yuzen; Kung, Sunny; Elabd, Christian; Conboy, Irina M

    2013-01-01

    The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging. PMID:23704914

  4. Ice-binding proteins that accumulate on different ice crystal planes produce distinct thermal hysteresis dynamics.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ran; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2014-09-01

    Ice-binding proteins that aid the survival of freeze-avoiding, cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of endogenous ice crystals are called antifreeze proteins (AFPs). The binding of AFPs to ice causes a separation between the melting point and the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). TH produced by hyperactive AFPs is an order of magnitude higher than that produced by a typical fish AFP. The basis for this difference in activity remains unclear. Here, we have compared the time dependence of TH activity for both hyperactive and moderately active AFPs using a custom-made nanolitre osmometer and a novel microfluidics system. We found that the TH activities of hyperactive AFPs were time-dependent, and that the TH activity of a moderate AFP was almost insensitive to time. Fluorescence microscopy measurement revealed that despite their higher TH activity, hyperactive AFPs from two insects (moth and beetle) took far longer to accumulate on the ice surface than did a moderately active fish AFP. An ice-binding protein from a bacterium that functions as an ice adhesin rather than as an antifreeze had intermediate TH properties. Nevertheless, the accumulation of this ice adhesion protein and the two hyperactive AFPs on the basal plane of ice is distinct and extensive, but not detectable for moderately active AFPs. Basal ice plane binding is the distinguishing feature of antifreeze hyperactivity, which is not strictly needed in fish that require only approximately 1°C of TH. Here, we found a correlation between the accumulation kinetics of the hyperactive AFP at the basal plane and the time sensitivity of the measured TH. PMID:25008081

  5. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  6. Estimation of Accumulation Parameters for Urban Runoff Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Smith, Peter E.

    1981-12-01

    Many recently developed watershed models utilize accumulation and washoff equations to simulate the quality of runofffrom urban impervious areas. These models often have been calibrated by trial and error and with little understanding of model sensitivity to the various parameters. Methodologies for estimating best fit values of the washoff parameters commonly used in these models have been presented previously. In this paper, parameter identification techniques for estimating the accumulation parameters from measured runoff quality data are presented along with a sensitivity analysis of the parameters. Results from application of the techniques and the sensitivity analysis suggest a need for data quantifying the magnitude and identifying the shape of constituent accumulation curves. An exponential accumulation curve is shown to be more general than the linear accumulation curves used in most urban runoff quality models. When determining accumulation rates, attention needs to be given to the effects of residual amounts of constituents remaining after the previous period of storm runoff or street sweeping.

  7. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  8. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  9. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  10. Regulatory effects of curcumin on lipid accumulation in monocytes/macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests potential benefits from phytochemicals and micronutrients in protecting against oxidative and lipid-mediated damage, but the molecular mechanisms of these actions are still unclear. Here we investigated whether the dietary polyphenol curcumin can modulate the accumulation of...

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR and BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 are low-temperature regulators of flavonoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Antonios; Döll, Stefanie; Nichelmann, Lars; Bilger, Wolfgang; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoid synthesis is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level through the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW) (MYB: transcription factor of the myeloblastosis protein family, WD40: tanscription factor with a short structural motif of 40 amino acids which terminates in an aspartic acid-tryptophan dipeptide) complex, and responds to both environmental and developmental stimuli. Although the developmental regulation of flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined in great detail, the response of the flavonoid synthesis pathway to abiotic stress (particularly low temperature) remains unclear. A screen of a Dissociation element (Ds) transposon-induced mutation collection identified two lines which exhibited an altered profile of phenylpropanoid accumulation following exposure to low-temperature stress. One of the mutated genes (BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 (BEE1)) encoded a brassinosteroid enhanced expression transcription factor, while the other (G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR (GFR)) encoded a G2-like flavonoid regulator. Phenylpropanoid-targeted analysis was performed using high-performance LC-MS, and gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In both mutants, the accumulation of quercetins and scopolin was reduced under low-temperature growing conditions, whereas that of anthocyanin was increased. BEE1 and GFR were both shown to negatively regulate anthocyanin accumulation by inhibiting anthocyanin synthesis genes via the suppression of the bHLH (TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) and GLABROUS3 (GL3)) and/or the MYB (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS2 (PAP2)) components of the MBW complex. Our results provide new insight into the regulatory control of phenylpropanoid metabolism at low temperatures, and reveal that BEE1 and GFR act as important components of the signal transduction chain. PMID:27125220

  12. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  13. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents.

    PubMed

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E; Cowley, Mark J; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  14. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease-some answers, but questions remain.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc G W; Maguire, Graeme P

    2015-07-01

    Despite being preventable, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a significant global cause of cardiovascular disease. Echocardiographic screening for early detection of RHD has the potential to enable timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt progression to severe valvular disease. However, a number of issues remain to be addressed regarding its feasibility. The natural history of Definite RHD without a prior history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and Borderline RHD are both unclear. Even if they are variants of RHD it is not known whether secondary antibiotic prophylaxis will prevent disease progression as it does in "traditionally" diagnosed RHD. False positives can also have a detrimental impact on individuals and their families as well as place substantial burdens on health care systems. Recent research suggests that handheld echocardiography (HAND) may offer a cheaper and more convenient alternative to standard portable echocardiography (STAND) in RHD screening. However, while HAND is sensitive for the detection of Definite RHD, it is less sensitive for Borderline RHD and is relatively poor at detecting mitral stenosis (MS). Given its attendant limited specificity, potential cases detected with HAND would require re-examination by standard echocardiography. For now, echocardiographic screening for RHD should remain a subject of research rather than routine health care. PMID:26835376

  15. A Challenge for School Leaders: Gender Equity Issues Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Joyce C.; Hatcher, Denise L.; Thomas, Jerald A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Gender roles in North American education remain a pertinent and dynamic source of discourse. Many questions concerning gender bias remain. This study attempts to characterize a nine-year period of college students' recall of episodes of gender bias from their pre-college experiences. The survey instrument used in this research consisted of a nine…

  16. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  17. Porphyrin accumulation in mitochondria is mediated by 2-oxoglutarate carrier.

    PubMed

    Kabe, Yasuaki; Ohmori, Masashi; Shinouchi, Kazuya; Tsuboi, Yasunori; Hirao, Satoshi; Azuma, Motoki; Watanabe, Hajime; Okura, Ichiro; Handa, Hiroshi

    2006-10-20

    Heme (Fe-protoporphyrin IX), an endogenous porphyrin derivative, is an essential molecule in living aerobic organisms and plays a role in a variety of physiological processes such as oxygen transport, respiration, and signal transduction. For the biosynthesis of heme or the mitochondrial heme proteins, heme or its biosynthetic precursor porphyrin must be transported into mitochondria from cytosol. The mechanism of porphyrin accumulation in the mitochondrial inner membrane is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the mechanism of mitochondrial translocation of porphyrin derivatives. We showed that palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (PdTCPP), a phosphorescent porphyrin derivative, accumulated in the mitochondria of several cell lines. Using affinity latex beads, we showed that 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC), the mitochondrial transporter of 2-oxoglutarate, bound to PdTCPP, and in vitro PdTCPP inhibited 2-oxoglutarate uptake into mitochondria in a competitive manner (Ki = 15 microM). Interestingly, all types of porphyrin derivatives examined in this study competitively inhibited 2-oxoglutarate uptake into mitochondria, including protoporphyrin IX, coproporphyrin III, and hemin. Furthermore, mitochondrial accumulation of porphyrins was inhibited by 2-oxoglutarate or OGC inhibitor. These results suggested that porphyrin accumulation in mitochondria is mediated by OGC and that porphyrins are able to competitively inhibit 2-oxoglutarate uptake into mitochondria. This is the first report of a putative mechanism for accumulation of porphyrins in the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:16920706

  18. Iron accumulation promotes TACE-mediated TNF-α secretion and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Keun; Shin, Jin Hee; Gwag, Byoung Joo; Choi, Eui-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to degeneration of motor neurons in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as transgenic mice overexpressing ALS-associated human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutants. However, the molecular mechanism by which the ALS-linked SOD1 mutants including SOD1(G93A) induce oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we show that iron was accumulated in ventral motor neurons from SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mice even at 4 weeks of age, subsequently inducing oxidative stress. Iron chelation with deferoxamine mesylate delayed disease onset and extended lifespan of SOD1(G93A) mice. Furthermore, SOD1(G93A)-induced iron accumulation mediated the increase in the enzymatic activity of TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), leading to secretion of TNF-α at least in part through iron-dependent oxidative stress. Our findings suggest iron as a key determinant of early motor neuron degeneration as well as proinflammatory responses at symptomatic stage in SOD1(G93A) mice. PMID:26002422

  19. Proteomics to reveal metabolic network shifts towards lipid accumulation following nitrogen deprivation in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Kai; Ma, Yu-Han; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is attracting considerable interest as a candidate for biofuel production due to its fast growth and high lipid content. Nitrogen deficiency can increase the lipid content in certain microalgae species, including P. tricornutum. However, the molecular basis of such changes remains unclear without analyzing metabolism at the proteomic level. We attempted to systematically analyze protein expression level changes of P. tricornutum upon N deprivation. We observed translational level changes that could overall redirect the metabolic network from carbon flux towards lipid accumulation. N deprivation led to an increase in the expression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis and a concomitant decrease in photosynthesis and lipid catabolism enzymes. These molecular level changes are consistent with the observed physiological changes, e.g., in photosynthesis rate and saturated lipid content. Our results provide information at the proteomic level of the key enzymes involved in carbon flux towards lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum and suggest candidates for genetic manipulation in microalgae breeding for biodiesel production. PMID:24600163

  20. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  1. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  2. AMPK-HDAC5 pathway facilitates nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α and functional activation of HIF-1 by deacetylating Hsp70 in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuyang; Yin, Chengqian; Lao, Taotao; Liang, Dongming; He, Dan; Wang, Chenguang; Sang, Nianli

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcriptionally promotes production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whereas AMPK senses and regulates cellular energy homeostasis. A histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been proven to be critical for HIF-1 activation but the underlying mechanism and its role in energy homesostasis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HIF-1 activation depends on a cytosolic, enzymatically active HDAC5. HDAC5 knockdown impairs hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-1 transactivation, whereas HDAC5 overexpression enhances HIF-1α stabilization and nuclear translocation. Mechanistically, we show that Hsp70 is a cytosolic substrate of HDAC5; and hyperacetylation renders Hsp70 higher affinity for HIF-1α binding, which correlates with accelerated degradation and attenuated nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Physiologically, AMPK-triggered cytosolic shuttling of HDAC5 is critical; inhibition of either AMPK or HDAC5 impairs HIF-1α nuclear accumulation under hypoxia or low glucose conditions. Finally, we show specifically suppressing HDAC5 is sufficient to inhibit tumor cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions. Our data delineate a novel link between AMPK, the energy sensor, and HIF-1, the major driver of ATP production, indicating that specifically inhibiting HDAC5 may selectively suppress the survival and proliferation of hypoxic tumor cells. PMID:26061431

  3. AMPK-HDAC5 pathway facilitates nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α and functional activation of HIF-1 by deacetylating Hsp70 in the cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuyang; Yin, Chengqian; Lao, Taotao; Liang, Dongming; He, Dan; Wang, Chenguang; Sang, Nianli

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcriptionally promotes production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whereas AMPK senses and regulates cellular energy homeostasis. A histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been proven to be critical for HIF-1 activation but the underlying mechanism and its role in energy homesostasis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HIF-1 activation depends on a cytosolic, enzymatically active HDAC5. HDAC5 knockdown impairs hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-1 transactivation, whereas HDAC5 overexpression enhances HIF-1α stabilization and nuclear translocation. Mechanistically, we show that Hsp70 is a cytosolic substrate of HDAC5; and hyperacetylation renders Hsp70 higher affinity for HIF-1α binding, which correlates with accelerated degradation and attenuated nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Physiologically, AMPK-triggered cytosolic shuttling of HDAC5 is critical; inhibition of either AMPK or HDAC5 impairs HIF-1α nuclear accumulation under hypoxia or low glucose conditions. Finally, we show specifically suppressing HDAC5 is sufficient to inhibit tumor cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions. Our data delineate a novel link between AMPK, the energy sensor, and HIF-1, the major driver of ATP production, indicating that specifically inhibiting HDAC5 may selectively suppress the survival and proliferation of hypoxic tumor cells. PMID:26061431

  4. RNAi-mediated pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase gene silencing in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coat: consequences on lignans and neolignans accumulation.

    PubMed

    Renouard, Sullivan; Tribalatc, Marie-Aude; Lamblin, Frederic; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Pilard, Serge; Demailly, Hervé; Gutierrez, Laurent; Hano, Christophe; Mesnard, François; Lainé, Eric

    2014-09-15

    RNAi technology was applied to down regulate LuPLR1 gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. This gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the synthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the major lignan accumulated in the seed coat. If flax lignans biological properties and health benefits are well documented their roles in planta remain unclear. This loss of function strategy was developed to better understand the implication of the PLR1 enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway and to provide new insights on the functions of these compounds. RNAi plants generated exhibited LuPLR1 gene silencing as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR experiments and the failed to accumulate SDG. The accumulation of pinoresinol the substrate of the PLR1 enzyme under its diglucosylated form (PDG) was increased in transgenic seeds but did not compensate the overall loss of SDG. The monolignol flux was also deviated through the synthesis of 8-5' linked neolignans dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG) and dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DDCG) which were observed for the first time in flax seeds. PMID:25046758

  5. Enhanced ubiquitin-dependent degradation by Nedd4 protects against α-synuclein accumulation and toxicity in animal models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sian E.; Hallett, Penelope J.; Moens, Thomas; Smith, Gaynor; Mangano, Emily; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Liu, Ji-Long; Isacson, Ole; Tofaris, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by accumulation and misfolding of α-synuclein. Although the level of α-synuclein in neurons is fundamentally linked to the onset of neurodegeneration, multiple pathways have been implicated in its degradation, and it remains unclear which are the critical ubiquitination enzymes that protect against α-synuclein accumulation in vivo. The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 targets α-synuclein to the endosomal–lysosomal pathway in cultured cells. Here we asked whether Nedd4-mediated degradation protects against α-synuclein-induced toxicity in the Drosophila and rodent models of Parkinson's disease. We show that overexpression of Nedd4 can rescue the degenerative phenotype from ectopic expression of α-synuclein in the Drosophila eye. Overexpressed Nedd4 in the Drosophila brain prevented the α-synuclein-induced locomotor defect whereas reduction in endogenous Nedd4 by RNAi led to worsening motor function and increased loss of dopaminergic neurons. Accordingly, AAV-mediated expression of wild-type but not the catalytically inactive Nedd4 decreased the α-synuclein-induced dopaminergic cell loss in the rat substantia nigra and reduced α-synuclein accumulation. Collectively, our data in two evolutionarily distant model organisms strongly suggest that Nedd4 is a modifier of α-synuclein pathobiology and thus a potential target for neuroprotective therapies. PMID:24388974

  6. Aluminum inhibits neurofilament assembly, cytoskeletal incorporation, and axonal transport. Dynamic nature of aluminum-induced perikaryal neurofilament accumulations as revealed by subunit turnover.

    PubMed

    Shea, T B; Wheeler, E; Jung, C

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which aluminum induces formation of perikaryal neurofilament (NF) inclusions remains unclear. Aluminum treatment inhibits: 1. The incorporation of newly synthesized NF subunits into Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of axonal neurites; 2. Their degradation and dephosphorylation; 3. Their translocation into axonal neurites. It also fosters the accumulation of phosphorylated NFs within perikarya. In the present study, we addressed the relationship among these effects. Aluminum reduced the assembly of newly synthesized NF subunits into NFs. During examination of those subunits that did assemble in the presence of aluminum, it was revealed that aluminum also interfered with transport of newly assembled NFs into axonal neurites. Similarly, a delay in axonal transport of microinjected biotinylated NF-H was observed in aluminum-treated cells. Aluminum also inhibited the incorporation of newly synthesized and microinjected subunits into the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton within both perikarya and neurites. Once incorporated into Triton-insoluble cytoskeletons, however, biotinylated subunits were retained within perikarya of aluminum-treated cells to a greater extent than within untreated cells. Notably, these subunits were depleted in the presence and absence of aluminum within 48 h, despite the persistence of the aluminum-induced perikaryal accumulation itself, suggesting that individual NF subunits undergo turnover even within aluminum-induced perikaryal accumulations. These findings demonstrate that aluminum interferes with multiple aspects of neurofilament dynamics and furthermore leaves open the possibility that aluminum-induced perikaryal NF whorls may not represent permanent structures, but rather may require continued recruitment of cytoskeletal constituents. PMID:9437656

  7. Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  9. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  11. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  12. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  13. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  15. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  16. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  2. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  3. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  4. 32. Interior view, encased fireplace and remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Interior view, encased - fireplace and remains of the hearth against the north wall, with scale l(note: hole punched through plaster allows access to the flues) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  5. 3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS OF THE TURBINE FLUMES. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  7. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  8. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  9. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  10. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  11. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  12. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  13. 13. REMAINING TOP PART OF SOUTH ELEVATION, HAMMER BUILDING, SINCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. REMAINING TOP PART OF SOUTH ELEVATION, HAMMER BUILDING, SINCE JOINED TO BUILDING 6. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Assembly & Manufacturing Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  15. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  16. 6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  17. 3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  18. Accumulation of free amino acids in marine diatom resting cells during rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changping; Li, Qingyu; Zhou, Qianqian; Sun, Lin; Zheng, Minhua; Gao, Yahui

    2014-01-01

    Many diatoms form resting stages under adverse growth conditions. These resting stages are known to rejuvenate once favorable conditions return, and resume vegetative growth after a certain lag period in which no divisions occurred, but what happens during this period remains unclear. Nitrogen uptake and the accumulation of free amino acids in Skeletonema marinoi resting cells during rejuvenation, but before cell division, were studied in laboratory cultures at different light intensities using the 15N-tracer technique. N uptake rate was higher for the rejuvenating cells at the higher light intensity. We hypothesized that the rapid and increasing N uptake at higher irradiance could enable S. marinoi to rebuild and reorganize its cell contents quickly and so dominate subsequent vegetative growth on the surficial sediment. Compared to the logarithmic growth phase and stationary phase, much higher concentrations of glycine (Gly) and histidine (His) were detected in resting cells, and His appeared to be a storage compound in S. marinoi resting cells. Compared to glutamine, glutamate had the higher 15N label enrichment under the light condition, showing a diel variation of N status during the lag period. The 15N labeled urea was detected at 36 h, compared to the urea cycle intermediates ornithine and citrulline at 30 h, indicating that urea was produced as an N reservoir due to the higher nitrogen uptake in the dark, and that the urea cycle was involved in S. marinoi resting cell rejuvenation.

