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Sample records for accumulation takes place

  1. Does olfactory specific satiety take place in a natural setting?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, P; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Giboreau, A

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory-specific satiety (OSS) is characterized by a specific decrease in the odor pleasantness of a food eaten to satiety or smelled without ingestion. The usual protocol for studying OSS takes place in laboratory, a setting rather removed from the real world. Here, we set out to examine OSS in a natural setting: during a meal in a restaurant. We hypothesized that an aroma contained in a food that is eaten at the beginning of a meal decreases the pleasantness of the flavor of a food with the same aroma eaten at the end of the meal. In the first experiment (Experiment 1), a test group received an appetizer flavored with a test aroma (anise) at the beginning of the meal. After the main dish, they received a dessert flavored with the same aroma. A control group received the same aromatized dessert, but after a non-aromatized appetizer. This experiment was replicated (Experiment 2) using verbena as the test aroma. For both experiments, results revealed that aroma pleasantness, but not intensity or familiarity, significantly decreased in the test groups vs. the control groups. These findings extend the concept of OSS to a realistic eating context. PMID:23079143

  2. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  3. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  4. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  5. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

    2013-01-01

    While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand.

  6. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

    2013-01-01

    While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand. PMID:23394979

  7. 2012 CCCC Chair's Address: Stories Take Place--A Performance in One Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Malea

    2012-01-01

    This is a written version of the address that Malea Powell gave at the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) Convention in St. Louis, Missouri, on Thursday, March 22, 2012. This address is a collection of stories. According to her, stories take place. Stories practice place into space. Stories produce habitable spaces. She…

  8. Studying Activities That Take Place in Speech Interactions: A Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Auriac-Slusarczyk, Emmanuelle; Specogna, Antonietta; Simon, Jean-Pascal; Fiema, Gabriela; Luxembourger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework based on a pluralistic, concerted approach to the study of activities that take place in and through speech interactions. The framework has a general scope, applying to any collective activity taking form through language interactions. It contributes to a fuller understanding of the…

  9. Makro- and micromorphological evidence of processes taking place during Albeluvisol development in S Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Sørensen, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    proportion of voids having clay coatings. Clay mobilization and iron co-eluviation in the upper Eg horizon ceases within less than 2.1 ka, whereas weathering and formation of clay minerals and iron oxides continue, leading to formation of a BE horizon in the upper part of the Eg horizon. Albeluvic tongues start to form after 4.6-6.2 ka, developing preferably along desiccation cracks. Albeluvic material is washed into the cracks, and also enhanced leaching of bases and clay eluviation take place in the cracks. As both processes proceed, the albeluvic tongues get longer and wider. Clayey intercalations occur in the older soils (Stagnic Albeluvisols), and the following concept is suggested to explain their genesis: When after snow melt or a rainy period infiltrating water arrives at the lower end of an albeluvic tongue, the tongue fills up with water. Perched water accumulates also on top of the dense Btg horizon. Water, carrying suspended clay, penetrates under the pressure of the overlying water column from the tongue into the Btg horizon, where additional clay is mobilized. The clay settles when the velocity of the water decreases, forming clayey intercalations in the dense matrix of the Btg horizon.

  10. Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Shumpert, B.

    2003-12-30

    Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

  11. 23 CFR 636.402 - What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place after... What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document? Certain types.... These communication methods are optional. Type of information exchange When Purpose Parties involved...

  12. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  13. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  14. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place? (a) A urine collection for a DOT drug test must take place in a collection site meeting the requirements...

  15. 23 CFR 636.402 - What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place after... What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document? Certain types.... The following table summarizes the types of communications that will be discussed in this...

  16. 23 CFR 636.402 - What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place after... What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document? Certain types.... The following table summarizes the types of communications that will be discussed in this...

  17. 23 CFR 636.402 - What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place after... What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document? Certain types.... The following table summarizes the types of communications that will be discussed in this...

  18. [Marketing approval and market surveillance of medical devices in Germany: Where does policy integration take place?].

    PubMed

    Lang, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011 new regulatory measures regarding medical devices have been set up with the aim to eliminate obstacles to innovations and to find more coordinated ways to marketing authorisation and market surveillance. This essay investigates whether these new and existing coordination mechanisms build up to a Joined-up Government approach. The analysis shows that the regulatory process should be adjusted along several dimensions. First, many organisations lack awareness regarding their stakeholders and focus solely on their immediate organisational activities. Second, the regulatory process (marketing authorisation and market surveillance) is too fragmented for an effective communication to take place. Finally, the underlying strategy process is an ad-hoc approach lacking continuity and continued involvement of, in particular, the responsible federal ministries.

