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Sample records for accumulation system ects

  1. European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System: An Alternative Way to Calculate the ECTS Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosges, Thomas; Barchiesi, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) has been developed and instituted to facilitate student mobility and academic recognition. This paper presents, discusses, and illustrates the pertinence and the limitation of the current statistical distribution of the ECTS grades, and we propose an alternative way to calculate the ECTS…

  2. Pan-European Grading Scales: Lessons from National Systems and the ECTS. The Bologna Process: Retrospect and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of the Bologna Process on the grading schemes of EU member countries. In light of some problems regarding the implementation of the European Credit Transfer system (ECTS), the author proposes further reforms and offers some elements of a unified grading system for European higher education. The author explores the…

  3. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  4. ECT and ethical psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Salzman, C

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the right to receive ECT and describes voluntary and involuntary patients for whom the treatment seemed both ethical and humane. The right to refuse ECT must be respected in competent patients. However, problems arise when patients' decision-making ability is compromised by their illness. Informed consent questions include how much and what type of information patients should receive and how much those with disordered cognitive functioning can be expected to understand. The author believes that ECT should be fully voluntary whenever possible and that a court-appointed guardian should make such treatment decisions for incompetent patients.

  5. An Assessment of the ECTS in Software Engineering: A Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Morera, L.; Berral-Yeron, J.; Serrano-Gomez, I.; Martinez-Jimenez, P.

    2009-01-01

    Spain is currently implementing the regulatory modifications promulgated by the Declaration of Bologna, which should result in the updating of the structure of university degrees, and the inclusion of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) methodology. In some Spanish universities, the experimental adoption of this methodology…

  6. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 4 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG), and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures on a 24/7 basis. ECT is a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. This is the fourth year of the project.

  7. The sham ECT literature: implications for consent to ECT.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2006-01-01

    The author reviewed the placebo-controlled literature on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. No study demonstrated a significant difference between real and placebo (sham) ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Many studies failed to find a difference between real and sham ECT even during the period of treatment. Claims in textbooks and review articles that ECT is effective are not consistent with the published data. A large, properly designed study of real versus sham ECT should be undertaken. In the absence of such a study, consent forms for ECT should include statements that there is no controlled evidence demonstrating any benefit from ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Consent forms should also state that real ECT is only marginally more effective than placebo. PMID:16856307

  8. Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Equipped with Four Secondary Carriers for Compatible Solutes: Identification, Sequencing, and Characterization of the Proline/Ectoine Uptake System, ProP, and the Ectoine/Proline/Glycine Betaine Carrier, EctP

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Heidi; Weil, Brita; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the compatible solutes glycine betaine, proline, and ectoine for protection against hyperosmotic shock. Osmoregulated glycine betaine carrier BetP and proline permease PutP have been previously characterized; we have identified and characterized two additional osmoregulated secondary transporters for compatible solutes in C. glutamicum, namely, the proline/ectoine carrier, ProP, and the ectoine/glycine betaine/proline carrier, EctP. A ΔbetP ΔputP ΔproP ΔectP mutant was unable to respond to hyperosmotic stress, indicating that no additional uptake system for these compatible solutes is present. Osmoregulated ProP consists of 504 residues and preferred proline (Km, 48 μM) to ectoine (Km, 132 μM). The proP gene could not be expressed from its own promoter in C. glutamicum; however, expression was observed in Escherichia coli. ProP belongs to the major facilitator superfamily, whereas EctP, together with the betaine carrier, BetP, is a member of a newly established subfamily of the sodium/solute symporter superfamily. The constitutively expressed ectP codes for a 615-residue transporter. EctP preferred ectoine (Km, 63 μM) to betaine (Km, 333 μM) and proline (Km, 1,200 μM). Its activity was regulated by the external osmolality. The related betaine transporter, BetP, could be activated directly by altering the membrane state with local anesthetics, but this was not the case for EctP. Furthermore, the onset of osmotic activation was virtually instantaneous for BetP, whereas it took about 10 s for EctP. PMID:9811661

  9. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  10. Corynebacterium glutamicum is equipped with four secondary carriers for compatible solutes: identification, sequencing, and characterization of the proline/ectoine uptake system, ProP, and the ectoine/proline/glycine betaine carrier, EctP.

    PubMed

    Peter, H; Weil, B; Burkovski, A; Krämer, R; Morbach, S

    1998-11-01

    Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the compatible solutes glycine betaine, proline, and ectoine for protection against hyperosmotic shock. Osmoregulated glycine betaine carrier BetP and proline permease PutP have been previously characterized; we have identified and characterized two additional osmoregulated secondary transporters for compatible solutes in C. glutamicum, namely, the proline/ectoine carrier, ProP, and the ectoine/glycine betaine/proline carrier, EctP. A DeltabetP DeltaputP DeltaproP DeltaectP mutant was unable to respond to hyperosmotic stress, indicating that no additional uptake system for these compatible solutes is present. Osmoregulated ProP consists of 504 residues and preferred proline (Km, 48 microM) to ectoine (Km, 132 microM). The proP gene could not be expressed from its own promoter in C. glutamicum; however, expression was observed in Escherichia coli. ProP belongs to the major facilitator superfamily, whereas EctP, together with the betaine carrier, BetP, is a member of a newly established subfamily of the sodium/solute symporter superfamily. The constitutively expressed ectP codes for a 615-residue transporter. EctP preferred ectoine (Km, 63 microM) to betaine (Km, 333 microM) and proline (Km, 1,200 microM). Its activity was regulated by the external osmolality. The related betaine transporter, BetP, could be activated directly by altering the membrane state with local anesthetics, but this was not the case for EctP. Furthermore, the onset of osmotic activation was virtually instantaneous for BetP, whereas it took about 10 s for EctP.

  11. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-06-18

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed.

  12. A Generic Method for Distribution and Transfer of ECTS and Other Norm-Referenced Grades within Student Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfvinge, Per

    2008-01-01

    The ECTS grade transfer scale is an interface grade scale to help European universities, students and employers to understand the level of student achievement. Hence, the ECTS scale can be seen as an interface, transforming local scales to a common system where A-E denote passing grades. By definition, ECTS should distribute the passing students…

  13. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  14. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  15. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  16. Tipping news in information accumulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. K.

    2010-05-01

    As a continuous opinion dynamics model, the information accumulation system (IAS) includes three basic mechanisms of the news, the inheritance and the diffusion as contributing to the information accumulation process of a system. A system is composed of agents who diffuse information through internal interaction, while each of them has incomplete memory or inheritance rate. The news comes from external sources of information, such as mass media. Previously the model IAS was studied only for the small news problems. In this study, a tipping news problem is considered. A key question of the problem is: what is the minimum strength of advertisement that can tip the minority opinion to a majority one? Dynamics of the IAS is briefly revisited with a special interest on nonlinear behavior of the model. In particular, it is shown that a discrete map of the IAS for a single color problem can be transformed into a logistic map, from which the dynamics of the IAS can be better understood. To show the applicability of the IAS model, the result is applied to explain the concept of the critical population size, which claims that there is a minimum population size for a social knowledge system to be continuously inherited without being lost. And critical size of the tipping news is found analytically in terms of IAS parameters. Some of the key results from the present study are compared in detail with the results from the Brownian particle model, which is believed to be the most similar model to the IAS. The concept of tipping news is used to show that a traditional society can tip at an exceptionally low inter-community exposure. Finally, the result was applied to the language competition problem.

  17. ECT and Autism--Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey-Dale, Susan R.

    This report describes using Environmental Communication Teaching (ECT) to assist students with autism spectrum disorder. The paper compares several key points of the ECT approach with other common intervention methods for students with autism and identifies the features of intervention programs or approaches that should be considered when planning…

  18. Evidence Accumulation in the Magnitude System

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Anna; Walsh, Vincent; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers) have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number) in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively) or after (retrospectively) a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules. PMID:24339998

  19. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  20. Model-based estimation for dynamic cardiac studies using ECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, P.C.; Rogers, W.L.; Clinthorne, N.H.; Fessler, J.A.; Hero, A.O. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a strategy for joint estimation of physiological parameters and myocardial boundaries using ECT (Emission Computed Tomography). The authors construct an observation model to relate parameters of interest to the projection data and to account for limited ECT system resolution and measurement noise. The authors then use a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to jointly estimate all the parameters directly from the projection data without reconstruction of intermediate images. The authors also simulate myocardial perfusion studies based on a simplified heart model to evaluate the performance of the model-based joint ML estimator and compare this performance to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Finally, model assumptions and potential uses of the joint estimation strategy are discussed.

  1. Accumulator isolator prevents malfunctioning of faulty hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, G. D.

    1967-01-01

    Special isolator valve prevents malfunction of a closed hydraulic system by converting the initial accumulator-reservoir to a reservoir function only when the system loses oil, or gaseous nitrogen precharge, or has a jammed piston. This permits near-normal operation until the defect is corrected.

  2. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  3. Serum potassium changes with e.C.T.

    PubMed

    Shukla, G D; Srivastava, S L; Kaur, A; Varma, D D; Doshi, L D

    1982-04-01

    Serum potassium changes with direct E.C.T. and with modified E.C.T., given under three anaesthetic (thiopentone, diazepam and propanidid) and relaxant (suxamethonium) combinations were studied in 25 patients. Ten patients each, undergoing minor surgical procedures, acted as controls for these three combinations. Modified E.C.T. caused a rise in scram potassium, which, being highest at 3 minutes, was sustained well beyond 10 minutes. Direct E.C.T. caused maximum rise within one minute which, however, came down rapidly. The rise following modified E.C.T. was one and half times more compared to that occurring in controls given only drugs but not E.C.T., in all the three anaesthetic-relaxant combinations. The rise from pre-induction level was maximum following diazepam and minimum with propanidid, thiopentone falling in between. The rise from pre-relaxant level, on the other hand, was maximum with thiopentone and minimum with propanidid.

  4. Students’ Factors Affecting Undergraduates’ Perceptions of their Teaching and Learning Process within ECTS Experience

    PubMed Central

    la Fuente, Jesús De; Cardelle-Elawar, María; Peralta, F. Javier; Sánchez, M. Dolores; Martínez-Vicente, José Manuel; Zapata, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, we investigated the potential factors that influenced the level of students satisfaction with the teaching–learning process (TLP), from the perspective of students participating in the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) experience. Method: A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain) participated in an evaluation of their class discipline area. They completed the new revised protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of variance were carried out, taking the following factors as independent variables: student's grade average, year in school, study discipline, credit load in terms of ECTS credits assigned to a subject, the e-learning approach. Perception of the TLP was used as the dependent variable. Results: The data analyses showed variability of the degree of statistically significance among the factors that influenced students’ perceptions of the TLP. These factors included: Student's grade average (in favor of high performers), year in school (in favor of earlier years), ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits), and e-learning (in favor of its use). These research findings provided evidence to explore the delineation of a potential profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of the TLP. Discussion and Conclusion: The present findings certainly have implications to deepen our understanding of the core beliefs, commitment, and the experience in shaping the implementation of the European Higher Education Area through the ECTS. PMID:21713171

  5. ECT in dissociative identity disorder and comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    DeBattista, C; Solvason, H B; Spiegel, D

    1998-12-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID), previously named multiple personality disorder, is a diagnosis often complicated by comorbid major depression. We report on four cases of DID associated with severe self-destructive behavior and comorbid major depression treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In three of the patients, ECT appeared to be helpful in treating the comorbid depression without adversely affecting the DID. The potential risks of using ECT in patients with DID are reviewed.

  6. Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems

    PubMed Central

    Baaske, Philipp; Weinert, Franz M.; Duhr, Stefan; Lemke, Kono H.; Russell, Michael J.; Braun, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We simulate molecular transport in elongated hydrothermal pore systems influenced by a thermal gradient. We find extreme accumulation of molecules in a wide variety of plugged pores. The mechanism is able to provide highly concentrated single nucleotides, suitable for operations of an RNA world at the origin of life. It is driven solely by the thermal gradient across a pore. On the one hand, the fluid is shuttled by thermal convection along the pore, whereas on the other hand, the molecules drift across the pore, driven by thermodiffusion. As a result, millimeter-sized pores accumulate even single nucleotides more than 108-fold into micrometer-sized regions. The enhanced concentration of molecules is found in the bulk water near the closed bottom end of the pore. Because the accumulation depends exponentially on the pore length and temperature difference, it is considerably robust with respect to changes in the cleft geometry and the molecular dimensions. Whereas thin pores can concentrate only long polynucleotides, thicker pores accumulate short and long polynucleotides equally well and allow various molecular compositions. This setting also provides a temperature oscillation, shown previously to exponentially replicate DNA in the protein-assisted PCR. Our results indicate that, for life to evolve, complicated active membrane transport is not required for the initial steps. We find that interlinked mineral pores in a thermal gradient provide a compelling high-concentration starting point for the molecular evolution of life. PMID:17494767

  7. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  8. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  9. Space nuclear system volume accumulator development (SNAP program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering, design, and fabrication status of the volume accumulator units to be employed in the NaK primary and secondary coolant loops of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system are described. Three identical VAU's are required - two for the primary coolant loop, and one for the secondary coolant loop. The VAU's utilize nested-formed bellows as the flexing member, are hermetically sealed, provide double containment and utilize a combination of gas pressure force and bellows spring force to obtain the desired pressure regulation of the coolant loops. All parts of the VAU, except the NaK inlet tube, are to be fabricated from Inconel 718.

  10. Debunking EHEA Myths: Common ECTS Misconceptions and Why They Are Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The present article seeks to overcome some of the most common misconceptions which are currently proliferating in the application of the "European Credit Transfer System" (ECTS) at tertiary level. It presents and unpacks seven false myths affecting all the main curricular and organizational levels of the implementation of the new credit…

  11. Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithms for Maximum a Posteriori ECT Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Andrzej; Li, Si; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the maximum a posteriori (MAP) emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem. Specifically, we formulate the reconstruction problem as a constrained convex optimization problem with the total variation (TV) regularization. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constrain involved in the problem. The characterization (of the solution) via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix (the EM-preconditioner) for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. We prove theoretically convergence of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm with TV regularizer (EM-TV) and that of the recently developed nested EM-TV algorithm for ECT reconstruction. Based on the numerical experiments performed in this work, we observe that the alternating projection algorithm with the EM-preconditioner outperforms significantly the EM-TV in all aspects including the convergence speed, the noise in the reconstructed images and the image quality. It also outperforms the nested EM-TV in the convergence speed while providing comparable image quality. PMID:23271835

  12. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  13. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  14. Fast proximity algorithm for MAP ECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Krol, Andrzej; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2012-03-01

    We arrived at the fixed-point formulation of the total variation maximum a posteriori (MAP) regularized emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem and we proposed an iterative alternating scheme to numerically calculate the fixed point. We theoretically proved that our algorithm converges to unique solutions. Because the obtained algorithm exhibits slow convergence speed, we further developed the proximity algorithm in the transformed image space, i.e. the preconditioned proximity algorithm. We used the bias-noise curve method to select optimal regularization hyperparameters for both our algorithm and expectation maximization with total variation regularization (EM-TV). We showed in the numerical experiments that our proposed algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioner, outperformed conventional EM-TV algorithm in many critical aspects, such as comparatively very low noise and bias for Shepp-Logan phantom. This has major ramification for nuclear medicine because clinical implementation of our preconditioned fixed-point algorithms might result in very significant radiation dose reduction in the medical applications of emission tomography.

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in literature: Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    Sylvia Plath's well-known novel, The Bell Jar, recounts her experience of a severe depressive episode. In the novel, the protagonist is treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), as was Plath in life. The first ECT is given in the now-obsolete "unmodified" form, without general anesthesia. Later in the story, she receives ECT again, this time with full general anesthesia and muscle relaxation, as is the standard of care today. This chapter examines how the novelistic descriptions of the treatment compare with actual clinical practice.

  16. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. PMID:24275108

  17. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively.

  18. Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

  19. Effectiveness of ECT combined with risperidone against aggression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S; Ashby, C R; Mills, M J

    2001-03-01

    Aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients can often be problematic not only for the patients themselves, but for their families and others. This study examined the effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in combination with risperidone in an open trial in 10 male schizophrenic patients with significant aggressive behaviors. Patients were given bilateral ECT five times a week in combination with risperidone. The mean total number of times of ECT was 6.6 (range 5-9). The aggressive behavior in five of the six patients, who showed positive symptoms, was rapidly ameliorated within 12 days. The ECT/risperidone regimen also eliminated aggressive behavior in four patients showing no positive symptoms within 10 days. These treatment effects lasted for at least 6 months in 9 (of the 10) patients. The results suggest that ECT, combined with risperidone, produce a rapid and effective elimination of aggressive behaviors in schizophrenic patients. In addition, there was a resolution of aggression in four patients with no positive symptoms. This suggests that aggression in some schizophrenic patients develops as a primary symptom of schizophrenia and is not related to other positive symptoms of the disease or the patient's personality traits. PMID:11281510

  20. Automated control and data acquisition system for lithium-ion accumulators test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Shtabel, N. V.

    2015-10-01

    In the article authors describe architecture of an automated data acquisition system for lithium ion accumulators lifetime test bench. The system is based on high performance data acquisition modules and allows acquisition of data in the process of simultaneous testing of 12 accumulators, including current, voltage and temperature of each accumulator. LabView based software is used to control testing, registration of data and loading of test program into system modules.

  1. ECT imaging with Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid useful to detect lung metastases of osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Nakajima, T.; Sakahara, H.; Torizuka, K.; Kotoura, Y.; Yokoyama, A.

    1985-01-01

    ECT imaging, using Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS) was performed in two patients with lung metastasis of osteosarcoma, and the results were compared with those of CT scan. Clear accumulation of Tc(V)-DMS was recognized in all cases in the same area that CT scans demonstrated. Tc(V)-DMS was labeled under optimal pH 8, had very low SnCl/sub 2/ concentrations, an equilibrium between a stable form and a dissociated form of anion TcO/sub 4/(3-) structurally similar to PO/sub 4/(3-), and was postulated for tumor uptake. Considering this proposed mechanism for Tc(V)-DMS uptake by tumor cells, ECT imaging using this tracer could be of use in the early detection of lung metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  2. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  3. The dynamic behavior of Ect2 in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    He, Dan; Xiang, Jinnan; Li, Baojie; Liu, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    Ect2 is a BRCT-containing guanidine exchange factor for Rho GTPases. It is essential for cytokinesis and is also involved in tumorigenesis. Since most BRCT-containing proteins are involved in DNA damage response and/or DNA repair, we tested whether Ect2 plays similar roles. We report that in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), DNA damage quickly led to Ect2 relocalization to the chromatin and DNA damage foci-like structures. Ect2 knockdown did not affect foci localization of γH2AX, TopBP1, or Brca1, or activation of Atm, yet it impeded p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and activation, and resulted in defects in apoptosis and activation of S and G2/M checkpoints in response to DNA damage. These results suggest that Ect2 plays a role in DNA damage response. Interestingly, Ect2 is down-regulated at late stages of DNA damage response. Although p53 and E2F1 have been shown to regulate Ect2 transcription, DNA damage-induced Ect2 down-regulation occurred in p53−/− or Atm−/− MEFs and E2F1 knockdown cells. Instead, DNA damage-induced Ect2 down-regulation is mainly attributable to decreased protein stability. Like Ect2 knockdown, Ect2 destabilization may help the cell to recover from DNA damage response. These results suggest that Ect2 plays roles in multiple aspects of DNA damage response. PMID:27074761

  4. Successful use of right unilateral ECT for catatonia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Pilar; Jewkes, Delaina; Mon, Thetsu; Conway, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome involving motor signs in association with disorders of mood, behavior, or thought. Bitemporal electrode placement electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a proven effective treatment for catatonia, and this mode of ECT delivery is the preferred method of treatment in this condition. Studies in major depressive disorder have demonstrated that suprathreshold, nondominant (right) hemisphere, unilateral electrode placement ECT has fewer adverse effects, especially cognitive adverse effects, than bitemporal ECT. This case series describes the use of right unilateral (RUL) ECT in 5 patients with catatonia. Before ECT, all 5 patients in this series initially failed therapy with benzodiazepines and psychotropic medications. Each catatonic patient received a series of 8 to 12 RUL ECT in an every-other-day series. After ECT, 4 of the 5 patients had a full recovery from catatonia. One patient achieved only partial response to RUL ECT, and no additional benefit was obtained with bitemporal ECT. All patients in this case series tolerated RUL ECT without major adverse effects. This case series illustrates successful use of RUL ECT in patients with catatonia and adds to the early literature demonstrating its effective use in treating this complex condition.

  5. Production and characterization of ectoine by Marinococcus sp. ECT1 isolated from a high-salinity environment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Fang-Wei; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chen, Shan-Yu

    2011-03-01

    A halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt environment in southern Taiwan was identified as a Marinococcus sp. ECT1. This bacterium could synthesize and accumulate intracellular ectoine as a compatible solute capable of resisting osmotic stress in a hyper-osmotic environment. This study also developed a semi-synthesized medium (YAMS medium), capable of facilitating the growth of this Marinococcus sp. ECT1 with 600 mg/L crude ectoine production. Moreover, Marinococcus sp. ECT1 was grown on YAMS medium containing different initial yeast extract concentrations (C(YE)) (0 to 60 g/L) to demonstrate how C(YE) affects crude ectoine production. While the maximum cell concentration was increased by 23-fold when the C(YE) was 40 g/L, the maximum crude ectoine production reached 2.5 g/L when C(YE) was 40 g/L. In addition to demonstrating the success of the fermentation strategy of ectoine in increasing the production and production yield, experimental results further demonstrated that the fermentation medium of ectoine is highly promising for commercialization. Furthermore, the molecular weight and chemical structure of ectoine were identified and characterized by FAB-MS and (1)H-NMR.

  6. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF CONTAMINANTS FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  7. Gold enrichment in active geothermal systems by accumulating colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark; Harðardóttir, Vigdis; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Brown, Kevin L.

    2016-04-01

    The origins of high-grade hydrothermal ore deposits are debated, but active geothermal systems provide important clues to their formation. The highest concentrations of gold are found in geothermal systems with direct links to island arc magmatism. Yet, similar concentrations have also been found in the absence of any input from arc magmas, for example, in the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Here we analyse brine samples taken from deep wells at Reykjanes and find that gold concentrations in the reservoir zone have increased over the past seven years from an average of 3 ppb to 14 ppb. The metal concentrations greatly exceed the maximum solubility of gold in the reservoir under saturated conditions and are now nearly two orders of magnitude higher than in mid-ocean ridge black smoker fluids--the direct analogues of Reykjanes deep liquids. We suggest that ongoing extraction of brine, the resulting pressure drop, and increased boiling have caused gold to drop out of solution and become trapped in the reservoir as a colloidal suspension. This process may explain how the stock of metal in the reservoirs of fossil geothermal systems could have increased over time and thus become available for the formation of gold-rich ore deposits.

  8. System and method for accumulative double sided incremental forming

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Jian; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2015-10-27

    A forming system includes first and second tools, moving assemblies, and a control unit. The moving assemblies move the first tool and the second tool relative to the sheet. The control unit is configured to control movement of the first tool and the second tool by the one or more moving assemblies by moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in a first deformation direction to deform the sheet, then moving the first and second tools laterally relative to the sheet to a subsequent location while engaging the sheet, then moving at least one of the first tool or the second tool in the first deformation direction or an opposite second deformation direction to deform the sheet, and then continue moving the first and second tools to deform the sheet in order to create a three-dimensional component from the sheet.

  9. An experimental investigation of nonresonance photon accumulation in a system of spherical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. S.; Atlukhanov, M. G.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ushkova, M. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    A new, nonresonant approach to photon accumulation in a system of two spherical mirrors is demonstrated experimentally. A high accumulation coefficient is obtained experimentally, and sufficient efficiency of this technique for application in such areas as spectroscopy, photochemistry, and photon neutralization of negative-ion beams is demonstrated. The photon accumulation efficiency is determined mainly by mirror reflectivity. It is nearly independent of the quality of the coupled-in radiation and does not require very high precision in aligning optical elements. The experimentally obtained data agree with theoretical calculations.

  10. 18 CFR 367.30 - Cost accumulation system for associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.30 Cost accumulation system for associate companies. Service... system for associate companies. 367.30 Section 367.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED...

  11. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  12. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems.

    PubMed

    Vardanyan, Lilit G; Ingole, Baban S

    2006-02-01

    Aquatic macrophytes are unchangeable biological filters and they carry out purification of the water bodies by accumulating dissolved metals and toxins in their tissue. In view of their potential to entrap several toxic heavy metals, 45 macrophytes belonging to 8 families collected from two different physiographic locations (36 from Sevan Lake, Armenia; 9 from Carambolim Lake, Old Goa, India) were studied for estimation of 14 heavy metals. The study was aimed at understanding the importance of these macrophytes in accumulation of toxic metals and controlling the heavy metal pollution and suggesting the remedial measures, if any, for the preservation and restoration of lake ecosystem. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (ICP-AES) analyses of these aquatic macrophytes have shown the importance of aquatic macrophytes in accumulation of heavy metals and maintaining the clarity of water bodies beside their role in trophic systems. Accumulation of most of the heavy metals was higher in root system. The representative macrophytes from two different physiographic locations show similar trends and order in accumulating different metals generally. Of the 14 metals investigated, 9 (Ca, Fe, Al, Cr, Cu, Ba, Ti, Co and Pb) showed higher rates of accumulation in the root whereas 3 (Mn, Zn and Mg) showed more accumulation in stem and 1 (Ca) showed higher accumulation in the leaves. In most of the samples Cu was accumulated more in the roots (50+/-47.15 microg/g) and less in flowers (9.52+/-3.97 microg/g). Occurrence of heavy metal was much higher in macrophytes of Sevan Lake than that of the Carambolim Lake. The accumulation of 14 elements was in order of Ca>Mg>Fe>Al>Mn>Ba>Zn>Ti>Cu>Cr>Co>Ni>Pb>Cd. The present study revealed that the aquatic macrophytes play a very significant role in removing the different metals from the ambient environments. They probably play a major role in reducing the effect of high concentration of heavy metals. Therefore, the

  13. 18 CFR 367.30 - Cost accumulation system for associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost accumulation system for associate companies. 367.30 Section 367.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED...

  14. An ECT/ERT dual-modality sensor for oil-water two-phase flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pitao; Wang, Huaxiang; Sun, Benyuan; Cui, Ziqiang; Huang, Wenrui

    2014-04-11

    This paper presents a new sensor for ECT/ERT dual-modality system which can simultaneously obtain the permittivity and conductivity of the materials in the pipeline. Quasi-static electromagnetic fields are produced by the inner electrodes array sensor of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system. The results of simulation show that the data of permittivity and conductivity can be simultaneously obtained from the same measurement electrode and the fusion of two kinds of data may improve the quality of the reconstructed images. For uniform oil-water mixtures, the performance of designed dual-modality sensor for measuring the various oil fractions has been tested on representative data and the results of experiments show that the designed sensor broadens the measurement range compared to single modality.

  15. Role of EctR as transcriptional regulator of ectoine biosynthesis genes in Methylophaga thalassica.

    PubMed

    Mustakhimov, I I; Reshetnikov, A S; Fedorov, D N; Khmelenina, V N; Trotsenko, Y A

    2012-08-01

    In the halophilic aerobic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga thalassica, the genes encoding the enzymes for biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine were shown to be located in operon ectABC-ask. Transcription of the ect-operon was started from the two promoters homologous to the σ(70)-dependent promoter of Escherichia coli and regulated by protein EctR, whose encoding gene, ectR, is transcribed from three promoters. Genes homologous to ectR of methylotrophs were found in clusters of ectoine biosynthesis genes in some non-methylotrophic halophilic bacteria. EctR proteins of methylotrophic and heterotrophic halophiles belong to the MarR-family of transcriptional regulators but form a separate branch on the phylogenetic tree of the MarR proteins.

  16. Electronic Current Transducer (ECT) for high voltage dc lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, J. M.; Peters, P. H., Jr.; Summerayes, H. R., Jr.; Carlson, G. J.; Itani, A. M.

    1980-02-01

    The development of a bipolar electronic current transducer (ECT) for measuring the current in a high voltage dc (HVDC) power line at line potential is discussed. The design and construction of a free standing ECT for use on a 400 kV line having a nominal line current of 2000 A is described. Line current is measured by a 0.0001 ohm shunt whose voltage output is sampled by a 14 bit digital data link. The high voltage interface between line and ground is traversed by optical fibers which carry digital light signals as far as 300 m to a control room where the digital signal is converted back to an analog representation of the shunt voltage. Two redundant electronic and optical data links are used in the prototype. Power to operate digital and optical electronics and temperature controlling heaters at the line is supplied by a resistively and capacitively graded 10 stage cascade of ferrite core transformers located inside the hollow, SF6 filled, porcelain support insulator. The cascade is driven by a silicon controlled rectifier inverter which supplies about 100 W of power at 30 kHz.

  17. EEG DELTA BAND SPECTRAL POWER: DIFFERNECES BETWEEN UNILATERAL AND BILATERAL ECT SEIZURES

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, D.Narayana; Mahapatra, P.K.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Sadasivan, P.K.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Subbakrishna, D.K.; Rao, K.M. Jyoti

    1997-01-01

    EEG was recorded from right and left frontal leads during bilateral (n=11) and unilateral (n=l4) ECTs. The seizure EEG was analyzed using East Fourier ′Transform and the spectral power oj the Delta (1-4 Hz) band was computed. The spectral power on both sides was similar in the bilateral ECT. Unilateral ECT produced asymmetry in the early - (first 8 seconds after stimulus offset) and mid - (17-32 seconds after the stimulus offset) siezure phases; the spectral power was lower on the unstimulated hemisphere. Studies to elucidate the relevance of EEG delta band of the seizure to therapeutic potency of ECT are suggested. PMID:21584046

  18. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  19. Unilateral and bilateral ECT: a study of memory disturbance and relief from depression

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, D.; Bodley, P.; Potts, L.; Mather, Marcia D.; Gardner, R. K.; Tobin, Jean C.

    1970-01-01

    Fifty-one endogenous and reactive female depressives were given a course of either unilateral non-dominant, unilateral dominant, or bilateral ECT. Visual and verbal memory tests and confusion ratings were administered at frequent intervals during the treatment course. Pre-and post-treatment assessments of depression were made. Comparisons of the therapeutic effect of six and of eight ECTs were studied separately. One month after the last ECT the patients were again assessed on the memory and the depression tests. The results of the memory tests indicate that unilateral non-dominant ECT produced least memory disturbance (particularly of a verbal kind) and also less immediate confusion within 40 minutes of each ECT. This observation applies more to the reactive than the endogenous group. Comparisons of the depression tests reveal that unilateral non-dominant ECT is as effective in relieving depression as bilateral ECT, though progress may be less rapid. The observation holds true only for the reactive depressives. Endogenous depressives benefit more from bilateral ECT. Caution is advised against the administration of unilateral dominant ECT, since this group does not respond to treatment as well as the other two groups. Degree of improvement as a whole does not appear to be related to the degree of confusion experienced. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:5478954

  20. Synthesis, accumulation, and release of D-aspartate in the Aplysia californica central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, Cory; Shi, Ting; Hatcher, Nathan G.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2010-01-01

    D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous molecule that is often detected in central nervous system and endocrine tissues. Using capillary electrophoresis and a variety of radionuclide detection techniques, we examine the synthesis, release, and uptake/accumulation of D-Asp in the central nervous system of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. We observe the preferential synthesis and accumulation of D-Asp over L-aspartate (L-Asp) in neuron-containing ganglia compared to surrounding sheath tissues. Little conversion of D-Asp to L-Asp is detected. The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and elevated extracellular potassium stimulates release of D-Asp from the cerebral ganglia. Lastly, radioactive D-Asp in the extracellular media is efficiently taken up and accumulated by individual F-cluster neurons. These observations point to a role for D-Asp in cell-to-cell signaling with many characteristics similar to classical transmitters. PMID:20874765

  1. An Adaptive Method for Reducing Clock Skew in an Accumulative Z-Axis Interconnect System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary; Boyce, Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper will present several methods for adjusting clock skew variations that occur in a n accumulative z-axis interconnect system. In such a system, delay between modules in a function of their distance from one another. Clock distribution in a high-speed system, where clock skew must be kept to a minimum, becomes more challenging when module order is variable before design.

  2. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  3. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-20

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  4. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  5. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  6. DIS[subscript 2]ECT: A Framework for Effective Inclusive Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Flannagan, Jenny Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide special education and general education teachers a framework (DIS[subscript 2]ECT) for teaching science in inclusive settings. DIS2ECT stands for Design (Backwards); Individualization; Scaffolding and Strategies; Experiential learning; Cooperative Learning; and Teamwork. This framework was derived from our…

  7. Supporting Open Access to European Academic Courses: The ASK-CDM-ECTS Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and evaluate a web-based tool, namely ASK-CDM-ECTS, which facilitates authoring and publishing on the web descriptions of (open) academic courses in machine-readable format using an application profile of the Course Description Metadata (CDM) specification, namely CDM-ECTS. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  8. 7 CFR 985.31 - Research and development proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development proj-ects. 985.31 Section 985... Research § 985.31 Research and development proj-ects. The Committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research...