  19. The histone deacetylase inhibiting drug Entinostat induces lipid accumulation in differentiated HepaRG cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Abigail D. G.; Scopigno, Tullio; Pediconi, Natalia; Levrero, Massimo; Hagman, Henning; Kiskis, Juris; Enejder, Annika

    2016-06-01

    Dietary overload of toxic, free metabolic intermediates leads to disrupted insulin signalling and fatty liver disease. However, it was recently reported that this pathway might not be universal: depletion of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enhances insulin sensitivity alongside hepatic lipid accumulation in mice, but the mechanistic role of microscopic lipid structure in this effect remains unclear. Here we study the effect of Entinostat, a synthetic HDAC inhibitor undergoing clinical trials, on hepatic lipid metabolism in the paradigmatic HepaRG liver cell line. Specifically, we statistically quantify lipid droplet morphology at single cell level utilizing label-free microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, supported by gene expression. We observe Entinostat efficiently rerouting carbohydrates and free-fatty acids into lipid droplets, upregulating lipid coat protein gene Plin4, and relocating droplets nearer to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate the power of Entinostat to promote lipid synthesis and storage, allowing reduced systemic sugar levels and sequestration of toxic metabolites within protected protein-coated droplets, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Accumulation of TAR DNA Binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Cyntia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Schneider, Julie; Bennett, David A.; Calon, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) plays a central role in the neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the relationship between TDP-43 abnormalities and Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. To determine whether TDP-43 can serve as a neuropathological marker of AD, we performed biochemical characterization and quantification of TDP-43 in homogenates from parietal neocortex of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI, n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 12), or AD (n = 12). Immunoblots revealed increased detergent-insoluble TDP-43 in the cortex of 0/12, 3/12 and 6/12 individuals with NCI, MCI or AD, respectively. Detergent-insoluble TDP-43 was positively correlated with the accumulation of soluble Aβ42, amyloid plaques and paired helical filament tau. In contrast, phospho-TDP-43 was decreased in the cytosolic fraction and detergent-soluble membrane/nuclear fraction from AD patients and correlated with antemortem cognitive function. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that the frequencies of individuals with TPD-43 or phospo-TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were higher in AD than in NCI, with MCI at an intermediate level. These data indicate that abnormalities of TDP-43 occur in an important subset of MCI and AD patients and that they correlate with the clinical and neuropathological features of AD. PMID:21865887

  1. The histone deacetylase inhibiting drug Entinostat induces lipid accumulation in differentiated HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Abigail D. G.; Scopigno, Tullio; Pediconi, Natalia; Levrero, Massimo; Hagman, Henning; Kiskis, Juris; Enejder, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Dietary overload of toxic, free metabolic intermediates leads to disrupted insulin signalling and fatty liver disease. However, it was recently reported that this pathway might not be universal: depletion of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enhances insulin sensitivity alongside hepatic lipid accumulation in mice, but the mechanistic role of microscopic lipid structure in this effect remains unclear. Here we study the effect of Entinostat, a synthetic HDAC inhibitor undergoing clinical trials, on hepatic lipid metabolism in the paradigmatic HepaRG liver cell line. Specifically, we statistically quantify lipid droplet morphology at single cell level utilizing label-free microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, supported by gene expression. We observe Entinostat efficiently rerouting carbohydrates and free-fatty acids into lipid droplets, upregulating lipid coat protein gene Plin4, and relocating droplets nearer to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate the power of Entinostat to promote lipid synthesis and storage, allowing reduced systemic sugar levels and sequestration of toxic metabolites within protected protein-coated droplets, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27320682

  2. The histone deacetylase inhibiting drug Entinostat induces lipid accumulation in differentiated HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Abigail D G; Scopigno, Tullio; Pediconi, Natalia; Levrero, Massimo; Hagman, Henning; Kiskis, Juris; Enejder, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Dietary overload of toxic, free metabolic intermediates leads to disrupted insulin signalling and fatty liver disease. However, it was recently reported that this pathway might not be universal: depletion of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enhances insulin sensitivity alongside hepatic lipid accumulation in mice, but the mechanistic role of microscopic lipid structure in this effect remains unclear. Here we study the effect of Entinostat, a synthetic HDAC inhibitor undergoing clinical trials, on hepatic lipid metabolism in the paradigmatic HepaRG liver cell line. Specifically, we statistically quantify lipid droplet morphology at single cell level utilizing label-free microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, supported by gene expression. We observe Entinostat efficiently rerouting carbohydrates and free-fatty acids into lipid droplets, upregulating lipid coat protein gene Plin4, and relocating droplets nearer to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate the power of Entinostat to promote lipid synthesis and storage, allowing reduced systemic sugar levels and sequestration of toxic metabolites within protected protein-coated droplets, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27320682

  3. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. Headspace constituents of the tree remain of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Hashimoto, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Kubota, K

    2001-01-01

    The volatile ingredients isolated from a fresh tree of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) and from a tree remain of C. camphora were collected by using headspace techniques and analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 99.77% of the constituents consisting 23 components from the fresh tree, 98.68% of the constituents consisting 24 components from the tree remain were identified. Of these ingredients, camphor was obtained as the most abundant component. PMID:11547425

  5. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  6. Carbon Accumulation and Nitrogen Pool Recovery during Transitions from Savanna to Forest in Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, A.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Franco, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of tropical forest into savanna may potentially be a large carbon sink, but little is known about the patterns of carbon sequestration during transitional forest formation. Moreover, it is unclear how nutrient limitation, due to extended exposure to firedriven nutrient losses, may constrain carbon accumulation. Here, we sampled plots that spanned a woody biomass gradient from savanna to transitional forest in response to differential fire protection in central Brazil. These plots were used to investigate how the process of transitional forest formation affects the size and distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. This was paired with a detailed analysis of the nitrogen cycle to explore possible connections between carbon accumulation and nitrogen limitation. An analysis of carbon pools in the vegetation, upper soil, and litter shows that the transition from savanna to transitional forest can result in a fourfold increase in total carbon (from 43 to 179 Mg C/ha) with a doubling of carbon stocks in the litter and soil layers. Total nitrogen in the litter and soil layers increased with forest development in both the bulk (+68%) and plant-available (+150%) pools, with the most pronounced changes occurring in the upper layers. However, the analyses of nitrate concentrations, nitrate : ammonium ratios, plant stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen, and soil and foliar nitrogen isotope ratios suggest that a conservative nitrogen cycle persists throughout forest development, indicating that nitrogen remains in low supply relative to demand. Furthermore, the lack of variation in underlying soil type (>20 cm depth) suggests that the biogeochemical trends across the gradient are driven by vegetation. Our results provide evidence for high carbon sequestration potential with forest encroachment on savanna, but nitrogen limitation may play a large and persistent role in governing carbon sequestration in savannas or other equally fire-disturbed tropical

  7. Light spectrum regulates cell accumulation during daytime in the raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua causing noxious red tides.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Tomoyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Iwahori, Sho; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-07-01

    Most marine raphidophyte species cause noxious red tides in temperate coastal areas around the world. It is known that swimming abilities enable raphidophytes to accumulation of cells and to actively acquire light at surface layers and nutrients over a wide depth range. However, it remains unclear how the swimming behavior is affected by environmental conditions, especially light condition. In the present study, we observed the accumulation of the harmful red-tide raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua under various light conditions during the daytime in the laboratory. When exposed to ultraviolet-A/blue light (320-480nm) or red light (640-680nm) from above, cells moved downward. In the case of blue light (455nm), cells started to swim downward after 5-15min of irradiation at a photon flux density≥10μmolm(-2)s(-1). When exposed to monochromatic lights (400-680nm) from the side, cells moved away from the blue light source and then descended, but just moved downward under red light. However, mixing of green/orange light (520-630nm) diminished the effects of blue light. When exposed to a mixture of 30μmolm(-2)s(-1) of blue light (440nm) and ≥6μmolm(-2)s(-1) of yellow light (560nm) from above, cells did not move downward. These results indicate that blue light induces negative phototaxis and ultraviolet-A/blue and red lights induce descending, and green/orange light cancels out their effects in C. antiqua. PMID:27107332

  8. Inactivation of Plin4 downregulates Plin5 and reduces cardiac lipid accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqin; Chang, Benny; Wu, Xinyu; Li, Lan; Sleeman, Mark; Chan, Lawrence

    2013-04-01

    Plin4 is a lipid droplet protein (LDP) found predominantly in white adipose tissue (WAT). The Plin4 gene is immediately downstream of the Plin5 gene; the two genes exhibit distinct though overlapping tissue expression patterns. Plin4 is absent in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver and expressed at low levels in heart and skeletal muscle, whereas Plin5 is highly expressed in these oxidative tissues but at a low level in WAT. The physiological role of Plin4 remains unclear. We have generated Plin4(-/-) mice by gene targeting. Loss of Plin4 has no effect on body weight or composition or on adipose mass or development. However, the triacylglycerol (TAG) content in heart, but not other oxidative tissues such as BAT, soleus muscle, and liver, is markedly reduced in Plin4(-/-) mice. The heart of Plin4(-/-) mice displays reduced Plin5 mRNA and protein levels (by ~38 and 87%, respectively, vs. wild-type) but unchanged mRNA levels of other perilipin family genes (Plin2 and Plin3) or genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Despite reduced cardiac TAG level, both young and aged Plin4(-/-) mice maintain normal heart function as wild-type mice, as measured by echocardiography. Interestingly, Plin4 deficiency prevents the lipid accumulation in the heart that normally occurs after a prolonged (48-h) fast. It also protects the heart from cardiac steatosis induced by high-fat diet or when Plin4(-/-) mice are bred into Lep(-/-) obese background. In conclusion, inactivation of Plin4 downregulates Plin5 and reduces cardiac lipid accumulation in mice. PMID:23423172

  9. Acute effects of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ accumulation and contractility in human type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Dutka, T L; Lamboley, C R; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2014-10-01

    Taurine occurs in high concentrations in muscle and is implicated in numerous physiological processes, yet its effects on many aspects of contractility remain unclear. Using mechanically skinned segments of human vastus lateralis muscle fibers, we characterized the effects of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ accumulation and contractile apparatus properties in type I and type II fibers. Prolonged myoplasmic exposure (>10 min) to taurine substantially increased the rate of accumulation of Ca2+ by the SR in both fiber types, with no change in the maximum amount accumulated; no such effect was found with carnosine. SR Ca2+ accumulation was similar with 10 or 20 mM taurine, but was significantly slower at 5 mM taurine. Cytoplasmic taurine (20 mM) had no detectable effects on the responsiveness of the Ca2+ release channels in either fiber type. Taurine caused a small increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in type I fibers, but type II fibers were unaffected; maximum Ca(2+)-activated force was unchanged in both cases. The effects of taurine on SR Ca2+ accumulation (1) only became apparent after prolonged cytoplasmic exposure, and (2) persisted for some minutes after complete removal of taurine from the cytoplasm, consistent with the hypothesis that the effects were due to an action of taurine from inside the SR. In summary, taurine potentiates the rate of SR Ca2+ uptake in both type I and type II human fibers, possibly via an action from within the SR lumen, with the degree of potentiation being significantly reduced at low physiological taurine levels. PMID:25123198

  10. Sodium Influx and Accumulation in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Essah, Pauline A.; Davenport, Romola; Tester, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis is frequently used as a genetic model in plant salt tolerance studies, however, its physiological responses to salinity remain poorly characterized. This study presents a characterization of initial Na+ entry and the effects of Ca2+ on plant growth and net Na+ accumulation in saline conditions. Unidirectional Na+ influx was measured carefully using very short influx times in roots of 12-d-old seedlings. Influx showed three components with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+, diethylpyrocarbonate, and osmotic pretreatment. Pharmacological agents and known mutants were used to test the contribution of different transport pathways to Na+ uptake. Influx was stimulated by 4-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid; was inhibited by flufenamate, quinine, and cGMP; and was insensitive to modulators of K+ and Ca2+ channels. Influx did not differ from wild type in akt1 and hkt1 insertional mutants. These data suggested that influx was mediated by several different types of nonselective cation channels. Na+ accumulation in plants grown in 50 mm NaCl was strongly reduced by increasing Ca2+ activity (from 0.05-3.0 mm), and plant survival was improved. However, plant biomass was not affected by shoot Na+ concentration, suggesting that in Arabidopsis Na+ toxicity is not dependent on shoot Na+ accumulation. These data suggest that Arabidopsis is a good model for investigation of Na+ transport, but may be of limited utility as a model for the study of Na+ toxicity. PMID:12970496

  11. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  12. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  13. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  14. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Gailani, M.

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  15. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  16. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    PubMed

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. PMID:22994903

  17. Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; Planas, Joan; Saxena, Triambak; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Cuevas, Juan; Bitrián, Marta; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, a model genus missing a functional ornithine decarboxylase pathway, most of the key genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis are duplicated. This gene redundancy has been related to the involvement of certain gene isoforms in the response to specific environmental stimuli. We have previously shown that drought stress induces Arginine decarboxlase 2 expression, while transcript levels for Arginine decarboxlase 1 remain constant. Accumulation of putrescine and increased arginine decarboxlase activity (EC 4.1.1.19) levels in response to different abiotic stresses have been reported in many different plant systems, but the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To get a new insight into these questions, we have studied the response to drought of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines constitutively expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxlase 2 gene. These lines contain high levels of putrescine with no changes in spermidine and spermine content even under drought stress. Drought tolerance experiments indicate that the different degree of resistance to dehydration correlates with Put content. Although no significant differences were observed in the number of stomata between wild-type and transgenic plants, a reduction in transpiration rate and stomata conductance was observed in the ADC2 over-expressor lines. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of transgenic plants over-producing Put is related to a reduction of water loss by transpiration. PMID:20206537

  18. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  20. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  1. NaCl alleviates Cd toxicity by changing its chemical forms of accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    PubMed

    Wali, Mariem; Fourati, Emna; Hmaeid, Nizar; Ghabriche, Rim; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2015-07-01

    It has previously been shown that certain halophytes can grow and produce biomass despite of the contamination of their saline biotopes with toxic metals. This suggests that these plants are able to cope with both salinity and heavy metal constraints. NaCl is well tolerated by halophytes and apparently can modulate their responses to Cd. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study explores the impact of NaCl on growth, Cd accumulation, and Cd speciation in tissues of the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. Seedlings of S. portulacastrum were exposed during 1 month to 0, 25, and 50 μM Cd combined with low salinity (LS, 0.09 mM NaCl) or high salinity (HS, 200 mM NaCl) levels. Growth parameters and total tissue Cd concentrations were determined, in leaves, stems, and root. Moreover, Cd speciation in these organs was assessed by specific extraction procedures. Results showed that, at LS, Cd induced chlorosis and necrosis and drastically reduced plant growth. However, addition of 200 mM NaCl to Cd containing medium alleviated significantly Cd toxicity symptoms and restored plant growth. NaCl reduced the concentration of Cd in the shoots; nevertheless, due to maintenance of higher biomass under HS, the quantity of accumulated Cd was not modified. NaCl modified the chemical form of Cd in the tissues by increasing the proportion of Cd bound to pectates, proteins, and chloride suggesting that this change in speciation is involved in the positive impact of NaCl on Cd tolerance. We concluded that the tolerance of S. portulacastrum to Cd was enhanced by NaCl. This effect is rather governed by the modification of the speciation of the accumulated Cd than by the reduction of Cd absorption and translocation. PMID:25758421

  2. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums. PMID:26990403

  3. Teacher Retention: Why Do Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Duane; Marlow, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    As beginning teachers continue to leave the profession within the first several years of entering, educators must identify factors which cause teachers to remain in the profession, as well as factors related to attrition if the current teacher shortage is to be remedied. The purpose of this study was to examine the reported attitudes of beginning…

  4. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  5. 11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENTRY STAIRWELL TO CABLE TUNNEL. REMAINS OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION STATIONS AT LEFT, TRACKSIDE CAMERA STAND AT FAR RIGHT. Looking northeast toward launch pad. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  7. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  8. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  9. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  10. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  13. 5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT UPPER GUIDE WALL REMAINS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT UPPER GUIDE WALL REMAINS AND LAND WALL FROM THE OHIO RIVER. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA

  14. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  15. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  16. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  17. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  18. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  19. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  2. GABA accumulating neurons are relatively resistant to chronic hypoxia in vitro: An autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, P.K.; Hu, S. )

    1990-11-01

    Whether there is preferential loss of certain types of nerve cells or specific cellular functions after hypoxic or ischemic insults remains unclear. To evaluate this phenomenon in vitro, the vulnerability of GABAergic neurons to hypoxia was investigated both quantitatively and with autoradiography. Immature neuronal cortical cultures obtained from fetal mice were subjected to chronic hypoxia (5% O2) for 24 h or 48 h and then returned to the normoxic condition for 48 h. The shorter hypoxic exposure resulted in significantly reduced numbers of neurons in comparison to the longer exposure and also to controls (29% and 26%, respectively; p less than 0.001). LDH efflux, a reliable indicator of cell damage, also was higher after the shorter exposure insult. Nevertheless, in these same 24 h hypoxic cultures there was prominent sparing of those neurons which accumulate GABA: by 48 h of recovery GABAergic neurons constituted 29.3 +/- 2.0% of the remaining neuronal population in comparison to 11.6 +/- 0.6 and 14.4 +/- 0.8% for controls and 48 h hypoxia, respectively; (p less than 0.001). Although total GABA uptake per neuron was significantly decreased after both types of insult, there was a concomitant increase in glial GABA uptake (i.e., that which could be displaced by beta-alanine). These observations suggest that certain GABAergic cortical neurons are relatively more resistant to chronic hypoxia than the general neuronal population and that depression of overall neuronal GABA uptake may be associated with enhanced glial GABA uptake.

  3. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient's baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs' function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  4. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  5. Targeting acid sphingomyelinase reduces cardiac ceramide accumulation in the post-ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Klevstig, Martina; Ståhlman, Marcus; Lundqvist, Annika; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Andersson, Linda; Kolesnick, Richard; Jeppsson, Anders; Borén, Jan; Levin, Malin C

    2016-04-01

    Ceramide accumulation is known to accompany acute myocardial ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease is unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how ceramides accumulate in the ischemic heart and to determine if cardiac function following ischemia can be improved by reducing ceramide accumulation. To investigate the association between ceramide accumulation and heart function, we analyzed myocardial left ventricle biopsies from subjects with chronic ischemia and found that ceramide levels were higher in biopsies from subjects with reduced heart function. Ceramides are produced by either de novo synthesis or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by acid and/or neutral sphingomyelinase. We used cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes to investigate these pathways and showed that acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than neutral sphingomyelinase activity or de novo sphingolipid synthesis was important for hypoxia-induced ceramide accumulation. We also used mice with a partial deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (Smpd1(+/-) mice) to investigate if limiting ceramide accumulation under ischemic conditions would have a beneficial effect on heart function and survival. Although we showed that cardiac ceramide accumulation was reduced in Smpd1(+/-) mice 24h after an induced myocardial infarction, this reduction was not accompanied by an improvement in heart function or survival. Our findings show that accumulation of cardiac ceramides in the post-ischemic heart is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. However, targeting ceramide accumulation in the ischemic heart may not be a beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:26930027

  6. Identifying and Reducing Remaining Stocks of Rinderpest Virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Keith; Visser, Dawid; Evans, Brian; Vallat, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities. To facilitate this commitment and maintain global freedom from rinderpest, World Organisation for Animal Health Member Countries must report annually on rinderpest material held in their countries. The first official surveys, conducted during 2013-2015, revealed that rinderpest material was stored in an unacceptably high number of facilities and countries. PMID:26584400

  7. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  8. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory. PMID:23580533

  9. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  10. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

  11. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  12. Belarus ratifies START I pact; Ukraine remains last holdout

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-03-01

    The Belarus Parliment ratified START I by a vote of 218 to 1 on February 4, 1993. The Parliment also voted to accede to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. The Parliment also passed two companion accords with Russia to coordinate the withdrawal of the ICBMs now in Belarus and to define the legal states of those weapons. Ukraine remains the only party to START I that has not yet approved the treaty.

  13. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    PubMed

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals. PMID:15902255

  14. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  15. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. PMID:24112343

  16. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts. PMID:26391374

  17. Long-term market brisk, spot remains sluggish

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Spot market activity totaled almost 54,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range had a slight increase from a high last month of $15.60/lb U3O8 to a hgih this month of $16.00/lb U3O8. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range remained at last month`s prices for the first time in recent weeks. Spot prices for conversion and SWU also held steady at their March levels.

  18. New fossil cercopithecid remains from the Humpata Plateau, southern Angola.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, N G

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to describe and identify the well-preserved cranial remains of a fossil cercopithecid recently recovered from sites on the Humpata Plateau in southern Angola. In the past, papionin fossils recovered from the Angolan site of Tchiua (Leba) have been referred to various taxa, including Dinopithecus ingens, Parapapio sp., and Papio (Dinopithecus) quadratirostris. Comparison of the new Angolan papionin cranial remains with those previously described from the Humpata Plateau and a large range of living and fossil Papionini revealed that the range of metrical and morphological variation present in the Humpata papionin sample was consistent with that found in a single extant papionin species. The Humpata cranial remains bear the largest number of similarities to Theropithecus baringensis R. Leakey, 1969, and it is to this species that the remains are hereby referred. This assignment is based on a suite of 11 shared attributes of the Humpata papionin fossils and the type specimen of T. baringensis, KNM BC2, which include: large molar teeth of relatively low relief with pinched cusps and with a prominent distal fovea on M3; a small, low cranial vault with little mid-parietal expansion; a bow-shaped supraorbital torus; trapezoidal, inferiorly tapering orbits; a functional complex related to the presence of a large and vertically oriented anterior temporalis muscle; a large infratemporal fossa with an anteromedially oriented posterior border; a long muzzle with a steep interorbital drop, shallow incisive arc, flattened dorsum, and rounded maxillary ridges; nasal bones that extend across the breadth of the posterior margin of the nasal aperture and then taper markedly as they approach nasion; prominent, inferiorly divergent mental ridges; and relatively shallow mandibular fossae that are long, elliptical in shape, and extend to the level of the M3. The results of the current study suggest that T. baringensis (now including the Humpata

  19. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  20. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease. PMID:27400066

  1. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans. PMID:26650923

  3. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  4. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  5. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  6. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  7. Accumulation of xenotransplanted canine bone marrow cells in NOD/SCID/γc(null) mice with acute hepatitis induced by CCl4.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Segawa, Kazuhito; Fujimoto, Ayumi; Makiishi, Eri; Neo, Sakurako; Yasuno, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Tsuchiya, Ryo

    2013-07-31

    Bone marrow cell infusion (BMI) has recently been suggested as an effective therapy for refractory liver disease; however, the efficiency of BMI using canine bone marrow cells (cBMCs) has not been reported. We evaluated the accumulation potential of cBMCs in a mouse model of acute liver failure. Acute hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment in NOD/SCID/γc(null)(NOG) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL mice, and the characteristics of liver dysfunction and the degree of hepatic injury and regeneration were compared between the two mouse models. Next, female CCl4-treated NOG mice were xenotransplanted with male PKH26-labeled cBMCs, and the potential of cBMCs to accumulate in injured liver tissue compartments was examined. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to histologically detect the infused cBMCs, and DNA polymerase chain reaction was performed for detection of the male Y chromosome (SRY gene) in the recipient female NOG mice. The number of PKH26-positive cBMCs transplanted in the liver tissue gradually increased in the NOG mice. The infused cBMCs were located in the necrotic area of the liver at an early stage after transplantation, and most had accumulated a week after transplantation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of the xenotransplantation remained unclear, because no significant differences were observed concerning the extent liver injury and regeneration between the cBMC-transplanted and saline control mice. These results suggest that cBMCs will specifically accumulate in injured liver tissue and that BMC transplantation may have the potential to repair liver deficiency. PMID:23411484

  8. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology. PMID:25689980

  10. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age. PMID:16172511

  11. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  12. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  13. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  14. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  15. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. PMID:22150429

  16. Land, lake, and fish: Investigation of fish remains from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (paleo-Lake Hula).