  19. [Marketing approval and market surveillance of medical devices in Germany: Where does policy integration take place?].

    PubMed

    Lang, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011 new regulatory measures regarding medical devices have been set up with the aim to eliminate obstacles to innovations and to find more coordinated ways to marketing authorisation and market surveillance. This essay investigates whether these new and existing coordination mechanisms build up to a Joined-up Government approach. The analysis shows that the regulatory process should be adjusted along several dimensions. First, many organisations lack awareness regarding their stakeholders and focus solely on their immediate organisational activities. Second, the regulatory process (marketing authorisation and market surveillance) is too fragmented for an effective communication to take place. Finally, the underlying strategy process is an ad-hoc approach lacking continuity and continued involvement of, in particular, the responsible federal ministries. PMID:25066351

  20. The 'taking place' of health and wellbeing: towards non-representational theory.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Chen, Sandra; Myers, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    For the last two decades health geography has focused on the dynamics between health and place. Although the social constructivist perspective of much research has provided many insights into the meanings of health and health care arguably, mirroring progress in the parent discipline of human geography, there could be a far more serious engagement with non-representational theory and the 'taking place' of health and health care. To showcase the importance and potential of this broadly, the idea of wellbeing is re-approached. The paper reflects on the ways wellbeing has been treated in research primarily as a meaningful and relatively prescribed state of life, to the neglect of process. Based on this critique, a qualitative study then illustrates the most immediate and everyday ways wellbeing might arise through 'affect'; the pre-personal mobile energies and intensities that result from physical encounters within assemblages of bodies and objects. Indeed, theoretically the findings support the proposition that, at one level, wellbeing might not be taken from environment but instead might emerge as the affective environment. They certainly raise awareness of how much in health might originate at the surface, prior to meaning, within life's infinite spatial doings, and thus they launch some final thoughts on the wider challenges and opportunities for non-representational health geographies.

  1. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  2. OECD Global Science Forum's Astronomy Workshop to take place in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    members of the national astronomical community. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) are explicitly represented. Experts from the world-wide astronomy community have been invited to set the stage and provide input for the discussions. The choice by Germany and the OECD to make Munich the venue of this Global Science Forum Workshop is no coincidence. It is a recognition of the important role played by many institutions in the Munich region in the field of Astronomy and Astrophysics. They include the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität where the Workshop will take place, the Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, the Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik and the European Southern Observatory. These institutions are all participating in large programmes and projects in astronomy. ESO, for its part, is at the leading edge of world astronomy with its flagship facility, the Very Large Telescope in Paranal (Chile) and the newly started ALMA project at Chajnantor (Chile), being carried out in partnership between Europe and North America. Public Talks (Munich) on December 1, 2003 As a prelude to the Workshop, two public keynote presentations will take place on December 1 at the Deutsches Museum in Munich at 18:00 CET. The speakers are Malcolm Longair, Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy and Head of Laboratory, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (UK) and Martin Harwit, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy, Cornell University, and former Director of the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC (USA). The talks will be given in English and the entry to this public event is free. Professor Longair will speak on "Astrophysics and Cosmology in the Twenty-First Century" and Professor Harwit will speak on "The Growth of Understanding of our Universe". You can find more informaton on the Public Talks web page.

  3. "Why Are We Here?" Taking "Place" into Account in UK Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Sam

    2010-01-01

    "Place" is an under-researched and poorly documented element of UK outdoor environmental education. In the international literature, North American and Australian researchers and practitioners show considerable attention to "place". Yet UK outdoor environmental educators and researchers seem to have neglected this area despite calls for increased…

  4. An Experimental Investigation of the Process of Isotope Exchange that Takes Place when Heavy Water Is Exposed to the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    We have used the recently developed method for rapid measurement of maximum density temperature to determine the rate at which hydrogen and deuterium isotope exchange takes place when a sample of heavy water is exposed to the atmosphere. We also provide a simple explanation for the observed linear rate of transition. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. 23 CFR 636.402 - What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place after the release of the RFP document? 636.402 Section 636.402 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Exchanges § 636.402 What types of information exchange may...