  9. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. PMID:26233656

  10. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

  11. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  12. Feasibility and safety of electrochemotherapy (ECT) in the pancreas: a pre-clinical investigation

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Roberto; Prejanò, Simona; Cataldo, Ivana; Corbo, Vincenzo; Martini, Lucia; Scarpa, Aldo; Claudio, Bassi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease generally refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents; therefore improvements in anticancer therapies are mandatory. A major determinant of therapeutic resistance in PDAC is the poor drug delivery to neoplastic cells, mainly due to an extensive fibrotic reaction. Electroporation can be used in vivo to increase cancer cells’ local uptake of chemotherapeutics (electrochemotherapy, ECT), thus leading to an enhanced tumour response rate. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of reversible electroporation in normal pancreas in a rabbit experimental model. We also tested the effect of electroporation on pancreatic cancer cell lines in order to evaluate their increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Materials and methods. The application in vivo of the European Standard Operating Procedure of Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE) pulse protocol (1000 V/cm, 8 pulses, 100 μs, 5 KHz) was tested on the pancreas of normal New Zealand White Rabbits and short and long-term toxicity were assessed. PANC1 and MiaPaCa2 cell lines were tested for in vitro electrochemotherapy experiments with and without electroporation. Levels of cell permeabilization were determined by flow cytometry, whereas cell viability and drug (cisplatin and bleomycin) sensitivity of pulsed cells were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Results. In healthy rabbits, neither systemic nor local toxic effects due to the electroporation procedure were observed, demonstrating the safety of the optimized electric parameters in the treatment of the pancreas in vivo. In parallel, we established an optimized protocol for ECT in vitro that determined an enhanced anti-cancer effect of bleomycin and cisplatin with respect to treatment without electroporation. Conclusions. Our data suggest that electroporation is a safe procedure in the treatment of PDAC

  13. Vascular invasion routes and systemic accumulation patterns of tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Cheng, N H; Su, C L; Carter, S A; Nelson, R S

    2000-08-01

    Plant viruses must enter the host vascular system in order to invade the young growing parts of the plant rapidly. Functional entry sites into the leaf vascular system for rapid systemic infection have not been determined for any plant/virus system. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) entry into minor, major and transport veins from non-vascular cells of Nicotiana benthamiana in source tissue and its exit from veins in sink tissue was studied using a modified virus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using a surgical procedure that isolated specific leaf and stem tissues from complicating vascular tissues, we determined that TMV could enter minor, major or transport veins directly from non-vascular cells to produce a systemic infection. TMV first accumulated in abaxial or external phloem-associated cells in major veins and petioles of the inoculated leaf and stems below the inoculated leaf. It also initially accumulated exclusively in internal or adaxial phloem-associated cells in stems above the inoculated leaf and petioles or major veins of sink leaves. This work shows the functional equivalence of vein classes in source leaves for entry of TMV, and the lack of equivalence of vein classes in sink leaves for exit of TMV. Thus, the specialization of major veins for transport rather than loading of photoassimilates in source tissue does not preclude virus entry. During transport, the virus initially accumulates in specific vascular-associated cells, indicating that virus accumulation in this tissue is highly regulated. These findings have important implications for studies on the identification of symplasmic domains and host macromolecule vascular transport. PMID:10929128

  14. Apoptotic Debris Accumulates on Hematopoietic Cells and Promotes Disease in Murine and Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kang, SunAh; Rogers, Jennifer L; Monteith, Andrew J; Jiang, Chuancang; Schmitz, John; Clarke, Stephen H; Tarrant, Teresa K; Truong, Young K; Diaz, Marilyn; Fedoriw, Yuri; Vilen, Barbara J

    2016-05-15

    Apoptotic debris, autoantibody, and IgG-immune complexes (ICs) have long been implicated in the inflammation associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, it remains unclear whether they initiate immune-mediated events that promote disease. In this study, we show that PBMCs from SLE patients experiencing active disease, and hematopoietic cells from lupus-prone MRL/lpr and NZM2410 mice accumulate markedly elevated levels of surface-bound nuclear self-antigens. On dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MFs), the self-antigens are part of IgG-ICs that promote FcγRI-mediated signal transduction. Accumulation of IgG-ICs is evident on ex vivo myeloid cells from MRL/lpr mice by 10 wk of age and steadily increases prior to lupus nephritis. IgG and FcγRI play a critical role in disease pathology. Passive transfer of pathogenic IgG into IgG-deficient MRL/lpr mice promotes the accumulation of IgG-ICs prior to significant B cell expansion, BAFF secretion, and lupus nephritis. In contrast, diminishing the burden IgG-ICs in MRL/lpr mice through deficiency in FcγRI markedly improves these lupus pathologies. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for the cell surface accumulation of IgG-ICs in human and murine lupus. PMID:27059595

  15. The Incidence and Predictors of Headache and Myalgia in Patients After Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Emiralavi, Cyrus; Biazar, Gelareh; Mirmozaffari, Kaveh; Zahedan, Cyrus; Jafari, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective mode of therapy for a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. However, it is associated with some disturbing side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, dental and tongue injury, confusion, dizziness, headache, and myalgia. Objectives: The present study focused on the evaluation of myalgia and headache and their predictors after ECT. Patients and Methods: A prospective analytical descriptive study was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015, in an academic hospital in northern Iran. Before sampling, the study was approved by the ethics committee of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 621 patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred to Shafa hospital enrolled in the study. They were evaluated based on a verbal rating scale (4 point scales) 6 hours after ECT, regarding headache and myalgia side effects. Results: 6 hours after ECT, 126 patients (21.9%) reported headaches, and 56 patients (9%) reported myalgia. The presence of headache or myalgia 6 hours after ECT was not correlated to the duration of convulsion, treatment sessions, sex, or age. But myalgia at 2 hours after treatment was correlated with sex (0.04). Sex, age, duration of seizure, and treatment sessions were not predictors of headache and myalgia 6 hours after ECT (log regression, enter mode). The intensity and frequency of headaches decreased during 6 hours after ECT (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively), and myalgia frequency decreased (P = 0.062) but the intensity increased (P = 0.87). Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that headache after ECT procedures was more common than myalgia, but it was mild, tolerable, and decreased within 6 hours of the treatment. It is also notable that we did not found any predictors for post-ECT headache and myalgia. PMID:27761416

  16. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Steve A.

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  17. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  18. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  19. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawan, M. E.; Ghoniem, N. M.; Snead, L.; Katoh, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation damage parameters in SiC/SiC composite structures are determined in both magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems. Variations in the geometry, neutron energy spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters between the two systems. With the same neutron wall loading, the displacement damage rate in the first wall in an IFE system is ˜10% lower than in an MFE system, while gas production and burnup rates are a factor of 2 lower. Self-cooled LiPb and Flibe blankets were analyzed. While using LiPb results in higher displacement damage, Flibe yields higher gas production and burnup rates. The effects of displacement damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed.

  20. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  1. The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps. The current regulatory...

  2. Image accumulation, storage, and display system for a scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubin, J. A.; Wiggins, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a high resolution scanning transmission electron microscope data collection, storage, and display system. Included are a novel analog-to-digital converter, a digital hardware divider, a direct memory access interface to a PDP 11/20, a flicker-free gray scale TV display, two new gray scale hardcopy devices, and a software description of the system. The system described here accepts three 8-bit channels of image data from a single picture element every 30 μs. Each picture element intensity is measured simultaneously by three detectors. Scans of 64, 128, 256, or 512 lines of picture elements are provided. All the data are stored on one of eight disk files, and one of the three simultaneous data channels is displayed on a digitally refreshed TV screen in real time. Production of hard-copy images and magnetic tape images, and other manipulations of the data are provided after data accumulation is terminated.

  3. Emergency ECT in an incapacitated, medically compromised patient with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Magid, Michelle; Trevino, Kenneth; Reid, William H; Jalalat, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Kahn, David A

    2014-11-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is infrequently considered an "emergency" medical procedure; however, there are certain conditions in which there is considerable urgency to initiate ECT. For example, prompt administration of ECT to treat neuroleptic malignant syndrome and malignant catatonia is necessary to improve a patient's overall prognosis and potentially save the patient's life. In this case, a 57-year-old woman with Huntington's disease was admitted to our medical intensive care unit for failure to thrive due to severe psychotic symptoms. Prior to her admission, the patient had become increasingly psychotic and agitated, resulting in her refusal and/or inability to eat. Efforts to treat her severe psychiatric and behavioral symptoms with various psychopharmacological strategies were largely unsuccessful. As the patient's physical health continued to decline, with loss of approximately 35 pounds over 2 months, her family began making arrangements to transfer her to a hospice facility. The day before she was to be transferred, the psychiatry consultation-liaison service recommended ECT. Unfortunately, this recommendation was complicated because the patient was unable to provide consent. This case report describes the legal and administrative process used to ethically and legally administer ECT without consent from the patient or a court-appointed guardian in order to treat a life-threatening condition. To the best of our knowledge, this report documents the first time ECT has been granted "medical emergency" status in Texas.

  4. Slip distribution, strain accumulation and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear strain localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of strain

  5. Ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine accumulation in the halophile Virgibacillus halodenitrificans PDB-F2 in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Yu, Yunjiang; Gu, Jidong; Liu, Yongdi

    2016-08-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Virgibacillus halodenitrificans PDB-F2 copes with salinity by synthesizing or taking up compatible solutes. The main compatible solutes in this strain were ectoine and hydroxyectoine, as determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that ectoine was the major solute that was synthesized in response to elevated salinity, while hydroxyectoine was a minor solute. However, the hydroxyectoine/ectoine ratio increased from 0.04 at 3 % NaCl to 0.45 at 15 % NaCl in the late exponential growth phase. A cluster of ectoine biosynthesis genes was identified, including three genes in the order of ectA, ectB, and ectC. The hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene ectD was not part of the ectABC gene cluster. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) showed that the expression of the ect genes was salinity dependent. The expression of ectABC reached a maximum at 12 % NaCl, while ectD expression increased up to 15 % NaCl. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine production was growth phase dependent. The hydroxyectoine/ectoine ratio increased from 0.018 in the early exponential phase to 0.11 in the stationary phase at 5 % NaCl. Hydroxyectoine biosynthesis started much later than ectoine biosynthesis after osmotic shock, and the temporal expression of the ect genes differed under these conditions, with the ectABC genes being expressed first, followed by ectD gene. Increased culture salinity triggered ectoine or hydroxyectoine uptake when they were added to the medium. Hydroxyectoine was accumulated preferentially when both ectoine and hydroxyectoine were provided exogenously.

  6. Ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine accumulation in the halophile Virgibacillus halodenitrificans PDB-F2 in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Yu, Yunjiang; Gu, Jidong; Liu, Yongdi

    2016-08-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Virgibacillus halodenitrificans PDB-F2 copes with salinity by synthesizing or taking up compatible solutes. The main compatible solutes in this strain were ectoine and hydroxyectoine, as determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that ectoine was the major solute that was synthesized in response to elevated salinity, while hydroxyectoine was a minor solute. However, the hydroxyectoine/ectoine ratio increased from 0.04 at 3 % NaCl to 0.45 at 15 % NaCl in the late exponential growth phase. A cluster of ectoine biosynthesis genes was identified, including three genes in the order of ectA, ectB, and ectC. The hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene ectD was not part of the ectABC gene cluster. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) showed that the expression of the ect genes was salinity dependent. The expression of ectABC reached a maximum at 12 % NaCl, while ectD expression increased up to 15 % NaCl. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine production was growth phase dependent. The hydroxyectoine/ectoine ratio increased from 0.018 in the early exponential phase to 0.11 in the stationary phase at 5 % NaCl. Hydroxyectoine biosynthesis started much later than ectoine biosynthesis after osmotic shock, and the temporal expression of the ect genes differed under these conditions, with the ectABC genes being expressed first, followed by ectD gene. Increased culture salinity triggered ectoine or hydroxyectoine uptake when they were added to the medium. Hydroxyectoine was accumulated preferentially when both ectoine and hydroxyectoine were provided exogenously. PMID:27106915

  7. Polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms in one EBPR system for liquid dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Pruden, Amy; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F

    2014-07-01

    Two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) treating liquid dairy manure were operated with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT), but with different aeration cycles. During eight months of operation, both SBRs achieved good removal of total phosphorus (P) (TP; 56.8 and 73.5% for SBR1 and SBR2 respectively) and of orthophosphate (OP; 76.2 vs. 82.7%, P < 0.05). Growth dynamics of presumptive phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). SBR1 was enriched with a greater abundance of PAOs while SBR2 was characterized by a greater abundance of GAOs. These results demonstrate the capability of EBPR of dairy manure and challenge conventional wisdom, since greater abundance of PAOs in EBPR system was not associated with improved OP removal and greater abundance of GAOs did not indicate deterioration of the EBPR system. PMID:25112034

  8. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2014-01-01

    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way.

  9. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2014-01-01

    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way. PMID:24901627

  10. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  11. Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO₃⁻ accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH₄⁺. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO₃⁻. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO₃⁻-facilitated Cd accumulation in plants.

  12. Irrigation with industrial wastewater activates antioxidant system and osmoprotectant accumulation in lettuce, turnip and tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Hashem, H A; Hassanein, R A; El-Deep, M H; Shouman, A I

    2013-09-01

    We focused on the impact of industrial wastes on the water quality of the El-Amia drain in Egypt and the effect of irrigation with industrial wastewater on the growth, cell membranes, photosynthetic pigment content, the antioxidant system and selected osmoprotectants (proline, total amino nitrogen and soluble sugars) in three crop plants: turnip, tomato and lettuce. Furthermore, the present work focused on the analysis of the heavy metal content and its accumulation in the studied plants. For this purpose, water samples were collected 1, 10 and 19 km from the beginning of the drain and used for irrigation, with fresh water as a control. We found that industrial wastewater contained significant amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Co) warranted a pollution problem as their amounts exceed the maximum recommended concentrations according to FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water. The three crop plants accumulate significant amounts of heavy metals in their shoots and roots and showed a significant decrease in leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots, accompanied by a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigment content and damage to cell membranes, as indicated by increased electrolyte leakage and a lower membrane stability index. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, soluble sugar and total amino nitrogen content in response to irrigation with wastewater may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress.

  13. Irrigation with industrial wastewater activates antioxidant system and osmoprotectant accumulation in lettuce, turnip and tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Hashem, H A; Hassanein, R A; El-Deep, M H; Shouman, A I

    2013-09-01

    We focused on the impact of industrial wastes on the water quality of the El-Amia drain in Egypt and the effect of irrigation with industrial wastewater on the growth, cell membranes, photosynthetic pigment content, the antioxidant system and selected osmoprotectants (proline, total amino nitrogen and soluble sugars) in three crop plants: turnip, tomato and lettuce. Furthermore, the present work focused on the analysis of the heavy metal content and its accumulation in the studied plants. For this purpose, water samples were collected 1, 10 and 19 km from the beginning of the drain and used for irrigation, with fresh water as a control. We found that industrial wastewater contained significant amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Co) warranted a pollution problem as their amounts exceed the maximum recommended concentrations according to FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water. The three crop plants accumulate significant amounts of heavy metals in their shoots and roots and showed a significant decrease in leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots, accompanied by a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigment content and damage to cell membranes, as indicated by increased electrolyte leakage and a lower membrane stability index. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, soluble sugar and total amino nitrogen content in response to irrigation with wastewater may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. PMID:23790475

  14. A high-frequency response relaxed eddy accumulation flux measurement system for sampling short-lived biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Mowry, Fred L.; Hampton, Gary A.

    2013-05-01

    second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m-2 hr-1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozone removal procedure to allow for the measurement of highly reactive species such as β-caryophyllene and polar terpenoids such as linalool. A two-component internal standard continuously added to the accumulators was used to correct for switching-induced volumetric errors and as a check on VOC losses exceeding accumulator tube adsorption limits. In addition, the internal standards were used to demonstrate that accumulators quickly return to target flow rates at segregation valve switching frequencies up to at least 0.8 Hz. The system was able to measure daytime hourly fluxes of individual biogenic VOC including oxygenated terpenoids, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes.

  15. Anaerobic biodegradability and digestion in accumulation systems for concentrated black water and kitchen organic-wastes.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, T A; van Leeuwen, M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Sanders, W; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of two accumulation-systems (AC) for anaerobic digestion and storage of concentrated black water with (AC1) or without (AC2) urine + kitchen organic-wastes was investigated. The waste(water) was collected by two vacuum toilet/transport systems. The influent-total COD of the AC2 (53,000 mg/L) was more concentrated by four times than that of the AC1. The suspended COD represented the major part (71-73%) of influent total COD of the two systems. The batch-experiments results showed a high anaerobic biodegradability of the waste(water) (> 85%). The AC systems demonstrated stable performance. There was no inhibition effect of NH4 and VFA concentration decreased in time. Total COD removal of 58% was achieved in both systems, after 105 days at 20 degrees C. Moreover, if only the supernatant in AC1 is withdrawn and the settled sludge stays for the next runs, only 20% of the influent total COD will be in the supernatant. In AC2, 74% of influent ortho-P was removed by precipitation. Therefore, the settled sludge in the AC2 had a high total-P concentration of 1,300 mg/L. The C:N:P ratios of the supernatant and the sludge were 26:13:1 and 35:4.5:1, respectively, in the AC1, and were 28:14:1 and 32:2.4:1, respectively, in AC2.

  16. Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19 mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89 mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41 mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

  17. Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ming; Sato, Yoshiharu; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Zhang, Bin; Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a serious disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development caused by the failure of ENS precursor migration into the distal bowel. We now demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is crucial for GDNF-induced ENS precursor migration, cell polarization and lamellipodia formation, and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4–/–) mice. Ret heterozygosity increases the incidence and severity of distal bowel aganglionosis induced by vitamin A deficiency in Rbp4–/– animals. Furthermore, RA reduces phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) accumulation in migrating cells, whereas Pten overexpression slows ENS precursor migration. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that vitamin A deficiency is a non-genetic risk factor that increases Hirschsprung disease penetrance and expressivity, suggesting that some cases of Hirschsprung disease might be preventable by optimizing maternal nutrition. PMID:20110328

  18. Spin Hall Current Induced Edge-Spin Accumulation in Two-Dimensional Electron and Hole Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kentaro; Sinova, Jairo; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Joerg; Kaetsner, Bernd; MacDonald, Allan

    2006-03-01

    In spintronic devices, spin densities have traditionally been generated by external magnetic fields, circularly polarized light sources, or by spin injection from ferromagnets. Recently there has been considerable interest in a new strategy in which edge spin densities are generated electrically via the spin Hall effect. We have performed numerical studies on spin transport in two-dimensional systems with various spin-orbit interactions including both intrinsic and extrinsic effects. We find that the spin Hall current strongly depends on the character of the spin-orbit interactions. We address the relation between bulk spin currents and edge spin accumulations, and compare our results with recent experimental observations. K. Nomura, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 72 165316 (2005). K. Nomura, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, B. Kaetsner, A. H. MacDonald, T. Jungwirth, to appear in Phys. Rev. B 72. J. Wunderlich, B. Kaetsner, J. Sinova, T. Jungwirth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204 (2005).

  19. Changes in Ect2 Localization Couple Actomyosin-Dependent Cell Shape Changes to Mitotic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Helen K.; Delabre, Ulysse; Rohn, Jennifer L.; Guck, Jochen; Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2012-01-01

    Summary As they enter mitosis, animal cells undergo profound actin-dependent changes in shape to become round. Here we identify the Cdk1 substrate, Ect2, as a central regulator of mitotic rounding, thus uncovering a link between the cell-cycle machinery that drives mitotic entry and its accompanying actin remodeling. Ect2 is a RhoGEF that plays a well-established role in formation of the actomyosin contractile ring at mitotic exit, through the local activation of RhoA. We find that Ect2 first becomes active in prophase, when it is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, activating RhoA to induce the formation of a mechanically stiff and rounded metaphase cortex. Then, at anaphase, binding to RacGAP1 at the spindle midzone repositions Ect2 to induce local actomyosin ring formation. Ect2 localization therefore defines the stage-specific changes in actin cortex organization critical for accurate cell division. PMID:22898780

  20. Outcome of ECT by Race in the CORE Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark; Rummans, Teresa; Sampson, Shirlene; Knapp, Rebecca; Mueller, Martina; Husain, Mustafa M.; Fink, Max; Rasmussen, Keith; O’Connor, Kevin; Smith, Glenn; Petrides, George; Kellner, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors examine the differences in outcome between black and white patients receiving ECT as a part of the CORE multi-site study. Methods A total of 624 patients were enrolled in an NIMH-funded, randomized controlled ECT trial comparing the efficacy of continuation ECT versus continuation pharmacotherapy between 1997 and 2004. This analysis focuses on the 32 black and 483 white patients who participated in phase I of the study. The authors compared baseline demographic and clinical variables, and acute outcomes of these two groups. Results Compared to whites, far fewer blacks participated in the study. Those who did were less likely to have failed adequate medication trials and were more likely to have psychotic features. Their initial HAMD24 scores were higher than whites, and they showed a greater reduction in these HAMD24 scores by the end of the treatment period. While sample size limited the statistical significance of the findings, black patients also showed a higher rate of remission after an acute phase of ECT. Conclusions This study found that black and white patients with major depressive disorder had comparable outcomes. We also found that fewer black patients received ECT than whites, a difference that has been reported in other samples. PMID:18580553

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy: Part I. A perspective on the evolution and current practice of ECT.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nancy A; Prudic, Joan

    2009-09-01

    The concept of inducing convulsions, mainly through chemical means, to promote mental wellness has existed since the 16th century. In 1938, Italian scientists first applied electrically induced therapeutic seizures. Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is employed in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders, it is most frequently used today to treat severe depressive episodes and remains the most effective treatment available for those disorders. Despite this, ECT continues to be the most stigmatized treatment available in psychiatry, resulting in restrictions on and reduced accessibility to a helpful and potentially life-saving treatment. The psychiatric and psychosocial ramifications of this stigmatization may include the exacerbation of the increasingly serious, global health problem of major depressive disorders as well as serious consequences for individual patients who may not be offered, or may refuse, a potentially beneficial treatment. The goal of this first article in this two-part series is to provide an overview of ECT's historical development and discuss the current state of knowledge about ECT, including technical aspects of delivery, patient selection, its side-effect profile, and factors that may contribute to underuse of ECT.

  2. Use of ECT in Nepal: A One Year Study From the Country’s Largest Psychiatric Facility

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Sharma, Niru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT) refers to the electrical stimulation of the brain to produce seizures for therapeutic purpose. Since the development of ECT, it’s use has been consistent. Inspite of the common use, data pertaining to the use of ECT in Nepal is lacking. Aim This study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the clinico-demographic profile of patients treated with ECT in the largest psychiatry facility in the country. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective descriptive study of patients who were treated with ECT after admission in the inpatient psychiatry unit of Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal during a period of one year (August 2012 to July 2013). Results Out of 1095 patients admitted during the specified period, 81 (7.39%) patients received ECT. About 44.44% of the patients belonged to 20-29 years age group. Female patients constituted more than half of the subjects (55.56%). Review of diagnostic profile showed that majority of patients receiving ECT were suffering from Schizophrenia (44.4%), followed by Bipolar Affective Disorder/Mania (29.6%), Depressive disorder (11.1%), Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder (6.2%), Post-partum Psychosis (3.7%) and substance induced mood/psychotic disorders (3.7%). A significant majority of subjects (75.3%) received about 5-7 ECT treatments. The mean seizure duration after ECT treatment was 31.13±5.79 seconds. No any major complications were noted during ECT treatment. Conclusion This study suggests that ECT, use, as a treatment modality is common in young adults and females with Schizophrenia being the most common indication. Direct ECT is safe when used judiciously. PMID:27042563

  3. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs. PMID:26936790

  4. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs.

  5. Letter to the editor: The effect of ECT on sleep--a comment to Winkler et al.

    PubMed

    McCall, W Vaughn; Rosenquist, Peter B

    2015-02-01

    Recent publications in this journal have suggested that successful electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in depressed patients is associated with a phase advance, similar to what has been reported with antidepressant medications. Herein we review the effects of ECT on polysomnographic (PSG) sleep, and we conclude with the observation that ECT reliably increases PSG total sleep time and probably has a suppressive effect on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Remarkably, there is less information available on the topic of the effect of ECT on the patient's perception of their sleep. PMID:25434521

  6. Toxoplasmosis Infection and Cognitive Deficit after Electroconvulsive Treatment (ECT), Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    E. Berg, John

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has developed over 70 years to a modern, effective way of lifting depressive moods. Memory loss and visual acuity after electroconvulsive treatment is the only remaining relevant criticism of the treatment modality when considering the overall rate of remission from this treatment compared to all other treatment modalities. A depressive state impedes memory, and memory improves on several qualities of cognition after treatment. However, the comparison of a person’s memory ability from the months before depression started to the level after a course of ECT is never performed, for obvious reasons. Some infectious diseases are known to influence memory negatively through effects on the dopamine receptors. More specifically, former toxoplasmosis infection may be a factor. Preliminary data on titres of toxoplasma IgG may indicate a connection to the development of long-standing memory problems after ECT. PMID:24600630

  7. A High Frequency Response Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Flux Measurement System for Sampling Short-Lived Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second-generation relaxed eddy accumulation system was built and tested with the capability to measure vertical biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes at levels as low as 10 µg C m−2 hr−1. The system features a continuous, integrated gas-phase ozo...

  8. Design of Accumulators and Liquid/Gas Charging of Single Phase Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to

  9. Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  10. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area.

  11. Nitrogen accumulation tracks carbon in multispecies system under elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.B.; Polley, H.W.; Mayeux, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    The woody legume Acacia smallii (huisache), and two perennial grasses, Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem) and Stipa leucotricha (Texas wintergrass) were grown as monocultures and in mixture under CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370, 700, and 1000 {mu}L/L for more than two years. The fine sandy loam soil was unfertilized, enriched in N15, and inoculated with huisache rhizobia. Elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated nitrogen fixation by huisache. After one year 33%, 64% and 76% of foliar N in the woody legume was ascribable to nitrogen fixation in the 370, 700 and 1000 {mu}L/L treatments, respectively. Percent nitrogen content of shoots decreased as CO{sub 2} increased (28% in 700 {mu}L/L and 34% 1000 {mu}L/L) relative to 370 {mu}L/L but the total nitrogen/plant increased 74% and 108% for these same concentrations due to greater plant biomass produced in the elevated CO{sub 2}. In the grass mixtures atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the wintergrass from mixtures was reduced relative to monocultures while the %N concentration was increased. These results suggest that a positive feedback between elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen accumulation may exist in multispecies systems containing legumes which can enhance the response of terrestrial carbon fixation to rising CO{sub 2}.

  12. Release and systemic accumulation of heavy metals from preformed crowns used in restoration of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Hiroe; Ohno, Kohachiro; Fukase, Naoko; Kuroda, Midori; Adachi, Shiki; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Preformed crowns for restoration of primary teeth are used in various treatments and are essential for restoring the crowns of primary molars. However, there are concerns that mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation may cause release of components of such crowns. We examined systemic accumulation of heavy metals associated with preformed crowns (3M Stainless Steel Primary Molar Crowns) used in primary tooth restoration. The participants were 37 children who had visited the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Tsurumi University Dental Hospital. They were divided into two groups: 22 participants without a history of being fitted with a preformed crown for primary tooth restoration (controls), and 15 participants with preformed crowns for primary tooth restoration. Analysis of hair samples showed a significant difference in the level of the trace element Cr - an important component of the preformed crowns - between children with and without preformed crowns, but no significant differences in Fe or Ni levels. Levels of the trace elements Ni, Cr, and Fe were within allowable ranges, indicating that these minerals were not likely to be harmful.

  13. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Chaggu, Esnati J; Sanders, Wendy; Lettinga, Gatze

    2007-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the latrines once per month. To improve the situation, two plastic tanks (while one is in use, the other one is on stand-by) of 3000 l capacity each, named as Improved Pit-Latrines Without Urine Separation (IMPLWUS), were used as latrine pits. They received faeces+urine+wash water; basically, an accumulation system. Septic tank seed sludge was used. The dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD(dis)) remaining when the reactor was closed after 380 days was about 8 g COD/l, volatile fatty acids were 100 mg COD/l and total ammonium nitrogen was about 2.8 g N/l, implying the possibility of methanogenesis inhibition. Stability results indicated a need for more degradation time after reactor closure. Estimated biogas production from wastewater generated by 10 people was 544 g COD-CH(4)/day, not enough for cooking purposes.

  14. Cdc42 and the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Ect2 and Trio Mediate Fn14-Induced Migration and Invasion of Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Shannon P.; Ennis, Matthew J.; Schumacher, Cassie A.; Zylstra-Diegel, Cassandra R.; Williams, Bart O.; Ross, Julianna T.D.; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Loftus, Joseph C.; Symons, Marc H.; Tran, Nhan L.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioblastomas are characterized by their ability to infiltrate into normal brain. We previously reported that binding of the multifunctional cytokine TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) to its receptor fibroblast growth factor–inducible 14 (Fn14) induces glioblastoma cell invasion via Rac1 activation. Here, we show that Cdc42 plays an essential role in Fn14-mediated activation of Rac1. TWEAK-treated glioma cells display an increased activation of Cdc42, and depletion of Cdc42 using siRNA abolishes TWEAK-induced Rac1 activation and abrogates glioma cell migration and invasion. In contrast, Rac1 depletion does not affect Cdc42 activation by Fn14, showing that Cdc42 mediates TWEAK-stimulated Rac1 activation. Furthermore, we identified two guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), Ect2 and Trio, involved in TWEAK-induced activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, respectively. Depletion of Ect2 abrogates both TWEAK-induced Cdc42 and Rac1 activation, as well as subsequent TWEAK-Fn14–directed glioma cell migration and invasion. In contrast, Trio depletion inhibits TWEAK-induced Rac1 activation but not TWEAK-induced Cdc42 activation. Finally, inappropriate expression of Fn14 or Ect2 in mouse astrocytes in vivo using an RCAS vector system for glial-specific gene transfer in G-tva transgenic mice induces astrocyte migration within the brain, corroborating the in vitro importance of the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling cascade in glioblastoma invasion. Our results suggest that the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis stimulates glioma cell migration and invasion through two GEF-GTPase signaling units, Ect2-Cdc42 and Trio-Rac1. Components of the Fn14-Rho GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway present innovative drug targets for glioma therapy. PMID:22571869

  15. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  16. Osmotic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and the effect of salt accumulation on system performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guanglei; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2013-12-01

    An osmotic membrane bioreactor was developed for wastewater treatment. The effects of salt accumulation on system performance and microbial community dynamics were investigated. Evident deterioration of biological activity, especially nitrification, was observed, which resulted in significant accumulation of organic matter and NH4(+)-N within the bioreactor. Arising from the elevation of salinity, almost all the dominant species was taken over by high salt-tolerant species. Significant succession among different species of Nitromonas was observed for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. For nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrospira was not evidently affected, whereas Nitrobacter was eliminated from the system. Salt accumulation also caused significant shifts in denitrifying bacterial community from α- to γ-Proteobacteria members. Overall, the microbial community adapted to the elevated salinity conditions and brought about a rapid recovery of the biological activity. Membrane fouling occurred but was insignificant. Biofouling and inorganic scaling coexisted, with magnesium/calcium phosphate/carbonate compounds identified as the inorganic foulants.

  17. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine as protectants against osmotic and cold stress: uptake through the SigB-controlled betaine-choline- carnitine transporter-type carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Anne U; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bursy, Jan; Jebbar, Mohamed; Bremer, Erhard

    2011-09-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus has been shown to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine in response to high salinity or low growth temperature. We found that exogenously provided ectoine and hydroxyectoine also serve as protectants against these challenges. Transport studies with [(14)C]ectoine revealed that both types of stress induced a high-affinity ectoine uptake activity in V. pantothenticus. By using an Escherichia coli mutant defective in osmoprotectant uptake systems, a functional complementation approach for osmostress resistance in the presence of ectoine was employed to retrieve a gene encoding an ectoine transporter from V. pantothenticus. The cloned gene (ectT) encodes a protein (EctT) that is a member of the BCCT (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter) family of carriers. Osmoprotection assays demonstrated that the EctT carrier mediates the preferential import of ectoine and hydroxyectoine but also possesses minor uptake activities for the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine. Northern blot analysis with RNA isolated from V. pantothenticus revealed that a rise in the external osmolality or a reduction in growth temperature strongly increased the transcription of the ectT gene. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that ectT was transcribed under these conditions from a SigB-type promoter. SigB is the master regulator of the general stress regulon of bacilli and provides protection to cells against various challenges, including high salinity and low temperature. Both the synthesis of ectoine and the EctT-mediated uptake of ectoine and hydroxyectoine are triggered by the same environmental cues, high salinity and cold stress, and thereby provide, in a concerted fashion, the protection of V. pantothenticus against these challenges.

  18. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine as protectants against osmotic and cold stress: uptake through the SigB-controlled betaine-choline- carnitine transporter-type carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Anne U; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bursy, Jan; Jebbar, Mohamed; Bremer, Erhard

    2011-09-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus has been shown to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine in response to high salinity or low growth temperature. We found that exogenously provided ectoine and hydroxyectoine also serve as protectants against these challenges. Transport studies with [(14)C]ectoine revealed that both types of stress induced a high-affinity ectoine uptake activity in V. pantothenticus. By using an Escherichia coli mutant defective in osmoprotectant uptake systems, a functional complementation approach for osmostress resistance in the presence of ectoine was employed to retrieve a gene encoding an ectoine transporter from V. pantothenticus. The cloned gene (ectT) encodes a protein (EctT) that is a member of the BCCT (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter) family of carriers. Osmoprotection assays demonstrated that the EctT carrier mediates the preferential import of ectoine and hydroxyectoine but also possesses minor uptake activities for the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine. Northern blot analysis with RNA isolated from V. pantothenticus revealed that a rise in the external osmolality or a reduction in growth temperature strongly increased the transcription of the ectT gene. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that ectT was transcribed under these conditions from a SigB-type promoter. SigB is the master regulator of the general stress regulon of bacilli and provides protection to cells against various challenges, including high salinity and low temperature. Both the synthesis of ectoine and the EctT-mediated uptake of ectoine and hydroxyectoine are triggered by the same environmental cues, high salinity and cold stress, and thereby provide, in a concerted fashion, the protection of V. pantothenticus against these challenges. PMID:21764932

  19. Error awareness revisited: accumulation of multimodal evidence from central and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The differences between erroneous actions that are consciously perceived as errors and those that go unnoticed have recently become an issue in the field of performance monitoring. In EEG studies, error awareness has been suggested to influence the error positivity (Pe) of the response-locked event-related brain potential, a positive voltage deflection prominent approximately 300 msec after error commission, whereas the preceding error-related negativity (ERN) seemed to be unaffected by error awareness. Erroneous actions, in general, have been shown to promote several changes in ongoing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, yet such investigations have only rarely taken into account the question of subjective error awareness. In the first part of this study, heart rate, pupillometry, and EEG were recorded during an antisaccade task to measure autonomic arousal and activity of the CNS separately for perceived and unperceived errors. Contrary to our expectations, we observed differences in both Pe and ERN with respect to subjective error awareness. This was replicated in a second experiment, using a modified version of the same task. In line with our predictions, only perceived errors provoke the previously established post-error heart rate deceleration. Also, pupil size yields a more prominent dilatory effect after an erroneous saccade, which is also significantly larger for perceived than unperceived errors. On the basis of the ERP and ANS results as well as brain-behavior correlations, we suggest a novel interpretation of the implementation and emergence of error awareness in the brain. In our framework, several systems generate input signals (e.g., ERN, sensory input, proprioception) that influence the emergence of error awareness, which is then accumulated and presumably reflected in later potentials, such as the Pe.

  20. The role of APOE-ɛ4 and beta amyloid in the differential rate of recovery from ECT: a review.

    PubMed

    Sutton, T A; Sohrabi, H R; Rainey-Smith, S R; Bird, S M; Weinborn, M; Martins, R N

    2015-03-31

    Individual biological differences may contribute to the variability of outcomes, including cognitive effects, observed following electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). A narrative review of the research literature on carriage of the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) and the protein biomarker beta amyloid (Aβ) with ECT cognitive outcome was undertaken. ECT induces repeated brain seizures and there is debate as to whether this causes brain injury and long-term cognitive disruption. The majority of ECT is administered to the elderly (over age 65 years) with drug-resistant depression. Depression in the elderly may be a symptom of the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Carriage of the APOE-ɛ4 allele and raised cerebral Aβ are consistently implicated in AD, but inconsistently implicated in brain injury (and related syndromes) recovery rates. A paucity of brain-related recovery, genetic and biomarker research in ECT responses in the elderly was found: three studies have examined the effect of APOE-ɛ4 allele carriage on cognition in the depressed elderly receiving ECT, and two have examined Aβ changes after ECT, with contradictory findings. Cognitive changes in all studies of ECT effects were measured by a variety of psychological tests, making comparisons of such changes between studies problematic. Further, psychological test data-validity measures were not routinely administered, counter to current testing recommendations. The methodological issues of the currently available literature as well as the need for well-designed, hypothesis driven, longitudinal studies are discussed.

  1. The role of APOE-ɛ4 and beta amyloid in the differential rate of recovery from ECT: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, T A; Sohrabi, H R; Rainey-Smith, S R; Bird, S M; Weinborn, M; Martins, R N

    2015-01-01

    Individual biological differences may contribute to the variability of outcomes, including cognitive effects, observed following electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). A narrative review of the research literature on carriage of the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) and the protein biomarker beta amyloid (Aβ) with ECT cognitive outcome was undertaken. ECT induces repeated brain seizures and there is debate as to whether this causes brain injury and long-term cognitive disruption. The majority of ECT is administered to the elderly (over age 65 years) with drug-resistant depression. Depression in the elderly may be a symptom of the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Carriage of the APOE-ɛ4 allele and raised cerebral Aβ are consistently implicated in AD, but inconsistently implicated in brain injury (and related syndromes) recovery rates. A paucity of brain-related recovery, genetic and biomarker research in ECT responses in the elderly was found: three studies have examined the effect of APOE-ɛ4 allele carriage on cognition in the depressed elderly receiving ECT, and two have examined Aβ changes after ECT, with contradictory findings. Cognitive changes in all studies of ECT effects were measured by a variety of psychological tests, making comparisons of such changes between studies problematic. Further, psychological test data-validity measures were not routinely administered, counter to current testing recommendations. The methodological issues of the currently available literature as well as the need for well-designed, hypothesis driven, longitudinal studies are discussed. PMID:25826114

  2. Top Ten Reasons a Graduate Student Should Apply to Be an ECT Foundation Intern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Cindy S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author encourages graduate students to apply for the ECT Foundation Internship. She presents a list of the top ten benefits the internship offers a graduate student's career: (1) It could change your life. It changed mine; (2) Networking; (3) Mentoring; (4) Leadership opportunities; (5) Behind the scenes pass; (6) Shadowing;…

  3. Diversity of the ectoines biosynthesis genes in the salt tolerant Streptomyces and evidence for inductive effect of ectoines on their accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Akram; Soltani, Bahram M; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Mirzaei, Hossein Hadavand; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces commonly produce ectoines as compatible solutes to prevent osmotic stresses. Fine structure of the genes producing ectoine (ectC) and hydroxyectoine (ectD) enzymes in Streptomyces rimosus C-2012 as a slightly halophilic bacterium is reported in this study. Deduced amino acid sequences of ectC and ectD genes from strain C-2012 and some other related species were compared and 72-90% and 13-81% identities were detected for ectC and ectD, respectively. High similarity of ectC between closely or distantly related Streptomyces to the strain C-2012 may indicate horizontal transfer of this gene. However, phylogenetic relationships of ectD were correlated with phylogenetic affiliation of the strains. It suggests that the ability of Streptomyces to produce hydroxyectoine has been the result of a vertical transfer event. HPLC analysis showed that strain C-2012 was able to produce ectoine and hydroxyectoine both in the presence and absence of external salinity (up to 0.45 M NaCl). Accordingly, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that ectABCD operon in this strain is positively affected by salt. Also, inductive effect of the salt was increased when it was applied with 1 mM of ectoines. Transcription level of ectC was increased 2.7- and 2.9-fold in the medium supplied with salt and ectoine and salt and hydroxyectoine, respectively. The effect of salinity with or without ectoines was more on ectD transcription level than that of ectC. In S. rimosus under salt stress, ectoine and hydroxyectoine biosynthesis primarily depends on the stimulation of ectABCD operon transcription. However, drastic accumulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine without increase in ectC and ectD transcripts was observed in the medium supplied with salt and ectoines and that suggest there might be additional posttranscriptional level of control. Increases in ratio of some intracellular free amino acids in salt stressed to unstressed conditions were observed in cells grown with

  4. [Effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation characteristics and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems].