    PubMed

    Zohar, Irit; Biton, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    The question of whether or not pre-modern hominins were responsible for the accumulation of fish remains is discussed through analyses of remains recovered from two lacustrine facies (I-4 and I-5) from Area A of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. The fish remains provide the first glimpse into the naturally accumulated fish assemblage from the fluctuating shores of a lake that had been continually exploited by early hominins some 780,000 years ago. Preliminary analysis of the remains show that thirteen of the seventeen species native to Lake Hula were identified at GBY. These represent three of the five freshwater fish families native to the lake: Cyprinidae (carps), Cichlidae (tilapini, St. Peter's fish), and Clariidae (catfish). From a taphonomical perspective, a significant difference is found between the two lithofacies (Layers I-4 and I-5) in terms of species composition, richness, diversity, and skeleton completeness. It appears that the fish remains recovered from Layer I-4 (clay) are better preserved than those from Layer I-5 (coquina). In both lithofacies, Cyprinidae are highly abundant while Cichlidae and Clariidae are rare and under-represented, especially when compared to the Lake Hula fishery report from the 1950s. All of these identified species may have contributed significantly to the diet of GBY hominins. PMID:21255820

  17. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; et al

    2016-02-24

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14 ± 5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents ismore » associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Lastly, our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.« less

  18. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  19. Evidence of aluminium accumulation in aluminium welders.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Ahrengart, L; Lidums, V; Pettersson, E; Sjögren, B

    1991-01-01

    Using atomic absorption spectrometry the aluminium concentrations in blood and urine and in two iliac bone biopsies obtained from welders with long term exposure to fumes containing aluminium were measured. The urinary excretion of two workers who had welded for 20 and 21 years varied between 107 and 351 micrograms Al/l, more than 10 times the concentration found in persons without occupational exposure. Urinary aluminium excretion remained high many years after stopping exposure. Blood and bone aluminium concentrations (4-53 micrograms Al/l and 18-29 micrograms Al/g respectively) were also raised but not to the same extent as urine excretion. It is concluded that long term exposure to aluminium by inhalation gives rise to accumulation of aluminium in the body and skeleton of health persons, and that the elimination of retained aluminium is very slow, in the order of several years. PMID:1954151

  20. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent hosts: A decade of progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles H.; Trgovcich, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an undisputed pathogen in humans with severe immunocompromise that has historically been thought to carry little consequence in immunecompetent hosts. During the past decade, however, accumulating data suggest that significant numbers of immunocompetent humans reactivate HCMV during critical illness, and that these reactivation episodes are associated with worsened outcomes. Because most people are infected with this ubiquitous virus by adulthood, confirming pathogenicity has now become a clinical priority. In this article, we will review the incidence and implications of reactivation, the relevant immune responses and reactivation triggers relevant to the immunocompetent host. We will summarize the progress made during the past ten years, outline work ongoing in this field, and identify the major gaps remaining in our emerging understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:21439328

  1. Frailty: Scaling from Cellular Deficit Accumulation?

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Kenneth; Mitnitski, Arnold; Howlett, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Cells age in association with deficit accumulation via mechanisms that are far from fully defined. Even so, how deficits might scale up from the subcellular level to give rise to clinically evident age-related changes can be investigated. This 'scaling problem' can be viewed either as a series of little-related events that reflect discrete processes--such as the development of particular diseases--or as a stochastic process with orderly progression at the systems level, regardless of which diseases are present. Some recent evidence favors the latter hypothesis, but determining the best approach to study how deficits scale remains a key goal for understanding aging. In consequence, approaching the problem of frailty as one of the scaling of subcellular deficits has implications for understanding aging. Considering the cumulative effects of many small deficits appears to allow for the observation of important aspects of the behavior of systems that are close to failure. Mathematical modeling offers useful possibilities in clarifying the extent to which different clinical scales measure different phenomena. Even so, to be useful, mathematical modelling must be clinically coherent in addition to mathematically sound. In this regard, queuing appears to offer some potential for investigating how deficits originate and accumulate. PMID:26301975

  2. Ecology: accumulating threats to life

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The accumulating impacts of toxic materials like polychloridnated bephenyls (PCBs), acid rain, deforestation in the Amazon River Basin, and nuclear energy are examined as life-threatening actions that the public must recognize. Immediate action is needed to abandon destructive human activities and search out those life-supporting choices which will replace immediate gratification with long-range benefits. (DCK)

  3. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  4. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R.; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H.; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H.; Winner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, α-synuclein aggregates to form oligomers and fibrils; however, the precise nature of the toxic α-synuclein species remains unclear. A number of synthetic α-synuclein mutations were recently created (E57K and E35K) that produce species of α-synuclein that preferentially form oligomers and increase α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. We have shown that acute lentiviral expression of α-synuclein E57K leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, the effects of chronic expression of oligomer-prone α-synuclein in synapses throughout the brain have not been investigated. Such a study could provide insight into the possible mechanism(s) through which accumulation of α-synuclein oligomers in the synapse leads to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, we compared the patterns of neurodegeneration and synaptic damage between a newly generated mThy-1 α-synuclein E57K transgenic mouse model that is prone to forming oligomers and the mThy-1 α-synuclein wild-type mouse model (Line 61), which accumulates various forms of α-synuclein. Three lines of α-synuclein E57K (Lines 9, 16 and 54) were generated and compared with the wild-type. The α-synuclein E57K Lines 9 and 16 were higher expressings of α-synuclein, similar to α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, and Line 54 was a low expressing of α-synuclein compared to Line 61. By immunoblot analysis, the higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K transgenic mice showed abundant oligomeric, but not fibrillar, α-synuclein whereas lower-expressing mice accumulated monomeric α-synuclein. Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils were present in α-synuclein wild-type Line 61. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that α-synuclein accumulated in the synapses but not in the neuronal cells bodies, which was different from the α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, which accumulates α-synuclein in the soma. Compared to non-transgenic and lower-expressing mice, the

  5. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H; Winner, Beate; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    In Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, α-synuclein aggregates to form oligomers and fibrils; however, the precise nature of the toxic α-synuclein species remains unclear. A number of synthetic α-synuclein mutations were recently created (E57K and E35K) that produce species of α-synuclein that preferentially form oligomers and increase α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. We have shown that acute lentiviral expression of α-synuclein E57K leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, the effects of chronic expression of oligomer-prone α-synuclein in synapses throughout the brain have not been investigated. Such a study could provide insight into the possible mechanism(s) through which accumulation of α-synuclein oligomers in the synapse leads to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, we compared the patterns of neurodegeneration and synaptic damage between a newly generated mThy-1 α-synuclein E57K transgenic mouse model that is prone to forming oligomers and the mThy-1 α-synuclein wild-type mouse model (Line 61), which accumulates various forms of α-synuclein. Three lines of α-synuclein E57K (Lines 9, 16 and 54) were generated and compared with the wild-type. The α-synuclein E57K Lines 9 and 16 were higher expressings of α-synuclein, similar to α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, and Line 54 was a low expressing of α-synuclein compared to Line 61. By immunoblot analysis, the higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K transgenic mice showed abundant oligomeric, but not fibrillar, α-synuclein whereas lower-expressing mice accumulated monomeric α-synuclein. Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils were present in α-synuclein wild-type Line 61. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that α-synuclein accumulated in the synapses but not in the neuronal cells bodies, which was different from the α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, which accumulates α-synuclein in the soma. Compared to non-transgenic and lower-expressing mice, the

  6. Inconsistent relationships between major ions and water stable isotopes in Antarctic snow under different accumulation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Yu; Fujita, Koji; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    Major ions, stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O), and accumulation rates are analyzed using high temporal resolution data from shallow ice cores and snow pits from East and West Antarctica. Seasonal cycles of major ions and δ18O are well preserved at sites with an accumulation rate threshold of >100 kg m-2 a-1 and calm wind conditions. The seasonal cycle is unclear at sites with high wind speeds, even if the accumulation rate is greater than the threshold. To eliminate the influences of different source regions on major ion and δ18O signals in ice cores, we calculate correlation coefficients between annually averaged major ion concentrations and δ18O, and then compare these with accumulation rates and other geographical variables such as latitude, elevation, and distance from the coast. We find that accumulation rates are highly correlated with elevation and the 10-m snow temperature, and that major ions and δ18O are negatively correlated at low accumulation sites in inland Antarctica. Negative correlations could reflect inconsistent accumulation due to a large inter-annual variability in the accumulation rate. The results show that the relationships between major ions and δ18O may not reflect climatic signatures, and could be a result of the unique characteristics of this arid environment.

  7. Primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae accumulates storage glucan and triacylglycerol under nitrogen depletion.

    PubMed

    Takusagawa, Mari; Nakajima, Yohei; Saito, Takafumi; Misumi, Osami

    2016-07-14

    Most microalgae accumulate neutral lipids, including triacylglycerol (TAG), into spherical structures called lipid bodies (LBs) under environmental stress conditions such as nutrient depletion. In green algae, starch accumulation precedes TAG accumulation, and the starch is thought to be a substrate for TAG synthesis. However, the relationship between TAG synthesis and the starch content in red algae, as well as how TAG accumulation is regulated, is unclear. In this study, we cultured the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under nitrogen-depleted conditions, and monitored the formation of starch granules (SGs) and LBs using microscopy. SGs stained with potassium iodide were observed at 24 h; however, LBs stained specifically with BODIPY 493/503 were observed after 48 h. Quantitative analysis of neutral sugar and cytomorphological semi-quantitative analysis of TAG accumulation also supported these results. Thus, the accumulation of starch occurred and preceded the accumulation of TAG in cells of C. merolae. However, TAG accumulation was not accompanied by a decrease in the starch content, suggesting that the starch is a major carbon storage sink, at least under nitrogen-depleted conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of genes involved in starch and TAG synthesis rarely changed during the culture period, suggesting that starch and TAG synthesis in C. merolae are not controlled through gene transcription but at other stages, such as translation and/or enzymatic activity. PMID:27181396

  8. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation. PMID:19058833

  9. Genetic analysis of arsenic accumulation in maize using QTL mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Xing, Xiaolong; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Haochuan; Xue, Yadong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in crops and poses a threat to human health. The genetic mechanism of As accumulation is unclear. Herein, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to unravel the genetic basis of As accumulation in a maize recombinant inbred line population derived from the Chinese crossbred variety Yuyu22. The kernels had the lowest As content among the different maize tissues, followed by the axes, stems, bracts and leaves. Fourteen QTLs were identified at each location. Some of these QTLs were identified in different environments and were also detected by joint analysis. Compared with the B73 RefGen v2 reference genome, the distributions and effects of some QTLs were closely linked to those of QTLs detected in a previous study; the QTLs were likely in strong linkage disequilibrium. Our findings could be used to help maintain maize production to satisfy the demand for edible corn and to decrease the As content in As-contaminated soil through the selection and breeding of As pollution-safe cultivars. PMID:26880701

  10. Genetic analysis of arsenic accumulation in maize using QTL mapping.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Xing, Xiaolong; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Haochuan; Xue, Yadong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in crops and poses a threat to human health. The genetic mechanism of As accumulation is unclear. Herein, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to unravel the genetic basis of As accumulation in a maize recombinant inbred line population derived from the Chinese crossbred variety Yuyu22. The kernels had the lowest As content among the different maize tissues, followed by the axes, stems, bracts and leaves. Fourteen QTLs were identified at each location. Some of these QTLs were identified in different environments and were also detected by joint analysis. Compared with the B73 RefGen v2 reference genome, the distributions and effects of some QTLs were closely linked to those of QTLs detected in a previous study; the QTLs were likely in strong linkage disequilibrium. Our findings could be used to help maintain maize production to satisfy the demand for edible corn and to decrease the As content in As-contaminated soil through the selection and breeding of As pollution-safe cultivars. PMID:26880701

  11. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  12. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

  13. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  14. Microbubble-mediated ultrasound promotes accumulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to the prostate for treating chronic bacterial prostatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shanhong; Han, Guangwei; Shang, Yonggang; Liu, Chengcheng; Cui, Dong; Yu, Shuangjiang; Liao, Bin; Ao, Xiang; Li, Guangzhi; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is an intractable disease. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are able to regulate inflammation in CBP, the effect of microbubble-mediated ultrasound- induced accumulation of BMMSCs on CBP remains unclear. To address this gap, a model of CBP was established in SD rats, which were then treated with BMMSCs alone (BMMSC group), BMMSCs with ultrasound (ultrasound group), BMMSCs with microbubble-mediated ultrasound (MMUS group) and compared with a healthy control group. A therapeutic-ultrasound apparatus was used to treat the prostate in the presence of circulating microbubbles and BMMSCs. The BMMSC distribution was assessed with in vivo imaging, and the prostate structure with light microscopy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β. More BMMSCs were found in the prostate in the MMUS group than in the CBP, ultrasound, and BMMSC groups. Inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrous tissue hyperplasia, and tumor-like epithelial proliferation were significantly reduced in the MMUS group, as were the mRNA and protein expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β. Microbubble-mediated ultrasound-induced accumulation of BMMSCs can inhibit inflammation and decrease TNF-α and IL-1β expressions in the prostate of CBP rats, suggesting that this method may be therapeutic for CPB. PMID:26797392

  15. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  16. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  17. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  18. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October`s total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels.

  19. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized. PMID:14558211

  20. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton. PMID:19220191

  1. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D

    2002-03-21

    The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576

  2. Negotiating compliance in heart failure: remaining issues and questions.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Marcia J E; Riegel, Barbara; Carlson, Beverly; De Geest, Sabina

    2005-12-01

    Living with heart failure (HF) means living with a chronic illness characterized by periods of acute decompensation alternating with periods of relative stability. Improved medical care for patients with cardiovascular diseases, coupled with the aging of the populations in the developed world, has resulted in a steadily increasing prevalence of HF. Rehospitalization rates are high for this patient population. In 20-64% of the cases, poor compliance by patients with the prescribed HF treatment is a contributing factor to hospitalization. This article uses a review of the literature on HF non-compliance, including the prevalence, barriers, consequences, and the long-term outcomes of non-compliance with HF therapy, to illustrate remaining issues and questions. Original studies published in English or German between 1966 and June 2004 identified by combining patient compliance, non-compliance, adherence, self-care, rehospitalization, patient education, and management programs, with heart failure in the search strategy are included. Creative approaches to achieving a true partnership between providers and patients are needed if clinical outcomes are to improve. PMID:15893959

  3. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  4. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  5. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  6. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  7. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  8. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  9. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  10. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  11. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. PMID:27364268

  12. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  13. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  14. An adaptive remaining energy prediction approach for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-02-01

    With the growing number of electric vehicle (EV) applications, the function of the battery management system (BMS) becomes more sophisticated. The accuracy of remaining energy estimation is critical for energy optimization and management in EVs. Therefore the state-of-energy (SoE) is defined to indicate the remaining available energy of the batteries. Considering that there are inevitable accumulated errors caused by current and voltage integral method, an adaptive SoE estimator is first established in this paper. In order to establish a reasonable battery equivalent model, based on the experimental data of the LiFePO4 battery, a data-driven model is established to describe the relationship between the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the SoE. What is more, the forgetting factor recursive least-square (RLS) method is used for parameter identification to get accurate model parameters. Finally, in order to analyze the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed approach, different types of dynamic current profiles are conducted on the lithium-ion batteries and the performances are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the proposed approach has robust and accurate SoE estimation results under dynamic working conditions.

  15. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  16. Cadmium-Induced Hydrogen Accumulation Is Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Brassica campestris by Reestablishment of Reduced Glutathione Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Shen, Wenbiao; Shen, Zhenguo; Xia, Yan; Cui, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a therapeutic antioxidant and signaling molecule in clinical trials. However, the underlying physiological roles of H2 in plants remain unclear. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize the physiological roles of H2 in enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris against cadmium (Cd). The results showed that both 50 μM CdCl2 and 50%-saturated HRW induced an increase of endogenous H2 in Brassica campestris seedlings, and HRW alleviated Cd toxicity related to growth inhibition and oxidative damage. Seedlings supplied with HRW exhibited increased root length and reduced lipid peroxidation, similar to plants receiving GSH post-treatment. Additionally, seedlings post-treated with HRW accumulated higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) and showed increased GST and GPX activities in roots. Molecular evidence illustrated that the expression of genes such as GS, GR1 and GR2, which were down-regulated following the addition of Cd, GSH or BSO, could be reversed to varying degrees by the addition of HRW. Based on these results, it could be proposed that H2 might be an important regulator for enhancing the tolerance of Brassica campestris seedlings against Cd, mainly by governing reduced glutathione homeostasis. PMID:26445361

  17. Root development of non-accumulating and hyperaccumulating plants in metal-contaminated soils amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Rees, Frédéric; Sterckeman, Thibault; Morel, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may be used as an amendment in contaminated soils in phytoremediation processes. The mechanisms controlling plant metal uptake in biochar-amended soils remain however unclear. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of biochar on root development and its consequence on plant metal uptake, for two non-hyperaccumulating plants (Zea mays and Lolium perenne) and one hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn (Noccaea caerulescens). We conducted rhizobox experiments using one acidic and one alkaline soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn. Biochar was present either homogeneously in the whole soil profile or localized in specific zones. A phenomenon of root proliferation specific to biochar-amended zones was seen on the heterogeneous profiles of the acidic soil and interpreted by a decrease of soil phytotoxicity in these zones. Biochar amendments also favored root growth in the alkaline soil as a result of the lower availability of certain nutrients in the amended soil. This increase of root surface led to a higher accumulation of metals in roots of Z.mays in the acidic soil and in shoots of N. caerulescens in the alkaline soil. In conclusion, biochar can have antagonist effects on plant metal uptake by decreasing metal availability, on one hand, and by increasing root surface and inducing root proliferation, on the other hand. PMID:25912633

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase Deficiency Promotes Adipose Tissue Growth and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Male Mice on High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Stout, Michael B; Jensen, Michael D; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Despite numerous reports of relationships between weight gain and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), this enzyme's role in the genesis of obesity remains unclear, but recent research points to strong links with ghrelin, the "hunger hormone." The availability of BChE knockout (KO) mice provides an opportunity to clarify the causal relationship between BChE and obesity onset. We now find that young KO mice have abnormally high plasma ghrelin levels that slowly decline during long-term high-fat feeding and ultimately drop below those in wild-type mice. On such a diet, the KO mice gained notably more weight, more white fat, and more hepatic fat than wild-type animals. In addition to a greater burden of hepatic triglycerides, the livers of these KO mice show distinctly higher levels of inflammatory markers. Finally, their energy expenditure proved to be lower than in wild-type mice despite similar activity levels and increased caloric intake. A gene transfer of mouse BChE with adeno-associated virus vector restored nearly all aspects of the normal phenotype. Our results indicate that BChE strongly affects fat metabolism, has an important impact on fat accumulation, and may be a promising tool for combating obesity. PMID:27300766

  19. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  20. High nitrate to phosphorus ratio attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on net population carbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, S. A.; Eggers, S. L.; Matthiessen, B.