  6. Evidence accumulation in decision making: unifying the "take the best" and the "rational" models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael D; Cummins, Tarrant D R

    2004-04-01

    An evidence accumulation model of forced-choice decision making is proposed to unify the fast and frugal take the best (TTB) model and the alternative rational (RAT) model with which it is usually contrasted. The basic idea is to treat the TTB model as a sequential-sampling process that terminates as soon as any evidence in favor of a decision is found and the rational approach as a sequential-sampling process that terminates only when all available information has been assessed. The unified TTB and RAT models were tested in an experiment in which participants learned to make correct judgments for a set of real-world stimuli on the basis of feedback, and were then asked to make additional judgments without feedback for cases in which the TTB and the rational models made different predictions. The results show that, in both experiments, there was strong intraparticipant consistency in the use of either the TTB or the rational model but large interparticipant differences in which model was used. The unified model is shown to be able to capture the differences in decision making across participants in an interpretable way and is preferred by the minimum description length model selection criterion.

  7. Taking the High Ground: Geothermal's Place in the Revolving Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, Richard

    1992-03-24

    It's a genuine privilege for me to be here today. As Dr. Mock mentioned, I have been President of California Energy for not yet three months and have a total tenure in the industry of only one year. As a newcomer to the industry, I am honored to address this group and share my views on ''The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy''. You will see that my outlook for our industry is generally optimistic, shaped in part, perhaps by a newcomer's enthusiasm, but largely I think by my analysis of the opportunities which are open to us as an industry. Many of you and your predecessors over the last 20 years pioneered the geothermal industry in the United States. The risks were great, the results sometimes rewarding, sometimes disappointing. Government and the private sector forged an alliance that moved the industry ahead. Developers, utilities and federal land managers worked together to bring projects on line. Government helped identify geothermal areas, in many cases doing exploration work. The geothermal pioneers had to form entirely new, multi-disciplinary teams to solve problems unique to this resource. From discovery of fields, to environmental mitigation, to management of reservoirs and all of the steps in between, new teams had to be assembled. Geologists, geochemists, hydrologists, reservoir engineers and drilling technologists now apply their skills. Even anthropologists and biologists routinely get into the act in the environmental assessment phase of development. The care that our industry is taking today to do the job right reflects a maturing industry with high standards of performance. To be sure, mistakes were made in the early years, but the industry learned from them. We all know the value of responsible development and resource management to the long-term future of our industry. Improvements in technology and more efficient operations have helped lower our costs and improve our competitiveness. Our industry's progress has also

  8. 23 CFR 636.401 - What types of information exchange may take place prior to the release of the RFP document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of information exchange may take place prior... What types of information exchange may take place prior to the release of the RFP document? Verbal or written information exchanges (such as in the first-phase of a two-phase selection procedure) must...

  9. LIDAR for remote sensing of contaminations on water and earth surfaces taking place during oil-gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayev, A.; Tagiyev, B.; Allahverdiyev, K.; Musayev, A.; Sadikhov, I.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing of contaminations on water and earth surfaces (oil spills, films) taking place during oil-gas extraction is an interesting and actual problem. This problem may be solved by using different methods of optical spectroscopy, including: •Raman scattering; •light induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS); •fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) LIDARs are successfully used for remote sensing of chemical and biological substances at atmosphere. A new laser induced fluorescence (LIF) KA-14 LIDAR system for detecting of oil spills on the sea surface was employed at the National Aviation Academy of Azerbaijan. LIDAR's parameters are as follows: •laser CFR 200- type QUANTEL, λ = 355 nm, beam Ø = 5.35 mm, f = 20 Hz, pulse duration τ = 7 ns, pulse power 60 mJ; •diameter of Newtonian- type telescope is 200 mm; •collimator expansion of the laser beam diameter- not less than 3; •angle range of telescope measurements relative to horizon: from -20 to +20 degree; •spectral range of measurements: from 380 to 750 nm, number of spectral channels- 32; •maximum range of measurements- not less than 250 m. This LIDAR is the first performing these kind of research not only on the Azerbaijan beach of Caspian sea, but also on the earth places of Absheron peninsula, where oil-gas production takes place. We hope that the performance of LIDAR will have an International recognition and will make noticeable input on the International Research of Caspian sea surfaces.