    PubMed

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Wen-yu; Huang, Ni; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yan-ling; Wang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yang; Yan, Shou

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation and yield of soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2013, including three maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems. The relay strip intercropping systems were designed as soybean (Gongxuan 1) intercropped with Denghai 605 (RI1), Chuandan 418 (RI2) or Yayu 13 ( RI3), and the monocultured soybean was used as control. The results demonstrated that the dry matter accumulation rates of intercropped soybean in RI2 and RI3 treatments were lower than in RI1 treatment, and the leaf, stem and pod dry matter accumulation of intercropped soybean in RI1 treatment was 17.6%, 16.5% and 13.7% higher than that in RI2 treatment, and 34.6%, 33.1% and 28.4% higher than that in RI3 treatment, respectively. The distribution proportion of leaf and stem of intercropped soybean was in the order of RI1 > RI2 > RI3. However, the trend of the distribution proportion of pod was opposite. Compared with RI2 and RI3, the dry matter translocation amount, translocation proportion, contribution proportion of soybean vegetative organs to pod of soybean were improved in RI, treatment, and the pod per plant, seeds per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant and yield of soybean in RI, were higher than RI2 and RI3 by 6.8%, 11.5%, 4.4%, 15.9%, 15.6% and 14.3%, 22.2%, 6.7%, 33.4%, 36.8%, respectively. The results showed that the yield was positively related with the accumulation rate of dry matter, dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation ratio and the contribution of dry matter accumulation, and these indices were highest in RI treatment. The results indicated that the compact maize relay intercropped with soybean could effectively regulate the dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and improve the yield of soybean.

  5. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  6. Systemic Growth of F. graminearum in Wheat Plants and Related Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Antonio; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Somma, Stefania; Campagna, Claudio; Ravaglia, Stefano; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae). This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a) the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b) the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at vitreous

  7. Systemic growth of F. graminearum in wheat plants and related accumulation of deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Antonio; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Somma, Stefania; Campagna, Claudio; Ravaglia, Stefano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-04-10

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae). This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), a well known harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil, and can usually attack the wheat plant at their point of flowering, being able to infect the heads and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a) the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the fungus within the plant at different growth stages; (b) the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility technique, and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seeds or soil can grow systemically in the plant tissues, with the exception of kernels and heads. There seems to be a barrier that inhibits the colonization of the heads by the fungus. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in crowns, stems, and straw, whereas low levels of DON and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both heads and kernels. Finally, in all parts of the plant (heads, crowns, and stems at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and straw at vitreous

  8. Velocity Estimates for Signal Propagation Leading to Systemic Jasmonic Acid Accumulation in Wounded Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaetan; Dubugnon, Lucie; Mousavi, Seyed A. R.; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Farmer, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    The wound response prohormone jasmonic acid (JA) accumulates rapidly in tissues both proximal and distal to injury sites in plants. Using quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after flash freezing of tissues, we found that JA accumulated within 30 s of injury in wounded Arabidopsis leaves (p = 3.5 e−7). JA augmentation distal to wounds was strongest in unwounded leaves with direct vascular connections to wounded leaves wherein JA levels increased significantly within 120 s of wounding (p = 0.00027). This gave conservative and statistically robust temporal boundaries for the average velocity of the long distance signal leading to distal JA accumulation in unwounded leaves of 3.4–4.5 cm min−1. Like JA, transcripts of the JA synthesis gene LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and the jasmonate response gene JAZ10.3 also accumulated to higher levels in directly interconnected leaves than in indirectly connected leaves. JA accumulation in a lox2-1 mutant plant was initiated rapidly after wounding then slowed progressively compared with the wild type (WT). Despite this, JAZ10.3 expression in the two genotypes was similar. Free cyclopentenone jasmonate levels were similar in both resting WT and lox2-1. In contrast, bound cyclopentenone jasmonates (arabidopsides) were far lower in lox2-1 than in the WT. The major roles of LOX2 are to generate arabidopsides and the large levels of JA that accumulate proximal to the wound. LOX2 is not essential for some of the most rapid events elicited by wounding. PMID:19846562

  9. Using gravity as a proxy for stress accumulation in complex fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Tyler Joseph

    The gravity signal contains information regarding changes in density at all depths and can be used as a proxy for the strain accumulation in fault networks. A general method for calculating the total, dilatational, and free-air gravity for fault systems with arbitrary geometry, slip motion, and number of fault segments is presented. The technique uses a Green's function approach for a fault buried within an elastic half-space with an underlying driver plate forcing the system. A stress-evolution time-dependent earthquake fault model was used to create simulated slip histories over the San Andreas Fault network in California. Using a sum of the gravity signals from each fault segment in the model, via coseismic gravity Green's functions, a time-dependent gravity model was created. The steady-state gravity from the long term plate motion generates a signal over five years with magnitudes of +/- ˜2 muGal; the current limit of portable instrument observations. Moderate to large events generate signal magnitudes in the range of ˜10 muGal to ˜80 muGal, well within the range of ground based observations. The complex fault network geometry of California significantly affects the spatial extent of the gravity signal from the three events studied. Statistical analysis of 55 000 years of simulated slip histories were used to investigate the use of the dilatational gravity signal as a proxy for precursory stress and strain changes. Results indicate that the precursory dilatational gravity signal is dependent upon the fault orientation with respect the tectonic loading plate velocity. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of preferential amplification of the shear stress or reduction of the normal stress, depending on the steady-state regime investigated. Finally, solutions for the corresponding gravity gradients of the coseismic dilatational gravity signals are developed for a vertical strike-slip fault. Gravity gradient solutions exhibit similar spatial distributions

  10. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  11. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources. PMID:25446876

  12. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources.

  13. Understanding the Spatial Formation and Accumulation of Fats, Oils & Grease Deposits in the Sewer Collection System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially...

  14. Microfluidic system for facilitated quantification of nanoparticle accumulation to cells under laminar flow.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Jiro; Zhang, Hua; Gagnon, M Karen J; Pan, Tingrui; Simon, Scott I; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2013-01-01

    The identification of novel, synthetic targeting ligands to endothelial receptors has led to the rapid development of targeted nanoparticles for drug, gene and imaging probe delivery. Central to development and optimization are effective models for assessing particle binding in vitro. Here, we developed a simple and cost effective method to quantitatively assess nanoparticle accumulation under physiologically-relevant laminar flow. We designed reversibly vacuum-sealed PDMS microfluidic chambers compatible with 35 mm petri dishes, which deliver uniform or gradient shear stress. These chambers have sufficient surface area for facile cell collection for particle accumulation quantitation through FACS. We tested this model by synthesizing and flowing liposomes coated with APN (K (D) ~ 300 μM) and VCAM-1-targeting (K (D) ~ 30 μM) peptides over HUVEC. Particle binding significantly increased with ligand concentration (up to 6 mol%) and decreased with excess PEG. While the accumulation of particles with the lower affinity ligand decreased with shear, accumulation of those with the higher affinity ligand was highest in a low shear environment (2.4 dyne/cm(2)), as compared with greater shear or the absence of shear. We describe here a robust flow chamber model that is applied to optimize the properties of 100 nm liposomes targeted to inflamed endothelium. PMID:22855121

  15. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-26

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  16. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  17. Science Highlights from the RBSP-ECT Particle Instrument Suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan

    2014-05-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes mission includes an instrument suite known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) - Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite. RBSP-ECT contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the radiation belts and the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state of-the-art theory and modeling, provide new understanding on the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) spectrometer, the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively these three instrument types cover comprehensively the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts, then optimized to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. In this presentation, we summarize overall ECT science goals and then show scientific results derived from the ECT suite on the dual Van Allen Probes spacecraft to date. Mission operations began only in late October 2012, and we have now achieved significant results. Results presented here will include substantial progress toward resolving primary Van Allen Probes science targets, such as: the relative role of localized acceleration versus transport-generated particle acceleration

  18. Early Science Results From the NASA Van Allen Probes Mission RBSP-ECT Instrument Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; Rbspect Team

    2013-04-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes mission includes an instrument suite known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) - Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite. RBSP-ECT contains a well-proven complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the radiation belts and the inner magnetosphere. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state of-the-art theory and modeling, provide new understanding on the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions, key science objectives of NASA's Living With a Star program and the Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT suite consists of three highly-coordinated instruments: the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) spectrometer, the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT). Collectively these three instrument types cover comprehensively the full electron and ion spectra from one eV to 10's of MeV with sufficient energy resolution, pitch angle coverage and resolution, and with composition measurements in the critical energy range up to 50 keV and also from a few to 50 MeV/nucleon. All three instruments are based on measurement techniques proven in the radiation belts, then optimized to provide unambiguous separation of ions and electrons and clean energy responses even in the presence of extreme penetrating background environments. In this presentation, we summarize overall ECT science goals and then show early scientific results derived from the ECT suite on the dual Van Allen Probes spacecraft. Mission operations began only in late October 2012, but we have already achieved significant early results. Results presented here will include substantial progress toward resolving primary Van Allen Probes science targets, such as: the relative role of localized acceleration versus transport-generated particle

  19. A new method for Fourier analysis in ECG-gated cardiac blood pool emission computed tomography (ECT)

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, T.; Maeda, H.; Takeda, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Konishi, T.; Ichikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated technique for Fourier analysis in multigated blood pool ECT study has been developed. Following the administration of 15-20 mCi of Tc-99m RBC, ECG-gated cardiac blood pool data were acquired using an ECT system with dual opposed gamma cameras. Fundamental studies for data acquisition showed that acquisition time of 10 sec. for each projection, 14 divisions of one cardiac cycle and angular interval of 6/sup 0/ (60 projections over 360/sup 0/) were reasonable for clinical purpose. Total acquisition time was about 5 minutes under these conditions. Data were processed as follows: 1) Transaxial (TA) tomographic images in every phase of cardiac cycle were reconstructed by convolution algorithm; 2) TA images were rotated to construct sagittal (SAG) and short axial (S-A) oblique-angle tomography which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of either of the ventricles; 3) Images covering the portion other than the purposed ventricle were eliminated from the series of SAG images in every phase of the cycle; 4) Images in the same phase were summed to construct a series of SAG and S-A planar images; and 5) Fourier analysis was made to construct phase and amplitude images. The advantages of this method are that the phase and amplitude images from arbitrary directions can be obtained, that the region of interest can be selected on a three dimensional basis, eliminating the overlapping activity of the other ventricle or neighbouring tissues, that the diseased areas can be easily and accurately localized even in small inferior wall myocardial infarction and that patient study can be finished within 5 minutes.

  20. Annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation involves Ect2 via RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jun; Chen, Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Fan, Kai; Yao, Qi; Ge, Yi-Feng; Lu, Jin-Chun; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of annexin V on the proliferation of primary rat Leydig cells and the potential mechanism. Our results showed that annexin V promoted rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Increased level of annexin V also enhanced Ect2 protein expression. However, siRNA knockdown of Ect2 attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation of rat Leydig cells. Taken together, these data suggest that increased level of annexin V induced rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via Ect2. Since RhoA activity was increased following Ect2 activation, we further investigated whether Ect2 was involved in annexin V-induced proliferation via the RhoA/ROCK pathway, and the results showed that annexin V increased RhoA activity too, and this effect was abolished by the knockdown of Ect2. Moreover, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by a ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, also attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation and cell cycle progression. We thus conclude that Ect2 is involved in annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation through the RhoA/ROCK pathway. PMID:25807302

  1. Annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation involves Ect2 via RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jun; Chen, Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Fan, Kai; Yao, Qi; Ge, Yi-Feng; Lu, Jin-Chun; Yao, Bing

    2015-03-24

    This study investigated the effect of annexin V on the proliferation of primary rat Leydig cells and the potential mechanism. Our results showed that annexin V promoted rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Increased level of annexin V also enhanced Ect2 protein expression. However, siRNA knockdown of Ect2 attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation of rat Leydig cells. Taken together, these data suggest that increased level of annexin V induced rat Leydig cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via Ect2. Since RhoA activity was increased following Ect2 activation, we further investigated whether Ect2 was involved in annexin V-induced proliferation via the RhoA/ROCK pathway, and the results showed that annexin V increased RhoA activity too, and this effect was abolished by the knockdown of Ect2. Moreover, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by a ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, also attenuated annexin V-induced proliferation and cell cycle progression. We thus conclude that Ect2 is involved in annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation through the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

  2. Achieving Bologna Convergence: Is ECTS Failing to Make the Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2004-01-01

    Transparent and consistent credit transfer procedures are essential if EU Universities are to successfully build the European Higher Education Area and thrive in the emerging global knowledge economy. Currently, the European Credit Transfer System is the most widely used mechanism to enable credit transfer between universities in different EU…

  3. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison.

    PubMed

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-Asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  4. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  5. Improving Data Quality with an Accumulated Reputation Model in Participatory Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruiyun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Xingwei; Cao, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices brings forth a sensing paradigm, participatory sensing, to collect and interpret sensory information from the environment. Participants join in multifarious sensing tasks and share their data. The sensing result can be obtained in light of shared data. It is not uncommon that some corrupted data is provided by participants, which makes sensing result unreliable accordingly. To address this nontrivial issue, we proposed the accumulated reputation model (ARM) to improve the accuracy of the sensing result. In ARM, participants' reputation will be computed and accumulated based on their sensing data. The sensing data from reputable participants make higher contributions to the sensing result. ARM performs well on calculating accurate sensing results, even in extreme scenarios, where there are many inexperienced or malicious participants. PMID:24658621

  6. Simplified data reduction methods for the ECT test for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Simplified expressions for the parameter controlling the load point compliance and strain energy release rate were obtained for the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) specimen for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness. Data reduction methods for mode 3 toughness based on the present analysis are proposed. The effect of the transverse shear modulus, G(sub 23), on mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness characterization was evaluated. Parameters influenced by the transverse shear modulus were identified. Analytical results indicate that a higher value of G(sub 23) results in a low load point compliance and lower mode 3 toughness estimation. The effect of G(sub 23) on the mode 3 toughness using the ECT specimen is negligible when an appropriate initial delamination length is chosen. A conservative estimation of mode 3 toughness can be obtained by assuming G(sub 23) = G(sub 12) for any initial delamination length.

  7. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in Echinochloa polystachya grown within a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Solís-Domínguez, F A; González-Chávez, M C; Carrillo-González, R; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2007-03-22

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants. Echinochloa polystachya [(H.B.K.) Hitchcock] (Poaceae) is a fast-growing perennial grass that is common in tropical areas and is often found in oil-polluted soils that contain high concentrations of heavy metals. However, its tolerance to heavy metals, and its ability to accumulate them, has yet to be investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that E. polystachya is able to accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd). Plants were grown hydroponically with different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.25, 1, 2, 10, 50, and 100mgL(-1)), and were found to be tolerant to Cd(2+) at all levels. No metal-toxicity symptoms were observed at any Cd(2+) level. Root and leaves Cd concentrations were 299+/-13.93 and 233+/-8.77mgkg(-1) (on a dry weight basis), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed the inclusion of Cd within the xylem; this result was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Leaf tissues also accumulated Cd, especially within the bulliform cells of the epidermis. We conclude that E. polystachya is a hyperaccumulator of Cd. While data for other metals are not yet available, E. polystachya shows promise in the phytoextraction of Cd from polluted tropical sites. PMID:16920257

  8. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in Echinochloa polystachya grown within a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Solís-Domínguez, F A; González-Chávez, M C; Carrillo-González, R; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2007-03-22

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants. Echinochloa polystachya [(H.B.K.) Hitchcock] (Poaceae) is a fast-growing perennial grass that is common in tropical areas and is often found in oil-polluted soils that contain high concentrations of heavy metals. However, its tolerance to heavy metals, and its ability to accumulate them, has yet to be investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that E. polystachya is able to accumulate high concentrations of cadmium (Cd). Plants were grown hydroponically with different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.25, 1, 2, 10, 50, and 100mgL(-1)), and were found to be tolerant to Cd(2+) at all levels. No metal-toxicity symptoms were observed at any Cd(2+) level. Root and leaves Cd concentrations were 299+/-13.93 and 233+/-8.77mgkg(-1) (on a dry weight basis), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed the inclusion of Cd within the xylem; this result was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Leaf tissues also accumulated Cd, especially within the bulliform cells of the epidermis. We conclude that E. polystachya is a hyperaccumulator of Cd. While data for other metals are not yet available, E. polystachya shows promise in the phytoextraction of Cd from polluted tropical sites.

  9. Using a double-frequency RF system to facilitate on-axis beam accumulation in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B. C.; Zhao, Z. T.; Tian, S. Q.; Zhang, M. Z.; Zhang, Q. L.

    2016-04-01

    An on-axis injection scheme using a double-frequency RF system in a storage ring with small dynamic aperture is proposed. By altering RF voltages, empty RF buckets can be created which will be used for on-axis injection. After bunches are injected, a reverse RF voltage altering process is performed and the injected bunches can be longitudinally dumped to the main RF buckets. The scheme allows reaping the advantages of the on-axis injection while still performing accumulation.

  10. [Anti-NMDA encephalitis in psychiatry; malignant catatonia, atypical psychosis and ECT].

    PubMed

    Kanbayashi, Takashi; Tsutsui, Ko; Tanaka, Keiko; Omori, Yuki; Takaki, Manabu; Omokawa, Mayu; Mori, Akane; Kusanagi, Hiroaki; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of malignant (lethal) catatonia has been reported similar to initial symptoms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Subsequently, this autoimmune limbic encephalitis has been noticed in many psychiatrists. We have experienced several cases with malignant catatonia having anti-NMDAR antibody without clinical signs of encephalitis. Thereafter, we have also found anti-NMDAR antibody positive patients of young females with acute florid psychiatric symptoms without clinical signs of encephalitis. The features of these patients mirror-those of "Atypical psychosis" proposed by Mitsuda in Japan, a notion derived from "Cycloid psychosis" conceptualized by German psychiatrist, Leonhard. Both cycloid and atypical psychosis have coinciding features of acute onset, emotional disturbances, psychomotor disturbances, alternations of consciousness, high prevalence in women and oriented premorbid personality. Both malignant catatonia and atypical psychosis have been known to be effectively treated with modified electro convulsion therapy (m-ECT). Our 5 cases with anti-NMDAR antibody, m-ECT treatments were effective. Infectious encephalitis is contra indication of m-ECT, but this autoimmune encephalitis would be careful indication. Schizophrenia is a common, heterogeneous, and complex disorder with unknown etiology. There is established evidence of NMDAR hypofunction as a central component of the functional disconnectivity; this is one of the most accepted models for schizophrenia. Moreover, autoimmune mechanisms have been proposed to be involved, at least in subgroups of schizophrenia patients. Further research of anti-NMDAR antibody and encephalitis would be important clues for the investigation of schizophrenia, catatonia and atypical psychosis.

  11. Lead detoxification by coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) involves induction of phytochelatins and antioxidant system in response to its accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Kumar, R; Seth, C S; Gupta, D K

    2006-11-01

    Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) plants when exposed to various concentrations of Pb (1-100microM) for 1-7days, exhibited both phytotoxic and tolerance responses. The specific responses were function of concentration and duration. Plants accumulated 1748mugPbg(-1) dw after 7d which reflected its metal accumulation ability, however most of the metal (1222microgg(-1) dw, 70%) was accumulated after 1d exposure only. The toxic effect and oxidative stress caused by Pb were evident by the reduction in biomass and photosynthetic pigments and increase in malondialddehyde (MDA) content and electrical conductivity with increase in metal concentration and exposure duration. Morphological symptoms of senescence phenomena such as chlorosis and fragmentation of leaves were observed after 7d. The metal tolerance and detoxification strategy adopted by the plant was investigated with reference to antioxidant system and synthesis of phytochelatins. Protein and antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) showed induction at lower concentration and duration followed by decline. All enzymes except GPX showed maximum activity after 1d. An increase in cysteine, non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and glutathione (GSH) content was observed at moderate exposure conditions followed by decline. Phytochelatins (PC(2) and PC(3)) were synthesized to significant levels at 10 and 50microM Pb with concomitant decrease in GSH levels. Thus production of PCs seems important for the detoxification of metal, however it may lead to depletion of GSH and consequently oxidative stress. Results suggest that plants responded positively to moderate Pb concentrations and accumulated high amount of metal. Due to metal accumulation coupled with detoxification potential, the plant appears to have potential for its use as phytoremediator species

  12. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Shiny; Henderson, Shannon; Reinhold, Dawn

    2014-05-01

    Commonly used in personal care products, triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are two chemicals with antimicrobial properties that have recently been recognized as environmental contaminants with the potential to adversely affect human health. The objective of the study described herein was to evaluate the potential of food crops to uptake TCC and TCS. Eleven food crops, grown in hydroponic nutrient media, were exposed to a mixture of 500 μg L(-1) TCC and TCS. After 4 weeks of exposure, roots accumulated 86-1,350 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials and shoots had accumulated 0.33-5.35 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials. Translocation from roots to shoots was less than 1.9 % for TCC and 3.7 % for TCS, with the greatest translocation for TCC observed for pepper, celery, and asparagus and for TCS observed for cabbage, broccoli, and asparagus. For edible tuber- or bulb-producing crops, the concentrations of both TCC and TCS were lower in the tubers than in the roots. Exposure calculations using national consumption data indicated that the average exposure to TCC and TCS from eating contaminated crops was substantially less than the exposure expected to cause adverse effects, but exceeded the predicted exposure from drinking water. Exposure to antimicrobials through food crops would be substantially reduced through limiting consumption of beets and onions.

  13. Impact of flow regime on pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation and morphology in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Buiter, J; Riviere, M; van der Meer, W G J; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C

    2010-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and pressure drop development have been studied in membrane fouling simulators at different flow regimes. At linear flow velocities as applied in practice in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, voluminous and filamentous biofilm structures developed in the feed spacer channel, causing a significant increase in feed channel pressure drop. Elevated shear by both single phase flow (water) and two phase flow (water with air sparging: bubble flow) caused biofilm filaments and a pressure drop increase. The amount of accumulated biomass was independent of the applied shear, depending on the substrate loading rate (product of substrate concentration and linear flow velocity) only. The biofilm streamers oscillated in the passing water. Bubble flow resulted in a more compact and less filamentous biofilm structure than single phase flow, causing a much lower pressure drop increase. The biofilm grown under low shear conditions was more easy to remove during water flushing compared to a biofilm grown under high shear. To control biofouling, biofilm structure may be adjusted using biofilm morphology engineering combined with biomass removal from membrane elements by periodic reverse flushing using modified feed spacers. Potential long and short term consequences of flow regimes on biofilm development are discussed. Flow regimes manipulate biofilm morphology affecting membrane performance, enabling new approaches to control biofouling.

  14. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  15. A novel ECT-EST combined method for gas-solids flow pattern and charge distribution visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, B.; Zhang, J. Y.

    2013-07-01

    A non-invasive measurement method of visualizing the flow pattern and charge distribution of gas-solids two-phase flow has been studied and verified using gravity-dropping and pneumatic conveyance rigs with pulverized coal as solids. It has been proven that the permittivity distribution acquired from an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system can be used to improve the accuracy in establishing charge sensitivity field of an electrostatic tomography (EST) system, and to reduce the uncertainty of charge distribution reconstruction. The experimental results show that, under the given experimental conditions for the gravity-dropping system, charge density increases with particles' concentration, whilst in the pneumatic conveyance system, charge density decreases in the area where the particles' concentration is higher, and the total charge intensity decreases with the increase of the concentration of pulverized coal in the pipe. The method proposed in this paper is potentially important in pneumatic processes for charge distribution measurement and safe operations. It is envisaged that with further development, this technique can provide information for investigation into the mechanism of inter-particle force on electrostatic attraction and repulsion.

  16. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  17. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Le, T. T. Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A. Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  18. [Successful amantadine treatment of a patient with ECT-resistant catatonia].

    PubMed

    Walstra, A N; den Broek, M VAN; Giltay, E J; van Paassen, J; van Noorden, M S

    2016-01-01

    Catatonia is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome. There is a life-threatening subtype of this disease known as malignant catatonia. One of the hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis is an imbalance of multiple neurotransmitters (gaba, glutamate and dopamine). The first step in treatment is to administer benzodiazepines; if the response is insufficient, the treatment can be replaced by electroconvulsive therapy (ect). So far, there is no consensus with regard to the tertiary treatment step. On the basis of a case report we describe the beneficial effects of administering an nmda receptor antagonist, amantadine, as the tertiary step for treating a patient with treatment-resistant malignant catatonia. PMID:27527886

  19. Selection of denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms in IFAS systems: comparison of nitrite with nitrate as an electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Pouria; Munz, Giulio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate were compared as electron acceptors to select for denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) in two integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS 1 and IFAS 2) systems operated as sequencing batch reactors. The bench-scale experiment lasted one year and synthetic wastewater was used as feed. During anoxic conditions 20mgNO3(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-1 and 20mgNO2(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-2. Long term phosphorous and ammonia removal via nitritation were achieved in both systems and both attached and suspended biomass contributed to phosphorous and ammonia removal. DPAO showed no specific adaptation to the electron acceptor as evidenced by short term switch of feeding with nitrate or nitrite. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate was significantly higher with nitrite than with nitrate. Results showed that DPAO activity with nitrite could be integrated into attached and suspended biomass of IFAS systems in long term operation.

  20. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  1. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26595097

  2. [Accumulation characteristics of applied cinnamic acid in cucumber seedling-soil system under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wu, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Yan

    2011-11-01

    Taking cucumber cultivars' Jinlv No. 5' (salt-tolerant) and 'Jinyou No. 1' (salt-sensitive) as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying cinnamic acid on the accumulation of applied cinnamic acid in cucumber seedling-soil system under NaCl (585 mg x kg(-1) soil) stress. The concentration of applied cinnamic acid was the main factor affecting the accumulation of the exogenous cinnamic acid in the cucumber plant and soil. With the increasing concentration of applied cinnamic acid, except in the treatment of highest concentration (200 mg x kg(-1) soil) cinnamic acid, the total content of cinnamic acid in cucumber plant was increased. NaCl stress enhanced the toxicity of cinnamic acid. In the treatments of low and medium concentration cinnamic acid, the cinnamic acid content in cucumber plant increased; whereas in the treatments of high concentration cinnamic acid, the decline of the seedlings growth was observed, and led to the decrease of the cinnamic acid content in the plant. The content of cinnamic acid in 'Jinlv No. 5' plant decreased at the concentration of applied cinnamic acid being > 200 mg x kg(-1) soil, while that in 'Jinyou No. 1' started to decrease when the concentration of applied cinnamic acid was > 100 mg x kg(-1) soil, reflecting the discrepancy in salt tolerance of the two cultivars. For the cucumber plant, its leaf had the highest content of cinnamic acid. In the cucumber seedling-soil system, most of applied cinnamic acid was mainly accumulated in soil.

  3. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  4. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6)). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4) with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4), which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4)). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  5. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  6. Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.

  7. System Dynamic Model for the Accumulation of Renewable Electricity using Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberga, Andra; Timma, Lelde; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    When the renewable energy is used, the challenge is match the supply of intermittent energy with the demand for energy therefore the energy storage solutions should be used. This paper is dedicated to hydrogen accumulation from wind sources. The case study investigates the conceptual system that uses intermitted renewable energy resources to produce hydrogen (power-to-gas concept) and fuel (power-to-liquid concept). For this specific case study hydrogen is produced from surplus electricity generated by wind power plant trough electrolysis process and fuel is obtained by upgrading biogas to biomethane using hydrogen. System dynamic model is created for this conceptual system. The developed system dynamics model has been used to simulate 2 different scenarios. The results show that in both scenarios the point at which the all electricity needs of Latvia are covered is obtained. Moreover, the methodology of system dynamics used in this paper is white-box model that allows to apply the developed model to other case studies and/or to modify model based on the newest data. The developed model can be used for both scientific research and policy makers to better understand the dynamic relation within the system and the response of system to changes in both internal and external factors.

  8. A 3-D enlarged cell technique (ECT) for elastic wave modelling of a curved free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Songlin; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-09-01

    The conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for elastic waves suffers from the staircasing error when applied to model a curved free surface because of its structured grid. In this work, an improved, stable and accurate 3-D FDTD method for elastic wave modelling on a curved free surface is developed based on the finite volume method and enlarged cell technique (ECT). To achieve a sufficiently accurate implementation, a finite volume scheme is applied to the curved free surface to remove the staircasing error; in the mean time, to achieve the same stability as the FDTD method without reducing the time step increment, the ECT is introduced to preserve the solution stability by enlarging small irregular cells into adjacent cells under the condition of conservation of force. This method is verified by several 3-D numerical examples. Results show that the method is stable at the Courant stability limit for a regular FDTD grid, and has much higher accuracy than the conventional FDTD method.

  9. A 3-D enlarged cell technique (ECT) for elastic wave modelling of a curved free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Songlin; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-07-01

    The conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for elastic waves suffers from the staircasing error when applied to model a curved free surface because of its structured grid. In this work, an improved, stable and accurate 3-D FDTD method for elastic wave modelling on a curved free surface is developed based on the finite volume method and enlarged cell technique (ECT). To achieve a sufficiently accurate implementation, a finite volume scheme is applied to the curved free surface to remove the staircasing error; in the mean time, to achieve the same stability as the FDTD method without reducing the time step increment, the ECT is introduced to preserve the solution stability by enlarging small irregular cells into adjacent cells under the condition of conservation of force. This method is verified by several 3-D numerical examples. Results show that the method is stable at the Courant stability limit for a regular FDTD grid, and has much higher accuracy than the conventional FDTD method.

  10. Mutation in nicotianamine aminotransferase stimulated the Fe(II) acquisition system and led to iron accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Longjun; Wang, Fang; Shou, Huixia; Huang, Fangliang; Zheng, Luqing; He, Fei; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ueno, Daisei; Ma, Jian Feng; Wu, Ping

    2007-12-01

    Higher plants acquire iron (Fe) from the rhizosphere through two strategies. Strategy II, employed by graminaceous plants, involves secretion of phytosiderophores (e.g. deoxymugineic acid in rice [Oryza sativa]) by roots to solubilize Fe(III) in soil. In addition to taking up Fe in the form of Fe(III)-phytosiderophore, rice also possesses the strategy I-like system that may absorb Fe(II) directly. Through mutant screening, we isolated a rice mutant that could not grow with Fe(III)-citrate as the sole Fe source, but was able to grow when Fe(II)-EDTA was supplied. Surprisingly, the mutant accumulated more Fe and other divalent metals in roots and shoots than the wild type when both were supplied with EDTA-Fe(II) or grown under water-logged field conditions. Furthermore, the mutant had a significantly higher concentration of Fe in both unpolished and polished grains than the wild type. Using the map-based cloning method, we identified a point mutation in a gene encoding nicotianamine aminotransferase (NAAT1), which was responsible for the mutant phenotype. Because of the loss of function of NAAT1, the mutant failed to produce deoxymugineic acid and could not absorb Fe(III) efficiently. In contrast, nicotianamine, the substrate for NAAT1, accumulated markedly in roots and shoots of the mutant. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of a number of the genes involved in Fe(II) acquisition was greatly stimulated in the naat1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that disruption of deoxymugineic acid biosynthesis can stimulate Fe(II) acquisition and increase iron accumulation in rice. PMID:17951455

  11. Accumulation and effect of volatile organic compounds in closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) being considered for long duration space missions will operate with limited resupply and utilize biological systems to revitalize the atmosphere, purify water, and produce food. The presence of man-made materials, plant and microbial communities, and human activities will result in the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A database of VOC production from potential BLSS crops is being developed by the Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center. Most research to date has focused on the development of air revitalization systems that minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants in a closed environment. Similar approaches are being pursued in the design of atmospheric revitalization systems in bioregenerative life support systems. In a BLSS one must consider the effect of VOC concentration on the performance of plants being used for water and atmospheric purification processes. In addition to phytotoxic responses, the impact of removing biogenic compounds from the atmosphere on BLSS function needs to be assessed. This paper provides a synopsis of criteria for setting exposure limits, gives an overview of existing information, and discusses production of biogenic compounds from plants grown in the Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center.

  12. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  13. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  14. Systems biology and metabolic modelling unveils limitations to polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in sugarcane leaves; lessons for C4 engineering.

    PubMed

    McQualter, Richard B; Bellasio, Chandra; Gebbie, Leigh K; Petrasovits, Lars A; Palfreyman, Robin W; Hodson, Mark P; Plan, Manuel R; Blackman, Deborah M; Brumbley, Stevens M; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-02-01

    In planta production of the bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one important way in which plant biotechnology can address environmental problems and emerging issues related to peak oil. However, high biomass C4 plants such as maize, switch grass and sugarcane develop adverse phenotypes including stunting, chlorosis and reduced biomass as PHB levels in leaves increase. In this study, we explore limitations to PHB accumulation in sugarcane chloroplasts using a systems biology approach, coupled with a metabolic model of C4 photosynthesis. Decreased assimilation was evident in high PHB-producing sugarcane plants, which also showed a dramatic decrease in sucrose and starch content of leaves. A subtle decrease in the C/N ratio was found which was not associated with a decrease in total protein content. An increase in amino acids used for nitrogen recapture was also observed. Based on the accumulation of substrates of ATP-dependent reactions, we hypothesized ATP starvation in bundle sheath chloroplasts. This was supported by mRNA differential expression patterns. The disruption in ATP supply in bundle sheath cells appears to be linked to the physical presence of the PHB polymer which may disrupt photosynthesis by scattering photosynthetically active radiation and/or physically disrupting thylakoid membranes.

  15. Systems biology and metabolic modelling unveils limitations to polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in sugarcane leaves; lessons for C4 engineering.