    2011-07-01

    The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and the consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton which potentially translates into altered carbon export. To date it remains unclear first, how nutrient ratio, in particular from coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation. Second, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into a net population response. In this study cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P ratios (Redfield and high N:P) and three different pCO2 levels. Effects on net population particulate inorganic and organic carbon (PIC, POC) were measured after E. huxleyi cultures reached stationary phase. Thereby cell sizes and total cell abundance were taken into account. Corresponding to literature results show a significant negative cellular PIC and POC response which, however, was strongest under high N:P ratio. In contrast, net population PIC and POC accumulation was significantly attenuated under high N:P ratio. We suggest that less cellular nutrient accumulation allowed for higher cell abundances which compensated for the strong negative cellular PIC and POC response to pCO2 on the population level. Moreover, the design of this study also allowed following natural alteration of carbon chemistry through changing DIC and alkalinity. Our results suggest that at high initial pCO2 natural alteration of pCO2 during the experimental runtime was regulated by algal biomass. In contrast, at low initial pCO2 the PIC/POC ratio was responsible for changes in pCO2. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular) PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore recommended to consider effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and translate these to net population carbon

  1. Slow accumulation of mutations in Xpc−/− mice upon induction of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Zwart, Edwin; Robinson, Joke; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; van Oostrom, Conny T.M.; Luijten, Mirjam; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    XPC is one of the key DNA damage recognition proteins in the global genome repair route of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Previously, we demonstrated that NER-deficient mouse models Xpa−/− and Xpc−/− exhibit a divergent spontaneous tumor spectrum and proposed that XPC might be functionally involved in the defense against oxidative DNA damage. Others have mechanistically dissected several functionalities of XPC to oxidative DNA damage sensitivity using in vitro studies. XPC has been linked to regulation of base excision repair (BER) activity, redox homeostasis and recruitment of ATM and ATR to damage sites, thereby possibly regulating cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. XPC has additionally been implicated in recognition of bulky (e.g. cyclopurines) and non-bulky DNA damage (8-oxodG). However, the ultimate contribution of the XPC functionality in vivo in the oxidative DNA damage response and subsequent mutagenesis process remains unclear. Our study indicates that Xpc−/− mice, in contrary to Xpa−/− and wild type mice, have an increased mutational load upon induction of oxidative stress and that mutations arise in a slowly accumulative fashion. The effect of non-functional XPC in vivo upon oxidative stress exposure appears to have implications in mutagenesis, which can contribute to the carcinogenesis process. The levels and rate of mutagenesis upon oxidative stress correlate with previous findings that lung tumors in Xpc−/− mice overall arise late in the lifespan and that the incidence of internal tumors in XP-C patients is relatively low in comparison to skin cancer incidence. PMID:24084170

  2. Double-Edge Sword of Sustained ROCK Activation in Prion Diseases through Neuritogenesis Defects and Prion Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Alleaume-Butaux, Aurélie; Nicot, Simon; Pietri, Mathéa; Baudry, Anne; Dakowski, Caroline; Tixador, Philippe; Ardila-Osorio, Hector; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Launay, Jean-Marie; Kellermann, Odile; Schneider, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    In prion diseases, synapse dysfunction, axon retraction and loss of neuronal polarity precede neuronal death. The mechanisms driving such polarization defects, however, remain unclear. Here, we examined the contribution of RhoA-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), key players in neuritogenesis, to prion diseases. We found that overactivation of ROCK signaling occurred in neuronal stem cells infected by pathogenic prions (PrPSc) and impaired the sprouting of neurites. In reconstructed networks of mature neurons, PrPSc-induced ROCK overactivation provoked synapse disconnection and dendrite/axon degeneration. This overactivation of ROCK also disturbed overall neurotransmitter-associated functions. Importantly, we demonstrated that beyond its impact on neuronal polarity ROCK overactivity favored the production of PrPSc through a ROCK-dependent control of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) activity. In non-infectious conditions, ROCK and PDK1 associated within a complex and ROCK phosphorylated PDK1, conferring basal activity to PDK1. In prion-infected neurons, exacerbated ROCK activity increased the pool of PDK1 molecules physically interacting with and phosphorylated by ROCK. ROCK-induced PDK1 overstimulation then canceled the neuroprotective α-cleavage of normal cellular prion protein PrPC by TACE α-secretase, which physiologically precludes PrPSc production. In prion-infected cells, inhibition of ROCK rescued neurite sprouting, preserved neuronal architecture, restored neuronal functions and reduced the amount of PrPSc. In mice challenged with prions, inhibition of ROCK also lowered brain PrPSc accumulation, reduced motor impairment and extended survival. We conclude that ROCK overactivation exerts a double detrimental effect in prion diseases by altering neuronal polarity and triggering PrPSc accumulation. Eventually ROCK emerges as therapeutic target to combat prion diseases. PMID:26241960

  3. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  4. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  5. A New Dynamic Accumulator for Batch Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peishun; Wang, Huaxiong; Pieprzyk, Josef

    A dynamic accumulator is an algorithm, which gathers together a large set of elements into a constant-size value such that for a given element accumulated, there is a witness confirming that the element was indeed included into the value, with a property that accumulated elements can be dynamically added and deleted into/from the original set such that the cost of an addition or deletion operation is independent of the number of accumulated elements. Although the first accumulator was presented ten years ago, there is still no standard formal definition of accumulators. In this paper, we generalize formal definitions for accumulators, formulate a security game for dynamic accumulators so-called Chosen Element Attack (CEA), and propose a new dynamic accumulator for batch updates based on the Paillier cryptosystem. Our construction makes a batch of update operations at unit cost. We prove its security under the extended strong RSA (es-RSA) assumption.

  6. Minorities Remain Underrepresented in HIV/AIDS Research Despite Access to Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R.; Cohn, Susan E.; Krishnan, Supriya; Cespedes, Michelle; Floris-Moore, Michelle; Schulte, Gail; Pavlov, Gregory; Mildvan, Donna; Smith, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background The reasons for minority underrepresentation in HIV/AIDS clinical trials remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge, experience and factors that influence minority participation in HIV/AIDS studies in the US. Methods An anonymous, bilingual, self-administered survey on study participation was given to HIV-infected adults attending AIDS Clinical Trials Group-affiliated clinics in the US and Puerto Rico. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate differences by race/first language/level of education. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for factors associated with being talked to about participation in a study. Results We analyzed 2,175 complete surveys (221 in Spanish). Among respondents, 31% were White, 40% black/African American (AA) and 21% Hispanic. The overall rate of previous participation in any HIV/AIDS study was 48%. Hispanics were less likely to know about studies compared to whites and AAs (67% vs. 74% and 76%; p<0.001). Compared to whites, AAs and Hispanics were less likely to have been talked to about participating in a study (76% vs. 67% and 67%; p<0.001). The OR for being talked to about participating in a study was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.52–0.81) for AAs and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.49–0.85) for Hispanics, compared to whites. AAs and Hispanics were more likely to state that studies were not friendly to their race (17% and 10% vs. 4%; p<0.001). Conclusions Minorities continue to face barriers for HIV/AIDS trial participation, even when clinical research is available. Enrollment strategies should better target minorities to improve recruitment in HIV/AIDS research. PMID:24518211

  7. DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

    2007-12-01

    In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the

  8. Midbody accumulation through evasion of autophagy contributes to cellular reprogramming and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tse-Chun; Chen, Chun-Ting; Baron, Desiree; Onder, Tamer T.; Loewer, Sabine; Almeida, Sandra; Weismann, Cara; Xu, Ping; Houghton, Jean-Marie; Gao, Fen-Biao; Daley, George Q.; Doxsey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The midbody (MB) is a singular organelle formed between daughter cells during cytokinesis and required for their final separation. MBs persist in cells long after division as midbody derivatives (MBds), but their fate is unclear. Here we show that MBds are inherited asymmetrically by the daughter cell with the older centrosome. They selectively accumulate in stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and potential cancer ‘stem cells’ (CSCs) in vivo and in vitro. MBd loss accompanies stem cell differentiation, and involves autophagic degradation mediated by binding of the autophagic receptor, NBR1, to the MB protein Cep55. Differentiating cells and normal dividing cells do not accumulate MBds and possess high autophagic activity. Stem cells and cancer cells accumulate MBds by evading autophagosome encapsulation and exhibit low autophagic activity. MBd enrichment enhances reprogramming to iPSCs and increases in vitro tumorigenicity of cancer cells. These results suggest unexpected roles for MBds in stem cells and CSCs. PMID:21909099

  9. Racial Differences in Patterns of Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittleman, Maury; Wolff, Edward N.

    2004-01-01

    The race differences in patterns of asset accumulations were examined using PSD data for 1984, 1989 and 1994. The results indicate that inheritances led to wealth accumulations among whites as compared to the African Americans.

  10. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  11. Mitochondrial mutations contribute to HIF1α accumulation via increased reactive oxygen species and upregulated PDK2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Zhou, Shaoyu; Chang, Steven S.; McFate, Thomas; Verma, Ajay; Califano, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondrial mutations have been identified in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the pathways by which phenotypic effects of these mutations are exerted remain unclear. Previously, we found that mitochondrial ND2 mutations in primary HNSCC increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and conferred an aerobic, glycolytic phenotype with HIF1α accumulation and increased cell growth. The purpose of present study was to examine the pathways relating these alterations. Experimental Design Mitochondrial mutant and wild-type ND2 constructs were transfected into oral keratinocyte immortal cell line OKF6 and head and neck cancer cell line JHU-O19 and established transfectants. The protein levels of HIF1α, pyruvate dehydrogenease (PDH), phospho-PDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenease kinase (PDK) 2, together with ROS generation, were compared between the mutant and wild type. Meanwhile, the effects of small molecule inhibitors targeting PDK2, and mitochondrial targeted catalase, were evaluated on the ND2 mutant transfectants. Results We determined that ND2 mutant downregulated PDH expression via upregulated PDK2, with an increase in phospho-PDH. Inhibition of PDK2 with dichloroacetate decreased HIF1α accumulation and reduced cell growth. Extracellular treatment with hydrogen peroxide, a ROS mimic, increased PDK2 expression and HIF1α expression, and introduction of mitochondrial targeted catalase decreased mitochondrial mutation mediated PDK2 and HIF1α expression and suppressed cell growth. Conclusions Our findings suggest that mitochondrial ND2 mutation contributes to HIF1α accumulation via increased ROS production, upregulation of PDK2, attenuating PDH activity, thereby increasing pyruvate, resulting in HIF1α stabilization. This may provide insight into a potential mechanism by which mitochondrial mutations contribute to HNSCC development. PMID:19147752

  12. LRRK2 Promotes Tau Accumulation, Aggregation and Release.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Patrícia Silva; Gerhardt, Ellen; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Bähr, Mathias; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Eckermann, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are known as the most frequent cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), but are also present in sporadic cases. The G2019S-LRRK2 mutation is located in the kinase domain of the protein, and has consistently been reported to promote a gain of kinase function. Several proteins have been reported as LRRK2 substrates and/or interactors, suggesting possible pathways involved in neurodegeneration in PD. Hyperphosphorylated Tau protein accumulates in neurofibrillary tangles, a typical pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. In addition, it is also frequently found in the brains of PD patients. Although LRRK2 is a kinase, it appears that a putative interaction with Tau is phosphorylation-independent. However, the underlying mechanisms and the cellular consequences of this interaction are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate an interaction between LRRK2 and Tau and that LRRK2 promotes the accumulation of non-monomeric and high-molecular weight (HMW) Tau species independent of its kinase activity. Interestingly, we found that LRRK2 increases Tau secretion, possibly as a consequence of an impairment of Tau proteasomal degradation. Our data highlight a mechanism through which LRRK2 regulates intracellular Tau levels, contributing to the progression of the pathology caused by the LRRK2-mediated proteasome impairment. In total, our findings suggest that the interplay between LRRK2 and proteasome activity might constitute a valid target for therapeutic intervention in PD. PMID:26014385

  13. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  14. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulators. 58.30-25 Section 58.30-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is...

  15. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  16. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiessen, B.; Eggers, S. L.; Krug, S. A.

    2012-03-01

    The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular) PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of coccolithophores on

  17. An Application of USLE and SEDD Models to Estimate the Remaining Service Life of Kartalkaya Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyas, H.

    2013-12-01

    The water requirement of today's world is such a hot topic that countries all over the world are severely searching for different alternatives to keep pace with increasing water demand. However, when the increasing population and water demand are considered, management of existing water resources is arguably more important than searching for additional resources. The construction and utilization of engineering structures (e.g., dams) is often used in water resource management, however their service life are often not considered or properly planned in advance. As a consequence, because of these unplanned applications, the maximum potential water supply cannot be reached in watersheds, in other words, water sources are wasted. This research demonstrates that it is possible to forecast the service life of a dam more properly and also identifies some precautions regarding the potential sources that might cause the shortened service life. Kartalkaya Dam located in Turkey has been operating since 1972, was constructed with the aims of irrigation and flood prevention and is near the end of its service life. At this point, the first objective of this study was conducted, which determines the remaining service life of the dam with reference to the amount of material transported through the corresponding catchment area and the amount accumulated in the reservoir. This was accomplished using the Universal Soil Loss Equation simulated in ArcGIS. The amount of eroded material per year for each 25x25 m cell of study area was determined and as a consequence, the areas which are more prone to be eroded were defined. The ongoing second stage of the study, applies the sediment delivery distributed (SEDD) model and calculates the amount of material deposited during the operation period of the dam and is used to forecast the remaining service life of the Kartalkaya Dam.

  18. Aluminium Accumulation in Leaves of 127 Species in Melastomataceae, with Comments on the Order Myrtales

    PubMed Central

    JANSEN, STEVEN; WATANABE, TOSHIHIRO; SMETS, ERIK

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and systematic significance of aluminium accumulation is surveyed based on semi‐quantitative tests of 166 species, representing all tribes and subfamilies of the Melastomataceae as well as a few members of related families within the Myrtales. The character is strongly present in nearly all members of the Memecylaceae and in most primitive taxa of the Melastomataceae, while non‐accumulating taxa are widespread in the more derived tribes of the Melastomataceae. The variable distribution of Al accumulation in advanced clades of the latter family is probably associated with the tendency to herbaceousness, although it is unclear whether the more herbaceous representatives have developed more specialized Al‐response mechanisms that may exclude high Al levels from the shoot. It is hypothesized that Al accumulation is symplesiomorphic for Melastomataceae and Memecylaceae, and that the feature characterizes the most primitive families in the Myrtales. Indeed, Al accumulation is also characteristic of Crypteroniaceae, Rhynchocalycaceae and Vochysiaceae. Crypteroniaceae and Rhynchocalycaceae probably take a basal position in a sister clade of the Memecylaceae and Melastomataceae, while Al accumulation suggests a basal position for Vochysiaceae in the Myrtaceae clade. PMID:12125773

  19. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  20. Surface roughness scattering in multisubband accumulation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation layers with very large concentrations of electrons where many subbands are filled became recently available due to ionic liquid and other new methods of gating. The low-temperature mobility in such layers is limited by the surface roughness scattering. However, theories of roughness scattering so far dealt only with the small-density single subband two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we develop a theory of roughness-scattering limited mobility for the multisubband large concentration case. We show that with growing 2D electron concentration n the surface dimensionless conductivity σ /(2 e2/h ) first decreases as ∝n-6 /5 and then saturates as ˜(d aB/Δ2)≫1 , where d and Δ are the characteristic length and height of the surface roughness and aB is the effective Bohr radius. This means that in spite of the shrinkage of the 2DEG thickness and the related increase of the scattering rate the 2DEG remains a good metal.

  1. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  2. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-06-28

    Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  3. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  4. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently. PMID:9300340

  5. Identification of quantitative trait loci for cadmium accumulation and distribution in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Feng; Lestari, Puji; Lee, Kyu-Jong; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Byun-Woo

    2013-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) poses a serious risk to human health due to its biological concentration through the food chain. To date, information on genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation and distribution in rice remains to be elucidated. We developed an independent F7 RIL population derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars with contrasting Cd levels, 'Suwon490' and 'SNU-SG1', for QTLs identification of Cd accumulation and distribution. 'Suwon490' accumulated five times higher Cd in grain than 'SNU-SG1'. Large genotypic variations in Cd accumulation (17-fold) and concentration (12-fold) in grain were found among RILs. Significant positive correlations between Cd accumulation in grain with shoot Cd accumulation and shoot to grain distribution ratio of Cd signify that both shoot Cd accumulation and shoot to grain Cd distribution regulate Cd accumulation in japonica rice grain. A total of five main effect QTLs (scc10 for shoot Cd accumulation; gcc3, gcc9, gcc11 for grain Cd accumulation; and sgr5 for shoot to grain distribution ratio) were detected in chromosomes 10, 3, 9, 11, and 5, respectively. Of these, the novel potential QTL sgr5 has the strongest effect on shoot to grain Cd distribution. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction QTLs were identified, suggesting the substantial contribution of nonallelic genes in genetic control of these Cd-related traits. PMID:23706075

  6. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  7. Comparative morphology and paleobiology of Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Bau de l'Aubesier, Vaucluse, France

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Serge; Trinkaus, Erik; Faure, Martine; Fernandez, Philippe; Guérin, Claude; Richter, Daniel; Mercier, Norbert; Valladas, Helène; Wagner, Günther A.

    2001-01-01

    The discovery of later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Bau de l'Aubesier, France reinforces an evolutionary model of the gradual accumulation of Neandertal-derived facial and dental features during the Middle Pleistocene of the northwestern Old World. The pronounced maxillary incisor beveling of Aubesier 4 helps to extend the antiquity of nondietary use of the anterior dentition. The interproximal “toothpick” groove on the Aubesier 10 molar increases the sample for these lesions. The pathological loss of the mandibular dentition of Aubesier 11 indicates advanced antemortem masticatory impairment, at a level previously undocumented before the Late Pleistocene. These remains support a view of later Middle Pleistocene humans able to support debilitated individuals despite the considerable use of their bodies to accomplish routine activities. PMID:11553766

  8. Faith community/parish nurse literature: exciting interventions, unclear outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dandridge, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Faith community/parish nurses provide a variety of services thought to yield positive health outcomes. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify interventions most commonly used by parish nurses in the United States and determine the value of the parish nurse in health promotion and disease prevention. A review of 22 articles published 2008 to 2013 revealed that parish nurses are providing a wealth of interventions to diverse populations but are not successfully evaluating outcomes. PMID:24693612

  9. The (Un)Clear Effects of Invalid Retro-Cues

    PubMed Central

    Gressmann, Marcel; Janczyk, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Studies with the retro-cue paradigm have shown that validly cueing objects in visual working memory long after encoding can still benefit performance on subsequent change detection tasks. With regard to the effects of invalid cues, the literature is less clear. Some studies reported costs, others did not. We here revisit two recent studies that made interesting suggestions concerning invalid retro-cues: One study suggested that costs only occur for larger set sizes, and another study suggested that inclusion of invalid retro-cues diminishes the retro-cue benefit. New data from one experiment and a reanalysis of published data are provided to address these conclusions. The new data clearly show costs (and benefits) that were independent of set size, and the reanalysis suggests no influence of the inclusion of invalid retro-cues on the retro-cue benefit. Thus, previous interpretations may be taken with some caution at present. PMID:27065894

  10. Construct Maps: Do They Make the Unclear Clear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Becker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In his article "Construct Maps for Standard Setting," Adam E. Wyse provides a detailed review on the current use of construct maps in standard setting, including how they may be operationalized within a variety of standard-setting methods. The premise of the argument is that construct maps can serve as a useful tool for conducting a…

  11. Giant scrotal lymphedema of unclear etiology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Scrotal lymphedema is common in the tropics and subtropics. The giant variants can cause a lot of physical disability and psychological disturbances. Case presentation We present a 25-year-old Nigerian male with giant scrotal lymphedema with severe debilitating symptoms, immobility and emotional disturbance. He benefited from a modified Charles' procedure and reconstruction of the penile shaft using a split-thickness skin graft. Conclusion Giant scrotal lymphedema related to poverty, ignorance and neglect, is amenable to surgery. Surgery provides a cosmetically acceptable and functionally satisfying outcome. PMID:19830170

  12. (89)Zr, a radiometal nuclide with high potential for molecular imaging with PET: chemistry, applications and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gabriel; Seibold, Uwe; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Björn; Wängler, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging-and especially Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-is of increasing importance for the diagnosis of various diseases and thus is experiencing increasing dissemination. Consequently, there is a growing demand for appropriate PET tracers which allow for a specific accumulation in the target structure as well as its visualization and exhibit decay characteristics matching their in vivo pharmacokinetics. To meet this demand, the development of new targeting vectors as well as the use of uncommon radionuclides becomes increasingly important. Uncommon nuclides in this regard enable the utilization of various selectively accumulating bioactive molecules such as peptides, antibodies, their fragments, other proteins and artificial structures for PET imaging in personalized medicine. Among these radionuclides, 89Zr (t1/2 = 3.27 days and mean Eβ+ = 0.389 MeV) has attracted increasing attention within the last years due to its favorably long half-life, which enables imaging at late time-points, being especially favorable in case of slowly-accumulating targeting vectors. This review outlines the recent developments in the field of 89Zr-labeled bioactive molecules, their potential and application in PET imaging and beyond, as well as remaining challenges. PMID:23736785

  13. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP) deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.296 ~ 35.817, P = 0.023). In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P = 0.007). Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P = 0.023). Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that preS2 deletions alone

  14. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  15. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.; Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infanual (Mercenaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different from the accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.

  16. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.; Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infaunal (Mercemaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different. The accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.

  17. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  18. Genetic relatedness influences plant biomass accumulation in eelgrass (Zostera marina).