  10. Structural and functional changes in the olfactory pathway of adult Drosophila take place at a critical age.

    PubMed

    Devaud, Jean-Marc; Acebes, Angel; Ramaswami, Mani; Ferrús, Alberto

    2003-07-01

    The olfactory system of several holometabolous insect species undergoes anatomical changes after eclosion of the imago, following those occurring during metamorphosis. In parallel, odor experience and learning performance also evolve with age. Here, we analyze the case of adult Drosophila females. Synaptogenesis in the antennal lobe (AL) starts in late pupa and continues during the first days of adult life, at the same time as the behavioral response to odors matures. Individual olfactory glomeruli (DM6, DM2, and V) display specific growth patterns between days 1 and 12 of adult life. Experience can modify the olfactory pathway both structurally and functionally as shown by adaptation experiments. The modifications associated with this form of nonassociative learning seem to take place at a critical age. Exposure to benzaldehyde at days 2-5 of adult life, but not at 8-11, causes behavioral adaptation as well as structural changes in DM2 and V glomeruli. Altered levels in intracellular cAMP, caused by dunce and rutabaga mutants, do not affect the normal changes in glomerular size, at least at day 6 of development, but they prevent those elicited by experience, establishing a molecular difference between glomerular changes of intrinsic versus environmental origin. Taken together, these data demonstrate an imprinting-like phenomenon in the olfactory pathway of young Drosophila adults, and illustrate its glomerulus-specific dynamics.

  11. Young People Take Their Rightful Places as Full and Contributing Members of a World Class Workforce: Philadelphia Youth Network Annual Report 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The title of this year's annual report has particular meaning for all of the staff at the Philadelphia Youth Network. The phrase derives from Philadelphia Youth Network's (PYN's) new vision statement, developed as part of its recent strategic planning process, which reads: All of our city's young people take their rightful places as full and…

  12. Placing the power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers - taking the next step.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Rohan; Howden, Mark; Hayman, Peter

    2013-07-30

    This paper explores heuristic methods with potential to place the analytical power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers. The complexity of real options analysis has led to patchy or ephemeral adoption even by corporate managers familiar with the financial-market origins of valuation methods. Intuitively accessible methods for estimating the value of real options have begun to evolve, but their evaluation has mostly been limited to researcher-driven applications. In this paper we work closely with Bush Heritage Australia to evaluate the potential of real options analysis to support the intuitive judgement of conservation estate managers in covenanting land with uncertain future conservation value due to climate change. The results show that modified decision trees have potential to estimate the option value of covenanting individual properties while time and ongoing research resolves their future conservation value. Complementing this, Luehrman's option space has potential to assist managers with limited budgets to increase the portfolio value of multiple properties with different conservation attributes.

  13. Placing the power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers - taking the next step.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Rohan; Howden, Mark; Hayman, Peter

    2013-07-30

    This paper explores heuristic methods with potential to place the analytical power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers. The complexity of real options analysis has led to patchy or ephemeral adoption even by corporate managers familiar with the financial-market origins of valuation methods. Intuitively accessible methods for estimating the value of real options have begun to evolve, but their evaluation has mostly been limited to researcher-driven applications. In this paper we work closely with Bush Heritage Australia to evaluate the potential of real options analysis to support the intuitive judgement of conservation estate managers in covenanting land with uncertain future conservation value due to climate change. The results show that modified decision trees have potential to estimate the option value of covenanting individual properties while time and ongoing research resolves their future conservation value. Complementing this, Luehrman's option space has potential to assist managers with limited budgets to increase the portfolio value of multiple properties with different conservation attributes. PMID:23702285

  14. Assembly of the ligand-binding conformation of Mr 46,000 mannose 6- phosphate-specific receptor takes place before reaching the Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The early steps in the biosynthesis of Mr 46,000 mannose 6-phosphate- specific receptor (MPR 46) have been studied by in vivo labeling of transfected BHK cells. The acquisition of phosphomannan-binding activity was compared with changes in protein structure and posttranslational modifications of MPR 46. Intramolecular disulfide bonds were formed before MPR 46 acquired a ligand-binding conformation. A conformational change that resulted in increased trypsin resistance, formation of highly immunogenic epitopes and assembly to noncovalently linked homodimers was observed almost simultaneously with the acquisition of ligand-binding activity. MPR 46 was shown to acquire ligand-binding activity before N-linked oligosaccharides were processed to complex-type forms. Maturation of the ligand-binding conformation was observed under conditions where transport to the Golgi was blocked by lowering the temperature to 16 degrees C, or by addition of brefeldin A or dinitrophenol to the medium at 37 degrees C. This suggests that receptor maturation and assembly take place before reaching the Golgi complex. The affinity towards phosphomannan- containing ligands was shown to be similar for the high-mannose and complex-glycosylated forms of MPR 46. PMID:2157722