    PubMed

    McQualter, Richard B; Bellasio, Chandra; Gebbie, Leigh K; Petrasovits, Lars A; Palfreyman, Robin W; Hodson, Mark P; Plan, Manuel R; Blackman, Deborah M; Brumbley, Stevens M; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-02-01

    In planta production of the bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one important way in which plant biotechnology can address environmental problems and emerging issues related to peak oil. However, high biomass C4 plants such as maize, switch grass and sugarcane develop adverse phenotypes including stunting, chlorosis and reduced biomass as PHB levels in leaves increase. In this study, we explore limitations to PHB accumulation in sugarcane chloroplasts using a systems biology approach, coupled with a metabolic model of C4 photosynthesis. Decreased assimilation was evident in high PHB-producing sugarcane plants, which also showed a dramatic decrease in sucrose and starch content of leaves. A subtle decrease in the C/N ratio was found which was not associated with a decrease in total protein content. An increase in amino acids used for nitrogen recapture was also observed. Based on the accumulation of substrates of ATP-dependent reactions, we hypothesized ATP starvation in bundle sheath chloroplasts. This was supported by mRNA differential expression patterns. The disruption in ATP supply in bundle sheath cells appears to be linked to the physical presence of the PHB polymer which may disrupt photosynthesis by scattering photosynthetically active radiation and/or physically disrupting thylakoid membranes. PMID:26015295

  16. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ``hot-spot,`` areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  17. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  18. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  19. LANDSAT Range Resource Information System. [a user evaluation of green forage and rainfall accumulation maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. E.; Harlan, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of test products were developed from LANDSAT data sets for North Central Texas that paralleled the needs of ranchers, technical personnel, and the media. The products and evaluation questionnaires were mailed to approximately 150 ranchers who had reported an interest in evaluating the information systems. In addition to the rancher group, fourteen media people and a thirty-three member group in the agri business/technical community was also chosen to receive test products. The group responses are analyzed. Examples of the test products and associated questionnaires are included.

  20. Design of 2-4 GHz Equalizers for the Antiproton Accumulator Stacktail System

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    1999-01-01

    The antiproton source at Fermilab requires storage of antiprotons during the production of antiprotons. A fundamental part of the storage process involves stochastic cooling, which requires that the frequency spectrum from the pickups has notches at the revolution frequency and harmonics of the revolution frequency of the antiprotons in the storage ring. A system has been developed for broadband notches but suffers from dispersion. The dispersion inhibits the cooling process and therefore an equalizer is required. The process for designing the equalizers is described and results shown.

  1. InSAR observations of strain accumulation and fault creep along the Chaman Fault system, Pakistan and Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, Heresh; Amelung, Falk

    2016-08-01

    We use 2004-2011 Envisat synthetic aperture radar imagery and InSAR time series methods to estimate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation in the Chaman Fault system in Pakistan and Afghanistan. At 29 N we find long-term slip rates of 16 ± 2.3 mm/yr for the Ghazaband Fault and of 8 ± 3.1 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. This makes the Ghazaband Fault one of the most hazardous faults of the plate boundary zone. We further identify a 340 km long segment displaying aseismic surface creep along the Chaman Fault, with maximum surface creep rate of 8.1 ± 2 mm/yr. The observation that the Chaman Fault accommodates only 30% of the relative plate motion between India and Eurasia implies that the remainder is accommodated south and east of the Katawaz block microplate.

  2. Systemic DNA Damage Accumulation Under in Vivo Tumor Growth can be Inhibited by the Antioxidant Tempol

    PubMed Central

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ferguson, Nicholas F.; Kryston, Thomas B.; Parekh, Palak; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Mitchell, James B.; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recently we found that mice bearing subcutaneous non-metastatic tumors exhibited elevated levels of two types of complex DNA damage, i.e., double-strand breaks and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in various tissues throughout the body, both adjacent to and distant from the tumor site. This DNA damage was dependent on CCL2, a cytokine involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages, suggesting that this systemic DNA damage was mediated via tumor-induced chronic inflammatory responses involving cytokines, activation of macrophages, and consequent free radical production. If free radicals are involved, then a diet containing an antioxidant may decrease the distant DNA damage. Results Here we repeated our standard protocol in cohorts of two syngeneic tumor-bearing C57BL/6NCr mice that were on a Tempol-supplemented diet. We show that double-strand break and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesion levels were considerably decreased, about 2-3 fold, in the majority of tissues studied from the tumor-bearing mice fed the antioxidant Tempol compared to the control tumor-bearing mice. Similar results were also observed in nude mice suggesting that the Tempol effects are independent of functioning adaptive immunity. Conclusions This is the first in vivo study demonstrating the effect of a dietary antioxidant on abscopal DNA damage in tissues distant from a localized source of genotoxic stress. These findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of genomic instability and carcinogenesis caused by chronic stress-induced systemic DNA damage and for developing preventative strategies. PMID:25069035

  3. A practical method for quantification of phosphorus- and glycogen-accumulating organism populations in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Carlos M; Hooijmans, Christine M; Brdjanovic, Damir; Gijzen, Huub J; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2007-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the enrichment of activated sludge with phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs). The presence and proliferation of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), which compete for substrate with PAOs, may be detrimental for EBPR systems, leading to deterioration and, in extreme cases, failure of the process. Therefore, from both process evaluation and modeling perspectives, the estimation of PAO and GAO populations in activated sludge systems is a relevant issue. A simple method for the quantification of PAO and GAO population fractions in activated sludge systems is presented in this paper. To develop such a method, the activity observed in anaerobic batch tests executed with different PAO/GAO ratios, by mixing highly enriched PAO and GAO cultures, was studied. Strong correlations between PAO/GAO population ratios and biomass activity were observed (R2 > 0.97). This served as a basis for the proposal of a simple and practical method to quantify the PAO and GAO populations in activated sludge systems, based on commonly measured and reliable analytical parameters (i.e., mixed liquor suspended solids, acetate, and orthophosphate) without requiring molecular techniques. This method relies on the estimation of the total active biomass population under anaerobic conditions (PAO plus GAO populations), by measuring the maximum acetate uptake rate in the presence of excess acetate. Later, the PAO and GAO populations present in the activated sludge system can be estimated, by taking into account the PAO/GAO ratio calculated on the basis of the anaerobic phosphorus release-to-acetate consumed ratio. The proposed method was evaluated using activated sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The results from the quantification performed following the proposed method were compared with direct population estimations carried out with fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (determining Candidatus

  4. Accumulated state assessment of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River system.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E

    2013-07-01

    Effects-based analysis is a fundamental component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. This study conducted an effects-based analysis for the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River System, part of the massive Mackenzie River Basin, encompassing 20% of Canada's total land mass and influenced by cumulative contributions of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Peace River) and industrial activities including oil sands mining (Athabasca River). This study assessed seasonal changes in 1) Peace River water quality and quantity before and after dam development, 2) Athabasca River water quality and quantity before and after oil sands developments, 3) tributary inputs from the Peace and Athabasca Rivers to the Slave River, and 4) upstream to downstream differences in water quality in the Slave River. In addition, seasonal benchmarks were calculated for each river based on pre-perturbation post-perturbation data for future cumulative effects assessments. Winter discharge (January-March) from the Peace and Slave Rivers was significantly higher than before dam construction (pre-1967) (p < 0.05), whereas summer peak flows (May-July) were significantly lower than before the dam showing that regulation has significantly altered seasonal flow regimes. During spring freshet and summer high flows, the Peace River strongly influenced the quality of the Slave River, as there were no significant differences in loadings of dissolved N, total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), total As, total Mn, total V, and turbidity and specific conductance between these rivers. In the Athabasca River, TP and specific conductance concentrations increased significantly since before oil sands developments (1967-2010), whereas dissolved N and sulfate have increased after the oil sands developments (1977-2010). Recently, the Athabasca River had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved N, TP, TOC, dissolved sulfate, specific conductance, and total Mn than either the Slave or the Peace Rivers during the winter months

  5. Accumulated state assessment of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River system.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E

    2013-07-01

    Effects-based analysis is a fundamental component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. This study conducted an effects-based analysis for the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River System, part of the massive Mackenzie River Basin, encompassing 20% of Canada's total land mass and influenced by cumulative contributions of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Peace River) and industrial activities including oil sands mining (Athabasca River). This study assessed seasonal changes in 1) Peace River water quality and quantity before and after dam development, 2) Athabasca River water quality and quantity before and after oil sands developments, 3) tributary inputs from the Peace and Athabasca Rivers to the Slave River, and 4) upstream to downstream differences in water quality in the Slave River. In addition, seasonal benchmarks were calculated for each river based on pre-perturbation post-perturbation data for future cumulative effects assessments. Winter discharge (January-March) from the Peace and Slave Rivers was significantly higher than before dam construction (pre-1967) (p < 0.05), whereas summer peak flows (May-July) were significantly lower than before the dam showing that regulation has significantly altered seasonal flow regimes. During spring freshet and summer high flows, the Peace River strongly influenced the quality of the Slave River, as there were no significant differences in loadings of dissolved N, total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), total As, total Mn, total V, and turbidity and specific conductance between these rivers. In the Athabasca River, TP and specific conductance concentrations increased significantly since before oil sands developments (1967-2010), whereas dissolved N and sulfate have increased after the oil sands developments (1977-2010). Recently, the Athabasca River had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved N, TP, TOC, dissolved sulfate, specific conductance, and total Mn than either the Slave or the Peace Rivers during the winter months

  6. The ObjECTS: Framework for Integrated Assessment: Hybrid Modeling of Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.; Lurz, Joshua; Smith, Steven J.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2006-09-01

    Technology is a central issue for the global climate change problem, requiring analysis tools that can examine the impact of specific technologies with a long-term, global context. This paper describes the architecture of the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model, which implements a long-term, global model of energy, economy, agriculture, land-use, atmosphere, and climate change in a framework that allows the flexible incorporation of explicit technology detail. We describe the implementation of a ''bottom-up'' representation of the transportation sector as an illustration of this approach, in which the resulting hybrid model is fully integrated, internally consistent and theoretically compatible with the regional and global modeling framework. The analysis of the transportation sector presented here supports and clarifies the need for a comprehensive strategy promoting advanced vehicle technologies and an economy-wide carbon policy to cost-effectively reduce carbon emissions from the transportation sector in the long-term.

  7. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  8. Suppressive effect of accumulated aluminum trichloride on the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme system in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Han, Yanfei; Zhao, Hansong; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a low toxicological metal and can accumulate in the liver. The hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYPS) plays important role in the transformation of the toxic materials. It is not clear if the CYPS is affected by Al exposure. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) on CYPS in rats. Forty male Wistar rats (5weeks old) weighing 110-120g were randomly allocated and orally exposed to 0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72mg/kg body weight (BW) AlCl(3) in drinking water for 120days. The body weight (BW) of rats, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic Al content, the concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome B5 (B5), microsomal protein and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (CR), aminopyrin N-demethylase (AND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and aniline-4-hydeoxylase (AH) were assessed at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the increase in Al concentration decreased BW, HIS, concentrations of CYP450, B5, microsomal protein and the activity of CR, AND, ERND and AH in hepatic microsomes. The results revealed that exposure to AlCl(3) inhibited the microsomal CYP450 dependent enzyme system of liver. Our findings suggest that long term daily exposure of AlCl(3) exerts the suppressive effects and thus may cause dysfunction of hepatic CYP450 dependent enzyme system of rat.

  9. Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and an aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.; Desjardina, R.; Rochette, P.; Pattey, E.; Selber, J.; Glotfelty, D.

    1993-01-01

    The field experiment reported here applied the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique to the measurement of triallate (TA) and trifluralin (TF) volatilization from fallow soil. A critical analysis of the REA system used in this experiment is done, and the fluxes are compared to those obtained by the aerodynamic-gradient (AG) technique. The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system were higher than with the REA system. The differences between the methods over the first 5 days of the experiment were 27 and 13% for TA and TF, respectively. A mass balance based on the amount of parent compounds volatilized from soil during the first 5 days of the experiment showed a 110 and 70% and a 79 and 61% accountability for triallate and trifluralin by the AG and REA methods, respectively. These results also show that the non-footprint-corrected AG flux values underestimated the volatilization flux by approximately 16%. The footprint correction model used in this experiment does not presently have the capability of accounting for changes in atmospheric stability. However, these values still provide an indication of the most likely upwind area affecting the evaporative flux estimations. The soil half-lives for triallate and trifluralin were 9.8 and 7.0 days, respectively. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  10. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-hα-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of α-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of α-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-hα-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1β. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1β protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-hα-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit α-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and α-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

  11. Response to copper excess in Arabidopsis thaliana: Impact on the root system architecture, hormone distribution, lignin accumulation and mineral profile.

    PubMed

    Lequeux, Hélène; Hermans, Christian; Lutts, Stanley; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    Growth, in particular reorganization of the root system architecture, mineral homeostasis and root hormone distribution were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana upon copper excess. Five-week-old Arabidopsis plants growing in hydroponics were exposed to different Cu(2+) concentrations (up to 5 muM). Root biomass was more severely inhibited than shoot biomass and Cu was mainly retained in roots. Cu(2+) excess also induced important changes in the ionome. In roots, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations increased, whereas K and S decreased. Shoot K, Ca, P, and Mn concentrations decreased upon Cu(2+) exposure. Further, experiments with seedlings vertically grown on agar were carried out to investigate the root architecture changes. Increasing Cu(2+) concentrations (up to 50 muM) reduced the primary root growth and increased the density of short lateral roots. Experiment of split-root system emphasized a local toxicity of Cu(2+) on the root system. Observations of GUS reporter lines suggested changes in auxin and cytokinin accumulations and in mitotic activity within the primary and secondary root tips treated with Cu(2+). At toxic Cu(2+) concentrations (50 muM), these responses were accompanied by higher root apical meristem death. Contrary to previous reports, growth on high Cu(2+) did not induce an ethylene production. Finally lignin deposition was detected in Cu(2+)-treated roots, probably impacting on the translocation of nutrients. The effects on mineral profile, hormonal status, mitotic activity, cell viability and lignin deposition changes on the Cu(2+)-induced reorganization of the root system architecture are discussed.

  12. Interseismic strain accumulation across an active thrust system: an InSAR case study in the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, R.; Doin, M.; Ducret, G.; Bollinger, L.; Pinel-Puysségur, B.; Lasserre, C.; Jolivet, R.

    2011-12-01

    The major active thrust system underlying the Himalayan range produces recurrent large earthquakes, posing a significant threat to the densely populated Indo-Gangetic basin. Measuring the interseismic deformation associated with this fault system could provide important constraints on the geometry of the locked faults that are bound to rupture in future great earthquakes. This has so far been considered out of reach of InSAR techniques, due to decorrelation, prominent topographic features, and unfavourable climatic conditions. However, preliminary tests carried out with the archived ASAR data provided by ESA's ENVISAT satellite since 2002 have shown that recent advances in InSAR processing may now allow geodesists to tackle most of these perturbations. In this context, applying these advanced techniques to the case of the Himalayas is both a challenging and necessary task. We will present the methodology and the first results of an InSAR study of interseismic strain accumulation across the Himalayas. Small-baseline processing of ENVISAT data using a combination of ROI_PAC software, NSBAS processing chain and MulSAR technique yields a sufficient number of coherent interferograms to compute a preliminary average velocity map of interseismic uplift. Time-space variations of stratified tropospheric delay observed in these interferogrames are mitigated using a prediction deduced from outputs of the ECMWF global meteorological reanalysis ERA-Interim. Finally, a correction of DEM errors from the wrapped InSAR data set further improves the coherence of interferograms with a large perpendicular baseline. Comparison of the InSAR LOS velocity maps with microseismic activity detected near the transition zone at the base of the seismogenic portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust is expected to provide constraints on the process of elastic strain accumulation during the interseismic period. This will help in understanding the interaction between the construction of topography

  13. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  14. A dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation system for long-term measurement of mercury flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, S.; Fritsche, J.; Alewell, C.; Schmutz, M.; Nilsson, M. B.; Jocher, G.; Sommar, J.; Rinne, J.; Bishop, K.

    2016-02-01

    The fate of anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere is influenced by the exchange of elemental Hg with the earth surface. This exchange holds the key to a better understanding of Hg cycling from local to global scales, which has been difficult to quantify. To advance research about land-atmosphere Hg interactions, we developed a dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system. REA is an established technique for measuring turbulent fluxes of trace gases and aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer. Accurate determination of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes has proven difficult due to technical challenges presented by extremely small concentration differences (typically < 0.5 ng m-3) between updrafts and downdrafts. We present an advanced REA design that uses two inlets and two pairs of gold cartridges for continuous monitoring of GEM fluxes. This setup reduces the major uncertainty created by the sequential sampling in many previous designs. Additionally, the instrument is equipped with a GEM reference gas generator that monitors drift and recovery rates. These innovations facilitate continuous, autonomous measurement of GEM flux. To demonstrate the system performance, we present results from field campaigns in two contrasting environments: an urban setting with a heterogeneous fetch and a boreal peatland during snowmelt. The observed average emission rates were 15 and 3 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. We believe that this dual-inlet, single detector approach is a significant improvement of the REA system for ultra-trace gases and can help to advance our understanding of long-term land-atmosphere GEM exchange.

  15. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Principi, Elisa; Girardello, Rossana; Bruno, Antonino; Manni, Isabella; Gini, Elisabetta; Pagani, Arianna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Ivaldi, Federico; Congiu, Terenzio; De Stefano, Daniela; Piaggio, Giulia; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections), functional (serum enzymes), and morphological (organs and tissues) alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) methods. We observed a transient accumulation of SWCNTs in the lungs, spleen, and kidneys of CD1 mice exposed to SWCNTs. A dose- and time-dependent accumulation was found in the liver, associated with increases in levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubinemia, which are metabolic markers associated with liver damage. Our data suggest that hepatic accumulation of SWCNTs associated with liver damage results in an M1 macrophage-driven inflammation. PMID:27621623

  16. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Elisa; Girardello, Rossana; Bruno, Antonino; Manni, Isabella; Gini, Elisabetta; Pagani, Arianna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Ivaldi, Federico; Congiu, Terenzio; De Stefano, Daniela; Piaggio, Giulia; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections), functional (serum enzymes), and morphological (organs and tissues) alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) methods. We observed a transient accumulation of SWCNTs in the lungs, spleen, and kidneys of CD1 mice exposed to SWCNTs. A dose- and time-dependent accumulation was found in the liver, associated with increases in levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubinemia, which are metabolic markers associated with liver damage. Our data suggest that hepatic accumulation of SWCNTs associated with liver damage results in an M1 macrophage-driven inflammation.

  17. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Elisa; Girardello, Rossana; Bruno, Antonino; Manni, Isabella; Gini, Elisabetta; Pagani, Arianna; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Ivaldi, Federico; Congiu, Terenzio; De Stefano, Daniela; Piaggio, Giulia; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections), functional (serum enzymes), and morphological (organs and tissues) alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) methods. We observed a transient accumulation of SWCNTs in the lungs, spleen, and kidneys of CD1 mice exposed to SWCNTs. A dose- and time-dependent accumulation was found in the liver, associated with increases in levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubinemia, which are metabolic markers associated with liver damage. Our data suggest that hepatic accumulation of SWCNTs associated with liver damage results in an M1 macrophage-driven inflammation. PMID:27621623

  18. Sustained Accumulation of Microtubule-Binding Chemotherapy Drugs in the Peripheral Nervous System: Correlations with Time Course and Neurotoxic Severity.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Krystyna M; Vornov, James J; Wu, Ying; Nomoto, Kenichi; Littlefield, Bruce A; DesJardins, Christopher; Yu, Yanke; Lai, George; Reyderman, Larisa; Wong, Nancy; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many antineoplastic agents, but the mechanisms underlying the toxicities are unclear. At their MTDs, the microtubule-binding drugs paclitaxel and ixabepilone induce more severe neuropathy in mice relative to eribulin mesylate, paralleling their toxicity profiles in clinic. We hypothesized that the severity of their neurotoxic effects might be explained by the levels at which they accumulate in the peripheral nervous system. To test this hypothesis, we compared their pharmacokinetics and distribution in peripheral nerve tissue. After administration of a single intravenous dose, each drug was rapidly cleared from plasma but all persisted in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve (SN) for up to 72 hours. Focusing on paclitaxel and eribulin, we performed a 2-week MTD-dosing regimen, followed by a determination of drug pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and multiple functional measures of peripheral nerve toxicity for 4 weeks. Consistent with the acute dosing study, both drugs persisted in peripheral nervous tissues for weeks, in contrast to their rapid clearance from plasma. Notably, although eribulin exhibited greater DRG and SN penetration than paclitaxel, the neurotoxicity observed functionally was consistently more severe with paclitaxel. Overall, our results argue that sustained exposure of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents in peripheral nerve tissues cannot by itself account for their associated neurotoxicity. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3332-9. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197173

  19. CCR1+/CCR5+ Mononuclear Phagocytes Accumulate in the Central Nervous System of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Trebst, Corinna; Lykke Sørensen, Torben; Kivisäkk, Pia; Cathcart, Martha K.; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Horuk, Richard; Sellebjerg, Finn; Lassmann, Hans; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/CCL3. We analyzed expression of CCR1 and CCR5, the monocyte receptors for these chemokines, on circulating and cerebrospinal fluid CD14+ cells, and in MS brain lesions. Approximately 70% of cerebrospinal fluid monocytes were CCR1+/CCR5+, regardless of the presence of CNS pathology, compared to less than 20% of circulating monocytes. In active MS lesions CCR1+/CCR5+ monocytes were found in perivascular cell cuffs and at the demyelinating edges of evolving lesions. Mononuclear phagocytes in early demyelinating stages comprised CCR1+/CCR5+ hematogenous monocytes and CCR1−/CCR5− resident microglial cells. In later stages, phagocytic macrophages were uniformly CCR1−/CCR5+. Cultured in vitro, adherent monocytes/macrophages up-regulated CCR5 and down-regulated CCR1 expression, compared to freshly-isolated monocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that monocytes competent to enter the CNS compartment derive from a minority CCR1+/CCR5+ population in the circulating pool. In the presence of ligand, these cells will be retained in the CNS. During further activation in lesions, infiltrating monocytes down-regulate CCR1 but not CCR5, whereas microglia up-regulate CCR5. PMID:11696431

  20. [Non invasive intracranial hyperthermia with Electric Capacitive Transference -ECT- Intratumoral and cerebral thermometry results].

    PubMed

    Ley-Valle, A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present the results of thermic increase obtained at the brain and intratumoral levels through a non invasive technique -Electric Capacitive Transference- (ECT), developed in 1985 by Indiba. A review of the literature does not provide any reference of cerebral and intratumoral thermometry in real time with a non invasive technique of intracranial hyperthermia. In the 8 studied patients, the increases of temperature in the brain, ranged between 0.7 and 1.5 degrees C in relation to the depth of the thermometric probe and the incidence angle of the external electrode. Between tumoral and perilesional brain tissues, thermic increase was 0.3 to 0.7 degrees C greater at tumoral level. The observation that in no case the surrounding brain tissue registered a temperature over 39.2 degrees C supports the harmlessness of the technique regarding the potential damage to healthy brain tissue and seems to confirm previous data obtained in anatomopathological studies in animal experimentation performed in 1990, which showed an absence of lesions in tissues and organs. The greater and somewhat more prolonged thermic increase observed at tumoral level has been called the "greenhouse effect".

  1. Income and Pollutant Emissions in the ObjECTS MiniCAM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.

    2005-01-03

    This paper examines the implications of the relationship between income and pollutant emission controls as parameterized in the ObjECTS MiniCAM integrated assessment model. Future scenarios for energy-related emissions of nitrous oxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are presented along with the methodology used to parameterize this relationship. We use a “pseudo-Kuznets” approach where the level of emission control is assumed to vary with per-capita income. No explicit assumption is, therefore, made about the relationship between income and emissions — emissions are the result of driving forces, such as economic activity level, and energy combustion technology in addition to emission controls. Emission projections depend both on the assumptions for when emissions controls are implemented and the stringency of those controls. We suggest that historical analysis of the relationship between income and emission controls might be particularly useful in informing the selection of parameters that control when emission controls are implemented. Historical analysis is likely to be less helpful in informing the selection of parameters for the future levels of control, however, particularly at future times when parameter values are well outside the range of historical experience.

  2. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  3. Comprehending crystalline β-carotene accumulation by comparing engineered cell models and the natural carotenoid-rich system of citrus

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongbo; Zhang, Jiancheng; Ye, Junli; Yun, Ze; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis has become a recent focus for the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency. However, the genetically modified phenotypes often challenge the expectation, suggesting the incomplete comprehension of carotenogenesis. Here, embryogenic calli were engineered from four citrus genotypes as engineered cell models (ECMs) by over-expressing a bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB). Ripe flavedos (the coloured outer layer of citrus fruits), which exhibit diverse natural carotenoid patterns, were offered as a comparative system to the ECMs. In the ECMs, carotenoid patterns showed diversity depending on the genotypes and produced additional carotenoids, such as lycopene, that were absent from the wild-type lines. Especially in the ECMs from dark-grown culture, there emerged a favoured β,β-pathway characterized by a striking accumulation of β-carotene, which was dramatically different from those in the wild-type calli and ripe flavedos. Unlike flavedos that contained a typical chromoplast development, the ECMs sequestered most carotenoids in the amyloplasts in crystal form, which led the amyloplast morphology to show a chromoplast-like profile. Transcriptional analysis revealed a markedly flavedo-specific expression of the β-carotene hydroxylase gene (HYD), which was suppressed in the calli. Co-expression of CrtB and HYD in the ECMs confirmed that HYD predominantly mediated the preferred carotenoid patterns between the ECMs and flavedos, and also revealed that the carotenoid crystals in the ECMs were mainly composed of β-carotene. In addition, a model is proposed to interpret the common appearance of a favoured β,β-pathway and the likelihood of carotenoid degradation potentially mediated by photo-oxidation and vacuolar phagocytosis in the ECMs is discussed. PMID:22611233

  4. Accumulation of Hsc70 and Hsp70 in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in patients with multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Honjo, Yasuyuki; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Budka, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones which can be induced by several kinds of stresses, and Hsc70 and Hsp70 are two major members of the family of 70 kDa HSPs. A major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) is alpha-synuclein, and Hsp70 has been observed in the LBs of brains with Parkinson's disease. Hsp70 has also been demonstrated to have the ability to suppress alpha-synuclein toxicity in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the precise role of Hsc70 and Hsp70 in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), which is another alpha-synuclein-related disease, we performed immunohistochemical studies on Hsc70 and Hsp70 using autopsied brains from 7 normal subjects and 15 patients with MSA. In the normal human brains, both neurons and glial cells, including oligodendrocytes, showed only weak Hsc70 and Hsp70 immunoreactivities. In contrast, in the brains with MSA, numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) were intensely immunostained with Hsc70, and strong Hsc70 immunoreactivity was also found in glial intranuclear inclusions (GNIs), neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NNIs) as well as dystrophic neurites. The immunolabeling pattern for Hsp70 in the MSA brains was slightly different from that of Hsc70, and Hsp70 immunoreactivity was observed in many reactive astrocytes as well as some glial and neuronal inclusions. Our results suggest that the widespread accumulation of Hsc70 and Hsp70 may occur in brains with MSA, and that Hsc70 and Hsp70 may be associated with the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:17240362

  5. Brain iron accumulation affects myelin-related molecular systems implicated in a rare neurogenetic disease family with neuropsychiatric features

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, M; Johnstone, D M; Bassett, B; Graham, R M; Chua, A C G; House, M J; Collingwood, J F; Bettencourt, C; Houlden, H; Ryten, M; Olynyk, J K; Trinder, D; Milward, E A

    2016-01-01

    The ‘neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain, we studied mice with disruption of two iron regulatory genes, hemochromatosis (Hfe) and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated increased iron in the Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut brain (P=0.002, n ≥5/group), primarily localized by Perls' staining to myelinated structures. Western immunoblotting showed increases of the iron storage protein ferritin light polypeptide and microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed decreased transcript levels (P<0.04, n ≥5/group) for five other NBIA genes, phospholipase A2 group VI, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase, ceruloplasmin, chromosome 19 open reading frame 12 and ATPase type 13A2. Apart from the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin, all are involved in myelin homeostasis; 16 other myelin-related genes also showed reduced expression (P<0.05), although gross myelin structure and integrity appear unaffected (P>0.05). Overlap (P<0.0001) of differentially expressed genes in Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut brain with human gene co-expression networks suggests iron loading influences expression of NBIA-related and myelin-related genes co-expressed in normal human basal ganglia. There was overlap (P<0.0001) of genes differentially expressed in Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut brain and post-mortem NBIA basal ganglia. Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut mice were hyperactive (P<0.0112) without apparent cognitive impairment by IntelliCage testing (P>0.05). These results implicate myelin-related systems involved in NBIA neuropathogenesis in early responses to iron loading. This may contribute to behavioral symptoms in NBIA and hemochromatosis and is relevant to patients with abnormal iron status and psychiatric disorders involving myelin abnormalities or resistant to conventional treatments. PMID:26728570

  6. Identification and characterization of ectoine biosynthesis genes and heterologous expression of the ectABC gene cluster from Halomonas sp. QHL1, a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Qinghai Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Derui; Liu, Jian; Han, Rui; Shen, Guoping; Long, Qifu; Wei, Xiaoxing; Liu, Deli

    2014-02-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. QHL1 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. HPLC analysis showed that strain QHL1 synthesizes ectoine in its cytoplasm. The genes involved in the ectoine biosynthesis pathway were identified on the chromosome in the order ectABC. Subsequently, the ectB gene from this strain was amplified by PCR, and the entire ectABC gene cluster (3,580 bp) was cloned using genome walking. Analysis showed that the ectA (579 bp), ectB (1269 bp), and ectC (390 bp) genes were organized in a single transcriptional unit and were predicted to encode three peptides of 21.2 kDa, 46.4 kDa, and 14.7 kDa, respectively. Two putative promoters, a δ(70)-dependent promoter and a δ(38)-controlled promoter, as well as several conserved motifs with unknown function were identified. Individual ectA, ectB, and ectC genes, and the entire ectABC gene cluster were inserted into the expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to generate the recombinant plasmids pET-28a(+)-ectA, pET-28a(+)-ectB, pET-28a(+)-ectC and pET-28a(+)-ectABC, respectively. Heterologous expression of these proteins in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant E. coli strain BL21 (pET-28a (+)-ectABC) displayed a higher salt tolerance than native E. coli cells but produced far less ectoine than the wild-type QHL1 strain.

  7. Pressure drop increase by biofilm accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane systems: role of substrate concentration, flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Hinrichs, C; Van der Meer, W G J; Van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier study, it was shown that biofouling predominantly is a feed spacer channel problem. In this article, pressure drop development and biofilm accumulation in membrane fouling simulators have been studied without permeate production as a function of the process parameters substrate concentration, linear flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction. At the applied substrate concentration range, 100-400 microg l(-1) as acetate carbon, a higher concentration caused a faster and greater pressure drop increase and a greater accumulation of biomass. Within the range of linear flow velocities as applied in practice, a higher linear flow velocity resulted in a higher initial pressure drop in addition to a more rapid and greater pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Reduction of the linear flow velocity resulted in an instantaneous reduction of the pressure drop caused by the accumulated biomass, without changing the biofilm concentration. A higher substrate load (product of substrate concentration and flow velocity) was related to biomass accumulation. The effect of the same amount of accumulated biomass on the pressure drop increase was related to the linear flow velocity. A decrease of substrate load caused a gradual decline in time of both biomass concentration and pressure drop increase. It was concluded that the pressure drop increase over spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems can be reduced by lowering both substrate load and linear flow velocity. There is a need for RO and NF systems with a low pressure drop increase irrespective of the biomass formation. Current efforts to control biofouling of spiral wound membranes focus in addition to pretreatment on membrane improvement. According to these authors, adaptation of the hydrodynamics, spacers and pressure vessel configuration offer promising alternatives. Additional approaches may be replacing heavily biofouled elements and flow direction reversal.

  8. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. An ECT specimen is a rectangular laminate, containing an edge delamination at the laminate mid-plane. Torsion load is applied to the specimens, resulting in relative transverse shear sliding of the delaminated faces. The test data reduction schemes are intended to yield initiation values of critical mode III strain energy release rate, G(sub IIIc), that are constant with delamination length. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design as a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and specimens made from S2/8552 tape laminates. Several specimens, each with different delamination lengths are tested. Detailed, three-dimensional finite element analyses of the specimens were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode III-dominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of G(sub IIIc) exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Furthermore, there was a large amount of scatter in the data. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  9. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  10. Total petroleum system assessment of undiscovered resources in the giant Barnett Shale continuous (unconventional) gas accumulation, Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Undiscovered natural gas having potential for additions to reserves in the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, north-central Texas, was assessed using the total petroleum system assessment unit concept and a cell-based methodology for continuous-type (Unconventional) resources. The Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system is defined in the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin as encompassing the area in which the organic-rich Barnett is the primary source rock for oil and gas produced from Paleozoic carbonate and clastic reservoirs. Exploration, technology, and drilling in the Barnett Shale play have rapidly evolved in recent years, with about 3500 vertical and 1000 horizontal wells completed in the Barnett through 2005 and more than 85% of the them completed since 1999. Using framework geology and historical production data, assessment of the Barnett Shale was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey using vertical wells at the peak of vertical well completions and before a transition to completions with horizontal wells. The assessment was performed after (1) mapping critical geological and geochemical parameters to define assessment unit areas with future potential, (2) defining distributions of drainage area (cell size) and estimating ultimate recovery per cell, and (3) estimating future success rates. Two assessment units are defined and assessed for the Barnett Shale continuous gas accumulation, resulting in a total mean undiscovered volume having potential for additions to reserves of 26.2 TCFG. The greater Newark East fracture-barrier continuous Barnett Shale gas assessment unit represents a core-producing area where thick, organic-rich, siliceous Barnett Shale is within the thermal window for gas generation (Ro ??? 1.1%) and is overlain and underlain by impermeable limestone barriers (Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone and Ordovician Viola Limestone, respectively) that serve to confine induced fractures during well completion to maximize gas

  11. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and S2/8552 tape laminates. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode IIIdominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of GIIIc exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  12. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  13. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0

  14. An engineered lipid remodeling system using a galactolipid synthase promoter during phosphate starvation enhances oil accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Mie; Madoka, Yuka; Fujiwara, Ryota; Murakawa, Masato; Yoshitake, Yushi; Ikeda, Keiko; Koizumi, Ryota; Endo, Keiji; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) depletion is a serious problem for plant growth. Membrane lipid remodeling is a defense mechanism that plants use to survive Pi-depleted conditions. During Pi starvation, phospholipids are degraded to supply Pi for other essential biological processes, whereas galactolipid synthesis in plastids is up-regulated via the transcriptional activation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 3 (MGD3). Thus, the produced galactolipids are transferred to extraplastidial membranes to substitute for phospholipids. We found that, Pi starvation induced oil accumulation in the vegetative tissues of various seed plants without activating the transcription of enzymes involved in the later steps of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Moreover, the Arabidopsis starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant, pgm-1, accumulated higher TAG levels than did wild-type plants under Pi-depleted conditions. We generated transgenic plants that expressed a key gene involved in TAG synthesis using the Pi deficiency-responsive MGD3 promoter in wild-type and pgm-1 backgrounds. During Pi starvation, the transgenic plants accumulated higher TAG amounts compared with the non-transgenic plants, suggesting that the Pi deficiency-responsive promoter of galactolipid synthase in plastids may be useful for producing transgenic plants that accumulate more oil under Pi-depleted conditions.

  15. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions.