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, John J; Kamel, Stephanie J; Hughes, A Randall; Grosberg, Richard K

    2013-05-01

    In multispecies assemblages, phylogenetic relatedness often predicts total community biomass. In assemblages dominated by a single species, increasing the number of genotypes increases total production, but the role of genetic relatedness is unknown. We used data from three published experiments and a field survey of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a habitat-forming marine angiosperm, to examine the strength and direction of the relationship between genetic relatedness and plant biomass. The genetic relatedness of an assemblage strongly predicted its biomass, more so than the number of genotypes. However, contrary to the pattern observed in multispecies assemblages, maximum biomass occurred in assemblages of more closely related individuals. The mechanisms underlying this pattern remain unclear; however, our data support a role for both trait differentiation and cooperation among kin. Many habitat-forming species interact intensely with conspecifics of varying relatedness; thus, genetic relatedness could influence the functioning of ecosystems dominated by such species. PMID:23594554

  19. Autophagy regulates hyperoxia-induced intracellular accumulation of surfactant protein C in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Wu, Hong-Min; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Shi-Meng; Luo, Gang; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency is a risk factor for hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. However, the role of SP-C deficiency in the process is unclear. Here, using neonatal rat BPD model and MLE-12, mouse alveolar epithelial type II cell, we examined the changes of SP-C levels during hyperoxia. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA analysis showed SP-C accumulation in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Electron microscopy further demonstrated the accumulation of lamellar bodies and the co-localization of lamellar bodies with autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial type II cells. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine and knockdown of Atg7 abolished hyperoxia-induced SP-C accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK signaling with SP600125 suppressed hyperoxia-induced Atg7 expression and SP-C accumulation. These findings suggest that hyperoxia triggers autophagy via JNK signaling-mediated Atg7 expression, which promotes the accumulation of SP-C within alveolar epithelial type II cells. Our data provide a potential approach for hyperoxic lung injury therapy by targeted pharmacological inhibition of autophagic pathway. PMID:26122393

  20. Perennial Lakeshores as an Exploration Target for Microbial Remains on Mars Based on Earth Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Exploring for evidence of present or past life is a key part of the NASA Mars program. Satellite data show the existence on the Martian surface of several types of potentially habitable settings for past microbial life if it existed, including remnants of former environments still in morphologic context. Of these environments, lakeshores are a prime target for future rover missions because they manifest a past critical interface between atmosphere, sunlit water, and a solid substrate. Case studies were made of possible analog remnants from now desiccated late Pleistocene perennial lakes of the western Basin and Range province, USA, to better understand microbial remains in this setting. These case studies show that the best preserved and most concentrated records of fossil microbial life developed in the upper photic zone of former shorezones where: 1) coeval clastic sedimentation was low; 2) a solid substrate such as coarse clasts or bedrock was present for colonization; 3) lake level was relatively stable for at least a few thousand years; and 4) chemical conditions promoted some mineral precipitation, such as of calcite. Although not a prerequisite, microbial accumulations also are common in the studied Pleistocene lakes where effluent from piedmont groundwater mixed with chemically different lake water either diffusely in the beachface or at springs in the shoreface. Martian river deltas with discernible multi-sequence deposits are a good indicator of past stable levels in associated lakes because such deltaic intervals record a sustained history. An example is the Eberswalde delta. River discharge delivered sediment to build the deltas and concurrently added water to maintain the lakes. A distinction between river deltas and alluvial fans or fan deltas is necessary to identify these targets, and this can easily be achieved using Earth case studies. An appreciation that river deltas are not reclassified as alluvial fans simply because they were abandoned also

  1. Escape from water or remain quiescent? Lotus tenuis changes its strategy depending on depth of submergence

    PubMed Central

    Manzur, M. E.; Grimoldi, A. A.; Insausti, P.; Striker, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Two main strategies that allow plants to cope with soil waterlogging or deeper submergence are: (1) escaping by means of upward shoot elongation or (2) remaining quiescent underwater. This study investigates these strategies in Lotus tenuis, a forage legume of increasing importance in areas prone to soil waterlogging, shallow submergence or complete submergence. Methods Plants of L. tenuis were subjected for 30 d to well-drained (control), waterlogged (water-saturated soil), partially submerged (6 cm water depth) and completely submerged conditions. Plant responses assessed were tissue porosity, shoot number and length, biomass and utilization of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and starch in the crown. Key Results Lotus tenuis adjusted its strategy depending on the depth of submergence. Root growth of partially submerged plants ceased and carbon allocation prioritized shoot lengthening (32 cm vs. 24·5 cm under other treatments), without depleting carbohydrate reserves to sustain the faster growth. These plants also developed more shoot and root porosity. In contrast, completely submerged plants became quiescent, with no associated biomass accumulation, new shoot production or shoot elongation. In addition, tissue porosity was not enhanced. The survival of completely submerged plants is attributed to consumption of WSCs and starch reserves from crowns (concentrations 50–75 % less than in other treatments). Conclusions The forage legume L. tenuis has the flexibility either to escape from partial submergence by elongating its shoot more vigorously to avoid becoming totally submerged or to adopt a non-elongating quiescent strategy when completely immersed that is based on utilizing stored reserves. The possession of these alternative survival strategies helps to explain the success of L. tenuis in environments subjected to unpredictable flooding depths. PMID:19687031

  2. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  3. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    PubMed Central

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  4. Transient Expression of WNT2 Promotes Somatic Cell Reprogramming by Inducing β-Catenin Nuclear Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mizuki; Nakajima-Koyama, May; Lee, Joonseong; Nishida, Eisuke

    2016-06-14

    Treatment with several Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulators can change the cellular reprogramming efficiency; however, the dynamics and role of endogenous Wnt/β-catenin signaling in reprogramming remain largely unanswered. Here we identify the upregulation of WNT2 and subsequent β-catenin nuclear accumulation as key events in reprogramming. Transient nuclear accumulation of β-catenin occurs early in MEF reprogramming. Wnt2 is strongly expressed in the early stage of reprogramming. Wnt2 knockdown suppresses the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and reduces the reprogramming efficiency. WNT2 overexpression promotes β-catenin nuclear accumulation and enhances the reprogramming efficiency. WNT2 contributes to the promotion of cell proliferation. Experiments with several drugs that control the Wnt pathway also indicate the importance of β-catenin nuclear accumulation in reprogramming. Our findings reveal the role of WNT2/β-catenin signaling in reprogramming. PMID:27211212

  5. α-Synuclein pathology accumulates in sacral spinal visceral sensory pathways.

    PubMed

    VanderHorst, Veronique G; Samardzic, Tamara; Saper, Clifford B; Anderson, Matthew P; Nag, Sukriti; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-07-01

    Urinary urgency and frequency are common in α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. These symptoms cannot be managed with dopamine therapy, and their underlying pathophysiology is unclear. We show that in individuals with Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, or multiple system atrophy, α-synuclein pathology accumulates in the lateral collateral pathway, a region of the sacral spinal dorsal horn important for the relay of pelvic visceral afferents. Deposition of α-synuclein in this region may contribute to impaired micturition and/or constipation in Parkinson disease and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:25893830

  6. Neuropathologic basis of white matter hyperintensity accumulation with advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Woltjer, Randall; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Green, Sarah; Tran, Huong; Howieson, Diane B.; Wild, Katherine; Silbert, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine which vascular pathology measure most strongly correlates with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) accumulation over time, and whether Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology correlates with WMH accumulation. Methods: Sixty-six older persons longitudinally followed as part of an aging study were included for having an autopsy and >1 MRI scan, with last MRI scan within 36 months of death. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the associations between longitudinal WMH accumulation and the following neuropathologic measures: myelin pallor, arteriolosclerosis, microvascular disease, microinfarcts, lacunar infarcts, large-vessel infarcts, atherosclerosis, neurofibrillary tangle rating, and neuritic plaque score. Each measure was included one at a time in the model, adjusted for duration of follow-up and age at death. A final model included measures showing an association with p < 0.1. Results: Mean age at death was 94.5 years (5.5 SD). In the final mixed-effects models, arteriolosclerosis, myelin pallor, and Braak score remained significantly associated with increased WMH accumulation over time. In post hoc analysis, we found that those with Braak score 5 or 6 were more likely to also have high atherosclerosis present compared with those with Braak score 1 or 2 (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Accumulating white matter changes in advanced age are likely driven by small-vessel ischemic disease. Additionally, these results suggest a link between AD pathology and white matter integrity disruption. This may be due to wallerian degeneration secondary to neurodegenerative changes. Alternatively, a shared mechanism, for example ischemia, may lead to both vascular brain injury and neurodegenerative changes of AD. The observed correlation between atherosclerosis and AD pathology supports the latter. PMID:23935177

  7. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  8. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accumulation time. 262.34 Section 262.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d),...

  9. Salt Stress Reduces Root Meristem Size by Nitric Oxide-Mediated Modulation of Auxin Accumulation and Signaling in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Li, Rong-Jun; Han, Tong-Tong; Cai, Wei; Fu, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The development of the plant root system is highly plastic, which allows the plant to adapt to various environmental stresses. Salt stress inhibits root elongation by reducing the size of the root meristem. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, we explored whether and how auxin and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in salt-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using physiological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches. We found that salt stress significantly reduced root meristem size by down-regulating the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) genes, thereby reducing auxin levels. In addition, salt stress promoted AUXIN RESISTANT3 (AXR3)/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17 (IAA17) stabilization, which repressed auxin signaling during this process. Furthermore, salt stress stimulated NO accumulation, whereas blocking NO production with the inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methylester compromised the salt-mediated reduction of root meristem size, PIN down-regulation, and stabilization of AXR3/IAA17, indicating that NO is involved in salt-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth. Taken together, these findings suggest that salt stress inhibits root meristem growth by repressing PIN expression (thereby reducing auxin levels) and stabilizing IAA17 (thereby repressing auxin signaling) via increasing NO levels. PMID:25818700

  10. Activation of GPR55 Receptors Exacerbates oxLDL-Induced Lipid Accumulation and Inflammatory Responses, while Reducing Cholesterol Efflux from Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lanuti, Mirko; Talamonti, Emanuela; Maccarrone, Mauro; Chiurchiù, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been proposed as a new cannabinoid receptor associated with bone remodelling, nervous system excitability, vascular homeostasis as well as in several pathophysiological conditions including obesity and cancer. However, its physiological role and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In the present work, we demonstrate for the first time its presence in human macrophages and its increased expression in ox-LDL-induced foam cells. In addition, pharmacological activation of GPR55 by its selective agonist O-1602 increased CD36- and SRB-I-mediated lipid accumulation and blocked cholesterol efflux by downregulating ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, as well as enhanced cytokine- and pro-metalloprotease-9 (pro-MMP-9)-induced proinflammatory responses in foam cells. Treatment with cannabidiol, a selective antagonist of GPR55, counteracted these pro-atherogenic and proinflammatory O-1602-mediated effects. Our data suggest that GPR55 could play deleterious role in ox-LDL-induced foam cells and could be a novel pharmacological target to manage atherosclerosis and other related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25970609

  11. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  12. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yuanfeng; Zhu, Liying; Guo, Jinjie; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2015-01-01

    Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP), is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize. PMID:26317616

  13. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yuanfeng; Zhu, Liying; Guo, Jinjie; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2015-01-01

    Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP), is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize. PMID:26317616

  14. A Novel DNA-Binding Protein, PhaR, Plays a Central Role in the Regulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Accumulation and Granule Formation in the Haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuangfeng; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Liu, Guiming; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are synthesized and assembled as PHA granules that undergo well-regulated formation in many microorganisms. However, this regulation remains unclear in haloarchaea. In this study, we identified a PHA granule-associated regulator (PhaR) that negatively regulates the expression of both its own gene and the granule structural gene phaP in the same operon (phaRP) in Haloferax mediterranei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) assays demonstrated a significant interaction between PhaR and the phaRP promoter in vivo. Scanning mutagenesis of the phaRP promoter revealed a specific cis-element as the possible binding position of the PhaR. The haloarchaeal homologs of the PhaR contain a novel conserved domain that belongs to a swapped-hairpin barrel fold family found in AbrB-like proteins. Amino acid substitution indicated that this AbrB-like domain is critical for the repression activity of PhaR. In addition, the phaRP promoter had a weaker activity in the PHA-negative strains, implying a function of the PHA granules in titration of the PhaR. Moreover, the H. mediterranei strain lacking phaR was deficient in PHA accumulation and produced granules with irregular shapes. Interestingly, the PhaR itself can promote PHA synthesis and granule formation in a PhaP-independent manner. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the haloarchaeal PhaR is a novel bifunctional protein that plays the central role in the regulation of PHA accumulation and granule formation in H. mediterranei. PMID:25344243

  15. Transient proliferation of proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells on the epidermal apex contributes to highly aluminum-resistant root elongation in camphor tree.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  16. Congenital Cataract-Causing Mutation G129C in γC-Crystallin Promotes the Accumulation of Two Distinct Unfolding Intermediates That Form Highly Toxic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yi-Bo; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Zhao, Wei-Jie; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2015-08-28

    Cataract is a lens opacification disease prevalent worldwide. Cataract-causing mutations in crystallins generally lead to the formation of light-scattering particles in the lens. However, it remains unclear for the detailed structural and pathological mechanisms of most mutations. In this study, we showed that the G129C mutation in γC-crystallin, which is associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract, perturbed the unfolding process by promoting the accumulation of two distinct aggregation-prone intermediates under mild denaturing conditions. The abnormally accumulated intermediates escaped from the chaperone-like function of αA-crystallin during refolding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the mutation altered domain pairing geometry and allowed the penetration of extra solvent molecules into the domain binding interface, thereby weakening domain binding energy. Under mild denaturation conditions, the increased domain movements may facilitate the formation of non-native oligomers via domain swapping, which further assembled into amyloid-like fibrils. The intermediate that appeared at 1.6M guanidine hydrochloride was more compact and less aggregatory than the one populated at 0.9 M guanidine hydrochloride, which was caused by the increased solvation of acidic residues in the ion-pairing network via the competitive binding of guanidinium ions. More importantly, both the amyloid-like fibrils preformed in vitro and intracellular aggresomes formed by exogenously overexpressed mutant proteins significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death. The combined data from spectroscopic, structural and cellular studies strongly suggest that both the formation of light-scattering aggregates and the toxic effects of the aggregates may contribute to the onset and development of cataract. PMID:26165230

  17. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  18. No Accumulation of Transposable Elements in Asexual Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Bast, Jens; Schaefer, Ina; Schwander, Tanja; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive DNA can accumulate in the absence of recombination, a process contributing to the degeneration of Y-chromosomes and other nonrecombining genome portions. A similar accumulation of repetitive DNA is expected for asexually reproducing species, given their entire genome is effectively nonrecombining. We tested this expectation by comparing the whole-genome TE loads of five asexual arthropod lineages and their sexual relatives, including asexual and sexual lineages of crustaceans (Daphnia water fleas), insects (Leptopilina wasps), and mites (Oribatida). Surprisingly, there was no evidence for increased TE load in genomes of asexual as compared to sexual lineages, neither for all classes of repetitive elements combined nor for specific TE families. Our study therefore suggests that nonrecombining genomes do not accumulate TEs like nonrecombining genomic regions of sexual lineages. Even if a slight but undetected increase of TEs were caused by asexual reproduction, it appears to be negligible compared to variance between species caused by processes unrelated to reproductive mode. It remains to be determined if molecular mechanisms underlying genome regulation in asexuals hamper TE activity. Alternatively, the differences in TE dynamics between nonrecombining genomes in asexual lineages versus nonrecombining genome portions in sexual species might stem from selection for benign TEs in asexual lineages because of the lack of genetic conflict between TEs and their hosts and/or because asexual lineages may only arise from sexual ancestors with particularly low TE loads. PMID:26560353

  19. No Accumulation of Transposable Elements in Asexual Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Jens; Schaefer, Ina; Schwander, Tanja; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive DNA can accumulate in the absence of recombination, a process contributing to the degeneration of Y-chromosomes and other nonrecombining genome portions. A similar accumulation of repetitive DNA is expected for asexually reproducing species, given their entire genome is effectively nonrecombining. We tested this expectation by comparing the whole-genome TE loads of five asexual arthropod lineages and their sexual relatives, including asexual and sexual lineages of crustaceans (Daphnia water fleas), insects (Leptopilina wasps), and mites (Oribatida). Surprisingly, there was no evidence for increased TE load in genomes of asexual as compared to sexual lineages, neither for all classes of repetitive elements combined nor for specific TE families. Our study therefore suggests that nonrecombining genomes do not accumulate TEs like nonrecombining genomic regions of sexual lineages. Even if a slight but undetected increase of TEs were caused by asexual reproduction, it appears to be negligible compared to variance between species caused by processes unrelated to reproductive mode. It remains to be determined if molecular mechanisms underlying genome regulation in asexuals hamper TE activity. Alternatively, the differences in TE dynamics between nonrecombining genomes in asexual lineages versus nonrecombining genome portions in sexual species might stem from selection for benign TEs in asexual lineages because of the lack of genetic conflict between TEs and their hosts and/or because asexual lineages may only arise from sexual ancestors with particularly low TE loads. PMID:26560353

  20. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  1. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  2. Controls over soil organic matter accumulation and turnover in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are among the most inhospitable soil environments on Earth due to extreme climate and severe substrate limitation on soil food webs. These ecosystems are a challenge to understanding controls over carbon (C) cycling since some of the major events controlling organic matter accumulation likely occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum when paleo-lakes deposited sediments over much of the presently exposed surfaces. It remains unclear to what extent dry valley soil ecosystems are fueled by legacy organic matter derived from these ancient sediments vs. rapid cycling of contemporary organic matter inputs. We report a model to evaluate controls over the soil organic C in the dry valleys. The model is based upon determinations of standing pools of soil C and is driven by rate parameters estimated from 120 d incubations conducted over a range of soil temperature and moisture. Theoretical values for parameters describing internal C transformations are used to generate predictions about the distribution of C among slow and rapidly cycling pools. Potential levels of contemporary C inputs are derived from a previously published primary production model for Antarctic cryptobiotic communities. Simulations (100 y) run under average climate conditions indicated initially high rates of C turnover with mean residence times of 20-50 y followed by equilibration of soil organic C at 25% to 80% of initial standing stocks. The model is very sensitive to temperature resulting from the high Q10 values calculated from the 120 d incubations; hence steady state soil C levels are determined largely by regional differences in climate. Sensitivity analyses indicated that steady state C levels are also very responsive to variation in simulated primary production, microbial efficiency, the distribution of C into labile and recalcitrant pools, and soil moisture. Model simulations run under recently observed climate suggest that C dynamics are

  3. THE KINETICS OF PENETRATION : VIII. TEMPORARY ACCUMULATION.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, W J; Kamerling, S E

    1934-03-20

    A model is described which throws light on the mechanism of accumulation. In the model used an external aqueous phase A is separated by a non-aqueous phase B (representing the protoplasm) from the artificial sap in C. A contains KOH and C contains HCl: they tend to mix by passing through the non-aqueous layer but much more KOH moves so that most of the KCl is formed in C, where the concentration of potassium becomes much greater than in A. This accumulation is only temporary for as the system approaches equilibrium the composition of A approaches identity with that of C, since all the substances present can pass through the non-aqueous layer. Such an approach to equilibrium may be compared to the death of the cell as the result of which accumulation disappears. During the earlier stages of the experiment potassium tends to go in as KOH and at the same time to go out as KCl. These opposing tendencies do not balance until the concentration of potassium inside becomes much greater than outside (hence potassium accumulates). The reason is that KCl, although its driving force be great, moves very slowly in B because its partition coefficient is low and in consequence its concentration gradient in B is small. This illustrates the importance of partition coefficients for penetration in models and in living cells. It also indicates that accumulation depends on the fact that permeability is greater for the ingoing compound of the accumulating substance than for the outgoing compound. Other things being equal, accumulation is increased by maintaining a low pH in C. Hence we may infer that anything which checks the production of acid in the living cell may be expected to check accumulation and growth. This model recalls the situation in Valonia and in most living cells where potassium accumulates as KCl, perhaps because it enters as KOH and forms KA in the sap (where A is an organic anion). In some plants potassium accumulates as KA but when HCl exists in the external

  4. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  5. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  6. Paleoecological and Taphonomic Implications of Insect-Damaged Pleistocene Vertebrate Remains from Rancho La Brea, Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Harris, John M.; Timm, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The La Brea Tar Pits, the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California’s past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17–20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone. PMID:23843988

  7. Metabolic Memory Phenomenon and Accumulation of Peroxynitrite in Retinal Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Kowluru, Renu A.; Kanwar, Mamta; Kennedy, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Aim. Diabetic retinopathy resists reversal after good glycemic control (GC) is reinitiated, and preexisting damage at the time of intervention is considered as the major factor in determining the outcome of the GC. This study is to investigate the role of peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal capillaries in the failure of retinopathy to reverse after reestablishment of GC, and to determine the effect of this reversal on the activity of the enzyme responsible for scavenging mitochondrial superoxide, MnSOD. Methods. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, 6 months of poor glycemic control (PC, glycated hemoglobin, GHb > 12.0%) was followed by 6 additional months of GC (GHb about 6%). The trypsin-digested retinal microvessels were prepared for immunostaining of nitrotyrosine (a measure of peroxynitrite) and for counting the number of acellular capillaries (a measure of histopathology). The retina from the other eye was used to quantify nitrotyrosine concentration, MnSOD activity and the total antioxidant capacity. Results. Reversal of hyperglycemia after 6 months of PC had no significant effect on nitrotyrosine concentration in the retina, on the nitrotyrosine-positive retinal capillary cells and on the number of acellular capillaries; the values were similar in PC-GC and PC groups. In the same rats retinal MnSOD activity remained inhibited and the total antioxidant capacity was subnormal 6 months after cessation of PC. Conclusions. Peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal microvasculature, the site of histopathology, fails to normalize after reversal of hyperglycemia, and superoxide remains inadequately scavenged. This failure of reversal of peroxynitrite accumulation could be, in part, responsible for the resistance of diabetic retinopathy to reverse after termination of PC. PMID:17641740

  8. Intracellular accumulation of azithromycin by cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, R P; Snider, M E

    1990-01-01

    Azithromycin was shown to achieve high concentrations in human skin fibroblasts. Intracellular penetration occurred rapidly (10 micrograms/mg of cellular protein after 3 h) and then increased progressively over a 3-day period; azithromycin accumulated up to 21 times more than erythromycin (61.1 versus 2.9 micrograms/mg of protein). Uptake was dependent on the extracellular concentration, was inhibited at 4 degrees C, did not occur in nonviable cells, and was reduced by a low pH. Intracellular accumulation was not affected by the metabolic inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol or sodium fluoride or by the nucleoside transport inhibitor 2-chloradenosine. Once concentrated in cells, azithromycin remained intracellular and was released slowly in the absence of extracellular drug, compared with erythromycin (17 versus 78% released after 1 h). After 48 h of incubation in drug-free medium, 27% of the initial amount of azithromycin remained cell associated. The release of azithromycin was not affected by various monokines reported to stimulate fibroblasts (interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor) or by exposure to bacteria. Incubation of azithromycin-loaded fibroblasts with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes resulted in a higher intracellular accumulation of azithromycin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes than in cells incubated with free nonintracellular azithromycin for the same time (8.3 versus 2.2 micrograms/ml after 2 h), suggesting a more efficient or rapid uptake through cell-to-cell interaction. The widespread distribution of fibroblasts in tissues suggests a potential for these cells, and possibly other lysosome-containing tissue cells, to serve as a reservoir for azithromycin, slowly releasing it for activity against extracellular organisms at sites of infection and passing it to phagocytes for activity against intracellular pathogens and potential transport to sites of infection. PMID:2168141

  9. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl− efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl− against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl− accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl− efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl− accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl− transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl− transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl− transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl−/HCO3− exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na+–Cl− cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl− component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl− accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17656441

  10. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-09-15

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl(-) efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl(-) against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl(-) accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl(-) efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl(-) accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl(-) transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl(-) transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl(-) transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl(-) component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl(-) accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17656441

  11. Accumulation and translocation of 198Hg in four crop species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liwei; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Wang, Xinming; Meng, Bo; Wang, Xun; Wang, Heng

    2014-02-01

    The uptake and transport of mercury (Hg) through vegetation play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. However, quantitative information regarding Hg translocation in plants is poorly understood. In the present study, Hg uptake, accumulation, and translocation in 4 crops-rice (Oryza.sativa L.), wheat (Triticum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and oilseed rape (Brassica campestris L.)-grown in Hoagland solution were investigated using a stable isotope ((198)Hg) tracing technique. The distribution of (198)Hg in root, stem, and leaf after uptake was quantified, and the release of (198)Hg into the air from crop leaf was investigated. It was found that the concentration of Hg accumulated in the root, stem, and leaf of rice increased linearly with the spiked (198)Hg concentration. The uptake equilibrium constant was estimated to be 2.35 mol Hg/g dry weight in rice root per mol/L Hg remaining in the Hoagland solution. More than 94% of (198)Hg uptake was accumulated in the roots for all 4 crops examined. The translocation to stem and leaf was not significant because of the absence of Hg(2+) complexes that facilitate Hg transport in plants. The accumulated (198)Hg in stem and leaf was not released from the plant at air Hg(0) concentration ranging from 0 ng/m(3) to 10 ng/m(3). Transfer factor data analysis showed that Hg translocation from stems to leaves was more efficient than that from roots to stems. PMID:24173818

  12. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  13. Accumulation of lipophilic dications by mitochondria and cells.