  15. Places for Children - Children's Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings - their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as "places for children". A more differentiated picture of children's spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of…

  16. Place and Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannatella, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Do places matter educationally? When Edward Casey remarks: "The world is, minimally and forever, a place-world", we might take this statement as presupposing without argument that places exist as a given, that we know what a place is, a point that Aristotle would have never taken for granted and in fact neither does Casey. I find Casey's remark…

  17. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect.

  18. Effects of proton irradiation on a gas phase in which condensation takes place. I Negative Mg-26 anomalies and Al-26. [applied to solar and meteoritic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.; Walker, A.; Huss, G.; Morgan, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    In the present paper, isotopic effects in magnesium generated in a proton-irradiated gas phase are examined, taking only (p,n), (p,d), and (p, alpha) reactions in magnesium, aluminum, and silicon into consideration. In the presence of proton radiation, the three elements are 'removed' from the gas phase by condensation. It is required that a value of Al-26/Al-27 greater than 6 times 10 to the -5th must be reached, consistent with the value deduced by Lee Papanastassiou, and Wasserburg (1976) from their studies of the Allende meteorite. The calculations show that fast aluminum condensation reduces the required proton fluence substantially, that a significant fraction of aluminum remains uncondensed when the above value of the Al-26/Al-27 ratio is reached, that a detectable MG-24 excess is very likely to occur, that detectable negative MG-28 anomalies can be generated, and that proton fluxes and irradiation times can be varied simultaneously, and over a wide range of values, without significant changes in the required proton fluence.

  19. Leaf processing behaviour in Atta leafcutter ants: 90% of leaf cutting takes place inside the nest, and ants select pieces that require less cutting.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Ryan W; Carlson, Katherine A; Goggans, Matthew Scott; Nesson, Michael H; Shepard, Christopher A; Schofield, Robert M S

    2016-01-01

    Leafcutter ants cut trimmings from plants, carry them to their underground nests and cut them into smaller pieces before inoculating them with a fungus that serves as a primary food source for the colony. Cutting is energetically costly, so the amount of cutting is important in understanding foraging energetics. Estimates of the cutting density, metres of cutting per square metre of leaf, were made from samples of transported leaf cuttings and of fungal substrate from field colonies of Atta cephalotes and Atta colombica. To investigate cutting inside the nest, we made leaf-processing observations of our laboratory colony, A. cephalotes. We did not observe the commonly reported reduction of the leaf fragments into a pulp, which would greatly increase the energy cost of processing. Video clips of processing behaviours, including behaviours that have not previously been described, are linked. An estimated 2.9 (±0.3) km of cutting with mandibles was required to reduce a square metre of leaf to fungal substrate. Only about 12% (±1%) of this cutting took place outside of the nest. The cutting density and energy cost is lower for leaf material with higher ratios of perimeter to area, so we tested for, and found that the laboratory ants had a preference for leaves that were pre-cut into smaller pieces. Estimates suggest that the energy required to transport and cut up the leaf material is comparable to the metabolic energy available from the fungus grown on the leaves, and so conservation of energy is likely to be a particularly strong selective pressure for leafcutter ants. PMID:26909161

  20. Leaf processing behaviour in Atta leafcutter ants: 90% of leaf cutting takes place inside the nest, and ants select pieces that require less cutting