  16. Mercury accumulation by lower trophic-level organisms in lentic systems within the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Moon, Gerald E.; Husby, Peter; Lincoff, Andrew; Carter, James L.; Croteau, Marie-Noële

    2005-01-01

    The water columns of four reservoirs (Almaden, Calero, Guadalupe and Lexington Reservoirs) and an abandoned quarry pit filled by Alamitos Creek drainage for recreational purposes (Lake Almaden) were sampled on September 14 and 15, 2004 to provide the first measurements of mercury accumulation by phytoplankton and zooplankton in lentic systems (bodies of standing water, as in lakes and reservoirs) within the Guadalupe River watershed, California. Because of widespread interest in ecosystem effects associated with historic mercury mining within and downgradient of the Guadalupe Riverwatershed, transfer of mercury to lower trophic-level organisms was examined. The propensity of mercury to bioaccumulate, particularly in phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the food web, motivated this attempt to provide information in support of developing trophic-transfer and solute-transport models for the watershed, and hence in support of subsequent evaluation of load-allocation strategies. Both total mercury and methylmercury were examined in these organisms. During a single sampling event, replicate samples from the reservoir water column were collected and processed for dissolved-total mercury, dissolved-methylmercury, phytoplankton mercury speciation, phytoplankton taxonomy and biomass, zooplankton mercury speciation, and zooplankton taxonomy and biomass. The timing of this sampling event was coordinated with sampling and analysis of fish from these five water bodies, during a period of the year when vertical stratification in the reservoirs generates a primary source of methylmercury to the watershed. Ancillary data, including dissolved organic carbon and trace-metal concentrations as well as vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and pH, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. This work, in support of the Guadalupe River Mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Study, provides

  17. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  18. GlnR-Mediated Regulation of ectABCD Transcription Expands the Role of the GlnR Regulon to Osmotic Stress Management

    PubMed Central

    Shao, ZhiHui; Deng, WanXin; Li, ShiYuan; He, JuanMei; Ren, ShuangXi; Huang, WeiRen; Lu, YinHua; Zhao, GuoPing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are excellent compatible solutes for bacteria to deal with environmental osmotic stress and temperature damages. The biosynthesis cluster of ectoine and hydroxyectoine is widespread among microorganisms, and its expression is activated by high salinity and temperature changes. So far, little is known about the mechanism of the regulation of the transcription of ect genes and only two MarR family regulators (EctR1 in methylobacteria and the EctR1-related regulator CosR in Vibrio cholerae) have been found to negatively regulate the expression of ect genes. Here, we characterize GlnR, the global regulator for nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes, as a negative regulator for the transcription of ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthetic genes (ect operon) in Streptomyces coelicolor. The physiological role of this transcriptional repression by GlnR is proposed to protect the intracellular glutamate pool, which acts as a key nitrogen donor for both the nitrogen metabolism and the ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE High salinity is deleterious, and cells must evolve sophisticated mechanisms to cope with this osmotic stress. Although production of ectoine and hydroxyectoine is one of the most frequently adopted strategies, the in-depth mechanism of regulation of their biosynthesis is less understood. So far, only two MarR family negative regulators, EctR1 and CosR, have been identified in methylobacteria and Vibrio, respectively. Here, our work demonstrates that GlnR, the global regulator for nitrogen metabolism, is a negative transcriptional regulator for ect genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, a close relationship is found between nitrogen metabolism and osmotic resistance, and GlnR-mediated regulation of ect transcription is proposed to protect the intracellular glutamate pool. Meanwhile, the work reveals the multiple roles of GlnR in bacterial physiology. PMID:26170409

  19. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  20. A correlation of reactive oxygen species accumulation by depletion of superoxide dismutases with age-dependent impairment in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila adults.

    PubMed

    Oka, Saori; Hirai, Jun; Yasukawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2015-08-01

    The theory that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in internal organs is a major promoter of aging has been considered negatively. However, it is still controversial whether overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which remove ROS, extends the lifespan in Drosophila adults. We examined whether ROS accumulation by depletion of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) or Mn-SOD (SOD2) influenced age-related impairment of the nervous system and muscles in Drosophila. We confirmed the efficient depletion of Sod1 and Sod2 through RNAi and ROS accumulation by monitoring of ROS-inducible gene expression. Both RNAi flies displayed accelerated impairment of locomotor activity with age and shortened lifespan. Similarly, adults with nervous system-specific depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 also showed reduced lifespan. We then found an accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in the flies with suppressed SOD expression. A half-dose reduction of three pro-apoptotic genes resulted in a significant suppression of the neuronal loss, suggesting that apoptosis was involved in the neuronal loss caused by SOD silencing. In addition, depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 in musculature is also associated with enhancement of age-related locomotion impairment. In indirect flight muscles from SOD-depleted adults, abnormal protein aggregates containing poly-ubiquitin accumulated at an early adult stage and continued to increase as the flies aged. Most of these protein aggregates were observed between myofibril layers. Moreover, immuno-electron microscopy indicated that the aggregates were predominantly localized in damaged mitochondria. These findings suggest that muscular and neuronal ROS accumulation may have a significant effect on age-dependent impairment of the Drosophila adults.

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D.

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  2. Magnesium and manganese interactively modulate parthenolide accumulation and the antioxidant defense system in the leaves of Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hojati, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is a critical factor affecting accumulation of terpenoids in plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two essential nutrients for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes are scarce. Here, the interactional effects between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on plant growth, oxidative status, parthenolide accumulation and expression of key genes involved in parthenolide biosynthesis including 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (HMGR), germacrene A synthase (GAS), germacrene A oxidase (GAO), costunolide synthase (COS) and parthenolide synthase (PTS) in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different Mn and Mn levels were assessed. Plant growth and leaf pigment concentrations were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the Mn level. Deprivation and the addition of both Mg and Mn induce oxidative stress. Mg supply also alleviated the adverse effects of Mn excess on plant growth and oxidative status. In addition, parthenolide biosynthesis decreased under deprivation of Mg or Mn, but the addition of Mn up to 50μM under 2mM Mg supply considerably increased its accumulation. The parthenolide accumulation trend might reflect the up-regulation of terpenoid-related genes and enzyme activities as well as the oxidative status of feverfew leaves. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on parthenolide biosynthesis through the activation of terpene synthases, which concomitantly modulate by oxidative status. PMID:27450490

  3. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  4. Productivity and selective accumulation of carotenoids of the novel extremophile microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grown with different carbon sources in batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cuaresma, María; Casal, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Vílchez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of extremophile microorganisms has attracted interest due to their ability to accumulate high-value compounds. Chlamydomonas acidophila is an acidophile green microalga isolated by our group from Tinto River, an acidic river that flows down from the mining area in Huelva, Spain. This microalga accumulates high concentrations of lutein, a very well-known natural antioxidant. The aim of this study is to assess use of different carbon sources (CO(2), glucose, glycerol, starch, urea, and glycine) for efficient growth of and carotenoid production by C. acidophila. Our results reveal that growth of the microalga on different carbon sources resulted in different algal biomass productivities, urea being as efficient as CO(2) when used as sole carbon source (~20 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). Mixotrophic growth on glucose was also efficient in terms of biomass production (~14 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). In terms of carotenoid accumulation, mixotrophic growth on urea resulted in even higher productivity of carotenoids (mainly lutein, probably via α-carotene) than obtained with photoautotrophic cultures (70% versus 65% relative abundance of lutein, respectively). The accumulated lutein concentrations of C. acidophila reported in this work (about 10 g/kg dry weight, produced in batch systems) are among the highest reported for a microalga. Glycerol and glycine seem to enhance β-carotene biosynthesis, and when glycine is used as carbon source, zeaxanthin becomes the most accumulated carotenoid in the microalga. Strategies for production of lutein and zeaxanthin are suggested based on the obtained results. PMID:20811803

  5. Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode 3 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Lee, Edward W.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

    1996-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was carried out on G40-800/R6376 graphite epoxy laminates to evaluate the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) test as a candidate for a standard Mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness test for laminated composites. The ECT test consists of a (90/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/90))(sub s) laminate with a delamination introduced by a non-adhesive film at the mid-plane along one edge and loaded in a special fixture to create torsion along the length of the laminate. Dye penetrate enhanced X-radiograph of failed specimens revealed that the delamination initiated at the middle of the specimen length and propagated in a self similar manner along the laminate mid-plane. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed that indicated that a pure Mode 3 delamination exists at the middle of specimen length away from both ends. At the ends near the loading point a small Mode 2 component exists. However, the magnitude of this Mode 2 strain energy release rate at the loading point is small compared to the magnitude of Mode 3 component in the mid-section of the specimen. Hence, the ECT test yielded the desired Mode 3 delamination. The Mode 3 fracture toughness was obtained from a compliance calibration method and was in good agreement with the finite element results. Mode 2 End-Notched Flexure (ENF) tests and Mode 1 Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were also performed for the same composite material. The Mode 1 fracture toughness was much smaller than both the Mode 2 and Mode 3 fracture toughness. The Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to be 75% of the Mode 3 fracture toughness.

  6. Flow past an accumulator unit of an underwater energy storage system: Three touching balloons in a floral configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.

    2014-12-01

    An LES simulation of flow over an accumulator unit of an underwater compressed air energy storage facility was conducted. The accumulator unit consists of three touching underwater balloons arranged in a floral configuration. The structure of the flow was examined via three dimensional iso surfaces of the Q criterion. Vortical cores were observed on the leeward surface of the balloons. The swirling tube flows generated by these vortical cores were depicted through three dimensional path lines. The flow dynamics were visualized via time series snapshots of two dimensional vorticity contours perpendicular to the flow direction; revealing the turbulent swinging motions of the aforementioned shedding-swirling tube flows. The time history of the hydrodynamic loading was presented in terms of lift and drag coefficients. Drag coefficient of each individual balloon in the floral configuration was smaller than that of a single balloon. It was found that the total drag coefficient of the floral unit of three touching balloons, i.e. summation of the drag coefficients of the balloons, is not too much larger than that of a single balloon whereas it provides three times the storage capacity. In addition to its practical significance in designing appropriate foundation and supports, the instantaneous hydrodynamic loading was used to determine the frequency of the turbulent swirling-swinging motions of the shedding vortex tubes; the Strouhal number was found to be larger than that of a single sphere at the same Reynolds number.

  7. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on soil nitrate nitrogen accumulation under vegetable-paddy rice rotation system].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Ming-Qing; Kong, Qing-Bo; Yao, Bao-Quan

    2013-12-01

    A 2-year field experiment of mustard-cabbage-early rice rotation was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen application on yield and accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in the soil. The results showed that the applications of 150 kg N x hm(-2) for mustard and cabbage respectively and 90 kg N x hm(-2) for early rice were the best economic application mode, which could increase the net profit by 0.2%-75.6% compared with other application modes. Nitrogen application rates were positively correlated with NO3(-)-N concentration in the soil and in the percolating water. The vegetable-paddy rice rotation decreased the surplus of nitrogen in the soil. The average soil NO3(-)-N concentration was 29.7 mg x kg(-1) under the rotation of mustard-cabbage-early rice, which was only 84.4% of that under the continuous cropping of mustard-cabbage. The average NO3(-)-N concentration in the percolating water under mustard-cabbage-early rice rotation was little different from that in basal soil. Therefore, with the optimum nitrogen application mode, the vegetable-paddy rice rotation could gain the best economic benefit while significantly decrease the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in the soil to effectively control non-point source pollution of nitrogen from vegetable fields.

  8. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  9. Significant associations between hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisheng; Horigome, Hitoshi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Satoko; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers and investigate their relationship with physical constitution and cardiovascular risk factors in a normal schoolchildren population. This study comprised 148 healthy Japanese children aged 9-10 years (males 73; females 75). We performed laboratory tests including blood levels of leptin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers [plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), coagulation factor VII (FVII), coagulation factor X (FX), fibrinogen (Fbg), protein C, protein S], as well as common biochemical markers in the morning after an overnight fast. We investigated the mean, 10th, 50th and 90th percentile values of these markers. All parameters were compared between two groups, that is those with body mass index (BMI) 90th percentile or higher and BMI less than 90th percentile, and between subgroups based on the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression was used to assess associations between these hematological parameters and the components related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, leptin, hs-CRP, and all hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers (PAI-1, FVII, FX, Fbg, protein C, protein S) tested were significantly higher in the group with BMI 90th percentile or higher, and increased with accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that these values were associated with one or more components related to MetS. Reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers in Japanese schoolchildren were obtained. Many hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers showed significant association with BMI and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in normal Japanese schoolchildren. PMID:25185676

  10. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sandra S; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  11. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sandra S.; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W.; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  12. P2RX7 polymorphisms Gln460Arg and His155Tyr are not associated with major depressive disorder or remission after SSRI or ECT.

    PubMed

    Viikki, Merja; Kampman, Olli; Anttila, Sami; Illi, Ari; Setälä-Soikkeli, Eija; Huuhka, Martti; Mononen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Leinonen, Esa

    2011-04-15

    Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7) gene polymorphism, has been suggested to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The association between P2RX7 gene polymorphism and remission after serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has not previously been studied. The aims of the present study were to test for an association between P2RX7 polymorphisms Gln460Arg (rs2230912) and His155Tyr (rs208294) and MDD in two patient populations compared to controls. The first patient sample consisted of 119 subjects with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, who were treated with ECT and the second of 99 depressive outpatients treated with SSRI. Genotype frequencies were also compared between remitters (Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)<8) and non-remitters (defined as MADRS≥8) to SSRI or ECT treatment. There were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies of either rs2230912 or rs208294 between patient groups and controls. Neither rs2230912 nor rs208294 was associated with MDD or remission after SSRI or ECT. The results suggest that P2RX7 gene polymorphisms Gln460Arg (rs2230912) and His155Tyr (rs208294) are not associated with MDD or remission after SSRI or ECT.

  13. Silver nanoparticles induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and alteration of antioxidant systems in the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Sheng; Qiu, Xiao-Ni; Li, Gen-Bao; Li, Wei; Yin, Li-Yan

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used commercially because of their antibacterial properties. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in the toxicity of AgNPs to bacteria, animals, and algae. The authors used Spirodela polyrhiza to investigate whether AgNPs can induce oxidative stress in higher plants. Results showed that there was a dose-dependent increase in levels of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, and the antioxidant glutathione content in 6-nm AgNP treatments. Catalase activity and malondialdehyde content in 6-nm AgNP treatments was significantly higher than the control at silver concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) . Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and antioxidant glutathione and malondialdehyde content were not significantly different at 10 mg L(-1) of AgNPs (6 nm and 20 nm). Treatment with 20 µg L(-1) Ag(+) (the amount almost equal to 10 mg L(-1) AgNPs released) did not change the reactive oxygen species level or antioxidant enzymes activity. Micron-sized Ag particles had no effect on S. polyrhiza. Transmission electron microscopy showed that, compared with the control, chloroplasts in S. polyrhiza treated with 6-nm and 20-nm AgNPs accumulated starch grains and had reduced intergranal thylakoids. These results clearly indicate that AgNPs are able to cause oxidative stress and affect the chloroplast structure and function of S. polyrhiza, and this effect was not caused by Ag(+) released from particles. PMID:24619507

  14. Arabidopsis Auxin Mutants Are Compromised in Systemic Acquired Resistance and Exhibit Aberrant Accumulation of Various Indolic Compounds1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Truman, William M.; Bennett, Mark H.; Turnbull, Colin G.N.; Grant, Murray R.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a widespread phenomenon in the plant kingdom that confers heightened and often enduring immunity to a range of diverse pathogens. Systemic immunity develops through activation of plant disease resistance protein signaling networks following local infection with an incompatible pathogen. The accumulation of the phytohormone salicylic acid in systemically responding tissues occurs within days after a local immunizing infection and is essential for systemic resistance. However, our knowledge of the signaling components underpinning signal perception and the establishment of systemic immunity are rudimentary. Previously, we showed that an early and transient increase in jasmonic acid in distal responding tissues was central to effective establishment of systemic immunity. Based upon predicted transcriptional networks induced in naive Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves following avirulent Pseudomonas syringae challenge, we show that a variety of auxin mutants compromise the establishment of systemic immunity. Linking together transcriptional and targeted metabolite studies, our data provide compelling evidence for a role of indole-derived compounds, but not auxin itself, in the establishment and maintenance of systemic immunity. PMID:20081042

  15. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable.

  16. Temporal dynamics of methyltransferase and restriction endonuclease accumulation in individual cells after introducing a restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Natalia; Sabantsev, Anton; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Yana; Maikova, Anna; Vedyaykin, Alexey; Rodic, Andjela; Djordjevic, Marko; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-29

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems encode a restriction endonuclease that cleaves DNA at specific sites, and a methyltransferase that modifies same sites protecting them from restriction endonuclease cleavage. Type II R-M systems benefit bacteria by protecting them from bacteriophages. Many type II R-M systems are plasmid-based and thus capable of horizontal transfer. Upon the entry of such plasmids into a naïve host with unmodified genomic recognition sites, methyltransferase should be synthesized first and given sufficient time to methylate recognition sites in the bacterial genome before the toxic restriction endonuclease activity appears. Here, we directly demonstrate a delay in restriction endonuclease synthesis after transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a plasmid carrying the Esp1396I type II R-M system, using single-cell microscopy. We further demonstrate that before the appearance of the Esp1396I restriction endonuclease the intracellular concentration of Esp1396I methyltransferase undergoes a sharp peak, which should allow rapid methylation of host genome recognition sites. A mathematical model that satisfactorily describes the observed dynamics of both Esp1396I enzymes is presented. The results reported here were obtained using a functional Esp1396I type II R-M system encoding both enzymes fused to fluorescent proteins. Similar approaches should be applicable to the studies of other R-M systems at single-cell level.

  17. Induction of DIMBOA accumulation and systemic defense responses as a mechanism of enhanced resistance of mycorrhizal corn (Zea mays L.) to sheath blight.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Cao, Man; Xie, Li Jun; Liang, Xiao Ting; Zeng, Ren Sen; Su, Yi Juan; Huang, Jing Hua; Wang, Rui Long; Luo, Shi Ming

    2011-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas are the most important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems and they enhance the plant defense against numerous soil-borne pathogenic fungi and nematodes. Two corn (Zea mays) varieties, Gaoyou-115 that is susceptible to sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Yuenong-9 that is resistant, were used for mycorrhizal inoculation in this study. Pre-inoculation of susceptible Gaoyou-115 with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae significantly reduced the disease incidence and disease severity of sheath blight of corn. HPLC analysis showed that AMF inoculation led to significant increase in 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2 H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one (DIMBOA) accumulation in the roots of both corn varieties and in leaves of resistant Yuenong-9. R. solani inoculation alone did not result in accumulation of DIMBOA in both roots and leaves of the two corn varieties. Our previous study showed that DIMBOA strongly inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. Real-time PCR analysis showed that mycorrhizal inoculation itself did not affect the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pre-inoculation with G. mosseae induced strong responses of three defense-related genes PR2a, PAL, and AOS, as well as BX9, one of the key genes in DIMBOA biosynthesis pathway, in the leaves of corn plants of both Yuenong-9 and Gaoyou-115 after the pathogen attack. Induction of defense responses in pre-inoculated plants was much higher and quicker than that in non-inoculated plants upon R. solani infection. These results indicate that induction of accumulation of DIMBOA, an important phytoalexin in corn, and systemic defense responses by AMF, plays a vital role in enhanced disease resistance of mycorrhizal plants of corn against sheath blight. This study also suggests that priming is an important mechanism in mycorrhiza-induced resistance.

  18. IL-21 Receptor Is Required for the Systemic Accumulation of Activated B and T Lymphocytes in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Andrew L.; Guay, Heath; Herber, Deborah; Bertino, Sarah A.; Duzanski, Tatyana A.; Carrier, Yijun; Keegan, Sean; Senices, Mayra; Stedman, Nancy; Ryan, Mark; Bloom, Laird; Medley, Quintus; Collins, Mary; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Craft, Joe; Young, Deborah; Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri

    2013-01-01

    MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/lpr/J (MRLlpr) mice develop lupus-like disease manifestations in an IL-21–dependent manner. IL-21 is a pleio-tropic cytokine that can influence the activation, differentiation, and expansion of B and T cell effector subsets. Notably, auto-reactive CD4+ T and B cells spontaneously accumulate in MRLlpr mice and mediate disease pathogenesis. We sought to identify the particular lymphocyte effector subsets regulated by IL-21 in the context of systemic autoimmunity and, thus, generated MRLlpr mice deficient in IL-21R (MRLlpr.IL-21R−/−). Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, which are characteristic traits of the MRLlpr model were significantly reduced in the absence of IL-21R, suggesting that immune activation was likewise decreased. Indeed, spontaneous germinal center formation and plasma cell accumulation were absent in IL-21R–deficient MRLlpr mice. Correspondingly, we observed a significant reduction in autoantibody titers. Activated CD4+ CD44+ CD62Llo T cells also failed to accumulate, and CD4+ Th cell differentiation was impaired, as evidenced by a significant reduction in CD4+ T cells that produced the pronephritogenic cytokine IFN-γ. T extrafollicular helper cells are a recently described subset of activated CD4+ T cells that function as the primary inducers of autoantibody production in MRLlpr mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that T extrafollicular helper cells are dependent on IL-21R for their generation. Together, our data highlighted the novel observation that IL-21 is a critical regulator of multiple pathogenic B and T cell effector subsets in MRLlpr mice. PMID:22231702

  19. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    PubMed

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent.

  20. Combining Peer-Assessment with Negotiated Learning Activities on a Day-Release Undergraduate-Level Certificate Course (ECTS Level 3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Peer-assessment was used within a negotiated curriculum in a module on training and development at ECTS level 3. The students on the programme were exclusively day-release and all had a major responsibility for the management and delivery of work-based training programmes. Analysis of student evaluations, supplemented by those of university…

  1. Synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine: crystal structure of the non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase EctD.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Klaus; Pittelkow, Marco; Bursy, Jan; Heine, Andreas; Craan, Tobias; Bremer, Erhard

    2010-05-14

    As a response to high osmolality, many microorganisms synthesize various types of compatible solutes. These organic osmolytes aid in offsetting the detrimental effects of low water activity on cell physiology. One of these compatible solutes is ectoine. A sub-group of the ectoine producer's enzymatically convert this tetrahydropyrimidine into a hydroxylated derivative, 5-hydroxyectoine. This compound also functions as an effective osmostress protectant and compatible solute but it possesses properties that differ in several aspects from those of ectoine. The enzyme responsible for ectoine hydroxylation (EctD) is a member of the non-heme iron(II)-containing and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11). These enzymes couple the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate with the formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate to catalyze the oxidation of the bound organic substrate. We report here the crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase EctD from the moderate halophile Virgibacillus salexigens in complex with Fe(3+) at a resolution of 1.85 A. Like other non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, the core of the EctD structure consists of a double-stranded beta-helix forming the main portion of the active-site of the enzyme. The positioning of the iron ligand in the active-site of EctD is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved 2-His-1-carboxylate iron-binding motif. The side chains of the three residues forming this iron-binding site protrude into a deep cavity in the EctD structure that also harbours the 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate-binding site. Database searches revealed a widespread occurrence of EctD-type proteins in members of the Bacteria but only in a single representative of the Archaea, the marine crenarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The EctD crystal structure reported here can serve as a template to guide further biochemical and structural studies of this biotechnologically interesting enzyme family.

  2. Synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine: crystal structure of the non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase EctD.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Klaus; Pittelkow, Marco; Bursy, Jan; Heine, Andreas; Craan, Tobias; Bremer, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    As a response to high osmolality, many microorganisms synthesize various types of compatible solutes. These organic osmolytes aid in offsetting the detrimental effects of low water activity on cell physiology. One of these compatible solutes is ectoine. A sub-group of the ectoine producer's enzymatically convert this tetrahydropyrimidine into a hydroxylated derivative, 5-hydroxyectoine. This compound also functions as an effective osmostress protectant and compatible solute but it possesses properties that differ in several aspects from those of ectoine. The enzyme responsible for ectoine hydroxylation (EctD) is a member of the non-heme iron(II)-containing and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11). These enzymes couple the decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate with the formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate to catalyze the oxidation of the bound organic substrate. We report here the crystal structure of the ectoine hydroxylase EctD from the moderate halophile Virgibacillus salexigens in complex with Fe(3+) at a resolution of 1.85 A. Like other non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, the core of the EctD structure consists of a double-stranded beta-helix forming the main portion of the active-site of the enzyme. The positioning of the iron ligand in the active-site of EctD is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved 2-His-1-carboxylate iron-binding motif. The side chains of the three residues forming this iron-binding site protrude into a deep cavity in the EctD structure that also harbours the 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate-binding site. Database searches revealed a widespread occurrence of EctD-type proteins in members of the Bacteria but only in a single representative of the Archaea, the marine crenarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The EctD crystal structure reported here can serve as a template to guide further biochemical and structural studies of this biotechnologically interesting enzyme family. PMID:20498719

  3. The contribution of remotely triggered displacement events to the long-term strain accumulation along the Atacama Fault System, N-Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, P.; Schurr, B.; Sobiesiak, M.; Ewiak, O.; Oncken, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Atacama Fault System (AFS) in N-Chile is an active trench-parallel fault system, located above approximately the down-dip end of coupling of the north Chilean subduction zone. The average long-term displacement rate for the last 100 000 - 10 000 years ranges between 0.2 and 0.3 mm/yr as determined by various methods and authors. The mode of displacement accumulation through time for this type of fault is not well understood. Surface ruptures along individual segments of the main fault scarp unambiguously reveal that the AFS has seismically ruptured several times during its past, but recurrence intervals are at least one order of magnitude longer than the megathrust earthquake cycle of the underlying subduction interface. Nevertheless these trench parallel fault systems bear a potential of unexpected large seismic ruptures as demonstrated by prominent examples like the Kobe Earthquak in 1995 and Denali Earthquake in 2002. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative proportion of aseismic and seismic slip through time and to investigate the impact of subduction zone earthquakes on the slip behavior of the AFS. Since 2008 we continuously monitor four active fault segments of the AFS with an array of 11 creepmeter stations, two of them co-located with Broadband seismometers. The displacement across the fault is continuously monitored with 2 samples/min with a resolution of 1μm. The displacement time series reveals that no continuous creep can be detected for 10 of the 11 stations. Instead we observe sudden displacement events correlated in time with far field megathrust earthquakes or local earthquakes on the plate interface or in the overriding crust. The most prominent event recorded on the creepmeters was the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake in 2010 located 1500km to 1800km away from the creepmeter array. All of the stations showed a triggered sudden displacement event 6-8 min after the main shock. Correlation with seismological data from a nearby IPOC station

  4. Accumulation of M1-like macrophages in type 2 diabetic islets is followed by a systemic shift in macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Cucak, Helena; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86(low) macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease. PMID:24009176

  5. Accumulation of M1-like macrophages in type 2 diabetic islets is followed by a systemic shift in macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Cucak, Helena; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86(low) macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease.

  6. Vertical accumulation of potential toxic elements in a semiarid system that is influenced by an abandoned gold mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Martha A.; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana J.; Magallanes-Ordóñez, Víctor R.; Sánchez-González, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The mining zone at El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico, was exploited for gold extraction for 200 years. This area includes more than 100 abandoned mining sites. These sites contain mine tailings that are highly contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTE), such as As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Zn, and other associated elements. Over time, these wastes have contaminated the sediments in the adjacent fluvial systems. Our aim was to assess the vertical PTE variations in the abandoned mining zone and in the discharge of the main arroyo into a small lagoon at the Pacific Ocean. Sediments were collected from the two following locations in the mining zone near the arroyo basin tailings: 1) an old alluvial terrace (Overbank) and a test pit (TP) and 2) two sediment cores locations at the arroyo discharge into a hypersaline small lagoon. Samples were analyzed by ICP-MS, ICP-OES, and INAA and the methods were validated. The overbank was the most contaminated and had As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn concentrations of 8690, 226, 84,700, 17,400, and 42,600 mg kg-1, respectively, which decreased with depth. In addition, the TP contained elevated As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn concentrations of 694, 18.8, 5001, 39.2, and 4170 mg kg-1, respectively. The sediment cores were less contaminated. However, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn concentrations were greater than the concentrations that are generally found in the Earth's crust. The normalized enrichment factors (NEFs), which were calculated from the background concentrations of these elements in the system, showed that extremely severe As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn (NEF > 50) enrichment occurred at the overbank. The TP was severe to very severely enriched with As, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn (NEF = 10-50). The sediment cores had a severe enrichment of As, Pb, and Zn (NEF = 10-25). Their vertical profiles showed that anthropogenic influences occurred in the historic sediment deposition at the overbank and TP and in the sediment cores. In addition, the As, Pb, and Zn

  7. [Accumulation of Mercury in Soil-maize System of Non-ferrous Metals Smelting Area and Its Related Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Na; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2015-10-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution, especially the mercury pollution, has been widespread concern in non-ferrous metallurgical area. This study focused on the content, distribution and pollution status of Hg in maize soil of Huludao city. Meanwhile, Hg contents in the various organs of maize were analyzed. Hg concentration in soil ranged from 0.25 to 3.49 mg x kg(-1) with the average content of 1.78 mg x kg(-1), which was 48 times as high as the background value of Liaoning soil. Around 2-3m range of zinc plant, the pattern of spatial distribution showed that the content of Hg was gradually increased with the increase of the distance to Huludao zinc plant. The result of geoaccumulation index reflected that Hg pollution is up to moderate pollution level on the whole. 54. 6% of the total sample were belonged to the serious pollution level. The potential ecological risk index of Hakanson was applied to assess the ecological risk of Hg. The target hazard quotient method (THQ) was used to assess the health risk for human, the results revealed that there was no significant health risk by consumption corn. Mercury is very difficult to transport in soil-maize system, and there is no obvious health risks to adults. But the risk coefficient of children, which is up to 0.056. is much higher than adults.

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  9. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  10. Extrapolation algorithm to Forecast the Dynamics of Accumulation of the Absorbed Dose at the International Space Station, according to the Radiation Monitoring System Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, Andrey

    The ISS service module is equipped with the radiation monitoring system (RMS) which provides data for the daily estimation of the radiation environment on board the station. The sensitive elements of the RMS are silicon semiconductor detectors and ionization chambers. The data obtained in quiet radiation environment allowed to determine the contribution to the absorbed radiation dose due to galactic cosmic rays and the Earth’s inner radiation belt. The corresponding analysis was conducted for the 2005-2011 period. As a result empirical relations were obtained allowing to calculate the dose for one crossing of the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The initial parameters for the calculation are longitude and altitude on which the ISS trajectory crosses this area. The obtained empirical relations allowed to develop a simple calculation algorithm for the short-term forecasting of the dynamics of accumulation of the radiation dose at the ISS which is based on the assumption that the current level of contribution to the daily dose of galactic cosmic rays and the structure of the Earth’s inner radiation belt at the station flight altitude remains unchanged within a few days. The results of the analysis of the ISS RMS data which was conducted using the developed calculation algorithm for the period from 2005 to 2011 (the period in which solar cycle 23 ended and solar cycle 24 began) showed the possibility to implement a short-term (1-2 days) forecast of the dynamics of accumulation of the dose on board the station with an acceptable error (of no more than 30 percent). Besides, the developed forecast algorithm for the growth phase of the 24th solar cycle (2011-2014) was verified. The algorithm developed for forecasting the radiation environment may be used to process and analyse the current RMS information when providing effective radiation safety for the ISS crew.

  11. Biomass accumulation rates of Amazonian secondary forest and biomass of old-growth forests from Landsat time series and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, Eileen H.; Lefsky, Michael A.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the age of humid lowland tropical forests in Rondônia, Brazil, from a somewhat densely spaced time series of Landsat images (1975-2003) with an automated procedure, the Threshold Age Mapping Algorithm (TAMA), first described here. We then estimate a landscape-level rate of aboveground woody biomass accumulation of secondary forest by combining forest age mapping with biomass estimates from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Though highly variable, the estimated average biomass accumulation rate of 8.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 agrees well with ground-based studies for young secondary forests in the region. In isolating the lowland forests, we map land cover and general types of old-growth forests with decision tree classification of Landsat imagery and elevation data. We then estimate aboveground live biomass for seven classes of old-growth forest. TAMA is simple, fast, and self-calibrating. By not using between-date band or index differences or trends, it requires neither image normalization nor atmospheric correction. In addition, it uses an approach to map forest cover for the self-calibrations that is novel to forest mapping with satellite imagery; it maps humid secondary forest that is difficult to distinguish from old-growth forest in single-date imagery; it does not assume that forest age equals time since disturbance; and it incorporates Landsat Multispectral Scanner imagery. Variations on the work that we present here can be applied to other forested landscapes. Applications that use image time series will be helped by the free distribution of coregistered Landsat imagery, which began in December 2008, and of the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite Vegetation Product, which simplifies the use of GLAS data. Finally, we demonstrate here for the first time how the optical imagery of fine spatial resolution that is viewable on Google Earth provides a new source of reference data for remote sensing applications related to land cover.

  12. Enhanced AOX accumulation and aquatic toxicity during 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation in a Co(II)/peroxymonosulfate/Cl⁻ system.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changling; Xiao, Dongxue; Liu, Wenqian; Lou, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Jianshe

    2016-02-01

    Chloride ion is known to affect on degradation kinetics in different ways during HO· and SO4(·-)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, its effect on absorbable organic halogen (AOX) evolution and acute toxicity of treated water remains unknown, despite the importance of the two parameters in evaluating the applicability of AOPs. In the present study, Co/peroxymonosulfate (Co/PMS) and UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatment of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was compared in terms of AOX formation, chlorinated byproducts and acute toxicity. Both Co/PMS and UV/H2O2 systems were more reactive under acidic conditions, resulting in elevated AOX levels when compared with those at neutral pH. The presence of high levels of chloride led to an accumulation and increase of AOX in the Co/PMS system. The toxicity of chlorinated byproducts was evaluated using Photobacterium phosphoreum, and the results revealed a sharp increase in acute toxicity of Co/PMS reaction solutions on addition of chloride ion. However, addition of Cl(-) had no apparent impact on AOX and toxicity of UV/H2O2 reaction solutions. These findings may have significant technical implications for selecting feasible technologies to treat high salinity wastewater. PMID:26613359

  13. NASA's Van Allen Probes RBSP-ECT Data Products and Access to Them: An Insider's Outlook on the Inner and Outer Belts (and We Don't Mean the Nation's Beltway...)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. S.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this poster, we present a summary of access to the data products of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Energetic Particle Composition, and Thermal plasma (RBSP-ECT) suite of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT science investigation (http://rbsp-ect.sr.unh.edu) measures comprehensively the near-Earth charged particle environment in order to understand the processes that control the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions. RBSP-ECT data products derive from the three instrument elements that comprise the suite, which collectively covers the broad energies that define the source and seed populations, the core radiation belts, and also their highest energy ultra-relativistic extensions. These RBSP-ECT instruments include, from lowest to highest energies: the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensor, the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT). We provide a brief overview of their principles of operation, as well as a description of the Level 1-3 data products that the HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments produce, both separately and together. We provide a summary of how to access these RBSP-ECT data products at our Science Operation Center and Science Data Center (http://www.rbsp-ect.lanl.gov/rbsp_ect.php ) as well as caveats for their use. Finally, in the spirit of efficiently and effectively promoting and encouraging new collaborations, we present a summary of past publications, current studies, and opportunities for your future participation in RBSP-ECT science analyses.

  14. NASA's RBSP-ECT Science Investigation of the Van Allen Probes Mission: Highlights of the Prime Mission Phase, Data Access Overview, and Opportunities to Collaborate in the Extended Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. S.; Friedel, R. H.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this poster, we present a summary of access to the data products of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes - Energetic Particle Composition, and Thermal plasma (RBSP-ECT) suite of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. The RBSP-ECT science investigation (http://rbsp-ect.sr.unh.edu) measures comprehensively the near-Earth charged particle environment in order to understand the processes that control the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ions. RBSP-ECT data products derive from the three instrument elements that comprise the suite, which collectively covers the broad energies that define the source and seed populations, the core radiation belts, and also their highest energy ultra-relativistic extensions. These RBSP-ECT instruments include, from lowest to highest energies: the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) sensor, the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), and the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT). We provide a brief overview of their principles of operation, as well as a description of the Level 2-3 data products that the HOPE, MagEIS, and REPT instruments produce, both separately and together. We provide a summary of how to access these RBSP-ECT data products at our Science Operation Center and Science Data Center (http://www.rbsp-ect.lanl.gov/rbsp_ect.php ) as well as caveats for their use. Finally, in the spirit of efficiently and effectively promoting and encouraging new collaborations, we present a summary of past publications, current studies, and opportunities for your future participation in RBSP-ECT extended mission phase science.

  15. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  16. Transient analysis of energy Transfer Control (ECT) and compressor bleed concepts of remote lift fan control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The transient performance of two concepts for control of vertical takeoff aircraft remote lift fans is analyzed and discussed. Both concepts employ flow transfer between pairs of lift fans located in separate parts of the aircraft in order to obtain attitude control moments for hover and low-speed flight. The results presented are from a digital computer, dynamic analysis of the YJ97/LF460 remote drive turbofan. The transient responses of the two systems are presented for step demands in lift and moment.