    PubMed

    Ross, Meredith F; Da Ros, Tatiana; Blaikie, Frances H; Prime, Tracy A; Porteous, Carolyn M; Severina, Inna I; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

    2006-11-15

    Lipophilic monocations can pass through phospholipid bilayers and accumulate in negatively-charged compartments such as the mitochondrial matrix, driven by the membrane potential. This property is used to visualize mitochondria, to deliver therapeutic molecules to mitochondria and to measure the membrane potential. In theory, lipophilic dications have a number of advantages over monocations for these tasks, as the double charge should lead to a far greater and more selective uptake by mitochondria, increasing their therapeutic potential. However, the double charge might also limit the movement of lipophilic dications through phospholipid bilayers and little is known about their interaction with mitochondria. To see whether lipophilic dications could be taken up by mitochondria and cells, we made a series of bistriphenylphosphonium cations comprising two triphenylphosphonium moieties linked by a 2-, 4-, 5-, 6- or 10-carbon methylene bridge. The 5-, 6- and 10-carbon dications were taken up by energized mitochondria, whereas the 2- and 4-carbon dications were not. The accumulation of the dication was greater than that of the monocation methyltriphenylphosphonium. However, the uptake of dications was only described by the Nernst equation at low levels of accumulation, and beyond a threshold membrane potential of 90-100 mV there was negligible increase in dication uptake. Interestingly, the 5- and 6-carbon dications were not accumulated by cells, due to lack of permeation through the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that conjugating compounds to dications offers only a minor increase over monocations in delivery to mitochondria. Instead, this suggests that it may be possible to form dications within mitochondria that then remain within the cell. PMID:16948637

  14. Persistent vascular collagen accumulation alters hemodynamic recovery from chronic hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Diana M.; Roldan-Alzate, Alejandro; Wang, Zhijie; Hacker, Timothy A.; Molthen, Robert C.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is caused by narrowing and stiffening of the pulmonary arteries that increase pulmonary vascular impedance (PVZ). In particular, small arteries narrow and large arteries stiffen. Large pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness is the best current predictor of mortality from PAH. We have previously shown that collagen accumulation leads to extralobar PA stiffening at high strain (Ooi, Wang et al. 2010). We hypothesized that collagen accumulation would increase PVZ, including total pulmonary vascular resistance (Z0), characteristic impedance (ZC), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and index of global wave reflections (Pb/Pf), which contribute to increased right ventricular afterload. We tested this hypothesis by exposing mice unable to degrade type I collagen (Col1a1R/R) to 21 days of hypoxia (hypoxia), some of which were allowed to recover for 42 days (recovery). Littermate wild-type mice (Col1a1+/+) were used as controls. In response to hypoxia, mean PA pressure (mPAP) increased in both mouse genotypes with no changes in cardiac output (CO) or PA inner diameter (ID); as a consequence, Z0 (mPAP/CO) increased by ~100% in both genotypes (p<0.05). Contrary to our expectations, ZC, PWV and Pb/Pf did not change. However, with recovery, ZC and PWV decreased in the Col1a1+/+ mice and remained unchanged in the Col1a1R/R mice. Z0 decreased with recovery in both genotypes. Microcomputed tomography measurements of large PAs did not show evidence of stiffness changes as a function of hypoxia exposure or genotype. We conclude that hypoxia-induced PA collagen accumulation does not affect the pulsatile components of pulmonary hemodynamics but that excessive collagen accumulation does prevent normal hemodynamic recovery, which may have important consequences for right ventricular function. PMID:22183202

  15. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  16. The accumulation and structure of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, Bertram

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence for the accumulation of the terrestrial planets and comets from solid grains, with emphasis on the various proposals for the formation of cometary nuclei. With three exceptions, all hypotheses conclude or imply that a single compact object forms. Several hypotheses start with Goldreich-Ward-type gravitational instabilities. The collapse for this case also occurs at low velocities in the cm/s to m/s range. Experiment and theory show that under these conditions, low-density, filamentary clusters form that are fractal aggregates with a fractal dimension approximately equal to 2. In order to form cometary nuclei, the initial temperature must be about 50 K and not undergo a significant temperature rise during the accumulation process. The calculations show that accumulation will occur at low temperatures. Models of cometary nuclei are reviewed, and a simple model of the structure that results fom the accumulation of fluffy aggregates is described.

  17. Lkb1 Deletion Promotes Ectopic Lipid Accumulation in Muscle Progenitor Cells and Mature Muscles

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, TIZHONG; ZHANG, PENGPENG; BI, PENGPENG; KUANG, SHIHUAN

    2015-01-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triglycerides (muscle lipids) are associated with reduced contractile function, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes, but what governs lipid accumulation in muscle is unclear. Here we report a role of Lkb1 in regulating lipid metabolism in muscle stem cells and their descendent mature muscles. We used MyodCre and Lkb1flox/flox mice to specifically delete Lkb1 in myogenic cells including stem and differentiated cells, and examined the lipid accumulation and gene expression of myoblasts cultured from muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Genetic deletion of Lkb1 in myogenic progenitors led to elevated expression of lipogenic genes and ectopic lipid accumulation in proliferating myoblasts. Interestingly, the Lkb1-deficient myoblasts differentiated into adipocyte-like cells upon adipogenic induction. However, these adipocyte-like cells maintained myogenic gene expression with reduced ability to form myotubes efficiently. Activation of AMPK by AICAR prevented ectopic lipid formation in the Lkb1-null myoblasts. Notably, Lkb1-deficient muscles accumulated excessive lipids in vivo in response to high-fat diet feeding. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 acts through AMPK to limit lipid deposition in muscle stem cells and their derivative mature muscles, and point to the possibility of controlling muscle lipid content using AMPK activating drugs. PMID:25251157

  18. Soybean GmMYB73 promotes lipid accumulation in transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean is one of the most important oil crops. The regulatory genes involved in oil accumulation are largely unclear. We initiated studies to identify genes that regulate this process. Results One MYB-type gene GmMYB73 was found to display differential expression in soybean seeds of different developing stages by microarray analysis and was further investigated for its functions in lipid accumulation. GmMYB73 is a small protein with single MYB repeat and has similarity to CPC-like MYB proteins from Arabidopsis. GmMYB73 interacted with GL3 and EGL3, and then suppressed GL2, a negative regulator of oil accumulation. GmMYB73 overexpression enhanced lipid contents in both seeds and leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Seed length and thousand-seed weight were also promoted. GmMYB73 introduction into the Arabidopsis try cpc double mutant rescued the total lipids, seed size and thousand-seed weight. GmMYB73 also elevated lipid levels in seeds and leaves of transgenic Lotus, and in transgenic hairy roots of soybean plants. GmMYB73 promoted PLDα1 expression, whose promoter can be bound and inhibited by GL2. PLDα1 mutation reduced triacylglycerol levels mildly in seeds but significantly in leaves of Arabidopsis plants. Conclusions GmMYB73 may reduce GL2, and then release GL2-inhibited PLDα1 expression for lipid accumulation. Manipulation of GmMYB73 may potentially improve oil production in legume crop plants. PMID:24655684

  19. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  20. miRNA-133a attenuates lipid accumulation via TR4-CD36 pathway in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Lei; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    lipid metabolism is the major causes of atherosclerosis. There is increasing evidence that miR-133a plays an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-133a in macrophages is still unclear. Several lines of evidence indicate that loss of TR4 leads to reduce lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues, etc, and lesional macrophages-derived TR4 can greatly increase the foam cell formation through increasing the CD36-mediated the uptake of ox-LDL. Interestingly, computational analysis suggests that TR4 may be a target gene of miR-133a. Here, we examined whether miR-133a regulates TR4 expression in ox-LDL-induced mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, thereby affecting lipid accumulation. Using ox-LDL-treatment RAW 264.7 macrophages transfected with miR-133a mimics or inhibitors, we have showed that miR-133a can directly regulate the expression of TR4 in RAW 264.7 cells, thereby attenuates CD36-medide lipid accumulation. Furthermore, our studies suggest an additional explanation for the regulatory mechanism of miR-133a regulation to its functional target, TR4 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-133a may regulate lipid accumulation in ox-LDL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via TR4-CD36 pathway. PMID:27109382

  1. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide. PMID:14979339

  2. Isolation and characterization of a mutant defective in triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-09-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG), a major source of biodiesel production, accumulates in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, the metabolic pathway of starch-to-TAG conversion remains elusive because an enzyme that affects the starch degradation is unknown. Here, we isolated a new class of mutant bgal1, which expressed an overaccumulation of starch granules and defective photosynthetic growth. The bgal1 was a null mutant of a previously uncharacterized β-galactosidase-like gene (Cre02.g119700), which decreased total β-galactosidase activity 40% of the wild type. Upon nitrogen starvation, the bgal1 mutant showed decreased TAG accumulation mainly due to the reduced flux of de novo TAG biosynthesis evidenced by increased unsaturation of fatty acid composition in TAG and reduced TAG accumulation by additional supplementation of acetate to the culture media. Metabolomic analysis of the bgal1 mutant showed significantly reduced levels of metabolites following the hydrolysis of starch and substrates for TAG accumulation, whereas metabolites in TCA cycle were unaffected. Upon nitrogen starvation, while levels of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA remained lower, most of the other metabolites in glycolysis were increased but those in the TCA cycle were decreased, supporting TAG accumulation. We suggest that BGAL1 may be involved in the degradation of starch, which affects TAG accumulation in nitrogen-starved C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27060488

  3. Sp1 Transcription Factor Interaction with Accumulated Prelamin A Impairs Adipose Lineage Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Essential Role of Sp1 in the Integrity of Lipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Eguino, Garbiñe; Infante, Arantza; Schlangen, Karin; Aransay, Ana M.; Fullaondo, Ane; Soriano, Mario; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Martín, Ángel G.

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A (LMNA)-linked lipodystrophies may be either genetic (associated with LMNA mutations) or acquired (associated with the use of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors [PIs]), and in both cases they share clinical features such as anomalous distribution of body fat or generalized loss of adipose tissue, metabolic alterations, and early cardiovascular complications. Both LMNA-linked lipodystrophies are characterized by the accumulation of the lamin A precursor prelamin A. The pathological mechanism by which prelamin A accumulation induces the lipodystrophy associated phenotypes remains unclear. Since the affected tissues in these disorders are of mesenchymal origin, we have generated an LMNA-linked experimental model using human mesenchymal stem cells treated with a PI, which recapitulates the phenotypes observed in patient biopsies. This model has been demonstrated to be a useful tool to unravel the pathological mechanism of the LMNA-linked lipodystrophies, providing an ideal system to identify potential targets to generate new therapies for drug discovery screening. We report for the first time that impaired adipogenesis is a consequence of the interaction between accumulated prelamin A and Sp1 transcription factor, sequestration of which results in altered extracellular matrix gene expression. In fact, our study shows a novel, essential, and finely tuned role for Sp1 in adipose lineage differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells. These findings define a new physiological experimental model to elucidate the pathological mechanisms LMNA-linked lipodystrophies, creating new opportunities for research and treatment not only of LMNA-linked lipodystrophies but also of other adipogenesis-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:23197810

  4. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity. PMID

  5. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  6. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  7. ISOLATED MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA MUTANTS WITH INCREASED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION HAVE DECREASED ASCORBIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms controlling oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation in plants remains largely unknown. As an initial step toward gaining insight into these regulatory mechanisms we initiated a mutant screen to identify plants that over-accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Four new mut...

  8. Free Sugars in Relation to Starch Accumulation in Developing Rice Grain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rangil; Juliano, Bienvenido O.

    1977-01-01

    The changes in sugars (water-soluble carbohydrates) were studied in the developing grain of rice (Oryza sativa L., variety IR28 and IR29) in relation to the role of these sugars as precursors of ADP glucose in starch accumulation. The levels of total sugars, total reducing sugars and free glucose, sucrose and other nonreducing sugars, maltooligosaccharides, and total and nonsucrosyl fructose followed closely the changes in the rate of starch accumulation, in both IR28 and 29; the peak value occurred 9 days after flowering. The level of soluble carbohydrates remained high in the caryopsis and also in milled rice after starch accumulation, suggesting that the supply of sugar precursors does not limit starch accumulation in the rice grain. Because of a higher level of reducing sugars, the level of free sugars in the grain of waxy rice IR29 was higher than that of nonwaxy IR28. PMID:16659864

  9. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  10. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  11. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  12. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  13. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  14. Depletion of Rab32 decreases intracellular lipid accumulation and induces lipolysis through enhancing ATGL expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wang, Jun; Wan, Ying; Chen, Dongfeng

    2016-03-18

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease caused by the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes. To date, however, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still unclear. Recent studies have shown that Rab GTPases, a major protein family in vesicle trafficking, are associated with intracellular lipid accumulation. Here, we show that Rab32, the only Rab GTPase located in mitochondria, participates in hepatic steatosis. Ablation of Rab32 can decrease intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (HepG2, L02). Further studying the possible mechanism, we found that knockdown of Rab32 can enhance lipolysis instead of lipogenesis via inducing the expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key enzyme on the surface of lipid droplets which has been proved to be significant in controlling intracellular lipid accumulation. Co-immunoprecipitation shows that Rab32 and ATGL are not directly associated. These findings suggest that knockdown of Rab32 indirectly affects lipolysis through increasing the expression of ATGL. Taken together, our study reveals that Rab32 can participate in regulating intracellular lipid accumulation and that knockdown of Rab32 can decrease intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. We also demonstrated that ablation of Rab32 can induce intracellular lipolysis by enhancing the expression of ATGL. PMID:26882978

  15. Model for the incorporation of plant detritus within clastic accumulating interdistributary bays

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, R.A.; McCarroll, S.M.; Douglass, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Plant-bearing clastic lithologies interpreted as interdistributary bay deposits are reported from rocks Devonian to Holocene in age. Often, these strata preserve accumulations of discrete, laterally continuous leaf beds or coaly horizons. Investigations within two modern inter-distributary bays in the lower delta plain of the Mobile Delta, Alabama have provided insight into the phytotaphonomic processes responsible for the generation of carbonaceous lithologies, coaly horizons and laterally continuous leaf beds. Delvan and Chacalooche Bays lie adjacent to the Tensaw River distributary channel and differ in the mode of clastic and plant detrital accumulation. Delvan Bay, lying west of the distributary channel, is accumulating detritus solely by overbank deposition. Chacaloochee Bay, lying east of the channel, presently is accumulating detritus by active crevasse-splay activity. Plant detritus is accumulating as transported assemblages in both bays, but the mode of preservation differs. In Delvan Bay, the organic component is highly degraded and incorporated within the clastic component resulting in a carbonaceous silt. Little identifiable plant detritus can be recovered. On the other hand, the organic component in Chacaloochee Bay is accumulating in locally restricted allochthonous peat deposits up to 2 m in thickness, and discrete leaf beds generated by flooding events. In addition, autochthonous plant accumulations occur on subaerially and aerially exposed portions of the crevasse. The resultant distribution of plant remains is a complicated array of transported and non-transported organics.

  16. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. PMID:26344461

  17. Geomorphic control of landscape carbon accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbloom, N.A.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Schimel, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use the CREEP process-response model to simulate soil organic carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in Iowa. Our primary objectives are to identify spatial patterns of carbon accumulation, and explore the effect of erosion on basin-scale C accumulation. Our results point to two general findings. First, redistribution of soil carbon by erosion results in a net increase in basin-wide carbon storage relative to a noneroding environment. Landscape-average mean residence times are increased in an eroding landscape owing to the burial/preservation of otherwise labile C. Second, field observations taken along a slope transect may overlook significant intraslope variations in carbon accumulation. Spatial patterns of modeled deep C accumulation are complex. While surface carbon with its relatively short equilibration time is predictable from surface properties, deep carbon is strongly influenced by the landscape's geomorphic and climatic history, resulting in wide spatial variability. Convergence and divergence associated with upland swales and interfluves result in bimodal carbon distributions in upper and mid slopes; variability in carbon storage within modeled mid slopes was as high as simulated differences between erosional shoulders and depositional valley bottoms. The bimodality of mid-slope C variability in the model suggests that a three-dimensional sampling strategy is preferable over the traditional two-dimensional analog or "catena" approach. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The detection of morphine and codeine in human teeth: an aid in the identification and study of human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Gigli, F; Lodi, F; Grandi, M

    2003-06-01

    When studying unidentified putrefied or skeletonised human remains it may be difficult to obtain information on drug habits which may prove important for the construction of a biological profile or lead to hypotheses on the manner of death. The detection of morphine and codeine in teeth from human remains may prove crucial in obtaining such information and thus give forensic odontology and anthropology a further tool for identification. Because teeth can be an important deposit of exogenous substances accumulated both in the pulp and in the calcified tissues, they are an invaluable source of data from a toxicological point of view. The authors therefore tested 3 groups of teeth for morphine and codeine: the first group consisted of artificially aged teeth from individuals known to have died of heroin overdose; the second, of teeth from individuals with no history of drug abuse; the third, of teeth from cases of burnt, putrefied and skeletonised remains found in conditions strongly suggestive of a drug-related death. Results showed that in groups 1 and 3 morphine and codeine could still be identified in the teeth, proving that these tissues may be a reliable source for toxicological information concerning the history of the individual. Further studies are needed to verify whether the substances detected reflect drugs in circulation in an acute phase (and therefore present in blood vessels in the pulp) or whether they represent drugs which have percolated and been stored in dentine and enamel and thus denote a history of drug abuse. Nonetheless this study shows that teeth may be an important source of toxicological information in the forensic scenario. PMID:12793124

  19. Landscape Evolution and Carbon Accumulation: Uniformitarianism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, N. A.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.; Schimel, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    What is the role of hillslope transport in long-term carbon accumulation in soils? How do parent material, climate, and landform interact to produce the landscapes we observe today and to what extent can we use present day conditions to infer the dominant processes of the past? We use the CREEP [Rosenbloom, N.A. et al., 2001] process-response model to ask these questions, exploring the time-evolution of landscape form, soil distribution, and carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in western Iowa [Harden, J.W. et al., 2002]. The CREEP model simulates differential transport of soil particles, blanket deposition of atmospheric 10Be with eolian dust, and passive advection of soil carbon and 10Be, enabling the preferential enrichment and burial of rapidly moving soil constituents. By comparing landscape-wide average accumulations of 10Be to borehole observations at three hillslope positions, we conclude that the distribution of clay-adsorbed 10Be cannot be explained by co-transport with clay particles alone. Rather, 10Be appears to behave as a more complex tracer than originally assumed, requiring an explicit, independent parameterization of wet deposition and transport. By comparison, model carbon accumulation strongly reflects patterns of clay redistribution indicating that in situ carbon turnover is faster than redistribution. Observed vertical distributions of soil properties, including 10Be, could only be explained by assuming variations in deposition and erosion rates, specifically periods of accumulation, followed by periods of transport. This effect might not be apparent if only landform shape, geometry, and soil depth were considered and vertical distributions of soil properties were not explicitly simulated. The current landscape reflects a history of strong shifts in erosion and accumulation rates that cannot be simulated using a uniform parameterization of long-term landscape-evolution processes.