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Ryan W.; Carlson, Katherine A.; Goggans, Matthew Scott; Nesson, Michael H.; Shepard, Christopher A.; Schofield, Robert M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Leafcutter ants cut trimmings from plants, carry them to their underground nests and cut them into smaller pieces before inoculating them with a fungus that serves as a primary food source for the colony. Cutting is energetically costly, so the amount of cutting is important in understanding foraging energetics. Estimates of the cutting density, metres of cutting per square metre of leaf, were made from samples of transported leaf cuttings and of fungal substrate from field colonies of Atta cephalotes and Atta colombica. To investigate cutting inside the nest, we made leaf-processing observations of our laboratory colony, A. cephalotes. We did not observe the commonly reported reduction of the leaf fragments into a pulp, which would greatly increase the energy cost of processing. Video clips of processing behaviours, including behaviours that have not previously been described, are linked. An estimated 2.9 (±0.3) km of cutting with mandibles was required to reduce a square metre of leaf to fungal substrate. Only about 12% (±1%) of this cutting took place outside of the nest. The cutting density and energy cost is lower for leaf material with higher ratios of perimeter to area, so we tested for, and found that the laboratory ants had a preference for leaves that were pre-cut into smaller pieces. Estimates suggest that the energy required to transport and cut up the leaf material is comparable to the metabolic energy available from the fungus grown on the leaves, and so conservation of energy is likely to be a particularly strong selective pressure for leafcutter ants. PMID:26909161

  1. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  2. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  3. Places to Go: Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Educators are becoming increasingly interested in alternatives to learning management systems (LMS) Blackboard and WebCT. Stephen Downes's column Places to Go turns to one internationally popular open source LMS--Moodle. Downes takes the reader through Moodle's Web site, which is simultaneously a Web site about its LMS and an example of what its…

  4. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  5. Privileged Girls: The Place of Femininity and Femininity in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    Constructions of femininity and attendant notions of feminism are being produced in different ways in different places around the world. This is a complicated global process that cannot be reduced to analyses that take place in nation states. This paper seeks to respond to and enhance Angela McRobbie's compelling argument about understandings…

  6. The insanity of place.

    PubMed

    Scull, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    This paper uses English examples to scrutinize the complex interrelations of insanity and place over the past three centuries, taking as its starting point the late Erving Goffman's paper of the same title. From eighteenth-century Bedlam and the emerging trade in lunacy, through the county asylums and licensed madhouses of the nineteenth century to the return of the the mentally ill to the 'community' in the last half of the twentieth century, the place occupied by insanity has varied sharply, symbolically as well as concretely. These various techniques of containment and damage limitation must be understood as a response to the threats, symbolic and practical, that serious mental illness poses to the social order, at both the micro- and macroscopic levels of analysis.

  7. Taking Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merson, Martha, Ed.; Reuys, Steve, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Following an introduction on "Taking Risks" (Martha Merson), this journal contains 11 articles on taking risks in teaching adult literacy, mostly by educators in the Boston area. The following are included: "My Dreams Are Bigger than My Fears Now" (Sharon Carey); "Making a Pitch for Poetry in ABE [Adult Basic Education]" (Marie Hassett); "Putting…

  8. Mountain Hike North of Big Cottonwood Canyon Road, Begining at the S-Turn at Mill B., Near Hidden Falls, and Taking Trail Leading to Mt. Raymond and Other Intersting Places.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.

    2004-11-01

    Our first objective is to leave the highway via Mill B North Fork by taking the Big Cottonwood Canyon trail that leads to Maxfield Basin, where 3 trails intersect, just s. of Mount Raymond (Elev. 10,241 ft.) the n. trail takes us down to the Mill Creek Canyon Road, at about 1 mi. (+) east of intersection with Church Park Picnic Ground road. At Maxfield Basin, again, the east trail skirts around Mt. Raymond and has another intersection with a trail running n. thru the area of Gobblers Knob (elev. 10,246 ft.), to White Fir Pass and turns w. at Bowman Fk. until it connects with Porter Fork and then the Mill Creek Road. The remaining trail at Mill A Basin, just e. of Mount Raymond, long before Gobblers Knob is seen, runs east past a spring, and connects to Butler Fork (which begins at 3.775 mi., measured along highway from Mill B, North Fork), which leads directly to Dog Lake. Evidently both Dog Lake and Lake Desolation (changing U.S. Geological Survey maps from Mount Aire, Utah to Park City West, Utah) have connected outlets, at least during certain times of the year. Following the trail s. e. (down) that follows near Summit Co. and Salt Lake County, we pass by the radio transmitters shown on Park City, West, Utah, map and finally enter the Brighton, Utah map with Scott Hill, Scott Pass, the important highway leading to Midway Reservoir, and beyond, Bloods Lake ( 9500 ft.), Clayton Peak (10,721 ft.) and Lake Lackawaxen ( 9980 ft.), our final destination showing through. One may easily walk the distance to lake Lackawaxen from Bloods Lake by staying south of the ridgecrest and by following the hollow down for a while. This completes our destination. Recall that the main roadway here was already passed over about 1/2 mile n. of Bloods Lake; this thoroughfare has its beginning at about 0.4 miles below (or North) of the Brighton Loop, where the road to city of Midway leaves the main Big Cottonwood Highway going n. and runs e., on the average, going past Midway Reservoir

  9. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  10. Taking antacids

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnesium may cause diarrhea. Brands with calcium or aluminum may cause constipation. Rarely, brands with calcium may ... you take large amounts of antacids that contain aluminum, you may be at risk for calcium loss, ...