  17. Reduced ABA Accumulation in the Root System is Caused by ABA Exudation in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Gaoshan1) and this Enhanced Drought Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu; Guo, Miaomiao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yiji; Cui, Suxia; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Lowland rice (Nipponbare) and upland rice (Gaoshan 1) that are comparable under normal and moderate drought conditions showed dramatic differences in severe drought conditions, both naturally occurring long-term drought and simulated rapid water deficits. We focused on their root response and found that enhanced tolerance of upland rice to severe drought conditions was mainly due to the lower level of ABA in its roots than in those of the lowland rice. We first excluded the effect of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism on root-accumulated ABA levels in both types of rice by monitoring the expression of four OsNCED genes and two OsABA8ox genes. Next, we excluded the impact of the aerial parts on roots by suppressing leaf-biosynthesized ABA with fluridone and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), and measuring the ABA level in detached roots. Instead, we proved that upland rice had the ability to export considerably more root-sourced ABA than lowland rice under severe drought, which improved ABA-dependent drought adaptation. The investigation of apoplastic pH in root cells and root anatomy showed that ABA leakage in the root system of upland rice was related to high apoplastic pH and the absence of Casparian bands in the sclerenchyma layer. Finally, taking some genes as examples, we predicted that different ABA levels in rice roots stimulated distinct ABA perception and signaling cascades, which influenced its response to water stress.

  18. Investigation of possible observable e ects in a proposed theory of physics

    SciTech Connect

    Freidan, Daniel

    2015-03-31

    The work supported by this grant produced rigorous mathematical results on what is possible in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is the well-established mathematical language for fundamental particle physics, for critical phenomena in condensed matter physics, and for Physical Mathematics (the numerous branches of Mathematics that have benefitted from ideas, constructions, and conjectures imported from Theoretical Physics). Proving rigorous constraints on what is possible in quantum field theories thus guides the field, puts actual constraints on what is physically possible in physical or mathematical systems described by quantum field theories, and saves the community the effort of trying to do what is proved impossible. Results were obtained in two dimensional qft (describing, e.g., quantum circuits) and in higher dimensional qft. Rigorous bounds were derived on basic quantities in 2d conformal field theories, i.e., in 2d critical phenomena. Conformal field theories are the basic objects in quantum field theory, the scale invariant theories describing renormalization group fixed points from which all qfts flow. The first known lower bounds on the 2d boundary entropy were found. This is the entropy- information content- in junctions in critical quantum circuits. For dimensions d > 2, a no-go theorem was proved on the possibilities of Cauchy fields, which are the analogs of the holomorphic fields in d = 2 dimensions, which have had enormously useful applications in Physics and Mathematics over the last four decades. This closed o the possibility of finding analogously rich theories in dimensions above 2. The work of two postdoctoral research fellows was partially supported by this grant. Both have gone on to tenure track positions.

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial design of whole experiment consisted of six vegetable crops (tomato, egg plant, spinach, amaranthus, carrot and radish) x two treatments (organic farming in open field and organic farming in glasshouse (OFG)) x seven independent harvest of each crop. The results indicated that except for Pb, atmospheric deposition of heavy metals increased consistently on time scale. Concentrations of heavy metals in cultivated soil horizon and in edible parts of open field grown vegetables increased over time and were significantly higher than those recorded in OFG plots. Increased contents of heavy metals in open field altered soil porosity, bulk density, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activities. Vegetable concentrations of heavy metal appeared in the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd and were maximum in leaves (spinach and amaranths) followed by fruits (tomato and egg plant) and minimum in roots (carrot and radish). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the major contribution of most heavy metals to vegetable leaves was from atmosphere. For roots however, soil appeared to be equally important. The study suggests that if the present trend of atmospheric deposition is continued, it will lead to a destabilizing effect on this sustainable agricultural practice and will increase the dietary intake of toxic metals.

  20. Implications of various phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system mutations on glycerol utilization and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced global biodiesel production is also yielding increased quantities of glycerol as main coproduct. An effective application of glycerol, for example, as low-cost substrate for microbial growth in industrial fermentation processes to specific products will reduce the production costs for biodiesel. Our study focuses on the utilization of glycerol as a cheap carbon source during cultivation of the thermoplastic producing bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, and on the investigation of carbohydrate transport proteins involved herein. Seven open reading frames were identified in the genome of strain H16 to encode for putative proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS). Although the core components of PEP-PTS, enzyme I (ptsI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (ptsH), are available in strain H16, a complete PTS-mediated carbohydrate transport is lacking. Growth experiments employing several PEP-PTS mutants indicate that the putative ptsMHI operon, comprising ptsM (a fructose-specific EIIA component of PTS), ptsH, and ptsI, is responsible for limited cell growth and reduced PHB accumulation (53%, w/w, less PHB than the wild type) of this strain in media containing glycerol as a sole carbon source. Otherwise, the deletion of gene H16_A0384 (ptsN, nitrogen regulatory EIIA component of PTS) seemed to largely compensate the effect of the deleted ptsMHI operon (49%, w/w, PHB). The involvement of the PTS homologous proteins on the utilization of the non-PTS sugar alcohol glycerol and its effect on cell growth as well as PHB and carbon metabolism of R. eutropha will be discussed. PMID:21906371

  1. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations.

  2. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. PMID:27432725

  3. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubel, Jose Maria Esteve; Valero, Miguel Angel Molina; Stephens, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the Espacio Europeo de Educacion Superior (European Higher Education Area) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with a minimal musical knowledge. The data for this study arise from a…

  5. A Quantitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve-Faubel, Jose-Maria; Stephens, Jonathan; Molina Valero, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with minimal musical knowledge. The report takes into account the importance of students' previous knowledge and the…

  6. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in a plot-scale vegetable production system in a peri-urban vegetable farm near Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Shi, Xuezheng; Chen, Weiping; Zhao, Yongcun; Jiao, Wentao

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation and potential health risk of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in a plot-scale vegetable production peri-urban area near Nanjing city, China was investigated through element balance method, model simulation and dietary risk assessment. The heavy metals accumulated in the surface soils were due to long-term and heavy application of organic fertilizers, among which the accumulation of Cu and Zn were greater than those of Cd and Pb. The result of a mass balance model simulation indicated that intensive vegetable production would result in accumulation of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soils exceeding the target values in 55, 36, 34 and 71 years, respectively. The estimated dietary intakes of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were far below the tolerable limits and the hazard quotient values were below one for both children and adults. Although there is no imminent health risk from heavy metals through vegetable consumption, more attention should be paid to the long-term accumulation and risk, especially for children.

  7. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  8. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  10. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  11. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  12. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  13. Environmental impact of multi-wall carbon nanotubes in a novel model of exposure: systemic distribution, macrophage accumulation, and amyloid deposition

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Bruno, Antonino; Principi, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Gini, Elisabetta; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Bassani, Barbara; De Flora, Silvio; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated and employed for industrial use because of their peculiar physical properties, which make them ideal for many industrial applications. However, rapid growth of CNT employment raises concerns about the potential risks and toxicities for public health, environment, and workers associated with the manufacture and use of these new materials. Here we investigate the main routes of entry following environmental exposure to multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; currently the most widely used in industry). We developed a novel murine model that could represent a surrogate of a workplace exposure to MWCNTs. We traced the localization of MWCNTs and their possible role in inducing an innate immune response, inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory conditions. Following environmental exposure of CD1 mice, we observed that MWCNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidney via the bloodstream. Since recent experimental studies show that CNTs are associated with the aggregation process of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether MWCNTs are able to induce amyloid fibril production and accumulation. Amyloid deposits in spatial association with macrophages and MWCNT aggregates were found in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys of exposed animals. Our data suggest that accumulation of MWCNTs in different organs is associated with inflammation and amyloid accumulation. In the brain, where we observed rapid accumulation and amyloid fibril deposition, exposure to MWCNTs might enhance progression of neurodegenerative and other amyloid-related diseases. Our data highlight the conclusion that, in a novel rodent model of exposure, MWCNTs may induce macrophage recruitment, activation, and amyloid deposition, causing potential damage to several organs. PMID:26457053

  14. Environmental impact of multi-wall carbon nanotubes in a novel model of exposure: systemic distribution, macrophage accumulation, and amyloid deposition.

    PubMed

    Albini, Adriana; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Bruno, Antonino; Principi, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Gini, Elisabetta; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Bassani, Barbara; De Flora, Silvio; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated and employed for industrial use because of their peculiar physical properties, which make them ideal for many industrial applications. However, rapid growth of CNT employment raises concerns about the potential risks and toxicities for public health, environment, and workers associated with the manufacture and use of these new materials. Here we investigate the main routes of entry following environmental exposure to multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; currently the most widely used in industry). We developed a novel murine model that could represent a surrogate of a workplace exposure to MWCNTs. We traced the localization of MWCNTs and their possible role in inducing an innate immune response, inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory conditions. Following environmental exposure of CD1 mice, we observed that MWCNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidney via the bloodstream. Since recent experimental studies show that CNTs are associated with the aggregation process of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether MWCNTs are able to induce amyloid fibril production and accumulation. Amyloid deposits in spatial association with macrophages and MWCNT aggregates were found in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys of exposed animals. Our data suggest that accumulation of MWCNTs in different organs is associated with inflammation and amyloid accumulation. In the brain, where we observed rapid accumulation and amyloid fibril deposition, exposure to MWCNTs might enhance progression of neurodegenerative and other amyloid-related diseases. Our data highlight the conclusion that, in a novel rodent model of exposure, MWCNTs may induce macrophage recruitment, activation, and amyloid deposition, causing potential damage to several organs.

  15. Environmental impact of multi-wall carbon nanotubes in a novel model of exposure: systemic distribution, macrophage accumulation, and amyloid deposition.

    PubMed

    Albini, Adriana; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Bruno, Antonino; Principi, Elisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Gini, Elisabetta; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Bassani, Barbara; De Flora, Silvio; de Eguileor, Magda; Noonan, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated and employed for industrial use because of their peculiar physical properties, which make them ideal for many industrial applications. However, rapid growth of CNT employment raises concerns about the potential risks and toxicities for public health, environment, and workers associated with the manufacture and use of these new materials. Here we investigate the main routes of entry following environmental exposure to multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; currently the most widely used in industry). We developed a novel murine model that could represent a surrogate of a workplace exposure to MWCNTs. We traced the localization of MWCNTs and their possible role in inducing an innate immune response, inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory conditions. Following environmental exposure of CD1 mice, we observed that MWCNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidney via the bloodstream. Since recent experimental studies show that CNTs are associated with the aggregation process of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether MWCNTs are able to induce amyloid fibril production and accumulation. Amyloid deposits in spatial association with macrophages and MWCNT aggregates were found in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys of exposed animals. Our data suggest that accumulation of MWCNTs in different organs is associated with inflammation and amyloid accumulation. In the brain, where we observed rapid accumulation and amyloid fibril deposition, exposure to MWCNTs might enhance progression of neurodegenerative and other amyloid-related diseases. Our data highlight the conclusion that, in a novel rodent model of exposure, MWCNTs may induce macrophage recruitment, activation, and amyloid deposition, causing potential damage to several organs. PMID:26457053

  16. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits.

  17. Localized and non-localized effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on accumulation of osmolytes and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems in maize plants subjected to total or partial root drying.

    PubMed

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alters host plant physiology under drought stress, but no information is available on whether or not the AM affects respond to drought locally or systemically. A split-root system was used to obtain AM plants with total or only half root system colonized as well as to induce physiological drought affecting the whole plant or non-physiological drought affecting only the half root system. We analysed the local and/or systemic nature of the AM effects on accumulation of osmoregulatory compounds and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems. Maize plants accumulated proline both, locally in roots affected by drought and systemically when the drought affected the whole root system, being the last effect ampler in AM plants. PIPs (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins) aquaporins were also differently regulated by drought in AM and non-AM root compartments. When the drought affected only the AM root compartment, the rise of lipid peroxidation was restricted to such compartment. On the contrary, when the drought affected the non-AM root fraction, the rise of lipid peroxidation was similar in both root compartments. Thus, the benefits of the AM symbiosis not only rely in a lower oxidative stress in the host plant, but it also restricts locally such oxidative stress.

  18. Localized and non-localized effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on accumulation of osmolytes and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems in maize plants subjected to total or partial root drying.

    PubMed

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alters host plant physiology under drought stress, but no information is available on whether or not the AM affects respond to drought locally or systemically. A split-root system was used to obtain AM plants with total or only half root system colonized as well as to induce physiological drought affecting the whole plant or non-physiological drought affecting only the half root system. We analysed the local and/or systemic nature of the AM effects on accumulation of osmoregulatory compounds and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems. Maize plants accumulated proline both, locally in roots affected by drought and systemically when the drought affected the whole root system, being the last effect ampler in AM plants. PIPs (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins) aquaporins were also differently regulated by drought in AM and non-AM root compartments. When the drought affected only the AM root compartment, the rise of lipid peroxidation was restricted to such compartment. On the contrary, when the drought affected the non-AM root fraction, the rise of lipid peroxidation was similar in both root compartments. Thus, the benefits of the AM symbiosis not only rely in a lower oxidative stress in the host plant, but it also restricts locally such oxidative stress. PMID:25630435

  19. Ect2/Pbl Acts via Rho and Polarity Proteins to Direct the Assembly of an Isotropic Actomyosin Cortex upon Mitotic Entry

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, André; Vlassaks, Evi; Pichaud, Franck; Baum, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Entry into mitosis is accompanied by profound changes in cortical actomyosin organization. Here, we delineate a pathway downstream of the RhoGEF Pbl/Ect2 that directs this process in a model epithelium. Our data suggest that the release of Pbl/Ect2 from the nucleus at mitotic entry drives Rho-dependent activation of Myosin-II and, in parallel, induces a switch from Arp2/3 to Diaphanous-mediated cortical actin nucleation that depends on Cdc42, aPKC, and Par6. At the same time, the mitotic relocalization of these apical protein complexes to more lateral cell surfaces enables Cdc42/aPKC/Par6 to take on a mitosis-specific function—aiding the assembly of a relatively isotropic metaphase cortex. Together, these data reveal how the repolarization and remodeling of the actomyosin cortex are coordinated upon entry into mitosis to provide cells with the isotropic and rigid form they need to undergo faithful chromosome segregation and division in a crowded tissue environment. PMID:25703349

  20. Species differences in the effects of prostaglandins on inositol trisphosphate accumulation, phosphatidic acid formation, myosin light chain phosphorylation and contraction in iris sphincter of the mammalian eye: interaction with the cyclic AMP system.

    PubMed

    Yousufzai, S Y; Chen, A L; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1988-12-01

    Comparative studies on the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on 1,2-diacylglycerol, measured as phosphatidic acid (PA), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production, cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and contraction in the iris sphincter smooth muscle of rabbit, bovine and other mammalian species were undertaken and functional and biochemical relationships between the IP3-Ca++ and cAMP second messenger systems were demonstrated. The findings obtained from these studies can be summarized as follows: 1) all PGs investigated, including PGE2, PGF2 alpha, PGF2 alpha-ester, PGE1 and PGA2 increased IP3 accumulation and PA formation, and the extent of stimulation was dependent on the animal species. Thus, PGF2 alpha-ester (1 microM), the most potent of the PGs, increased IP3 accumulation in rabbit and bovine sphincters by 33 and 58%, respectively, and increased PA formation by 67 and 56%, respectively. The PG increased IP3 accumulation in both rabbit and bovine sphincters very rapidly (T1/2 values about 26 sec) and in a dose-dependent manner. 2) The PG had no effect on MLC phosphorylation in the rabbit sphincter, but it increased that of the bovine by 36%. 3) The PG increased cAMP formation by 75% in the rabbit sphincter but it had no effect on that of the bovine. 4) The PG induced a maximal contractile response in the bovine sphincter but it had no effect on that of the rabbit. 5) In the bovine, PGA2 induced IP3 accumulation and contraction, without an effect on cAMP formation; however, in the rabbit, cat and dog it increased cAMP formation and had no effect on IP3 accumulation and contraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  2. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. PMID:27136060

  3. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity. PMID:26741538

  4. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity.

  5. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20 mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. PMID:26946284

  6. The SPECT imaging shows the accumulation of neural progenitor cells into internal organs after systemic administration in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Riikka S; Narkilahti, Susanna; Huhtala, Tuulia; Liimatainen, Timo; Suuronen, Tiina; Närvänen, Ale; Suuronen, Riitta; Hovatta, Outi; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2008-08-01

    The regenerative potential of stem cells from various sources has been under intense investigation in the experimental models of cerebral ischemia. To end up with a restorative therapeutic treatment, it is crucial to get the cell transplants to the site of injury. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of small animal SPECT/CT in assessing the definite accumulation of (111)In-oxine-labeled human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitors and rat hippocampal progenitors after intravenous or intra-arterial administration (femoral vein vs. common carotid artery) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and sham-operated rats. Cell detection was carried out immediately and 24h after the infusion using a SPECT/CT device. The results showed that after intravenous injections both cell types accumulated primarily into internal organs, instead of brain. In contrast, after intra-arterial injection, a weak signal was detected in the ischemic hemisphere. Additional studies showed that the detection sensitivity of SPECT/CT device was approximately 1000 (111)In-oxine-labeled cells and labeling did not affect the cell viability. In conclusion, a small animal SPECT is powerful technique to study the whole body biodistribution of cell-based therapies. Our data showed that intravenous administration is not an optimal route to deliver neural progenitor cell-containing transplants into the brain after MCAO in rats. PMID:18572314

  7. Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses of the Oil-Accumulating Basidiomycete Yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus: Insights into Substrate Utilization and Alternative Evolutionary Trajectories of Fungal Mating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bracharz, Felix; Lorenzen, Jan; Kracht, Octavia N.; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Deshpande, Shweta; Lipzen, Anna; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Sun, Sheng; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial fermentation of agro-industrial waste holds great potential for reducing the environmental impact associated with the production of lipids for industrial purposes from plant biomass. However, the chemical complexity of many residues currently prevents efficient conversion into lipids, creating a high demand for strains with the ability to utilize all energy-rich components of agricultural residues. Here, we present results of genome and transcriptome analyses of Trichosporon oleaginosus. This oil-accumulating yeast is able to grow on a wide variety of substrates, including pentoses and N-acetylglucosamine, making it an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. Transcriptomics shows specific changes in gene expression patterns under lipid-accumulating conditions. Furthermore, gene content and expression analyses indicate that T. oleaginosus is well-adapted for the utilization of chitin-rich biomass. We also focused on the T. oleaginosus mating type, because this species is a member of the Tremellomycetes, a group that has been intensively analyzed as a model for the evolution of sexual development, the best-studied member being Cryptococcus neoformans. The structure of the T. oleaginosus mating-type regions differs significantly from that of other Tremellomycetes and reveals a new evolutionary trajectory paradigm. Comparative analysis shows that recruitment of developmental genes to the ancestral tetrapolar mating-type loci occurred independently in the Trichosporon and Cryptococcus lineages, supporting the hypothesis of a trend toward larger mating-type regions in fungi. PMID:26199329

  8. Influence of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid on starch accumulation in the synthetic mutualistic Chlorella sorokiniana-Azospirillum brasilense system under heterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the relations between tryptophan production, the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the metabolism and accumulation of starch during synthetic mutualism between the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and the microalgae growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, created by co-immobilization in alginate beads. Experiments used two wild-type A. brasilense strains (Cd and Sp6) and an IAA-attenuated mutant (SpM7918) grown under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-starved conditions tested under dark, heterotrophic and aerobic growth conditions. Under all incubating conditions, C. sorokiniana, but not A. brasilense, produced tryptophan. A significant correlation between IAA-production by A. brasilense and starch accumulation in C. sorokiniana was found, since the IAA-attenuated mutant was not producing increased starch levels. The highest ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity, starch content and glucose uptake were found during the interaction of A. brasilense wild type strains with the microalgae. When the microalgae were grown alone, they produced only small amounts of starch. Supplementation with synthetic IAA to C. sorokiniana grown alone enhanced the above parameters, but only transiently. Activity of α-amylase decreased under nitrogen-replete conditions, but increased under nitrogen-starved conditions. In summary, this study demonstrated that, during synthetic mutualism, the exchange of tryptophan and IAA between the partners is a mechanism that governs several changes in starch metabolism of C. sorokiniana, yielding an increase in starch content.

  9. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  10. U.S. Geological Survey input-data form and operational procedure for the assessment of conventional petroleum accumulations: Chapter 25 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, James W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey model for undiscovered conventional accumulations is designed to aid in the assessment of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (collectively called petroleum) resources. Conventional accumulations may be described in terms of discrete fields or pools localized in structural and stratigraphic traps by the buoyancy of oil or natural gas in water. Conventional accumulations are commonly bounded by a down-dip water contact. The assessment model requires estimates of the number and sizes of undiscovered conventional accumulations. Technically recoverable petroleum resources from undiscovered conventional accumulations are calculated by statistically combining probability distributions of the estimated number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations, along with associated risks and coproduct ratios. Probabilistic estimates of petroleum resources are given for oil in oil accumulations, gas (associated/dissolved) in oil accumulations, natural gas liquids in oil accumulations, gas (nonassociated) in gas accumulations, and total liquids (oil and natural gas liquids) in gas accumulations.

  11. Cadmium Accumulation in Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon System in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19–5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07–1.32 and 0.12–1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination. PMID:22690166

  12. Is phosphorus limitation of planktonic heterotrophic bacteria and accumulation of degradable DOC a normal phenomenon in phosphorus-limited systems? A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Vadstein, Olav; Olsen, Lasse M; Busch, Arild; Andersen, Tom; Reinertsen, Helge R

    2003-12-01

    A dual isotope labelling technique was used to follow the distribution of carbon and phosphorus in plankton microcosms containing autotrophs (Tetraselmis sp.), heterotrophic bacteria and herbivores (Brachionus plicatilis) at eight different total-P concentrations. P:C ratios of algae, bacteria and dissolved matter, as well as the general accumulation of degradable dissolved organic carbon, indicated that both the autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria were P-limited in all microcosms. According to the theory, such coexistence should only be possible if bacteria have higher predation losses than algae, which was definitely not the case in our experiment. However, data are consistent with the assumption that bacteria are superior in P uptake but have a poor ability to retain acquired P, which would promote coexistence in a patchy P-supply environment resulting from nutrient regeneration by metazoan grazers. PMID:19719561

  13. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  14. A systems-oriented analysis of the grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor family uncovers new insights into the regulation of stilbene accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Schlechter, Rudolf; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Höll, Janine; Hmmam, Ibrahim; Bogs, Jochen; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) belong to a large and functionally diverse protein superfamily in plants. In this study, we explore the evolution and function of this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a high-value fruit crop. We identified and manually curated 134 genes using RNA-Seq data, and named them systematically according to the Super-Nomenclature Committee. We identified novel genes, splicing variants and grapevine/woody-specific duplicated subgroups, suggesting possible neo- and sub-functionalization events. Regulatory network analysis ascribed biological functions to uncharacterized genes and validated those of known genes (e.g. secondary cell wall biogenesis and flavonoid biosynthesis). A comprehensive analysis of different MYB binding motifs in the promoters of co-expressed genes predicted grape R2R3-MYB binding preferences and supported evidence for putative downstream targets. Enrichment of cis-regulatory motifs for diverse TFs reinforced the notion of transcriptional coordination and interaction between MYBs and other regulators. Analysis of the network of Subgroup 2 showed that the resveratrol-related VviMYB14 and VviMYB15 share common co-expressed STILBENE SYNTHASE genes with the uncharacterized VviMYB13. These regulators have distinct expression patterns within organs and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, suggesting a pivotal role of VviMYB13 in regulating stilbene accumulation in vegetative tissues and under biotic stress conditions. PMID:27407139

  15. Mercury species accumulation and trophic transfer in biological systems using the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) as a case of study.

    PubMed

    Patiño Ropero, M J; Rodríguez Fariñas, N; Mateo, R; Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C

    2016-04-01

    The impact of mercury (Hg) pollution in the terrestrial environments and the terrestrial food chains including the impact on human food consumption is still greatly under-investigated. In particular, studies including Hg speciation and detoxification strategies in terrestrial animals are almost non-existing, but these are key information with important implications for human beings. Therefore, in this work, we report on Hg species (inorganic mercury, iHg, and monomethylmercury, MeHg) distribution among terrestrial animal tissues obtained from a real-world Hg exposure scenario (Almadén mining district, Spain). Thus, we studied Hg species (iHg and MeHg) and total selenium (Se) content in liver and kidney of red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 41) and wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 16). Similar mercury species distribution was found for both red deer and wild boar. Major differences were found between tissues; thus, in kidney, iHg was clearly the predominant species (more than 81%), while in liver, the species distribution was less homogeneous with a percentage of MeHg up to 46% in some cases. Therefore, Hg accumulation and MeHg transfer were evident in terrestrial ecosystems. The interaction between total Se and Hg species has been evaluated by tissue and by animal species. Similar relationships were found in kidney for both Hg species in red deer and wild boar. However, in liver, there were differences between animals. The possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Hippocampal Networks Habituate as Novelty Accumulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Ballard, Ian C.; Macduffie, Katherine E.; Krebs, Ruth M.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2013-01-01

    Novelty detection, a critical computation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, necessarily depends on prior experience. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate dynamic changes in MTL activation and functional connectivity as experience with novelty accumulates. fMRI data were…

  17. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32.3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts §...

  18. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32.3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts §...

  19. Accumulation, transfer, and potential sources of mercury in the soil-wheat system under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengli; Nan, Zhongren; Prete, Daniel; Ma, Jianmin; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-15

    There is limited information on accumulation, transfer, and source of mercury in wheats under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China. The present study collected 26 pairs of topsoil and whole wheat samples (roots, stems, leaves, shells, and grains) from Dongdagou stream watershed and upper Xidagou stream watershed, Baiyin City, northwest China. Hg concentrations from these samples were used to identify their relationships with soil properties, interactions with other metals, localization of Hg in the different wheat tissues, bio-concentration and transfer of Hg, and major sources of Hg in wheat. Results show that Hg levels in 11 out of 26 sampled soils (42.3% of soil samples) exceeded Hg limit of grade II soil environmental quality standards in China (1.0mg·kg(-1)). Likewise, it was also found that Hg in over 50% of wheat grain samples reached or exceeded the maximum permissible food safety levels (0.02mg·kg(-1)) according to the General Standard of Contaminants in Food in China (GB 2762-2012). The spatial distribution pattern of Hg in wheats grains was different from that in the sampled soils. Hg concentrations in different wheat tissues were highest in roots, followed by leaves, stalks, shells, and grains, respectively. Bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Hg in almost all grains samples were one or two orders of magnitude lower than that in roots, except for two wheat samples. The translocation factors (TF) of Hg in wheat tissues on average were leaves>stems>shells>grains. The spatial distribution of Hg and its correlation with other heavy metal detected simultaneously in the soil samples suggested that the Hg soil contamination was probably caused by past sewage irrigation practices and atmospheric deposition. Correlation analysis revealed that the principle source of Hg in wheat roots was very likely from Hg contaminated soils. PMID:27300562

  20. Strain accumulation and fluid-rock interaction in a naturally deformed diamictite, Willard thrust system, Utah (USA): Implications for crustal rheology and strain softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonkee, W. Adolph; Czeck, Dyanna M.; Nachbor, Amelia C.; Barszewski, Christine; Pantone, Spenser; Balgord, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Kimberly R.

    2013-05-01

    Structural and geochemical patterns of heterogeneously deformed diamictite in northern Utah (USA) record interrelations between strain accumulation, fluid-rock interaction, and softening processes across a major fault (Willard thrust). Different clast types in the diamictite have varying shape fabrics related to competence contrasts with estimated effective viscosity ratios relative to micaceous matrix of: ˜6 and 8 for large quartzite clasts respectively in the Willard hanging wall and footwall; ˜5 and 2 for less altered and more altered granitic clasts respectively in the hanging wall and footwall; and ˜1 for micaceous clasts that approximate matrix strain. Within the footwall, matrix X-Z strain ratios increase from ˜2 to 8 westward along a distinct deformation gradient. Microstructures record widespread mass transfer, alteration of feldspar to mica, and dislocation creep of quartz within matrix and clasts. Fluid influx along microcracks and mesoscopic vein networks increased westward and led to reaction softening and hydrolytic weakening, in conjunction with textural softening from alignment of muscovite aggregates. Consistent Si, Al, and Ti concentrations between matrix, granitic clasts, and protoliths indicate limited volume change. Mg gain and Na loss reflect alteration of feldspar to phengitic muscovite. Within the hanging wall, strain is overall lower with matrix X-Z strain ratios of ˜2 to 4. Microstructures record mass transfer and dislocation creep concentrated in the matrix. Greater Al and Ti concentrations and lower Si concentrations in matrix indicate volume loss by quartz dissolution. Na gain in granitic clasts reflects albitization. Large granitic clasts have less mica alteration and greater competence compared to smaller clasts. Differences in strain and alteration patterns across the Willard thrust fault suggest overall downward (up-temperature) fluid flow in the hanging wall and upward (down-temperature) fluid flow in the footwall.

  1. Accumulation, transfer, and potential sources of mercury in the soil-wheat system under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengli; Nan, Zhongren; Prete, Daniel; Ma, Jianmin; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-15

    There is limited information on accumulation, transfer, and source of mercury in wheats under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China. The present study collected 26 pairs of topsoil and whole wheat samples (roots, stems, leaves, shells, and grains) from Dongdagou stream watershed and upper Xidagou stream watershed, Baiyin City, northwest China. Hg concentrations from these samples were used to identify their relationships with soil properties, interactions with other metals, localization of Hg in the different wheat tissues, bio-concentration and transfer of Hg, and major sources of Hg in wheat. Results show that Hg levels in 11 out of 26 sampled soils (42.3% of soil samples) exceeded Hg limit of grade II soil environmental quality standards in China (1.0mg·kg(-1)). Likewise, it was also found that Hg in over 50% of wheat grain samples reached or exceeded the maximum permissible food safety levels (0.02mg·kg(-1)) according to the General Standard of Contaminants in Food in China (GB 2762-2012). The spatial distribution pattern of Hg in wheats grains was different from that in the sampled soils. Hg concentrations in different wheat tissues were highest in roots, followed by leaves, stalks, shells, and grains, respectively. Bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Hg in almost all grains samples were one or two orders of magnitude lower than that in roots, except for two wheat samples. The translocation factors (TF) of Hg in wheat tissues on average were leaves>stems>shells>grains. The spatial distribution of Hg and its correlation with other heavy metal detected simultaneously in the soil samples suggested that the Hg soil contamination was probably caused by past sewage irrigation practices and atmospheric deposition. Correlation analysis revealed that the principle source of Hg in wheat roots was very likely from Hg contaminated soils.

  2. Path-dependent economic evolution with capital accumulation and education.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with wealth accumulation and human capital accumulation. The economic system consists of one production sector and one university. The university carries out education. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, and division of labor under perfect economic competition and the government intervention in education. We provide conditions for the existence of equilibrium points and stability of the nonlinear dynamic system. The simulation results demonstrate path-dependent processes of the nonlinear evolution. Some insights into East Asia's industrializing processes are provided. PMID:16011826

  3. Path-dependent economic evolution with capital accumulation and education.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with wealth accumulation and human capital accumulation. The economic system consists of one production sector and one university. The university carries out education. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, and division of labor under perfect economic competition and the government intervention in education. We provide conditions for the existence of equilibrium points and stability of the nonlinear dynamic system. The simulation results demonstrate path-dependent processes of the nonlinear evolution. Some insights into East Asia's industrializing processes are provided.

  4. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  5. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  6. Contaminant Accumulation in Many New England Lead Pipe Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers' taps. The objective of this s...

  7. Combination of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Staining Techniques for Cell Viability and Accumulation of PHA and polyP in Microorganisms in Complex Microbial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be combined with a number of staining techniques to reveal the relationships between the microorganisms and their function in complex microbial systems with a single-cell resolution. In this chapter, we have focused on staining methods for intracellular storage compounds (polyhydroxyalkanoates, polyphosphate) and a measure for cell viability, reduction of the tetrazolium-based redox stain CTC. These protocols are optimized for the study of microorganisms in waste-water treatment (activated sludge and biofilms), but they may also be used with minor modifications in many other ecosystems.

  8. Tear film MMP accumulation and corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V; Rishmawi, H; Hussein, H; Easty, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) accumulate in the tears of patients with active peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) but it is unknown whether these enzymes have a central role in disease progression. The aims of the present investigation were to determine the source of these enzymes and to ascertain whether their accumulation in tears is a phenomenon specific to PUK or a general feature of other anterior segment diseases.
METHODS—The experimental samples were obtained from the culture media of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells, from fractionated blood plasma and leucocytes of healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and from the tears of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of anterior segment diseases. The MMPs of all samples were visualised by zymography and tear samples were assayed using nitrophenol acetate and an MMP-9 susceptible quenched fluorescent peptide as substrate.
RESULTS—The major MMPs that accumulate in the tears of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active ocular disease are MMP-9 and a species of Mr 116 000. By comparing the zymographic activity profiles of the gelatinases present in the samples obtained, it was deduced that the main source of these MMPs was granulocytes. Their accumulation in tears was not unique to patients with PUK; detectable amounts of the enzymes also occurred in the tears of patients with keratoconus with associated atopic disease, patients undergoing treatment for herpetic eye disease, and patients with systemic and non-systemic dry eye disease.
CONCLUSION—The MMPs that accumulate in tears are mainly derived from granulocytes. This may be effected by autoimmune diseases that involve ocular tissue or by ocular diseases that induce an inflammatory response.

 PMID:11159476

  9. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  10. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  11. Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application of compost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulation in soil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andreas L; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Gäth, Stefan

    2003-07-20

    Two different decision support systems (DSS) for the application of organic wastes on agricultural land were developed. Both DSS calculate the maximum application period of organic waste considering exhaustion of the uptake potential of soils for heavy metals. The definition of the uptake potential differs between the DSS alternatives. In the first DSS (DSS-AR), the uptake potential is derived from the difference of actual total heavy metal concentration in soil (according to aqua regia digestion) and the respective statutory limit value. The other DSS (DSS-SI) calculates the remaining sorption capacity of the soil for a heavy metal, i.e. the difference between the predefined maximum and the actual heavy metal concentration at the sorbent. The concentration of sorbed heavy metal is derived from pedotransfer functions (general purpose Freundlich isotherms) using predefined limit concentrations in soil solution (WHO drinking water quality standards) or the actual concentration of soluble heavy metal (according to neutral salt extraction), respectively. For evaluation of their individual characteristics, both DSS were tested in model scenarios using soil data (basic physicochemical properties; Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations) from various agricultural regions and German guidelines for organic waste application. The DSS-SI showed a better performance than the DSS-AR in this context. The capacity of the soil for heavy metal uptake was used with higher efficiency, i.e. the potential was maximised while environmental limit values were still complied with. Furthermore, the DSS-SI offered a better approximation of the natural variability of soil conditions using an extended set of soil properties in comparison to the DSS-AR. Despite these indications of good DSS-SI performance, the approach requires improvement with regard to the pedotransfer functions implemented in order to consolidate and extend the range of predictions. Furthermore, it should be noted that assessment of

  12. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  13. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  14. Volume accumulator design analysis computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The computer codes, VANEP and VANES, were written and used to aid in the design and performance calculation of the volume accumulator units (VAU) for the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. VANEP computes the VAU design which meets the primary coolant loop VAU volume and pressure performance requirements. VANES computes the performance of the VAU design, determined from the VANEP code, at the conditions of the secondary coolant loop. The codes can also compute the performance characteristics of the VAU's under conditions of possible modes of failure which still permit continued system operation.

  15. Constant-Differential-Pressure Two-Fluid Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piecuch, Benjamin; Dalton, Luke T.

    2010-01-01

    A two-fluid accumulator has been designed, built, and demonstrated to provide an acceptably close approximation to constant differential static pressure between two fluids over the full ranges of (1) accumulator stroke, (2) rates of flow of the fluids, and (3) common static pressure applied to the fluids. Prior differential- pressure two-fluid accumulators are generally not capable of maintaining acceptably close approximations to constant differential pressures. The inadequacies of a typical prior differential-pressure two-fluid accumulator can be summarized as follows: The static differential pressure is governed by the intrinsic spring rate (essentially, the stiffness) of an accumulator tank. The spring rate can be tailored through selection of the tank-wall thickness, selection of the number and/or shape of accumulator convolutions, and/or selection of accumulator material(s). Reliance on the intrinsic spring rate of the tank results in three severe limitations: (1) The spring rate and the expulsion efficiency tend to be inversely proportional to each other: that is to say, as the stiffness (and thus the differential pressure) is increased, the range of motion of the accumulator is reduced. (2) As the applied common static pressure increases, the differential pressure tends to decrease. An additional disadvantage, which may or may not be considered limiting, depending on the specific application, is that an increase in stiffness entails an increase in weight. (3) The additional weight required by a low expulsion efficiency accumulator eliminates the advantage given to such gas storage systems. The high expulsion efficiency provided by this two-fluid accumulator allows for a lightweight, tightly packaged system, which can be used in conjunction with a fuel cell-based system.