  20. Update on the Argonne positron accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1993-07-01

    The injector for the Advanced Photon Source incorporates a 450-MeV positron accumulator ring (PAR) to decrease the filling time with the 2-Hz synchrotron. In addition to accumulating positrons from the linac, the PAR damps the beam and reduces the bunch length. The PAR lattice has been redesigned to use zero-gradient dipoles, while retaining essentially the same damping partition. Extensive simulations have been performed to set tolerances that will give high capture efficiency, in spite of the large momentum spread of the incoming positron beam.

  1. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Sugar Metabolism and Accumulation during Apple Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lailiang

    2012-01-01

    Both sorbitol and sucrose are imported into apple fruit from leaves. The metabolism of sorbitol and sucrose fuels fruit growth and development, and accumulation of sugars in fruit is central to the edible quality of apple. However, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple remains quite limited. We identified members of various gene families encoding key enzymes or transporters involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit using homology searches and comparison of their expression patterns in different tissues, and analyzed the relationship of their transcripts with enzyme activities and sugar accumulation during fruit development. At the early stage of fruit development, the transcript levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, cell wall invertase, neutral invertase, sucrose synthase, fructokinase and hexokinase are high, and the resulting high enzyme activities are responsible for the rapid utilization of the imported sorbitol and sucrose for fruit growth, with low levels of sugar accumulation. As the fruit continues to grow due to cell expansion, the transcript levels and activities of these enzymes are down-regulated, with concomitant accumulation of fructose and elevated transcript levels of tonoplast monosaccharide transporters (TMTs), MdTMT1 and MdTMT2; the excess carbon is converted into starch. At the late stage of fruit development, sucrose accumulation is enhanced, consistent with the elevated expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), MdSPS5 and MdSPS6, and an increase in its total activity. Our data indicate that sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit is developmentally regulated. This represents a comprehensive analysis of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple, which will serve as a platform for further studies on the functions of these genes and subsequent manipulation of sugar metabolism and fruit quality traits related to carbohydrates. PMID:22412983

  2. Selenium accumulation in sea ducks wintering at Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michael L; Badzinski, Shannon S; Petrie, Scott A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2010-04-01

    Numbers of wintering sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher trophic levels. Se can be problematic for waterfowl and it often has been detected at elevated levels in organisms using the Great Lakes. There are, however, few data on hepatic Se concentrations in sea ducks, particularly during the winter at Lake Ontario. In this study, we evaluated interspecific differences and temporal trends in hepatic Se concentrations among BUFF (n = 77), COGO (n = 77), and LTDU (n = 79) wintering at Lake Ontario. All three species accumulated Se throughout winter, but COGO did so at a higher rate than did BUFF and LTDU. Overall, Se concentrations were higher in LTDU [mean = 22.7; 95% CI = 20.8-24.8 microg/g dry weight (dw)] than in BUFF ([mean = 12.3; 95% CI = 11.6-13.1 microg/g dw) and COGO ([mean = 12.0; 95% CI = 10.7-3.5 microg/g dw) throughout the winter. Se concentrations were deemed elevated (>33 microg/g dw) in 0%, 5%, and 19% of BUFF, COGO, and LTDU, respectively. Presently there are no data on Se toxicity end points for these species, so it is unclear how acquiring concentrations of these magnitudes affect their short- and long-term health or reproduction. PMID:19653029

  3. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative. PMID:22049659

  4. Carbon accumulation of tropical peatlands over millennia: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Kurnianto, Sofyan; Warren, Matthew; Talbot, Julie; Kauffman, Boone; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Frolking, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Tropical peatlands cover an estimated 440,000 km2 (~10% of global peatland area) and are significant in the global carbon cycle by storing about 40-90 Gt C in peat. Over the past several decades, tropical peatlands have experienced high rates of deforestation and conversion, which is often associated with lowering the water table and peat burning, releasing large amounts of carbon stored in peat to the atmosphere. We present the first model of long-term carbon accumulation in tropical peatlands by modifying the Holocene Peat Model (HPM), which has been successfully applied to northern temperate peatlands. Tropical HPM (HPMTrop) is a one-dimensional, nonlinear, dynamic model with a monthly time step that simulates peat mass remaining in annual peat cohorts over millennia as a balance between monthly vegetation inputs (litter) and monthly decomposition. Key model parameters were based on published data on vegetation characteristics, including net primary production partitioned into leaves, wood, and roots; and initial litter decomposition rates. HPMTrop outputs are generally consistent with field observations from Indonesia. Simulated long-term carbon accumulation rates for 11,000-year-old inland, and 5000-year-old coastal peatlands were about 0.3 and 0.59 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), and the resulting peat carbon stocks at the end of the 11,000-year and 5000-year simulations were 3300 and 2900 Mg C ha(-1), respectively. The simulated carbon loss caused by coastal peat swamp forest conversion into oil palm plantation with periodic burning was 1400 Mg C ha(-1) over 100 years, which is equivalent to ~2900 years of C accumulation in a hectare of coastal peatlands. PMID:25044171

  5. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  6. Ultrasound ablation enhances drug accumulation and survival in mammary carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andrew W.; Fite, Brett Z.; Liu, Yu; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Seo, Jai W.; Watson, Katherine D.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Tam, Sarah M.; Zhang, Hua; Foiret, Josquin; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) facilitates noninvasive image-guided conformal thermal therapy of cancer. Yet in many scenarios, the sensitive tissues surrounding the tumor constrain the margins of ablation; therefore, augmentation of MRgFUS with chemotherapy may be required to destroy remaining tumor. Here, we used 64Cu-PET-CT, MRI, autoradiography, and fluorescence imaging to track the kinetics of long-circulating liposomes in immunocompetent mammary carcinoma–bearing FVB/n and BALB/c mice. We observed a 5-fold and 50-fold enhancement of liposome and drug concentration, respectively, within MRgFUS thermal ablation–treated tumors along with dense accumulation within the surrounding tissue rim. Ultrasound-enhanced drug accumulation was rapid and durable and greatly increased total tumor drug exposure over time. In addition, we found that the small molecule gadoteridol accumulates around and within ablated tissue. We further demonstrated that dilated vasculature, loss of vascular integrity resulting in extravasation of blood cells, stromal inflammation, and loss of cell-cell adhesion and tissue architecture all contribute to the enhanced accumulation of the liposomes and small molecule probe. The locally enhanced liposome accumulation was preserved even after a multiweek protocol of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes and partial ablation. Finally, by supplementing ablation with concurrent liposomal drug therapy, a complete and durable response was obtained using protocols for which a sub-mm rim of tumor remained after ablation. PMID:26595815

  7. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  8. Lysosomal Dysfunction Caused by Cellular Accumulation of Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Irene; Lopez-Hernandez, Tania; Gao, Qi; Puchkov, Dmytro; Jabs, Sabrina; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Schmudde, Madlen; Rühl, Eckart; Graf, Christina M; Haucke, Volker

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as components of drugs or cosmetics and hold great promise for biomedicine, yet their effects on cell physiology remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that clathrin-independent dynamin 2-mediated caveolar uptake of surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) impairs cell viability due to lysosomal dysfunction. We show that internalized SiNPs accumulate in lysosomes resulting in inhibition of autophagy-mediated protein turnover and impaired degradation of internalized epidermal growth factor, whereas endosomal recycling proceeds unperturbed. This phenotype is caused by perturbed delivery of cargo via autophagosomes and late endosomes to SiNP-filled cathepsin B/L-containing lysosomes rather than elevated lysosomal pH or altered mTOR activity. Given the importance of autophagy and lysosomal protein degradation for cellular proteostasis and clearance of aggregated proteins, these results raise the question of beneficial use of NPs in biomedicine and beyond. PMID:27226546

  9. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  10. Nitric oxide evoked p53-accumulation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Bernhard; Schneiderhan, Nicole

    2003-04-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 accumulates under conditions of cellular stress and affects cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. This has been exemplified for endogenously produced or exogenously supplied nitric oxide (NO) and thus accounts at least in part for cell destructive signaling qualities of this bioactive molecule and/or derived reactive nitrogen species. However, detailed mechanisms of toxicity and pathways of cell demise remain to be elucidated. Establishing that NO-treatment left the ubiquitination and the p53-Mdm2 interaction intact may point to an impaired nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling to account for p53 stabilization. This was verified by heterokaryon analysis. We conclude that attenuated nuclear export contributes to stabilization and activation of p53 under the influence of NO. PMID:12628747

  11. Intermolecular interactions of thrombospondins drive their accumulation in extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Joong; Christofidou, Elena D.; Keene, Douglas R.; Hassan Milde, Marwah; Adams, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondins participate in many aspects of tissue organization in adult tissue homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to pathological processes such as fibrosis and tumor progression. The incorporation of thrombospondins into extracellular matrix (ECM) as discrete puncta has been documented in various tissue and cell biological contexts, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We find that collagen fibrils are disorganized in multiple tissues of Thbs1−/− mice. In investigating how thrombospondins become retained within ECM and thereby affect ECM organization, we find that accumulation of thrombospondin-1 or thrombospondin-5 puncta within cell-derived ECM is controlled by a novel, conserved, surface-exposed site on the thrombospondin L-type lectin domain. This site acts to recruit thrombospondin molecules into ECM by intermolecular interactions in trans. This mechanism is fibronectin independent, can take place extracellularly, and is demonstrated to be direct in vitro. The trans intermolecular interactions can also be heterotypic—for example, between thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-5. These data identify a novel concept of concentration-dependent, intermolecular “matrix trapping” as a conserved mechanism that controls the accumulation and thereby the functionality of thrombospondins in ECM. PMID:25995382

  12. Cytokinin Determines Thiol-Mediated Arsenic Tolerance and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Thotegowdanapalya C; Castrillo, Gabriel; Navarro, Cristina; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Mateo, Cristian; Zamarreño, Angel M; Paz-Ares, Javier; Muñoz, Riansares; García-Mina, Jose M; Hernández, Luis E; Schmülling, Thomas; Leyva, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of arsenic in soil and water is a constant threat to plant growth in many regions of the world. Phytohormones act in the integration of growth control and stress response, but their role in plant responses to arsenic remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that arsenate [As(V)], the most prevalent arsenic chemical species in nature, causes severe depletion of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that CK signaling mutants and transgenic plants with reduced endogenous CK levels showed an As(V)-tolerant phenotype. Our data indicate that in CK-depleted plants exposed to As(V), transcript levels of As(V)/phosphate-transporters were similar or even higher than in wild-type plants. In contrast, CK depletion provoked the coordinated activation of As(V) tolerance mechanisms, leading to the accumulation of thiol compounds such as phytochelatins and glutathione, which are essential for arsenic sequestration. Transgenic CK-deficient Arabidopsis and tobacco lines show a marked increase in arsenic accumulation. Our findings indicate that CK is an important regulatory factor in plant adaptation to arsenic stress. PMID:27208271

  13. TDP-43 regulates endogenous retrovirus-K viral protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Manghera, Mamneet; Ferguson-Parry, Jennifer; Douville, Renée N

    2016-10-01

    The concomitant expression of neuronal TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and human endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) is a hallmark of ALS. Since the involvement of TDP-43 in retrovirus replication remains controversial, we sought to evaluate whether TDP-43 exerts an effect on ERVK expression. In this study, TDP-43 bound the ERVK promoter in the context of inflammation or proteasome inhibition, with no effect on ERVK transcription. However, over-expression of ALS-associated aggregating forms of TDP-43, but not wild-type TDP-43, significantly enhanced ERVK viral protein accumulation. Human astrocytes and neurons further demonstrated cell-type specific differences in their ability to express and clear ERVK proteins during inflammation and proteasome inhibition. Astrocytes, but not neurons, were able to clear excess ERVK proteins through stress granule formation and autophagy. In vitro findings were validated in autopsy motor cortex tissue from patients with ALS and neuro-normal controls. We further confirmed marked enhancement of ERVK in cortical neurons of patients with ALS. Despite evidence of enhanced stress granule and autophagic response in ALS cortical neurons, these cells failed to clear excess ERVK protein accumulation. This highlights how multiple cellular pathways, in conjunction with disease-associated mutations, can converge to modulate the expression and clearance of viral gene products from genomic elements such as ERVK. In ALS, ERVK protein aggregation is a novel aspect of TDP-43 misregulation contributing towards the pathology of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27370226

  14. Modeling of the accumulation of organic lipophilic chemicals in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Belfroid, A.; Seinen, W.; Leeuwen, K. van; Hermens, J.; Gestel, K. van

    1994-12-31

    For aquatic and terrestrial species living in contaminated sediments and soils it is assumed that the major route of uptake of organic lipophilic compounds is by passive diffusion of the compound dissolved in the interstitial water. Dietary uptake will only be important for extremely lipophilic compounds with log K{sub ow} larger than 5--6. An accumulation study with earthworms in OECD artificial soil confirmed this hypothesis. However, the authors also observed dietary uptake in earthworms after feeding them with food contaminated with three chlorobenzenes, PCB153 and octachloronaphthalene. Still, the question remained whether dietary uptake is an important route of exposure. Therefore, a model was developed that, unlike for example the equilibrium partition theory, incorporates two routes of uptake. The model can be used to estimate the accumulation of inert organic chemicals with log Kow 2--7 in earthworms, but also to determine the relative contribution of the two routes of uptake to the total body burden. It will be shown that the relative contribution depends on the lipophilicity of the compound and also on the type of soil.

  15. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  16. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  17. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  18. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  19. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  20. Hippocampal Networks Habituate as Novelty Accumulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Ballard, Ian C.; Macduffie, Katherine E.; Krebs, Ruth M.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2013-01-01

    Novelty detection, a critical computation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, necessarily depends on prior experience. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate dynamic changes in MTL activation and functional connectivity as experience with novelty accumulates. fMRI data were…

  1. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  2. Copper accumulation in the crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the crayfish, O. rusticus could fulfill Nehring's (1976) criteria for a good biological monitor of heavy metal pollution. Since there is some evidence that the cupric ion is the most toxic form of aqueous copper, crayfish-accumulated copper was compared to both total and cupric copper in the culture water.

  3. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  4. ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR ELEVEN POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the fugacity approach (Mackay 1979), pollutant uptake by an organism is determined by the chemical fugacity differential between the organism and its environment. he Accumulation Factor [AF - (concentration of pollutant in animal tissue, Ct (ng/g dry wt)/animal lipid...

  5. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  6. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  7. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  8. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  9. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.534 Section 10.534 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  10. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.458 Section 10.458 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement...

  11. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  12. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  13. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  14. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  15. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.597 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials from the territory of one or more of the Parties that are used in the production of a good in the territory...

  16. 19 CFR 10.3017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.3017 Section 10.3017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...

  17. 19 CFR 10.3017 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.3017 Section 10.3017 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...

  18. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  19. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.534 Section 10.534 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade...

  20. 19 CFR 10.812 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.812 Section 10.812 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade...

  1. Increase of glutathione in mine population of Sedum alfredii: a Zn hyperaccumulator and Pb accumulator.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Ye, Z H; Wang, X R; Wong, M H

    2005-11-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) have been induced in a large range of plant species, but their role in heavy metal tolerance is unclear. Sedum alfredii is a new zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator found in an old Pb/Zn mine in the Zhejiang Province of China. Until now, the mechanisms of its hyperaccumulation/accumulation and tolerance were poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether PCs were differentially produced in mine populations of S. alfredii compared with a non-mine control of the same species. The results showed that plants from the mine site were more tolerant to increasing Zn and Pb concentrations than those from the control site. No PCs and cysteine (Cys) were detected by pre-column derivatization with HPLC fluorescence in any tissues of two populations at any treatment, which in turn indicated they were not responsible for Zn and Pb tolerance in the mine population. Instead, Zn and Pb treatments resulted in the increase of glutathione (GSH) for both populations in a tissue-dependent manner. Significant increases were observed in leaf, stem and root tissues of plants grown on the mine site. The results suggest that GSH, rather man PCs, may be involved in Zn and Pb transport, hyperaccumulation/accumulation and tolerance in mine population of S. alfredii. PMID:16225897

  2. Enzymatic control of anhydrobiosis-related accumulation of trehalose in the sleeping chironomid, Polypedilum vanderplanki

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Kanamori, Yasushi; Fujita, Mika; Iwata, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kikuta, Shingo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of an anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki, accumulate very large amounts of trehalose as a compatible solute on desiccation, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this accumulation are unclear. We therefore isolated the genes coding for trehalose metabolism enzymes, i.e. trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) for the synthesis step, and trehalase (TREH) for the degradation step. Although computational prediction indicated that the alternative splicing variants (PvTpsα/β) obtained encoded probable functional motifs consisting of a typical consensus domain of TPS and a conserved sequence of TPP, PvTpsα did not exert activity as TPP, but only as TPS. Instead, a distinct gene (PvTpp) obtained expressed TPP activity. Previous reports have suggested that insect TPS is, exceptionally, a bifunctional enzyme governing both TPS and TPP. In this article, we propose that TPS and TPP activities in insects can be attributed to discrete genes. The translated product of the TREH ortholog (PvTreh) certainly degraded trehalose to glucose. Trehalose was synthesized abundantly, consistent with increased activities of TPS and TPP and suppressed TREH activity. These results show that trehalose accumulation observed during anhydrobiosis induction in desiccating larvae can be attributed to the activation of the trehalose synthetic pathway and to the depression of trehalose hydrolysis. PMID:20825482

  3. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    PubMed

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  4. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    No production has been established in the Reel-foot rift. However, at least nine of 22 exploratory wells have reported petroleum shows, mainly gas shows with some asphalt or solid hydrocarbon residue. Regional seismic profiling shows the presence of two large inversion structures (Blytheville arch and Pascola arch). The Blytheville arch is marked by a core of structurally thickened Elvins Shale, whereas the Pascola arch reflects the structural uplift of a portion of the entire rift basin. Structural uplift and faulting within the Reelfoot rift since the late Paleozoic appear to have disrupted older conventional hydrocarbon traps and likely spilled any potential conventional petroleum accumulations. The remaining potential resources within the Reelfoot rift are likely shale gas accumulations within the Elvins Shale; however, reservoir continuity and porosity as well as pervasive faulting appear to be significant future challenges for explorers and drillers.

  5. Holocene accumulation and ice flow near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutnik, Michelle R.; Fudge, T. J.; Conway, Howard; Waddington, Edwin D.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Buizert, Christo; Taylor, Kendrick C.

    2016-05-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Core (WDC) provided a high-resolution climate record from near the Ross-Amundsen Divide in Central West Antarctica. In addition, radar-detected internal layers in the vicinity of the WDC site have been dated directly from the ice core to provide spatial variations in the age structure of the region. Using these two data sets together, we first infer a high-resolution Holocene accumulation-rate history from 9.2 kyr of the ice-core timescale and then confirm that this climate history is consistent with internal layers upstream of the core site. Even though the WDC was drilled only 24 km from the modern ice divide, advection of ice from upstream must be taken into account. We evaluate histories of accumulation rate by using a flowband model to generate internal layers that we compare to observed layers. Results show that the centennially averaged accumulation rate was over 20% lower than modern at 9.2 kyr before present (B.P.), increased by 40% from 9.2 to 2.3 kyr B.P., and decreased by at least 10% over the past 2 kyr B.P. to the modern values; these Holocene accumulation-rate changes in Central West Antarctica are larger than changes inferred from East Antarctic ice-core records. Despite significant changes in accumulation rate, throughout the Holocene the regional accumulation pattern has likely remained similar to today, and the ice-divide position has likely remained on average within 5 km of its modern position. Continent-scale ice-sheet models used for reconstructions of West Antarctic ice volume should incorporate this accumulation history.

  6. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-02-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH) and rubidium (/sup 86/Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either /sup 3/H-PAH or /sup 86/Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing.

  7. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the... agency that has control of the Native American human remains and associated funerary objects....

  8. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human remains previously determined to be Native American under § 10.9, but for which no lineal... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... federally-recognized and are known to have a relationship of shared group identity with the particular...

  9. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regarding disposition of remains. 72.30 Section 72.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND... disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include... accept such directions, particularly if the surviving spouse/next-of-kin disagree with the wishes of...

  10. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regarding disposition of remains. 72.30 Section 72.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND... disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include... accept such directions, particularly if the surviving spouse/next-of-kin disagree with the wishes of...

  11. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  12. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prove that it has right of possession, as defined at § 10.10(a)(2), to culturally unidentifiable human... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects,...

  13. Veteran Special Education Teachers' Perspectives on Factors that Influenced Them to Remain in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Kimberly M.