  11. What is taking place in science classrooms?: A case study analysis of teaching and learning in seventh-grade science of one Alabama school and its impact on African American student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Lashaunda Renea

    This qualitative case study investigated the teaching strategies that improve science learning of African American students. This research study further sought the extent the identified teaching strategies that are used to improve African American science learning reflect culturally responsive teaching. Best teaching strategies and culturally responsive teaching have been researched, but there has been minimal research on the impact that both have on science learning, with an emphasis on the African American population. Consequently, the Black-White achievement gap in science persists. The findings revealed the following teaching strategies have a positive impact on African American science learning: (a) lecture-discussion, (b) notetaking, (c) reading strategies, (d) graphic organizers, (e) hands-on activities, (f) laboratory experiences, and (g) cooperative learning. Culturally responsive teaching strategies were evident in the seventh-grade science classrooms observed. Seven themes emerged from this research data: (1) The participating teachers based their research-based teaching strategies used in the classroom on all of the students' learning styles, abilities, attitudes towards science, and motivational levels about learning science, with no emphasis on the African American student population; (2) The participating teachers taught the state content standards simultaneously using the same instructional model daily, incorporating other content areas when possible; (3) The participating African American students believed their seventh-grade science teachers used a variety of teaching strategies to ensure science learning took place, that science learning was fun, and that science learning was engaging; (4) The participating African American students genuinely liked their teacher; (5) The participating African American students revealed high self-efficacy; (6) The African American student participants' parents value education and moved to Success Middle School

  12. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  13. Taking Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  14. Double Take

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by discussing the results of two studies recently conducted in Australia. According to the two studies, taking a gap year between high school and college may help students complete a degree once they return to school. The gap year can involve such activities as travel, service learning, or work. Then, the paper presents links to…

  15. Brazilian physicists take centre stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    With the FIFA World Cup taking place in Brazil this month, Susan Curtis travels to South America's richest nation to find out how its physicists are exploiting recent big increases in science funding.

  16. A Case Study of How Teaching Practice Process Takes Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalin Ucar, Meltem

    2012-01-01

    The process of "learning" carries an important role in the teaching practice which provides teacher candidates with professional development. Being responsible for the learning experiences in that level, cooperating teacher, teacher candidate, mentor and practice school are the important variables which determine the quality of the teaching…

  17. Using Personalized Education to Take the Place of Standardized Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Pengyu

    2014-01-01

    Economic model has been greatly shifted from labor demanding to innovation demanding, which requires education system has to produce creative people. This paper illustrates how traditional education model accrued and developed based on satisfying the old economic model for labor demanding but did not meet the new social requirement for innovation…

  18. Places for Pedagogies, Pedagogies for Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Working with an understanding of assemblage as the ad hoc groupings of vibrant materials and elements, this article argues that conceptualizing place as an assemblage opens possibilities for bridging the gap between subjects and objects that continue to structure pedagogy. Considering "place" as an assemblage of humans and their multiple "others"…

  19. Re(Place) Your Typical Writing Assignment: An Argument for Place-Based Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Place-based writing affords students an opportunity to write meaningfully about themselves, grounded in a place that they know. Place-based writing is versatile and can be additive--taking just a week or two within a semester of different projects--or transformative, if positioned as the theme for an entire course. If students can learn to write…

  20. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L. Martin-Bragado, Ignacio; Claverie, Alain; Benistant, Francis

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  1. How to Cope with Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePlus

    ... your own or a relative’s home, school, or work. Sheltering in place may be required because of an emergency such ... things to keep yourself calm while sheltering in place. Relax your body often by doing things that work for you—take deep breaths, stretch, meditate or ...