  16. Accumulation of Contaminants in the Distribution System.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of arsenic from water using iron-related processes including coagulation with iron salts, iron removal with oxidation/filtration, and specific iron resins is established. These processes are effective because iron solids including minerals and chemical floc have strong ad...

  17. ACCUMULATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of arsenic from water using iron-related processes including coagulation with iron salts, iron removal with oxidation/filtration, and specific iron resins is established. These processes are effective because iron solids including minerals and chemical floc have strong ad...

  18. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  19. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  20. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  1. 46 CFR 76.33-10 - Location and spacing of accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-10 Location and spacing of accumulators. (a) Smoke accumulators shall be located overhead in each compartment. Where liable to physical damage,...

  2. Analytical investigation of the hygrothermal effects and parametric study of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) mode 3 test lay-ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1995-01-01

    A shear deformation theory including residual thermal and moisture effects is developed for the analysis of either symmetric or unsymmetric laminates with mid-plane edge delamination under torsion loading. The theory is based on an assumed displacement field which includes shear deformation. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from the principle of virtual work. The analysis of the (90/(+/- 45)(n)/(-/+ 45)(n)/90)(s) ECT mode 3 test lay-up indicates that there are no hygrothermal effects on the mode 3 strain energy release rate because the laminate, and both sublaminates above and below the delamination, are symmetric lay-ups. A further parametric study reveals that some other lay-ups can have negligible hygrothermal effects even when the sublaminates above and below the delamination are not symmetric about their own mid-planes. However, these lay-ups may suffer from distortion after the curing process. Another Interesting set of lay-ups investigated is a class of antisymmetric laminates with (+/-(theta/(theta -90)(2)/theta))(n) lay-ups. It is observed that when n takes on even numbers (2 and 4), both hygrothermal and mode 1 effects can be neglected. From this point of view, these lay-ups provide a way to determine the mode 3 toughness between two dissimilar layers. However, when n takes on odd numbers (1 and 3), both hygrothermal and mode 1 effects may be strong in these lay-ups. In particular, when theta equals 45 deg, the lay-ups are free from both hygrothermal and mode 1 effects irrespective of n.

  3. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  4. Geographic information system-based source estimation of copper pollution in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and metal-accumulation profiles in Oreochromis spp. from both field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Yabe, John; Muroya, Taro; Ijiri, Shigeho; Minagawa, Masao; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    The Copperbelt region, upstream of the Kafue River, including Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT), in Zambia has extensive copper (Cu) mines. In our field study, geographic information system analysis in lake sediment indicated that the northern part of the lake, i.e., the Copperbelt region, could be the source of Cu pollution. Concentrations of Cu in stomach contents between fish species were not significantly different. However, Oreochromis spp. liver showed significantly greater Cu concentrations than those in other fish species. Log liver [Cu], standard length, and nitrogen stable isotope ratio were positively correlated only in Oreochromis spp. In the laboratory study, O. niloticus and O. latipes were exposed to Cu for 4 days, and recovery phases ≤ 28 days were examined. O. niloticus showed significantly greater concentrations of Cu compared with O. latipes at all sampling points. Significantly greater concentrations of Hg in Schilbe intermedius liver than for other fish species were observed, whereas O. macrochir showed significantly greater concentrations of cadmium. In conclusion, the northern part of the lake could be the source of Cu pollution in Lake ITT. Diet may not be the reason for high Cu accumulation in Oreochromis spp. Results from both field and laboratory studies imply that Oreochromis spp. contain high concentrations of Cu under normal physiological conditions.

  5. Geographic information system-based source estimation of copper pollution in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and metal-accumulation profiles in Oreochromis spp. from both field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Yabe, John; Muroya, Taro; Ijiri, Shigeho; Minagawa, Masao; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    The Copperbelt region, upstream of the Kafue River, including Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT), in Zambia has extensive copper (Cu) mines. In our field study, geographic information system analysis in lake sediment indicated that the northern part of the lake, i.e., the Copperbelt region, could be the source of Cu pollution. Concentrations of Cu in stomach contents between fish species were not significantly different. However, Oreochromis spp. liver showed significantly greater Cu concentrations than those in other fish species. Log liver [Cu], standard length, and nitrogen stable isotope ratio were positively correlated only in Oreochromis spp. In the laboratory study, O. niloticus and O. latipes were exposed to Cu for 4 days, and recovery phases ≤ 28 days were examined. O. niloticus showed significantly greater concentrations of Cu compared with O. latipes at all sampling points. Significantly greater concentrations of Hg in Schilbe intermedius liver than for other fish species were observed, whereas O. macrochir showed significantly greater concentrations of cadmium. In conclusion, the northern part of the lake could be the source of Cu pollution in Lake ITT. Diet may not be the reason for high Cu accumulation in Oreochromis spp. Results from both field and laboratory studies imply that Oreochromis spp. contain high concentrations of Cu under normal physiological conditions. PMID:23052357

  6. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  7. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey assessment concepts for conventional petroleum accumulations: Chapter 24 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Klett, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional petroleum accumulations are discrete fields or pools localized in structural or stratigraphic traps by the buoyancy of oil or gas in water; they float, bubble-like, in water. This report describes the fundamental concepts supporting the U.S. Geological Survey “Seventh Approximation” model for resource assessments of conventional accumulations. The Seventh Approximation provides a strategy for estimating volumes of undiscovered petroleum (oil, gas, and coproducts) having the potential to be added to reserves in a 30-year forecast span. The assessment of an area requires (1) choice of a minimum accumulation size, (2) assignment of geologic and access risk, and (3) estimation of the number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations in the assessment area. The combination of these variables yields probability distributions for potential additions to reserves. Assessment results are controlled by geology-based input parameters supplied by knowledgeable geologists, as opposed to projections of historical trends.

  9. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  10. Flavonoid Accumulation Patterns of Transparent Testa Mutants of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Wendy Ann; Brown, Dana E.; Tague, Brian W.; Muday, Gloria K.; Taiz, Lincoln; Murphy, Angus S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells. PMID:11402185

  11. Electronic hardware design of electrical capacitance tomography systems.

    PubMed

    Saied, I; Meribout, M

    2016-06-28

    Electrical tomography techniques for process imaging are very prominent for industrial applications, such as the oil and gas industry and chemical refineries, owing to their ability to provide the flow regime of a flowing fluid within a relatively high throughput. Among the various techniques, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is gaining popularity due to its non-invasive nature and its capability to differentiate between different phases based on their permittivity distribution. In recent years, several hardware designs have been provided for ECT systems that have improved its resolution of measurements to be around attofarads (aF, 10(-18) F), or the number of channels, that is required to be large for some applications that require a significant amount of data. In terms of image acquisition time, some recent systems could achieve a throughput of a few hundred frames per second, while data processing time could be achieved in only a few milliseconds per frame. This paper outlines the concept and main features of the most recent front-end and back-end electronic circuits dedicated for ECT systems. In this paper, multiple-excitation capacitance polling, a front-end electronic technique, shows promising results for ECT systems to acquire fast data acquisition speeds. A highly parallel field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based architecture for a fast reconstruction algorithm is also described. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185964

  12. CCL2, but not its receptor, is essential to restrict immune privileged central nervous system-invasion of Japanese encephalitis virus via regulating accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a re-emerging zoonotic flavivirus that poses an increasing threat to global health and welfare due to rapid changes in climate and demography. Although the CCR2-CCL2 axis plays an important role in trafficking CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes to regulate immunopathological diseases, little is known about their role in monocyte trafficking during viral encephalitis caused by JEV infection. Here, we explored the role of CCR2 and its ligand CCL2 in JE caused by JEV infection using CCR2- and CCL2-ablated murine models. Somewhat surprisingly, the ablation of CCR2 and CCL2 resulted in starkly contrasting susceptibility to JE. CCR2 ablation induced enhanced resistance to JE, whereas CCL2 ablation highly increased susceptibility to JE. This contrasting regulation of JE progression by CCR2 and CCL2 was coupled to central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and Ly-6G(hi) granulocytes. There was also enhanced expression of CC and CXC chemokines in the CNS of CCL2-ablated mice, which appeared to induce CNS infiltration of these cell populations. However, our data revealed that contrasting regulation of JE in CCR2- and CCL2-ablated mice was unlikely to be mediated by innate natural killer and adaptive T-cell responses. Furthermore, CCL2 produced by haematopoietic stem cell-derived leucocytes played a dominant role in CNS accumulation of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in infected bone marrow chimeric models, thereby exacerbating JE progression. Collectively, our data indicate that CCL2 plays an essential role in conferring protection against JE caused by JEV infection. In addition, blockage of CCR2, but not CCL2, will aid in the development of strategies for prophylactics and therapeutics of JE.

  13. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance.

  14. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance. PMID:26207887

  15. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  16. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. PMID:26334198

  17. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  18. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance and upgrades of the Fermilab Accumulator stacktail stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P.F.; Cullerton, Ed; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Sun, Ding; Tinsley, David; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    We report on the performance and planned upgrades to the Fermilab Accumulator Stacktail Stochastic Cooling System. The current system has achieved a maximum flux of 16.5e10/hour, limited by the input flux of antiprotons. The upgrades are designed to handle flux in excess of 40e10/hour.

  20. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  1. Predicting Accumulations of Ice on Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin; Potapczuk, Mark; Addy, Gene; Wright, William

    2003-01-01

    LEWICE is a computer program that predicts the accumulation of ice on two-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces under conditions representative of the flight of an aircraft through an icing cloud. The software first calculates the airflow surrounding the body of interest, then uses the airflow to compute the trajectories of water droplets that impinge on the surface of the body. The droplet trajectories are also used to compute impingement limits and local collection efficiencies, which are used in subsequent ice-growth calculations and are also useful for designing systems to protect against icing. Next, the software predicts the shape of accumulating ice by modeling transfers of mass and energy in small control volumes. The foregoing computations are repeated over several computational time steps until the total icing exposure time is reached. Results of computations by LEWICE have been compared with an extensive database of measured ice shapes obtained from experiments, and have been shown to closely approximate those shapes under most conditions of interest to the aviation community.

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šarka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, Jing; Vaněk, Tomaš

    2014-06-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activities, was followed during the stress progression. Cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. However, elevation of metal concentrations in the media promoted their transfer to the shoots. Toxic effects of metals applied at lower concentrations were less serious in the shoots in comparison with their influence to the roots. When applied at higher concentrations, transfer of the metals into the leaves increased, causing growth reduction and leading to Chl loss and metal-induced chlorosis. Moreover, higher metal levels in the roots overcame the quenching capacity of peroxidase and glutathione transferase, which was associated with reduction of their activities. Fortification of antioxidant system by addition of glutathione significantly increased the accumulation of cadmium in the roots as well as in the shoots at the highest cadmium concentration applied.

  3. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira )

    1994-01-01

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  5. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  6. Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; McConkey, Marie E.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that accumulate during development and are thought to function as constitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) leaves and investigated several physiological processes that could regulate their accumulation: the rate of biosynthesis, the rate of metabolic loss, and the rate of volatilization. Monoterpene accumulation was found to be restricted to leaves of 12 to 20 d of age, the period of maximal leaf expansion. The rate of monoterpene biosynthesis determined by 14CO2 incorporation was closely correlated with monoterpene accumulation, as determined by gas chromatographic analysis, and appeared to be the principal factor controlling the monoterpene level of peppermint leaves. No significant catabolic losses of monoterpenes were detected throughout leaf development, and monoterpene volatilization was found to occur at a very low rate, which, on a monthly basis, represented less than 1% of the total pool of stored monoterpenes. The composition of volatilized monoterpenes differed significantly from that of the total plant monoterpene pool, suggesting that these volatilized products may arise from a separate secretory system. With the demonstration that the rate of biosynthesis is the chief process that determines monoterpene accumulation in peppermint, efforts to improve production in this species can now focus on the genes, enzymes, and cell differentiation processes that regulate monoterpene biosynthesis. PMID:10631264

  7. Effects of CX3CR1 and Fractalkine Chemokines in Amyloid Beta Clearance and p-Tau Accumulation in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Rodent Models: Is Fractalkine a Systemic Biomarker for AD?

    PubMed

    Merino, José Joaquín; Muñetón-Gómez, Vilma; Alvárez, María-Isabel; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the major source of cytokines in Alzheimer,s disease (AD). CX3CR1 is a delta chemokine receptor found in microglia and its neuronal ligand, Fractalkine, has two isoforms: an anchored-membrane isoform, and a soluble isoform. The reduced soluble fractalkine levels found in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) of aged rats, may be a consequence of neuronal loss. This soluble fractalkine maintains microglia in an appropiate state by interacting with CX3CR1. The ablation of the CX3CR1 gene in mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP/PS-1) increased cytokine levels, enhanced Tau pathology and worsened behavioural performance in these mice. However, CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in a gene dose-dependent Aβ clearance in the brain, and induced microglial activation. In addition, CX3CR1 deficiency can have benefical effects by preventing neuronal loss in the 3xTg model. In fact, CX3CR1 deficiency increases microglial phagocytosome activity by inducing selective protofibrillar amyloid-beta phagocytosis in microglial cells in transgenic AD models. On the other hand, the fractalkine membrane isoform plays a differential role in amyloid beta clearance and Tau deposition. This anchored membrane FKN signalling might increase amyloid pathology while soluble fractalkine levels could prevent taupathies. However, in human AD, the only published study has reported higher systemic fractalkine levels in AD patients with cognitive impairment. In mouse models, inflammatory activation of microglia accelerates Tau pathology. Studies in transgenic mice with fractalkine null mice suggest that APP/PS-1 mice deficient for the anchored membrane-fractalkine isoform exhibited enhanced neuronal MAPT phosphorylation despite their reduced amyloid burden. The soluble fractalkine overexpression with adenoviral vectors reduced tau pathology and prevented neurodegeneration in a Tg4510 model of taupathy Finally, animals with Aβ (1-42) infused by lentivirus (cortex) or

  8. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  9. Why Don't Well-Educated Adults Understand Accumulation? A Challenge to Researchers, Educators, and Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Sterman, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation is a fundamental process in dynamic systems: inventory accumulates production less shipments; the national debt accumulates the federal deficit. Effective decision making in such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between stocks and the flows that alter them. However, highly educated people are often unable to infer…

  10. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  11. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  12. Intelligent Software for System Design and Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to develop a real-time, on-line database system that tracks documentation changes in NASA's propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center teamed with ECT International of Brookfield, WI, through the NASA Dual-Use Development Program to create the External Data Program and Hyperlink Add-on Modules for the promis*e software. Promis*e is ECT's top-of-the-line intelligent software for control system design and documentation. With promis*e the user can make use of the automated design process to quickly generate control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, terminal plans and more. NASA and its testing contractors currently use promis*e to create the drawings and schematics at the E2 Cell 2 test stand located at Stennis Space Center.

  13. Radar detection of surface oil accumulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Oneill, P.; Wilson, M.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard is developing AIREYE, an all weather, day/night airborne surveillance system, for installation aboard future medium range surveillance aircraft. As part of this program, a series of controlled tests were conducted off southern California to evaluate the oil slick detection capabilities of two Motorola developed, side looking radars. The systems, a real aperture AN/APS-94D and a synthetic aperture coherent on receive (COR) were flown over the Santa Barbara Channel on May 19, 1976. Targets imaged during the coincident overflights included natural oil seepage, simulated oil spills, oil production platforms, piers, mooring buoys, commercial boats and barges at other targets. Based on an analysis of imagery from the coincident radar runs, COR provides better detection of natural and man made oil slicks, whereas the AN/APS-94D consistently exhibited higher surface target detection results. This and other tests have shown that active microwave systems have considerable potential for aiding in the detection and analysis of surface oil accumulations.

  14. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-12-01

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

  15. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  16. Overlaps and Accumulation in the Use of Rehabilitation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkki, Jutta M.; Rissanen, Pekka; Raitanen, Jani A.; Viitanen, Elina A.

    2011-01-01

    The Finnish rehabilitation system is considered fragmented and multisectoral, and thus it may produce "multiclients" receiving inefficient and overlapping services. This paper addresses the overlaps and accumulation in the delivery of rehabilitation services in Finnish rehabilitation subsystems. Data were drawn from several administrative…

  17. 47 CFR 32.3400 - Accumulated amortization-tangible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated amortization-tangible. 32.3400 Section 32.3400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts §...

  18. 47 CFR 32.3400 - Accumulated amortization-tangible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulated amortization-tangible. 32.3400 Section 32.3400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts §...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3410 - Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases. 32.3410 Section 32.3410 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance...

  20. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300 Section 32.3300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts §...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300 Section 32.3300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts §...

  2. 47 CFR 32.3410 - Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulated amortization-capitalized leases. 32.3410 Section 32.3410 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance...

  3. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  4. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  5. Ultrasonic gas accumulation detection and evaluation in nuclear cooling pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Lin, Bin; Shin, Yong-June; Wang, Jingjiang; Tian, Zhenhua

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasonic guided wave based inspection methodology for detecting and evaluating gas accumulation in nuclear cooling pipe system. The sensing is in-situ by means of low-profile permanently installed piezoelectric wafer sensors to excite interrogating guided waves and to receive the propagating waves in the pipe structure. Detection and evaluation is established through advanced cross time-frequency analysis to extract the phase change in the sensed signal when the gas is accumulating. A correlation between the phase change and the gas amount has been established to provide regulatory prediction capability based on measured sensory data.

  6. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P.

    1992-01-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes >8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time.

  7. Rapid intraplate strain accumulation in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Zoback, M.D.; Segall, P. USGS, Menlo Park, CA )

    1992-09-01

    Remeasurement of a triangulation network in the southern part of the New Madrid seismic zone with the Global Positioning System has revealed rapid crustal strain accumulation since the 1950s. This area experienced three large (moment magnitudes greater than 8) earthquakes in 1811 to 1812. The orientation and sense of shear is consistent with right-lateral strike slip motion along a northeast-trending fault zone (as indicated by current seismicity). Detection of crustal strain accumulation may be a useful discriminant for identifying areas where potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes may occur despite the absence of large earthquakes during historic time. 34 refs.

  8. Enhancement of spin accumulation in ballistic transport regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shufeng

    2015-12-01

    The conventional spin-diffusion equation, based on the presence of spin-split local chemical potentials, has successfully described spin accumulation attendant to diffusive transport in spintronics. A recent experiment shows that spin accumulation far exceeds the limit set by such spin-diffusive theory when the mean free path is longer than the spin dephasing length. By introducing the momentum and spin dependent chemical potential, we develop a generalized spin transport equation that is capable of addressing spin transport in systems where ballistic processes are embedded in the overall diffusive conductor. We find that the ballistic spin injection through a barrier into a diffusive nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling can enhance spin accumulation by an order of magnitude when compared to the conventional theory.

  9. Accumulation of BSA in Packed-bed Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Samantha; Hu, Chuntian; Hartman, Ryan

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimers and Parkinsons are two diseases that are associated with protein deposition in the brain, causing loss of either cognitive or muscle functioning. Protein deposition diseases are considered progressive diseases since the continual aggregation of protein causes the patient's symptoms to slowly worsen over time. There are currently no known means of treatment for protein deposition diseases. Our goal is to understand the potential for packed-bed microfluidics to study protein accumulation. Measurement of the resistance to flow through micro-scale packed-beds is critical to understanding the process of protein accumulation. Aggregation in bulk is fundamentally different from accumulation on surfaces. Our study attempts to distinguish between either mechanism. The results from our experiments involving protein injection through a microfluidic system will be presented and discussed. Funding received by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  10. Atypical Polyphosphate Accumulation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Polyphosphate accumulation by Paracoccus denitrificans was examined under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. Polyphosphate synthesis by this denitrifier took place with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor and in the presence of an external carbon source. Cells were capable of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis, but no polyphosphate was produced when PHB-rich cells were incubated under anoxic conditions in the absence of an external carbon source. By comparison of these findings to those with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms thought to be responsible for phosphate removal in activated sludge systems, it is concluded that P. denitrificans is capable of combined phosphate and nitrate removal without the need for alternating anaerobic/aerobic or anaerobic/anoxic switches. Studies on additional denitrifying isolates from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor suggested that polyphosphate accumulation is widespread among denitrifiers. PMID:10698794

  11. The neural basis of value accumulation in intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christian A; Turner, Brandon M; Van Zandt, Trisha; McClure, Samuel M

    2015-09-01

    Making intertemporal choices (choosing between rewards available at different points in time) requires determining and comparing the subjective values of available rewards. Several studies have found converging evidence identifying the neural systems that encode subjective value in intertemporal choice. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for the process that produces intertemporal decisions on the basis of subjective values have not been investigated. Using model-based and connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the value-accumulation process by which subjective value guides intertemporal decisions. Our results show that the dorsomedial frontal cortex, bilateral posterior parietal cortex, and bilateral lateral prefrontal cortex are all involved in the accumulation of subjective value for the purpose of action selection. Our findings establish a mechanistic framework for understanding frontoparietal contributions to intertemporal choice and suggest that value-accumulation processes in the frontoparietal cortex may be a general mechanism for value-based choice. PMID:26179826

  12. Molecular analysis of polyphosphate accumulation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, A; Ohtake, H

    2000-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), its accumulation and disappearance, is the most striking aspect of polyP metabolism in bacteria. Imbalance between polyP synthesis and degradation results in fluctuations of polyP by 100- to 1000-fold. We here review recent results with respect to this polyP metabolism in bacteria. PolyP accumulation in response to amino acid starvation, accompanied by increased levels of stringent factors, has been observed in Escherichia coli. Inhibition by stringent factors of polyphosphatase interrupts the dynamic balance between the synthesis and degradation of polyP, accounting for polyP accumulation. Polyphosphate kinase is required for activation of intracellular protein degradation, which is required for adaptation at the onset of amino acid starvation. The adaptation to amino acid starvation is mediated by the network of stringent response and polyP metabolism. PolyP accumulation independent of stringent response has also been observed. Novobiocin, an inhibitor for DNA gyrase, stimulated accumulation of polyP but not that of stringent factors. However, a temperature-sensitive DNA gyrase mutant did not exhibit polyP accumulation at the non-permissive temperature. Antagonistic relationship of polyP to nucleic acid synthesis, explored by Harold, appears to be more complicated. We discuss relationship of Pi regulation to polyP accumulation in E. coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. A function of polyP as an in vivo phosphagen affecting polyP accumulation is also discussed.

  13. Gene limiting cadmium accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisei; Yamaji, Naoki; Kono, Izumi; Huang, Chao Feng; Ando, Tsuyu; Yano, Masahiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2010-09-21

    Intake of toxic cadmium (Cd) from rice caused Itai-itai disease in the past and it is still a threat for human health. Therefore, control of the accumulation of Cd from soil is an important food-safety issue, but the molecular mechanism for the control is unknown. Herein, we report a gene (OsHMA3) responsible for low Cd accumulation in rice that was isolated from a mapping population derived from a cross between a high and low Cd-accumulating cultivar. The gene encodes a transporter belonging to the P(1B)-type ATPase family, but shares low similarity with other members. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that the transporter from the low-Cd cultivar is functional, but the transporter from the high-Cd cultivar had lost its function, probably because of the single amino acid mutation. The transporter is mainly expressed in the tonoplast of root cells at a similar level in both the low and high Cd-accumulating cultivars. Overexpression of the functional gene from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar selectively decreased accumulation of Cd, but not other micronutrients in the grain. Our results indicated that OsHMA3 from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar limits translocation of Cd from the roots to the above-ground tissues by selectively sequestrating Cd into the root vacuoles.

  14. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  15. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  16. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, P<0.05). Intestinal α-amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities rose along with increasing dietary CM level. The structure of the mid-intestinal tissues and the ultrastructure of the enterocyte microvilli were normal when dietary CM was <36.6% (60% protein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  17. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  18. TEA -- Temperature and energy accumulated

    SciTech Connect

    Borresen, B.A.; Marken, A.V.

    1999-07-01

    Energy quality relates to energy supply temperatures. Instead of the exergy term, a TEA curve was introduced for evaluating the planned 100 GWh district heating system of Fornebu, outside Oslo. The questions that were raised when analyzing the energy system were: (1) how could one make a design that improves the use of low temperature energy? (2) is a design with low flow rate, i.e., low pipeline costs, compatible with the use of low temperature energy? (3) can one visualize the quality of the energy used through the distributed temperatures and the corresponding quantity of energy? A spreadsheet analysis tool for the TEA curve was implemented, and used for the heating plant design and optimization at Fornebu. The paper presents the TEA curve and shows how evaluations may be done. Different design temperatures ranging from 60 C/50 C to 110 C/40 C are included in the discussion. The main findings are: The TEA curve demonstrates clearly the use of energy quality; Avoid shunting, utilize the available high temperatures when possible; and A 75 C/40 C design improves the level of energy use compared to a 60 C/50 C design.

  19. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  20. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  1. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  2. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  3. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  4. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  5. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  6. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  7. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... investment contained in Account 2001, Telecommunications Plant in Service. (b) This account shall be credited... plant in service. (Note also Account 3300, Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating.) (c) At the time...

  8. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... investment contained in Account 2001, Telecommunications Plant in Service. (b) This account shall be credited... plant in service. (Note also Account 3300, Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating.) (c) At the time...

  9. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... investment contained in Account 2001, Telecommunications Plant in Service. (b) This account shall be credited... plant in service. (Note also Account 3300, Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating.) (c) At the time...

  10. Metal accumulation by wood-decaying fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, and Pb) in the sporophores of ten wood-decaying macromycete species were related to concentrations in the wood substrates. Manganese, Sr, Ca, and Pb were usually excluded by the fungi; K, Rb, and to a lower degree, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg and Na were accumulated. Accumulation ratios are compared with similar ratios for soil and litter inhabiting species previously studied.

  11. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes.

  12. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.A.; Caldwell, M.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1984-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in sodium uptake between populations of A. tridentata, A. falcata and A. gardneri, with some populations having less than 0.1% leaf sodium and other populations having up to 5 or 6%. In three experiments (a field study, a greenhouse pot study and a hydroponics study) there were no significant differences in salinity tolerance between sodium accumulating and nonaccumulating A. canescens: both genotypes were highly salt tolerant. There was a significant buildup of sodium in the soil beneath sodium accumulating Atriplex plants, both in natural populations and on revegetated oil shale study plots. The sodium buildup was not sufficient to be detrimental to the growth or establishment of most herbaceous species, but with older Atriplex plants or with more saline soil, the buildup could potentially be detrimental. 14 references, 42 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:25389129

  14. Boat detection using vector accumulation of particle motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Li, Na; Li, Youyi; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-11-01

    Recently, target detection in sea environment such as boat detection has become a popular research topic which is significant for marine vessels monitoring system. Many target detection methods have been widely applied to practical applications such as frame difference, traditional optical flow and background subtraction method. However, the existing target detection methods are not suitable to deal with the complex conditions of sea surface, such as irregular movement of the waves and illumination changes. In this paper, we developed an approach based on vector accumulation of particle motion mainly aiming at eliminating the effects of irregular movement of waves. Our proposed method applies vector accumulation of particle motion to optical flow field to obtain more accurate detection results under complex conditions. Firstly, the traditional optical flow method is used to acquire motion vector of every particle. Furthermore, the vectors of each flow point are abstracted to represent the recording of a fluid element in the flow over a certain period, succeeding is the accumulation of particle vectors. Finally, we calculate the mean of the vector accumulation to eliminate the effects of irregular movement of waves based on the video. Experimental results show the proposed method can gain better performance than traditional optical flow method.

  15. The role of mutation accumulation in HIV progression

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Alison P

    2005-01-01

    The onset of AIDS is characterized by the collapse of the immune system after a prolonged asymptomatic period. The mechanistic basis of this disease progression has remained obscure, hindering the development of effective therapies. Here I present a mechanism that underlies the deterioration of the immune system during HIV infection. The elevated turnover of lymphocytes throughout the asymptomatic period is postulated to result in the accumulation of deleterious mutations, which impairs immunological function, replicative ability and viability of lymphocytes. This mutational meltdown is proposed to occur throughout the hierarchy of lymphocyte progenitors, resulting in the deterioration of lymphocyte regeneration and an ensuing rise in viral loads. A mathematical model is used to illustrate this mechanism of progressive immunological deterioration. Mutation accumulation may explain not only the decline in CD4+T cells, but also the functional deterioration of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells and B cells, and the exhaustion of lymphocyte regeneration. PMID:16096099

  16. Accumulation of Rhodopsin in Late Endosomes Triggers Photoreceptor Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chinchore, Yashodhan; Mitra, Amitavo; Dolph, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Progressive retinal degeneration is the underlying feature of many human retinal dystrophies. Previous work using Drosophila as a model system and analysis of specific mutations in human rhodopsin have uncovered a connection between rhodopsin endocytosis and retinal degeneration. In these mutants, rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin form stable complexes, and endocytosis of these complexes causes photoreceptor cell death. In this study we show that the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded in the lysosome but instead accumulates in the late endosomes. Using mutants that are defective in late endosome to lysosome trafficking, we were able to show that rhodopsin accumulates in endosomal compartments in these mutants and leads to light-dependent retinal degeneration. Moreover, we also show that in dying photoreceptors the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded but instead shows characteristics of insoluble proteins. Together these data implicate buildup of rhodopsin in the late endosomal system as a novel trigger of death of photoreceptor neurons. PMID:19214218

  17. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  18. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source.

  19. Estimate of Students' Workload and the Impact of the Evaluation System on Students' Dedication to Studying a Subject in First-Year Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmendia, Mikel; Guisasola, Jenaro; Barragues, J. I.; Zuza, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    In order to adapt current subjects to the ECTS credits system, it is necessary to estimate how much time a student has to invest in learning a subject. The Polytechnic Engineering School of the University of the Basque Country has made an initial study to investigate this matter in several subjects. A weekly questionnaire design was used for all…

  20. Greenland Ice Sheet Annually-resolved Accumulation Rates (1958-2007), a Spatially Calibrated Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Box, J. W.; Smith, L. C.; Bromwich, D. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has responded dramatically to recent temperature increases, making it an important contributor to sea level rise. Accurate predictions of Greenland's future contribution to sea level will require a scrupulous understanding of the GIS system and refining our understanding of accumulation is a critical step towards this goal. The most accurate existing estimates of Greenland accumulation rates are multi-year averages; existing annual estimates contain poorly quantified uncertainties. This project developed a superior Greenland accumulation dataset that is spatially comprehensive, has annual resolution, is calibrated to field observations and contains sound uncertainty estimates. Accumulation output from a 1958- 2007 run of the Fifth Generation Mesoscale Model modified for polar climates (PMM5) was calibrated against 133 firn cores and coastal meteorological stations. PMM5 accumulation rate estimates contained spatially dependent systematic biases that were modeled and removed using spatial interpolation of zonally derived regressions. The calibrated accumulation dataset contains residual uncertainties exhibiting a strong spatial pattern that was modeled to estimate ice-sheet wide uncertainty. No significant 1958-2007 trends in Greenland accumulation are evident. Average annual accumulation rate is estimated at 0.339m.w.e. or 593km3 with an RMSE uncertainty of +/-83 km3 or +/-14%. The accumulation dataset will be made publicly available.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation in East Antarctica from traverse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, Massimo; Pourchet, Michel; Flora, Onelio; Gandolfi, Stefano; Gay, Michel; Urbini, Stefano; Vincent, Christian; Becagli, Silvia; Gragnani, Roberto; Proposito, Marco; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Fily, Michel

    Recent snow accumulation rate is a key quantity for ice-core and mass-balance studies. Several accumulation measurement methods (stake farm, fin core, snow-radar profiling, surface morphology, remote sensing) were used, compared and integrated at eight sites along a transect from Terra Nova Bay to Dome C, East Antarctica, to provide information about the spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation. Thirty-nine cores were dated by identifying tritium/β marker levels (1965-66) and non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- spikes of the Tambora (Indonesia) volcanic event (1816) in order to provide information on temporal variability. Cores were linked by snow radar and global positioning system surveys to provide detailed information on spatial variability in snow accumulation. Stake-farm and ice-core accumulation rates are observed to differ significantly, but isochrones (snow radar) correlate well with ice-core derived accumulation. The accumulation/ablation pattern from stake measurements suggests that the annual local noise (metre scale) in snow accumulation can approach 2 years of ablation and more than four times the average annual accumulation, with no accumulation or ablation for a 5 year period in up to 40% of cases. The spatial variability of snow accumulation at the kilometre scale is one order of magnitude higher than temporal variability at the multi-decadal/secular scale. Stake measurements and firn cores at Dome C confirm an approximate 30% increase in accumulation over the last two centuries, with respect to the average over the last 5000 years.

  2. Accumulation of swimming bacteria near an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jay; Li, Guanglai

    2012-11-01

    Microbes inhabit planet earth over billions of years and have adapted to diverse physical environment of water, soil, and particularly at or near interfaces. We focused our attention on the locomotion of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at the interface of water/solid or water/air. We measured the distribution of a forward swimming strain of C. crescentus near a surface using a three-dimensional tracking technique based on dark field microscopy and found that the swimming bacteria accumulate heavily within a micrometer from the surface. We attribute this accumulation to frequent collisions of the swimming cells with the surface, causing them to align parallel to the surface as they continually move forward. The extent of accumulation at the steady state is accounted for by balancing alignment caused by these collisions with rotational Brownian motion of the micrometer-sized bacteria. We performed a simulation based on this model, which reproduced the measured results. Additional simulations demonstrate the dependence of accumulation on swimming speed and cell size, showing that longer and faster cells accumulate more near a surface than shorter and slower ones do. The overarching goal of our study is to describe interfacial microbial behavior through detailed analysis of their motion. We acknowledge support by NSF PHY 1058375.

  3. Geomorphic control of landscape carbon accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbloom, N.A.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Schimel, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use the CREEP process-response model to simulate soil organic carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in Iowa. Our primary objectives are to identify spatial patterns of carbon accumulation, and explore the effect of erosion on basin-scale C accumulation. Our results point to two general findings. First, redistribution of soil carbon by erosion results in a net increase in basin-wide carbon storage relative to a noneroding environment. Landscape-average mean residence times are increased in an eroding landscape owing to the burial/preservation of otherwise labile C. Second, field observations taken along a slope transect may overlook significant intraslope variations in carbon accumulation. Spatial patterns of modeled deep C accumulation are complex. While surface carbon with its relatively short equilibration time is predictable from surface properties, deep carbon is strongly influenced by the landscape's geomorphic and climatic history, resulting in wide spatial variability. Convergence and divergence associated with upland swales and interfluves result in bimodal carbon distributions in upper and mid slopes; variability in carbon storage within modeled mid slopes was as high as simulated differences between erosional shoulders and depositional valley bottoms. The bimodality of mid-slope C variability in the model suggests that a three-dimensional sampling strategy is preferable over the traditional two-dimensional analog or "catena" approach. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.; Silverstein, J.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

  5. Comprehensive model of damage accumulation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, K. R. C.; Benistant, F.; Jaraiz, M.; Rubio, J. E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Ion implantation induced damage accumulation is crucial to the simulation of silicon processing. We present a physically based damage accumulation model, implemented in a nonlattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, that can simulate a diverse range of interesting experimental observations. The model is able to reproduce the ion-mass dependent silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature of a range of ions from C to Xe, the amorphous layer thickness for a range of amorphizing implants, the superlinear increase in damage accumulation with dose, and the two-layered damage distribution observed along the path of a high-energy ion. In addition, this model is able to distinguish between dynamic annealing and post-cryogenic implantation annealing, whereby dynamic annealing is more effective in removing damage than post-cryogenic implantation annealing at the same temperature.