    2009-01-01

    Literature indicates a shortage of qualified special educators in schools across the United States. This shortage is likely to grow if current trends of attrition continue. There remains an important gap in the current literature regarding the factors that influence veteran special educators to remain in their profession. This information is…

  14. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  15. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  16. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  17. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiujun; Gao, Shan; Gu, Wenhui; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2013-01-01

    For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax) and zeaxanthin (Zx) at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx). This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air. PMID:24039824

  18. Following rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Stephanie M.; Getz, Charles L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study utilized an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks post-injury. Twenty-four animals served as uninjured controls, while seventy-two were divided among the tendon detachment groups (supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus+infraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus+subscapularis tendon detachment). We found the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons have decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional area increased, while tendon modulus decreased after both one and two tendon tears. Additionally, the remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time post-injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression. PMID:19095175

  19. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  20. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented. PMID:26260865

  1. Accumulation, internalization and therapeutic efficacy of neuropilin-1-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Eric E; Ingham, Elizabeth S; Zhang, Hua; Mahakian, Lisa M; Fite, Brett Z; Gagnon, M Karen; Tam, Sarah; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Cardiff, Robert D; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2014-03-28

    Advancements in liposomal drug delivery have produced long circulating and very stable drug formulations. These formulations minimize systemic exposure; however, unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy has remained limited due to the slow diffusion of liposomal particles within the tumor and limited release or uptake of the encapsulated drug. Here, the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide, with affinity for the receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP), which is expressed on both endothelial and cancer cells, was conjugated to liposomes to enhance the tumor accumulation. Using a pH sensitive probe, liposomes were optimized for specific NRP binding and subsequent cellular internalization using in vitro cellular assays. Liposomes conjugated with the carboxyl-terminated CRPPR peptide (termed C-LPP liposomes) bound to the NRP-positive primary prostatic carcinoma cell line (PPC-1) but did not bind to the NRP-negative PC-3 cell line, and binding was observed with liposomal peptide concentrations as low as 0.16mol%. Binding of the C-LPP liposomes was receptor-limited, with saturation observed at high liposome concentrations. The identical peptide sequence bearing an amide terminus did not bind specifically, accumulating only with a high (2.5mol%) peptide concentration and adhering equally to NRP positive and negative cell lines. The binding of C-LPP liposomes conjugated with 0.63mol% of the peptide was 83-fold greater than liposomes conjugated with the amide version of the peptide. Cellular internalization was also enhanced with C-LPP liposomes, with 80% internalized following 3h incubation. Additionally, fluorescence in the blood pool (~40% of the injected dose) was similar for liposomes conjugated with 0.63mol% of carboxyl-terminated peptide and non-targeted liposomes at 24h after injection, indicating stable circulation. Prior to doxorubicin treatment, in vivo tumor accumulation and vascular targeting were increased for peptide-conjugated liposomes compared to non-targeted liposomes based

  2. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  3. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  4. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  5. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  6. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  7. Current Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Should We Add Life to the Remaining Years or Add Years to the Remaining Life?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    According to the ejection fraction, patients with heart failure may be divided into two different groups: heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. In recent years, accumulating studies showed that increased mortality and morbidity rates of these two groups are nearly equal. More importantly, despite decline in mortality after treatment in regard to current guideline in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there are still no trials resulting in improved outcome in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction so far. Thus, novel pathophysiological mechanisms are under development, and other new viewpoints, such as multiple comorbidities resulting in increased non-cardiac deaths in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, were presented recently. In this review, we will focus on the tested as well as the promising therapeutic options that are currently studied in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, along with a brief discussion of pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic options that are helpful to increase our understanding of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24251065

  8. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  9. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program. PMID:22491896

  10. PICALM modulates autophagy activity and tau accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kevin; Fleming, Angeleen; Imarisio, Sara; Lopez Ramirez, Ana; Mercer, Jacob L.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria; Bento, Carla F.; Puri, Claudia; Zavodszky, Eszter; Siddiqi, Farah; Lavau, Catherine P.; Betton, Maureen; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including proteins involved in endocytic trafficking such as PICALM/CALM (phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein). It is unclear how these loci may contribute to AD pathology. Here we show that CALM modulates autophagy and alters clearance of tau, a protein which is a known autophagy substrate and which is causatively linked to AD, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, altered CALM expression exacerbates tau-mediated toxicity in zebrafish transgenic models. CALM influences autophagy by regulating the endocytosis of SNAREs, such as VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8, which have diverse effects on different stages of the autophagy pathway, from autophagosome formation to autophagosome degradation. This study suggests that the AD genetic risk factor CALM modulates autophagy, and this may affect disease in a number of ways including modulation of tau turnover. PMID:25241929

  11. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Frederick L; Krahnke, Jason S; Kim, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Airway mucus is part of the lung’s native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics. PMID:24493923

  12. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  13. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  14. Zinc Accumulation and Behavior in Tuyere Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Tianqiu; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhong, Jianbo; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Guangwei; Ren, Shan; Yang, Tianjun

    2014-10-01

    A case study of zinc oxide, which represents the first report on the occurrence, crystalline features, formation mechanism, and influence of this mineral in tuyere coke, was conducted in this study. A number of zinc oxides, some of which were in hexagonal wurtzite habit, were observed to distribute mainly in coke pores, cracks, surfaces, and around coke minerals. The accumulation of zinc in tuyere coke may enhance the degradation of coke and increase the generation and accumulation of coke fine in a blast furnace, which would cause bad effect on blast furnace operation. Investigations into zinc behavior in tuyere coke can be important for further interpretations of coke degradation in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace.

  15. Capsinoids suppress fat accumulation via lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qin; Xia, Chen; Xiangying, Hu; Quan, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Capsaicin, found in red peppers, has been reported to have anti‑obesity, anti‑hypertension, anti‑diabetes and anti‑inflammatory functions. In the present study, we determined the effect of non‑pungent capsinoids on the metabolism of adipocytes. We demonstrated that capsinoids suppressed fat accumulation in vivo and in vitro in mice. Liver, the main tissue of lipid metabolism, was treated by capsinoids, and HMG‑CoA reductase, CPT‑1, FAT/CD36 and GLUT4 were found to be increased significantly, which demonstrated promotion of the lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. In addition, by adding capsinoids, the induced adipocytes also demonstrated significantly increased levels of HMG‑CoA reductase, CPT‑1, FAT/CD36 and GLUT4. Oil red O staining also demonstrated that capsinoids decreased fat accumulation in the adipocytes. In conclusion, these results indicate that capsinoids may be worth investigating as a potential cure for obesity. PMID:25421144

  16. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  17. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  18. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  19. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  20. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  1. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  2. Episodic strain accumulation in southern california.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W

    1976-11-12

    Reexamination of horizontal geodetic data in the region of recently discovered aseismic uplift has demonstrated that equally unusual horizontal crustal deformation accompanied the development of the uplift. During this time interval compressive strains were oriented roughly normal to the San Andreas fault, suggesting that the uplift produced little shear strain accumulation across this fault. On the other hand, the orientation of the anomalous shear straining is consistent with strain accumulation across northdipping range-front thrusts like the San Fernando fault. Accordingly, the horizontal and vertical crustal deformation disclosed by geodetic observation is interpreted as a short epoch of rapid strain accumulation on these frontal faults. If this interpretation is correct, thrust-type earthquakes will eventually release the accumulated strains, but the geodetic data examined here cannot be used to estimate when these events might occur. However, observation of an unusual sequence of tilts prior to 1971 on a level line lying to the north of the magnitude 6.4 San Fernando earthquake offers some promise for precursor monitoring. The data are adequately explained by a simple model of up-dip aseismic slip propagation toward the 1971 epicentral region. These observations and the simple model that accounts for them suggest a conceptually straightforward monitoring scheme to search for similar uplift and tilt precursors within the uplifted region. Such premonitory effects could be detected by a combination of frequenlty repeated short (30 to 70 km in length) level line measurements, precise gravity traverses, and continuously recording gravimeters sited to the north of the active frontal thrust faults. Once identified, such precursors could be closely followed in space and time, and might then provide effective warnings of impending potentially destructive earth-quakes. PMID:17832524

  3. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated. PMID:25370619

  4. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. PMID:25084574

  5. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  6. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  7. Extrapulmonary sites of radiogallium accumulation in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Palestro, C.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Tierstein, A.S. )

    1990-12-01

    In an effort to detect extrapulmonary sites of radiogallium accumulation in cases of sarcoidosis, 145 separate Ga-67 citrate studies of 114 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were examined. The most characteristic extrapulmonary radiogallium uptake pattern was the panda sign in 47 patients (41%). The most common site of prominent extrapulmonary radiogallium uptake was the lacrimal glands in 101 patients (88%). Second most common was activity in one or more superficial lymph node regions such as the cervical, axillary, femoral, or inguinal in 19 patients (17%). Other extrapulmonary sites included breast uptake in 6 out of 80 women (8%), prominent splenic and nasal uptake in 9 (8%) patients, periportal accumulation in 7 (6%), and cutaneous/subcutaneous activity in 4 (4%). Because many of these individuals were receiving corticosteroids, the natural (untreated) prevalence of extrapulmonary findings may be even higher. Although the sensitivity and specificity of extrapulmonary radiogallium accumulation has still to be determined, many of the sites may be accessible to biopsy both for diagnostic purposes and to follow the effects of medications. It is therefore suggested that whole-body imaging be performed when radiogallium is administered to patients with suspected or known sarcoidosis.

  8. Identification of a Cd accumulator Conyza canadensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Saha, Uttam Kumar; Xiao, Hong; Hu, Yahu; Ren, Liping; Ping, Gu

    2009-04-15

    One of key steps of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soils is still the identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator. In a former published article, Conyza canadensis L. Cronq. expressed some basic properties of Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, concentration gradient experiment and two sample-analyzing experiments were used to identify whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. When grown on soil spiked with Cd at the rate of 10 and 25 mg kg(-1) in concentration gradient experiment, C. canadensis had both Cd enrichment factor (EF) and Cd translocation factor (TF) greater than 1, while the shoot biomass did not differ significantly as compared to the control. On the other hand, with Cd-spiking rates of 10 and 25 mg kg(-1), the Cd concentration in the shoot did not exceed 100 mg kg(-1), which is considered as the minimum shoot Cd concentration to qualify as a hyperaccumulator. In the sample-analysis experiments from a Pb-Zn mine area and wastewater irrigation region, C. canadensis also showed Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on the results accomplished, we propose C. canadensis as a Cd-accumulator. PMID:18653276

  9. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  10. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  11. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  12. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  13. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  14. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  15. 43 CFR 3255.12 - How long will information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information I give BLM remain confidential or proprietary? The FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552) does not provide a finite period of time during which information may be exempt from public disclosure. BLM will review...

  16. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING OPERATOR’S HOUSE. REMAINS OF BALTIMORE & OHIO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING OPERATOR’S HOUSE. REMAINS OF BALTIMORE & OHIO CHICAGO TERMINAL RAILROAD BRIDGE BEYOND. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  18. View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking east - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  20. Measuring direct drive ICF remaining ablator areal density using a gas Cherenkov detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubery, Michael; Horsfield, Colin; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yongho; Hoffmann, Nelson; Mack, Joseph; Young, Carl; Evans, Scott; Sedillo, Tom; Caldwell, Steven; Grafil, Elliot; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Milnes, James; Atomic Weapons Establishment PLC Team; Los Alamos National Laboratory Team; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team; Photek Ltd Team

    2013-10-01

    Neutrons from a compressed direct drive ICF target produce γ rays through inelastic interactions with ablator material. The inelastic γ intensity is proportional to the remaining ablator areal density at bang time and the neutron yield. Remaining ablator areal density is an important metric for the quality of the implosion and is strongly correlated with fuel temperature and compression. This contribution describes how a background signal routinely measured on the gas Cherenkov detectors can be used to infer the intensity of the low-energy inelastic gammas from the ablator on the same trace as the DT fusion γ signal, which is directly proportional to the neutron yield; therefore allowing the remaining ablator areal density to be measured in a self consistent manner. Results from recent experiments at the Omega laser facility designed to prove the technique are discussed. In addition, Monte Carlo modelling shows the technique can be used to measure remaining ablator areal density for both plastic and glass capsules.

  1. IET control building (TAN620). remains of periscope connections and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). remains of periscope connections and control console at far west wall of control room. facing westerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. The pathophysiological role of oxidized cholesterols in epicardial fat accumulation and cardiac dysfunction: a study in swine fed a high caloric diet with an inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption, ezetimibe.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Okawa, Chinami; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Yanagi, Shuhei; Uematsu, Etsuko; Sugasawa, Noriko; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Hirata, Yoichiro; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-Ri; Lei, Xiao-Feng; Takao, Shoichiro; Tanaka, Yasutake; Fukuda, Daiju; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sato, Masao; Sata, Masataka

    2016-09-01

    Oxidized cholesterols (oxycholesterols) in food have been recognized as strong atherogenic components, but their tissue distributions and roles in cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. To investigate whether accumulation of oxycholesterols is linked to cardiac morphology and function, and whether reduction of oxycholesterols can improve cardiac performance, domestic male swine were randomized to a control diet (C), high caloric diet (HCD) or HCD+Ezetimibe, an inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption, group (HCD+E) and evaluated for: (1) distribution of oxycholesterol components in serum and tissues, (2) levels of oxycholesterol-related enzymes, (3) paracardial and epicardial coronary fat thickness, and (4) cardiac performance. Ezetimibe treatment for 8weeks attenuated increases in oxycholesterols in the HCD group almost completely in liver, but reduced only levels of 4β-hydroxycholesterol in left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Ezetimibe treatment altered the expression of genes for cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism and decreased the expression of CYP3A46, which catabolizes cholesterol to 4β-hydroxycholesterol, strongly in liver. An increase in epicardial fat thickness and impaired cardiac performance in the HCD group were improved by ezetimibe treatment, and the improvement was closely related to the reduction in levels of 4β-hydroxycholesterol in LV myocardium. In conclusion, an increase in oxycholesterols in the HCD group was closely related to cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, as well as an increase in epicardial fat thickness. Ezetimibe may directly reduce oxycholesterol in liver and LV myocardium, and improve cardiac morphology and function. PMID:27416363

  5. Early human cultural and skeletal remains from guitarrero cave, northern peru.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T F; Kennedy, K A

    1970-09-25

    An early man site in highland Peru yielded a rich cultural assemblage in stratigraphic association with faunal remains, botanical remains, and campfire remnants that furnished secure radiocarbon dates. A human mandible and teeth, showing interesting patterns of occlusal wear, were found in a stratum dated by a charcoal sample to 10,610 B.C., the oldest such date in South America. PMID:17772515

  6. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  7. Mucopolysaccharide accumulation in cultured skin fibroblasts derived from patients with mucolipidosis IV.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, G; Ziegler, M; Kohn, G; Cohen, M M

    1977-01-01

    Increased concentrations of total sulfated mucopolysaccharides (MPS), threefold, and hyaluronic acid (HA), 10-fold, were found in ML IV fibroblast extracts when compared to normal controls. Such accumulations altered the distribution of MPS:HA comprised 70% of total MPS in ML IV but only 30% in control cells. Intracellular sulfated MPS was observed accumulating almost linearly in ML IV fibroblasts. "Pulse-chase" experiments indicate that both HA and the sulfated MPS remain in the ML IV cells for long periods of time; in control cells, they are rapidly removed as low molecular weight, dialyzable fragments. These data suggest that the MPS accumulation in ML IV fibroblasts, is the consequence of a catabolic block, probably involving the lysosome. PMID:145180

  8. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage. PMID:26932790

  9. Use-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission by the secretion of intravesicularly accumulated antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Tischbirek, Carsten H; Wenzel, Eva M; Zheng, Fang; Huth, Tobias; Amato, Davide; Trapp, Stefan; Denker, Annette; Welzel, Oliver; Lueke, Katharina; Svetlitchny, Alexei; Rauh, Manfred; Deusser, Janina; Schwab, Annemarie; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Henkel, Andreas W; Müller, Christian P; Alzheimer, Christian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W

    2012-06-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are effective for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the functional consequences and subcellular sites of their accumulation in nervous tissue have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the weak-base antipsychotics haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, and risperidone in synaptic vesicle recycling. Using multiple live-cell microscopic approaches and electron microscopy of rat hippocampal neurons as well as in vivo microdialysis experiments in chronically treated rats, we demonstrate the accumulation of the antipsychotic drugs in synaptic vesicles and their release upon neuronal activity, leading to a significant increase in extracellular drug concentrations. The secreted drugs exerted an autoinhibitory effect on vesicular exocytosis, which was promoted by the inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels and depended on the stimulation intensity. Taken together, these results indicate that accumulated antipsychotic drugs recycle with synaptic vesicles and have a use-dependent, autoinhibitory effect on synaptic transmission. PMID:22681688

  10. The Protective Role of Symmetric Stem Cell Division on the Accumulation of Heritable Damage

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Peter T.; Lander, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric—in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not—or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces the lifetime risk of accumulating phenotypically silent heritable damage (mutations or aberrant epigenetic changes) in individual stem cells. This effect is greatest in rapidly cycling tissues subject to accelerating rates of damage accumulation over time, a scenario that describes the progression of many cancers. A decrease in the rate of cellular damage accumulation may be an important factor favoring symmetric patterns of stem cell division. PMID:25121484

  11. The protective role of symmetric stem cell division on the accumulation of heritable damage.

    PubMed

    McHale, Peter T; Lander, Arthur D

    2014-08-01

    Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric-in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not-or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces the lifetime risk of accumulating phenotypically silent heritable damage (mutations or aberrant epigenetic changes) in individual stem cells. This effect is greatest in rapidly cycling tissues subject to accelerating rates of damage accumulation over time, a scenario that describes the progression of many cancers. A decrease in the rate of cellular damage accumulation may be an important factor favoring symmetric patterns of stem cell division. PMID:25121484

  12. Specific accumulation of cholesterol-rich liposomes in the inflammatory tissue of rats with adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Love, W G; Amos, N; Kellaway, I W; Williams, B D

    1990-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography has shown that after intravenous injection cholesterol-poor liposomes (100 nm) are unstable and their phospholipid is redistributed. Under identical conditions cholesterol-rich liposomes remain structurally intact within the circulation. When injected intravenously cholesterol-rich liposomes accumulate within the inflamed paws of rats with adjuvant induced arthritis to the same extent as cholesterol-poor liposomes. Uptake in inflamed tissue of three cholesterol-rich liposome preparations was always significantly greater than the uptake noted in normal tissue. The degree of accumulation in inflamed tissue was found to depend on the size of the liposome, with the greatest uptake, 7% of the injected dose, achieved by the smallest vesicle (100 nm). These results indicate that intact liposomes accumulate at inflamed joint tissue sites. Therefore the passive targeting of anti-inflammatory drugs encapsulated within these liposomes could be contemplated. PMID:2396866

  13. Polymeric Micelles with Uniform Surface Properties and Tunable Size and Charge: Positive Charges Improve Tumor Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tong; Guan, Shuli; Gan, Zhihua; Zhang, Guan; Yu, Qingsong

    2016-05-01

    The influence of surface charge on biodistribution and tumor accumulation remains debatable because most research has been carried out by changing the surface functional groups of nanocarriers. In this work, to avoid the interference of different surface properties such as chemical composition and hydrophilicity, polymeric micelles with uniform PEG coatings and continuously tunable sizes or zeta potentials were developed via a facile route. Therefore, the influence of surface charge on the biological functions of micelles with the same size and surface properties could be well-explored. In this case, positive charge was found to enhance both tumor cellular uptake and tumor accumulation. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the improved tumor accumulation was mainly due to the tumor vasculature targeting of positively charged micelles. It is predicted that efficient drug delivery systems for both tumor vasculature and cancer cell targeting can be realized based on positively charged micelles. PMID:27008333

  14. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage. PMID:26932790

  15. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-03-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage.

  16. Nitrogen deficiency system is helpful in characterizing regulation mechanisms of ectopic triacylglycerol accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yu, Xiangchun; Song, Lianfen; An, Chengcai

    2011-12-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major storage component accumulated in seed. However the regulatory mechanism of TAG synthesis and accumulation in non-seed tissues remains unknown. Recently, we found that nitrogen (N) deficiency (0.1mM N) caused an inducement of TAG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seedlings. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) was essential for the activation of Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1(DGAT1) expression during N deficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. In this addendum, we further discussed the approaches to provide a net increase in total oil production in higher plants by using the low N platform. First, the N-deficient seedlings can be used to determine the key factors that regulate the ectopic expression of key genes in TAG metabolism. Second, the research on the relationship between TAG homeostasis and cell division will be helpful to find the key factors that specifically regulate TAG accumulation under the nutrient-limited condition. PMID:22112453

  17. Accumulation of iron in the putamen predicts its shrinkage in healthy older adults: A multi-occasion longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-03-01

    Accumulation of non-heme iron is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia. In healthy aging, however, the temporal relationship between change in brain iron content and age-related volume loss is unclear. Here, we present the first long-term longitudinal multi-occasion investigation of changes in iron content and volume in the neostriatum in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults (N=32; ages 49-83years at baseline). Iron content, estimated via R2* relaxometry, increased in the putamen, but not the caudate nucleus. In the former, the rate of accumulation was coupled with change in volume. Moreover, greater baseline iron content predicted faster shrinkage and smaller volumes seven years later. Older age partially accounted for individual differences in neostriatal iron content and volume, but vascular risk did not. Thus, brain iron content may be a promising biomarker of impending decline in normal aging. PMID:26746579

  18. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  19. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  20. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.