  6. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  7. Coordinated regulation of biosynthetic and regulatory genes coincides with anthocyanin accumulation in developing eggplant fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Violet to black pigmentation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit is attributed to anthocyanin accumulation. Model systems support the interaction of biosynthetic and regulatory genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Anthocyanin structural gene transcription requires the expression of at least one m...

  8. Landscape Evolution and Carbon Accumulation: Uniformitarianism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, N. A.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.; Schimel, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    What is the role of hillslope transport in long-term carbon accumulation in soils? How do parent material, climate, and landform interact to produce the landscapes we observe today and to what extent can we use present day conditions to infer the dominant processes of the past? We use the CREEP [Rosenbloom, N.A. et al., 2001] process-response model to ask these questions, exploring the time-evolution of landscape form, soil distribution, and carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in western Iowa [Harden, J.W. et al., 2002]. The CREEP model simulates differential transport of soil particles, blanket deposition of atmospheric 10Be with eolian dust, and passive advection of soil carbon and 10Be, enabling the preferential enrichment and burial of rapidly moving soil constituents. By comparing landscape-wide average accumulations of 10Be to borehole observations at three hillslope positions, we conclude that the distribution of clay-adsorbed 10Be cannot be explained by co-transport with clay particles alone. Rather, 10Be appears to behave as a more complex tracer than originally assumed, requiring an explicit, independent parameterization of wet deposition and transport. By comparison, model carbon accumulation strongly reflects patterns of clay redistribution indicating that in situ carbon turnover is faster than redistribution. Observed vertical distributions of soil properties, including 10Be, could only be explained by assuming variations in deposition and erosion rates, specifically periods of accumulation, followed by periods of transport. This effect might not be apparent if only landform shape, geometry, and soil depth were considered and vertical distributions of soil properties were not explicitly simulated. The current landscape reflects a history of strong shifts in erosion and accumulation rates that cannot be simulated using a uniform parameterization of long-term landscape-evolution processes.

  9. Fingerprint enhancement based on MRF with curve accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Qi, Feihu

    2001-09-01

    The uniqueness of fingerprints has been used for identification for a long time. Automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) depends on minutiae to identify a person that rely heavily on the quality of fingerprint image. This paper presents a novel fingerprint enhancement scheme based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The MRF model is applied to capture local statistical regularities of ridges and then the curve accumulation based on the MRF model is presented to enhance the fingerprint. Such procedure is repeated until the statistics difference can be got between fingerprint ridges and valleys (accumulation). In the end, the adaptive binarisation is made. The results of experiments show that this method can effectively improve the clarity of ridge and valley structures of input fingerprint images and meanwhile preserve the minutiae very well.

  10. Inhibition of Golgi function causes plastid starch accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Eric; Osterrieder, Anne; Robinson, David G.; Hawes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about possible interactions between chloroplasts and the Golgi apparatus, although there is increasing evidence for a direct Golgi to chloroplast transport pathway targeting proteins to their destinations within the membranes and stroma of plastids. Here data are presented showing that a blockage of secretion results in a significant increase of starch within plastids. Golgi disassembly promoted either by the secretory inhibitor brefeldin A or through an inducible Sar1-GTP system leads to dramatic starch accumulation in plastids, thus providing evidence for a direct interaction between plastids and Golgi activity. The possibility that starch accumulation is due either to elevated levels of cytosolic sugars because of loss of secretory Golgi activity or even to a blockage of amylase transport from the Golgi to the chloroplast is discussed. PMID:20423939

  11. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  12. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  13. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in

  14. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  15. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  16. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  17. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  18. 19 CFR 10.772 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.772 Section 10.772 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  19. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  20. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  1. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  2. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  3. 19 CFR 10.597 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.597 Section 10.597 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  4. Copper accumulation in the crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the crayfish, O. rusticus could fulfill Nehring's (1976) criteria for a good biological monitor of heavy metal pollution. Since there is some evidence that the cupric ion is the most toxic form of aqueous copper, crayfish-accumulated copper was compared to both total and cupric copper in the culture water.

  5. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  6. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  7. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  8. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  9. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  10. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  11. 19 CFR 10.917 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accumulation. 10.917 Section 10.917 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  12. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    PubMed

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  13. Visual accumulation tube for size analysis of sands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, B.C.; Christensen, R.P.

    1956-01-01

    The visual-accumulation-tube method was developed primarily for making size analyses of the sand fractions of suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Because the fundamental property governing the motion of a sediment particle in a fluid is believed to be its fall velocity. the analysis is designed to determine the fall-velocity-frequency distribution of the individual particles of the sample. The analysis is based on a stratified sedimentation system in which the sample is introduced at the top of a transparent settling tube containing distilled water. The procedure involves the direct visual tracing of the height of sediment accumulation in a contracted section at the bottom of the tube. A pen records the height on a moving chart. The method is simple and fast, provides a continuous and permanent record, gives highly reproducible results, and accurately determines the fall-velocity characteristics of the sample. The apparatus, procedure, results, and accuracy of the visual-accumulation-tube method for determining the sedimentation-size distribution of sands are presented in this paper.

  14. Accumulation mapping at Summit, Greenland using an autonomous rover (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, M. E.; Koenig, L.; Trisca, G.; Marshall, H.

    2013-12-01

    New and advanced technologies in firn studies continue to emerge in both remote sensing tools and the platforms that deploy them. A new autonomous robot, called GROVER, was tested and deployed in May 2013 at Summit, Greenland. The robot operates a 8 GHz bandwidth frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar capable of imaging the near-surface firn at very high vertical resolution (~2 cm). The radar penetrated to depths of ~10 m with identifiable annual layers. Here we briefly describe GROVER's capabilities and applications for firn studies. We present the nearly 25 km of accumulation measurements derived from annual layering in the radar echograms. The GROVER-made measurements are compared to radar-derived accumulation from previous studies using a similar FMCW system in 2009 pulled by a snowmobile, as well as, with airborne laser altimetry and GPS measurements taken over the roved lines. Discrepancies and similarities between the measurement methods are investigated and explained. The robot-based firn echograms are also used to estimate the depth and extent of the 2012 melt layer over the roved lines. Near-surface radars have proven useful for monitoring and calculating snow and firn processes such as SWE and accumulation; moving firn studies onto an autonomous rover can reduce costs and increase spatial coverage for validation of future satellite missions.

  15. Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations, Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Columbus basin, on the eastern shelf of Trinidad, lies at the eastern extremity of a belt of severe deformation along the northern boundary of South America that has been affected by compressional and wrench tectonics in the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Two major structural trends are present in the Columbus basin: a series of ENE-trending anticlines and NNW-oriented normal faults. The basin was filled during the late Miocene to Holocene with sediments deposited by an ancestral Orinoco River draining a hinterland to the southwest. The Pliocene-Pleistocene section, which contains the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Columbus basin, was laid down in three coarsening-upward sedimentary sequences followed by a late Pleistocene transgressive sequence. Traps for hydrocarbon accumulation were formed by an easterly trending Pliocene-Pleistocene wrench system with associated ENE-oriented anticlines combined with NNW-oriented normal faults. Oil was sourced in the late Miocene lower Cruse Formation, whereas gas was derived both from Pliocene-Pleistocene pro-delta shales and as a late high temperature phase of lower Cruse hydrocarbon generation. The NNW faults formed migration conduits from the oil source rock to Pliocene-Pleistocene reservoirs. The temporal relationship of faulting to oil generation is a major factor affecting the distribution of oil and gas. The size of hydrocarbon accumulations is limited to some extent by a lack of an effective hydrocarbon seal, particularly in the western half of the basin.

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations, Columbus Basin, Offshore Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.

    1983-07-01

    The Columbus basin, situated on the eastern shelf of Trinidad, lies at the eastern extremity of a belt of severe deformation along the northern boundary of South America that has been affected by compressional and wrench tectonics in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Two major structural trends are present in the Columbus basin: a series of east-northeast trending anticlines and northnorthwest oriented normal faults. The basin was filled during late Miocene to Holocene time with sediments deposited by an ancestral Orinoco River draining a hinterland to the southwest. The Pliocene-Pleistocene section, which contains the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Columbus basin, was deposited in three coarseningupward sedimentary sequences followed by a late Pleistocene transgressive sequence. Traps for hydrocarbon accumulation were formed by an easterly trending Pliocene-Pleistocene wrench system with associated east-northeast-oriented anticlines combined with north-northwest-oriented normal faults. Oil was sourced in the late Miocene lower Cruse Formation, whereas gas was derived both from Pliocene-Pleistocene pro-delta shales and as a late high-temperature phase of lower Cruse hydrocarbon generation. The northnorthwest faults formed migration conduits from the oil source rock to Pliocene-Pleistocene reservoirs. The temporal relationship of faulting to oil generation is a major factor affecting the distribution of oil and gas. The size of hydrocarbon accumulations is limited to some extent by a lack of an effective hydrocarbon seal, particularly in the western half of the basin.

  17. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  18. A LARGE APERTURE NARROW QUADROUPOLE FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; BRODOWSKI,J.; MENG,W.; WEI,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; TUOZZOLO,J.

    2002-06-03

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to accept high-intensity H{sup -} beam of 1 GeV kinetic energy from the injecting LINAC, and to accumulate, in a time interval of 1 msec, 2 x 10{sup 14} protons in a single bunch of 700 nsec. In order to optimize the effective straight-section spaces for beam-injection, extraction and collimation, we have minimized the width of the large aperture quadrupoles which are located in the same straight sections of the accumulator ring with the injection and extraction systems. By minimizing the width of the quadrupoles to {+-}40.4 cm, the beam-injection and extraction angles are lowered to 8.75{sup o} and 16.8{sup o} respectively. Further optimization of the narrow quadrupole, minimizes the strength of the dodecapole multipole component of the quadrupole, thus reducing the width of the 12pole structure resonance and allowing a larger tune space for stability of the circulating beam. In this paper we present results derived from magnetic field calculations of 2D and 3D modeling, and discuss the method of optimizing the size of the quadrupole and minimizing its dodecapole multipole component.

  19. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-09-15

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl(-) efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl(-) against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl(-) accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl(-) efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl(-) accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl(-) transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl(-) transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl(-) transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl(-) component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl(-) accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons.

  20. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl− efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl− against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl− accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl− efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl− accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl− transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl− transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl− transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl−/HCO3− exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na+–Cl− cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl−/HCO3− exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl− component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl− accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17656441

  1. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels.

  2. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chan, Christina K; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [(35)S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  3. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinze; Knutson, Mitchell D; Carter, Christy S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength) in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age) at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR) rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  4. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH.

  5. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina K.; Eriksson, Inger; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Cao, Xiaofang; Westöö, Christian; Norvik, Christian; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Johansson, Staffan; Hedin, Ulf; Kjellén, Lena; Wight, Thomas N.; Tran-Lundmark, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed accumulation of versican in patients with PAH. Double staining for versican and CD45 showed only occasional colocalization in neointima of high-grade lesions and plexiform lesions. In vitro, metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate showed that human pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (hPASMCs) produce mainly chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In addition, hypoxia, but not cyclic stretch, was demonstrated to increase both versican messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis by hPASMCs. Versican accumulates in vascular lesions of PAH, and the amount of versican correlates more with lesion severity than with underlying etiology or inflammation. Hypoxia is a possible regulator of versican accumulation, which may promote proliferation of pulmonary smooth-muscle cells and vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:27683612

  6. Protective effect of dietary chitosan on cadmium accumulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Shon, Woo-Jeong; Park, Mi-Na; Lee, Yeon-Sook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cadmium is a toxic metal that is an occupational and environmental concern especially because of its human carcinogenicity; it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. Even low levels of exposure to cadmium could be harmful owing to its extremely long half-life in the body. Cadmium intoxication may be prevented by the consumption of dietary components that potentially reduce its accumulation in the body. Dietary chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from animal sources; it has been known for its ability to bind to divalent cations including cadmium, in addition to other beneficial effects including hypocholesterolemic and anticancer effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of dietary chitosan in reducing cadmium accumulation using an in vivo system. MATERIALS/METHODS Cadmium was administered orally at 2 mg (three times per week) to three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: control, low-dose, and high-dose (0, 3, and 5%, respectively) chitosan diet groups for eight weeks. Cadmium accumulation, as well as tissue functional and histological changes, was determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, rats fed the chitosan diet showed significantly lower levels of cadmium in blood and tissues including the kidneys, liver, and femur. Biochemical analysis of liver function including the determination of aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels showed that dietary chitosan reduced hepatic tissue damage caused by cadmium intoxication and prevented the associated bone disorder. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that dietary chitosan has the potential to reduce cadmium accumulation in the body as well as protect liver function and bone health against cadmium intoxication. PMID:26865912

  7. Iron Accumulation with Age, Oxidative Stress and Functional Decline

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinze; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Carter, Christy S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength) in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age) at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR) rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects. PMID:18682742

  8. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  9. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  10. Zinc Accumulation and Behavior in Tuyere Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Tianqiu; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhong, Jianbo; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Guangwei; Ren, Shan; Yang, Tianjun

    2014-10-01

    A case study of zinc oxide, which represents the first report on the occurrence, crystalline features, formation mechanism, and influence of this mineral in tuyere coke, was conducted in this study. A number of zinc oxides, some of which were in hexagonal wurtzite habit, were observed to distribute mainly in coke pores, cracks, surfaces, and around coke minerals. The accumulation of zinc in tuyere coke may enhance the degradation of coke and increase the generation and accumulation of coke fine in a blast furnace, which would cause bad effect on blast furnace operation. Investigations into zinc behavior in tuyere coke can be important for further interpretations of coke degradation in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace.

  11. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels.

    This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  12. Regulating Chemical Accumulation in the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Timothy M.; Vighi, Marco

    1999-01-01

    The environment has been exposed to a range of damaging contaminants from a wide variety of sources. Regulation of and legislation against offending parties has frequently been hampered because of the difficulty with cooperation among disparate disciplines in the natural, social and political sciences. This volume forms the conclusion of five years' collaboration among toxicologists, economists and lawyers in the understanding and solution of the problem of accumulative chemicals. As well as being a case study of the accumulation of pesticides in groundwater in one particular region (the European Union), the book forms a general study of the value of interdisciplinary approaches in environmental policy making. The volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers in the area of environmental science and environmental policy.

  13. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  14. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  15. [Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V N; Eliashevich, N V

    2000-01-01

    Coefficients of 137Cs accumulation and 90Sr were determined in macromycetes of different trophic groups (137Cs in 43 species and 90Sr in 19 species) in the conditions of droughty year (1992). Their variability in forest formations was determined in the period from 1992 to 1998. In the year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998), two-fold rise of 137Cs accumulation in fruit bodies was registered on average. The pollution of Boletus edulis correlates with photosynthetically active part of Betula pendula and Pinus silvestris closer than with soil pollution. This shows the possibility to indicate the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of plants-symbiotrophs. PMID:11155341

  16. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Frederick L; Krahnke, Jason S; Kim, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Airway mucus is part of the lung’s native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics. PMID:24493923

  17. [Radionuclide accumulation in fruit bodies of macromycetes].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V N; Eliashevich, N V

    2000-01-01

    Coefficients of 137Cs accumulation and 90Sr were determined in macromycetes of different trophic groups (137Cs in 43 species and 90Sr in 19 species) in the conditions of droughty year (1992). Their variability in forest formations was determined in the period from 1992 to 1998. In the year with increased atmospheric humidity (1998), two-fold rise of 137Cs accumulation in fruit bodies was registered on average. The pollution of Boletus edulis correlates with photosynthetically active part of Betula pendula and Pinus silvestris closer than with soil pollution. This shows the possibility to indicate the pollution of short-living fruit bodies of fungi by the pollution of plants-symbiotrophs.

  18. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W. Tyler Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  19. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits.

  20. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  1. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated. PMID:25370619

  2. Abundance of adiponectin system and G-protein coupled receptor GPR109A mRNA in adipose tissue and liver of F2 offspring cows of Charolais × German Holstein crosses that differ in body fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, M; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role in energy storage, adipose tissue (AT) is an important endocrine organ and it secretes adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity by activation of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Lipolysis in AT is downregulated by the G-protein coupled receptor (GPR109A), which binds the endogenous ligand β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Insulin sensitivity is reduced during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cattle and BHBA is increased postpartum, implying the involvement of the adiponectin system and GPR109A in this process. The aim of the current investigation was to study the effect of the genetic background of cows on the mRNA abundance of the adiponectin system, as well as GPR109A, in an F(2) population of 2 Charolais × German Holstein families. These families were deduced from full- and half-sibs sharing identical but reciprocal paternal and maternal Charolais grandfathers. The animals of the 2 families showed significant differences in fat accretion and milk secretion and were designated fat-type (high fat accretion but low milk production) and lean-type (low fat accretion but high milk production). The mRNA of the adiponectin system and GPR109A were quantified by real-time PCR in different fat depots (subcutaneous from back, mesenteric, kidney) and liver. The mRNA data were correlated with AT masses (intermuscular topside border fat, kidney, mesenteric, omental, total inner fat mass, total subcutaneous fat mass, and total fat mass) and blood parameters (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, BHBA, urea, insulin, and glucagon). The abundance of adiponectin system mRNA was higher in discrete AT depots of fat-type cows [adiponectin mRNA in mesenteric fat (trend), AdipoR1 in kidney and mesenteric AT, and AdipoR2 in subcutaneous fat (trend)] than in lean-type cows. More GPR109A mRNA was found in kidney fat of the lean-type family than in that of the fat-type family. In liver, the abundance of AdipoR2 and

  3. Extrapulmonary sites of radiogallium accumulation in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Palestro, C.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Tierstein, A.S. )

    1990-12-01

    In an effort to detect extrapulmonary sites of radiogallium accumulation in cases of sarcoidosis, 145 separate Ga-67 citrate studies of 114 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were examined. The most characteristic extrapulmonary radiogallium uptake pattern was the panda sign in 47 patients (41%). The most common site of prominent extrapulmonary radiogallium uptake was the lacrimal glands in 101 patients (88%). Second most common was activity in one or more superficial lymph node regions such as the cervical, axillary, femoral, or inguinal in 19 patients (17%). Other extrapulmonary sites included breast uptake in 6 out of 80 women (8%), prominent splenic and nasal uptake in 9 (8%) patients, periportal accumulation in 7 (6%), and cutaneous/subcutaneous activity in 4 (4%). Because many of these individuals were receiving corticosteroids, the natural (untreated) prevalence of extrapulmonary findings may be even higher. Although the sensitivity and specificity of extrapulmonary radiogallium accumulation has still to be determined, many of the sites may be accessible to biopsy both for diagnostic purposes and to follow the effects of medications. It is therefore suggested that whole-body imaging be performed when radiogallium is administered to patients with suspected or known sarcoidosis.

  4. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  5. Premature chromatin condensation upon accumulation of NIMA.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, M J; Norbury, C; Nurse, P

    1994-01-01

    The NIMA protein kinase of Aspergillus nidulans is required for the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Mutants lacking NIMA arrest without morphological characteristics of mitosis, but they do contain an activated p37nimX kinase (the Aspergillus homologue of p34cdc2). To gain a better understanding of NIMA function we have investigated the effects of expressing various NIMA constructs in Aspergillus, fission yeast and human cells. Our experiments have shown that the instability of the NIMA protein requires sequences in the non-catalytic C-terminus of the protein. Removal of this domain results in a stable protein that, once accumulated, promotes a lethal premature condensation of chromatin without any other aspects of mitosis. Similar effects were also observed in fission yeast and human cells accumulating Aspergillus NIMA. This phenotype is independent of cell cycle progression and does not require p34cdc2 kinase activity. As gain of NIMA function by accumulation results in premature chromatin condensation, and loss of NIMA function results in an inability to enter mitosis, we propose that NIMA functions in G2 to promote the condensation of chromatin normally associated with entry into mitosis. Images PMID:7957060

  6. Elemental accumulation studied in biological species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    At The Geysers, relatively little environmental baseline data were collected during the early years of development. In early 1983, the CEC awarded Sonoma County a geothermal grant to analyze the biological accumulation of trace elements in The Geysers Geothermal region. Prior studies in The Geysers region have established data for 27 different chemical elements, and suggest that chemicals are accumulating near power plants. This study examined selected species of rodents, fish, and lichen. Elevated amounts of chemical elements were found in their tissues. It is not clear if this accumulation is the result of geothermal development or due to naturally high backgrounds of these elements in the region. However, today these element loads serve as reference points for both developers and regulators. The CEC awarded a second grant in July 1985. The study funded by this grant will provide a more complete analysis of elemental loads by examining species such as western fence lizards and deer. Results and conclusions from these two studies can be used by regulatory agencies planning for future geothermal development in The Geysers region.

  7. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  8. Lead accumulation potential in Acacia victoria.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Ali; Khermandar, Khadijeh; Asbchin, Salman Ahmady; Tabaraki, Reza

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential of Pb+2 accumulation in different parts of Acacia victoria, one year old A. victoria seedlings were exposed to Pb2+(NO3)2 in 5 different concentrations: 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000 (mg Pb2+ L(-1)) for 45 days. Subsequently, Pb2+ uptake was quantified in roots, shoots and leaves of the seedlings by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). In addition, some physiological parameters such as biomass production, shoots and roots length, plant appearance, tissue concentrations and chlorophyll content were examined. Tissue concentrations increased as Pb2+ concentration increased for A. victoria. The visible toxicity symptoms (chlorosis and necrosis) appeared only to the highest concentration (1000 mg Pb2+ L(-1)), resulting in photosynthesis decrease, plant height, root length and dry biomass reduction. Almost 70% (up to 3580 mg Kg(-1) of dry tissue) from the Pb2+ was accumulated in the entire plant tissues was retained in the roots in the seedlings exposed to 1000 mg Pb2+ L(-1). The seedlings accumulated between 403 to 913 mg Kg(-1) of Pb2+ in shoots and 286 to 650 mg Kg(-1) of Pb2+ in leaves at different treatments. Bioconcentration and translocation factors were determined 5.14 and 0.255, respectively. The results show that A. victoria is suitable for lead-phytostabilization in Pb(2+) -contaminated soil.

  9. Linear Deterministic Accumulator Models of Simple Choice

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Andrew; Love, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    We examine theories of simple choice as a race among evidence accumulation processes. We focus on the class of deterministic race models, which assume that the effects of fluctuations in the parameters of the accumulation processes between-choice trials (between-choice noise) dominate the effects of fluctuations occurring while making a choice (within-choice noise) in behavioral data (i.e., response times and choices). The latter deterministic approximation, when combined with the assumption that accumulation is linear, leads to a class of models that can be readily applied to simple-choice behavior because they are computationally tractable. We develop a new and mathematically simple exemplar within the class of linear deterministic models, the Lognormal race (LNR). We then examine how the LNR, and another widely applied linear deterministic model, Brown and Heathcote’s (2008) LBA, account for a range of benchmark simple-choice effects in lexical-decision task data reported by Wagenmakers et al. (2008). Our results indicate that the LNR provides an accurate description of this data. Although the LBA model provides a slightly better account, both models support similar psychological conclusions. PMID:22936920

  10. How wealth accumulation can promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Chadefaux, Thomas; Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the emergence and stability of cooperation has been a central challenge in biology, economics and sociology. Unfortunately, the mechanisms known to promote it either require elaborate strategies or hold only under restrictive conditions. Here, we report the emergence, survival, and frequent domination of cooperation in a world characterized by selfishness and a strong temptation to defect, when individuals can accumulate wealth. In particular, we study games with local adaptation such as the prisoner's dilemma, to which we add heterogeneity in payoffs. In our model, agents accumulate wealth and invest some of it in their interactions. The larger the investment, the more can potentially be gained or lost, so that present gains affect future payoffs. We find that cooperation survives for a far wider range of parameters than without wealth accumulation and, even more strikingly, that it often dominates defection. This is in stark contrast to the traditional evolutionary prisoner's dilemma in particular, in which cooperation rarely survives and almost never thrives. With the inequality we introduce, on the contrary, cooperators do better than defectors, even without any strategic behavior or exogenously imposed strategies. These results have important consequences for our understanding of the type of social and economic arrangements that are optimal and efficient. PMID:21048947

  11. 17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Governor Accumulator Tank Compressor and motor located along rear corridor between Units 3 and 4, view to the west. The compressor motor is located just right of center in photograph. The pressure tank on the right side of the photograph is a reserve pressure tank for governor system. The pressure tank on the left side of the photograph is the original instrument air pressure tank. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  12. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines.

    PubMed

    He, D F; Zhang, Y Z; Shiwa, M; Moriya, S

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber.

  13. Front-end simulation of injector for terawatt accumulator.

    PubMed

    Kropachev, G N; Balabin, A I; Kolomiets, A A; Kulevoy, T V; Pershin, V I; Shumshurov, A V

    2008-02-01

    A terawatt accumulator (TWAC) accelerator/storage ring complex with the laser ion source is in progress at ITEP. The new injector I4 based on the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and interdigital H-mode (IH) linear accelerator is under construction. The front end of the new TWAC injector consists of a laser ion source, an extraction system, and a low energy beam transport (LEBT). The KOBRA3-INP was used for the simulation and optimization of the ion source extraction system. The optimization parameter is the maximum brightness of the beam generated by the laser ion source. Also the KOBRA3-INP code was used for LEBT investigation. The LEBT based on electrostatic grid lenses is chosen for injector I4. The results of the extraction system and LEBT investigations for ion beam matching with RFQ are presented.

  14. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure. PMID:23477409

  15. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  16. Phytochelatins do not correlate with the level of Cd accumulation in Chlamydomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kahoko; Onodera, Ai; Tominaga, Noriko

    2006-06-01

    Chlamydomonas acidophila KT-1 and Chlamydomonas acidophila DVB238 exhibit a strong heavy metal tolerance, but C. acidophila DVB238 can accumulate a much higher amount of Cadmium (Cd) than C. acidophila KT-1. Phytochelatins (PCs) are known to play an important role in the detoxification of several toxic heavy metals, but the relationship between PCs and Cd accumulation is not clear. PC metabolism and Cd accumulation were investigated by using three Chlamydomonas strains including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii C-9 as a standard alga. The results showed that the PC content did not correlate closely with the level of Cd accumulation, maintenance of a high GSH level seeming to be more important for Cd accumulation. The ultrastructure of C. acidophila KT-1 was extremely disrupted by a great increase in starch granules, which resulted in a moribund state, but hyper-accumulator C. acidophila DVB238 did not exhibit an increase in starch granules in its cells, in spite of Cd accumulation in its chloroplasts, cytosol and vacuoles. These results indicated that C. acidophila DVB238 probably has a developed detoxification system preventing such as destruction of the cells due to Cd toxicity.

  17. Ice core evidence for a recent increase in snow accumulation in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Lenaerts, Jan; Sheldon, Simon Geoffrey; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of snow accumulation, a crucial component of Antarctic mass balance. Coastal areas are particularly under-represented in such records, despite their relatively high and sensitive accumulation rates. Here we present records from a 120 m ice core drilled on Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica in 2012. We date the ice core bottom back to 1745 ± 2 AD. δ18O and δD stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles, and verified independently by electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) to detect volcanic horizons. The resulting annual layer history is combined with the core density profile to calculate accumulation history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean long-term accumulation is 0.425 ± 0.035 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 (average corrected value). Reconstructed annual accumulation rates show an increase from 1955 onward to a mean value of 0.61 ± 0.02 m w.e. a-1 between 1955 and 2012. This trend is compared to other reported accumulation data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Applying the Community Earth System Model demonstrated that sea ice and atmosphere patterns largely explain the accumulation variability. This is the first and longest record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica showing a steady increase during the 20th and 21st centuries, thereby confirming modelling predictions.

  18. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  19. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  20. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  1. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; MOLLAMOHAMMADI, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia) leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomical locations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI. PMID:25657764

  2. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  3. Metal accumulation and toxicity: the critical accumulated concentration of metabolically available zinc in an oyster model.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-05-01

    Invertebrates typically carry out detoxification of accumulated metals. There is, therefore, no threshold total body concentration of accumulated metal initiating toxicity, the onset of toxic effects rather being related to a critical concentration of metabolically available (MA) accumulated metal. The challenge remains as to whether any particular combination of subcellular fractions of accumulated metal can be identified to represent this theoretical MA component. One candidate combined fraction is the so-termed metal sensitive fraction (MSF), consisting of metal bound to organelles and non-detoxificatory soluble proteins. In this study, we used laboratory zinc accumulation and toxicity data for four populations of the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis with different histories of zinc exposure in the field to address the challenge. We conclude that in a 'control' population of the oyster, the MSF does approximate to the theoretical metabolically available zinc concentration. In populations with a history of field exposure to raised zinc bioavailabilities, however, the MSF would include more zinc detoxified in the lysosome component of organelle-bound metal, and the MSF in such populations would deviate more from the theoretical MA metal concentration.

  4. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. Patients and methods We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. Results According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response. PMID:27069450

  5. The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Marco; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect. Here, we investigate if the temperate, deciduous species Symplocos paniculata is able to accumulate Al by growing seedlings and saplings in a hydroponic setup at pH 4 with and without Al. Pyrocatechol-violet (PCV) and aluminon staining was performed to visualize Al accumulation in various plant tissues. Both seedlings and saplings accumulate Al in their tissues if available. Mean Al levels in leaves were 4107 (±1474 mg kg−1) and 4290 (±4025 mg kg−1) for the seedlings and saplings, respectively. The saplings treated without Al showed a high mortality rate unlike the Al accumulating ones. The seedlings, however, showed no difference in growth and vitality between the two treatments. The saplings treated with Al showed new twig, leaf and root development, resulting in a considerable biomass increase. PCV and aluminon staining indicated the presence of Al in leaf, wood and bark tissue of the plants. S. paniculata shares the capacity to accumulate Al with its tropical sister species and is suggested to be a facultative accumulator. Whether or not Al has a beneficial effect remains unclear, due to developmental differences between seedlings and saplings. Al is suggested to be transported via the xylem transport system into the leaves, which show the highest Al levels. Radial transport via ray parenchyma to bark tissue is also likely given the high Al concentrations in the bark tissue. PMID:27613876

  6. 76 FR 58846 - Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... is to clarify the NRC staff guidance to address issues of gas accumulation in safety related systems... guidance documents. Disposition: On November 12, 2009 (74 FR 58323), the NRC staff issued proposed DC/COL... COMMISSION Final Interim Staff Guidance: Review of Evaluation To Address Gas Accumulation Issues in...

  7. Intertemporal choice as discounted value accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christian A; Turner, Brandon M; McClure, Samuel M

    2014-01-01

    Two separate cognitive processes are involved in choosing between rewards available at different points in time. The first is temporal discounting, which consists of combining information about the size and delay of prospective rewards to represent subjective values. The second involves a comparison of available rewards to enable an eventual choice on the basis of these subjective values. While several mathematical models of temporal discounting have been developed, the reward selection process has been largely unexplored. To address this limitation, we evaluated the applicability of the Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model as a theory of the selection process in intertemporal choice. The LBA model formalizes the selection process as a sequential sampling algorithm in which information about different choice options is integrated until a decision criterion is reached. We compared several versions of the LBA model to demonstrate that choice outcomes and response times in intertemporal choice are well captured by the LBA process. The relationship between choice outcomes and response times that derives from the LBA model cannot be explained by temporal discounting alone. Moreover, the drift rates that drive evidence accumulation in the best-fitting LBA model are related to independently estimated subjective values derived from various temporal discounting models. These findings provide a quantitative framework for predicting dynamics of choice-related activity during the reward selection process in intertemporal choice and link intertemporal choice to other classes of decisions in which the LBA model has been applied.

  8. Accumulation of plastic strain in Zircaloy-4 at low homologous temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tetsuya; Satoh, Yuhki; Abe, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Time-dependent strain accumulation in Zircaloy-4 was evaluated at 294 K, i.e., homologous temperature (T/Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature) of 0.14, to ascertain the mechanical response in fuel cladding material, even at the time of storage. Although diffusion processes are suppressed, considerable strain accumulation was observed at less than 0.2% offset stress. Transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction analyses were used to investigate the dominant microstructural mechanism. Results showed that the heterogeneous dislocation structure generated strain accumulation, where straightly aligned dislocation arrays on the prismatic plane move freely and few deformation twins were formed in the grain interior. Furthermore, few dislocation tangles were observed because the slip systems were limited to one. Therefore, Zircaloy-4 shows weak work-hardening at the low homologous temperature because of the fewer interactions among dislocations, leading to unexpected strain accumulation under constant load conditions.

  9. A new correlation between photovoltaic panel's efficiency and amount of sand dust accumulated on their surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Ahmad Y.; Ghoneim, Adel A.

    2005-12-01

    The accumulation of dust particles on the surface of photovoltaic (PV) panel greatly affects its performance especially in the dusty areas. In the present work, an experimental and theoretical study has been carried out to investigate the effect of sand dust concentration on the efficiency of PV panels. A stand-alone PV system is designed to carry out this work. The I V characteristics have been measured simultaneously for both clean and dusty modules. It has been found that the short circuit current and the maximum output power decrease significantly as dust particles start to accumulate on the panel surface up to a concentration of 1g/m2, but the rate of decrease is slower for concentrations beyond that value. The reduction in short circuit current in one sample of study is found to be ˜40%, whereas it is ˜34% in the maximum output power. In contrast, it is stated that the open circuit voltage is not sensitive to sand dust accumulation. A significant degradation in the efficiency of PV modules is observed for sand dust accumulation up to 1g/m2. A linear relation has been proposed to correlate the degradation in efficiency to the amount of sand dust accumulated on the module surface. This relation can help PV system designers to reliably predict the effect of sand dust accumulation on PV module efficiency under real environmental conditions.

  10. ACCUMULATION OF ANTIBODIES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Jules

    1930-01-01

    1. Antibodies can be extracted from the brain and spinal cord of rabbits actively or passively immunized with typhoid bacilli. 2. The titers of the antibodies in the extracts of brain and cord depend upon the titer of the blood serum. In actively immunized rabbits the following numerical relationships exist between the titers of the serum and of these organ extracts: The ratio of the titer of the serum is to the titers of extract of brain and of the spinal cord about as 100 is to 0.8; the titer of the serum is to the titer of the cerebrospinal fluid as 100 is to 0.3. In passively immunized rabbits the titer of the serum is to the titer of brain and spinal-cord extract as 100 is to 0.7. 3. The antibodies recovered from the brain are not due to the presence of blood in it for perfusion of the brain does not reduce its antibody content appreciably. 4. Antibodies penetrate into the spinal fluid from the blood even in the absence of inflammation of the meninges. When the penetration is completed the following numerical relationship exists between the titer of the serum and that of the cerebrospinal fluid: 100 to 0.25. 5. The penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid of antibodies injected intravenously proceeds at a slow rate, being completed only several hours after the immune serum has been injected. The penetration of antibodies into the tissue of the brain occurs at a very rapid rate. It is completed within 15 minutes. 6. It is very unlikely that when the immune serum is injected intravenously the antibodies reach the brain tissue by way of the cerebrospinal fluid, for (1) the antibody titer of the cerebrospinal fluid is lower than that of the brain extract, and (2) antibodies penetrate faster into the tissue of the brain than into the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:19869735

  11. Strain patterns and strain accumulation along plate margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of strain accumulation along plate margins in Japan, New Zealand, and the United States indicate that: (1) a typical maximum rate of secular strain accumulation is on the order of 0.3 ppm/a, (2) a substantial part of the strain accumulation process can be attributed to slip at depth on the major plate boundary faults, and (3) some plastic deformation in a zone 100 km or more in width is apparently involved in the strain accumulation process.

  12. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  13. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  14. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2... adjustments account (AAA). (a) Accumulated adjustments account—(1) In general. The accumulated adjustments account is an account of the S corporation and is not apportioned among shareholders. The AAA is...

  15. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  16. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  17. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  18. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...

  19. 40 CFR 273.35 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 273.35 Accumulation time limits. (a) A large quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from the date it becomes a waste... other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste has been...

  20. 40 CFR 273.15 - Accumulation time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 273.15 Accumulation time limits. (a) A small quantity handler of universal waste may accumulate... waste must be able to demonstrate the length of time that the universal waste has been accumulated from...; or (6) Any other method which clearly demonstrates the length of time that the universal waste...