  2. Place and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, David

    2013-01-01

    David Orr's classic article links education to living in the outdoors and studying all disciplines through the unifying lens of place. Pedagogy of place counters abstraction, it is the natural world embodying principles of learning that involve direct observation, investigation, experimentation, and manual skills. Place is the laboratory providing…

  3. A woman's rightful place?

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    Rural development projects in sub-Saharan Africa tend not to succeed because they do not consider women's role and their significance, even though women constitute 70% of agricultural workers, 80% of food producers, 100% of people who prepare meals, and 60-90% do food marketing. Development specialists ignore women because they are not involved in political activities and in decision making. As long as women and women's contributions are not considered, rural development projects will remain inefficient and development will not take place. Thus, projects must include women as agents and beneficiaries of development in key sectors of the economy. Rural development specialists must also consider the effect male labor emigration has on rural women. For example, drought has forced many men to leave their villages, leaving a work force consisting of 95% women to fight desertification. All too often, women have no or limited land ownership rights, thereby keeping them from improving the land, e.g., planting perennial fruit crops. They also tend to be hired hands rather than food producers. They cannot obtain bank loans because they do not own land, and because they are often illiterate (over 90% female illiteracy in 28 African countries), they can neither understand nor complete bank loan forms. Rural development projects further alienate women by aiming training programs to men or by using male agricultural extension agents. Women react to this alienation by rejecting projects that do not benefit them and follow more profitable activities which sometimes interfere with projects. Thus, rural development programs need to invest in women to ensure viable and efficient sustainable development.

  4. Response of salt-marsh carbon accumulation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Matthew L; Mudd, Simon M

    2012-09-27

    About half of annual marine carbon burial takes place in shallow water ecosystems where geomorphic and ecological stability is driven by interactions between the flow of water, vegetation growth and sediment transport. Although the sensitivity of terrestrial and deep marine carbon pools to climate change has been studied for decades, there is little understanding of how coastal carbon accumulation rates will change and potentially feed back on climate. Here we develop a numerical model of salt marsh evolution, informed by recent measurements of productivity and decomposition, and demonstrate that competition between mineral sediment deposition and organic-matter accumulation determines the net impact of climate change on carbon accumulation in intertidal wetlands. We find that the direct impact of warming on soil carbon accumulation rates is more subtle than the impact of warming-driven sea level rise, although the impact of warming increases with increasing rates of sea level rise. Our simulations suggest that the net impact of climate change will be to increase carbon burial rates in the first half of the twenty-first century, but that carbon-climate feedbacks are likely to diminish over time.

  5. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  6. Place as Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Digital technology is redrawing the library's blueprint. Planners are thinking in new ways about how to design libraries as places for learning rather than primarily as storehouses of information. This thinking has given rise to much discussion--and to many publications--about the "library as place." In this article, the author asks why not also…

  7. The Case for Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    Bookstores, record stores, libraries, Facebook: these places--both physical and virtual--demonstrate an established and essential purpose as centers of community, expertise, convenience, immediacy, and respect. Yet as digital, mobile, and social shifts continue to transform culture and interactions, these spaces and places transform, too.…

  8. Teaching Bodies in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Woglom, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: This piece draws on literature in justice-oriented teacher education, feminist pedagogy, and postmodern notions of bodies and place to make sense of data generated from a three-year study of an undergraduate teacher education course. A feminist lens was used to engage a body- and place-focused pedagogy that aimed to engage…

  9. Understanding Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Tomayko, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an understanding of place value and the base-ten number system is considered a fundamental goal of the early primary grades. For years, teachers have anecdotally reported that students struggle with place-value concepts. Among the common errors cited are misreading such numbers as 26 and 62 by seeing them as identical in meaning,…

  10. Schooling Out of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Cathryn

    2006-01-01

    Education in rural communities is an interesting site for an analysis of the relationship between place and the cultural politics of schooling. In particular the movements of people, ideas and practices to and from, and also within, rural places suggest the need for theorizing on rural education to consider the relevance of new mobility…

  11. Sharing Knowledge About Places as Community Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Katharine S.; O'Hara, Kenton; Giles, Thierry; Marianek, Mike

    Our experience of places is one that goes hand-in-hand with social exchange. It is rare that we visit a place purely to experience it as an isolated encounter with a physical setting. Instead, we visit places in groups, use a myriad of ways to tell others about the experience, and we often seek out and take pleasure from encounters with local people in the setting. Our experience of place is embedded within a social framework for sharing knowledge. In this chapter, we discuss the motivations for sharing place-based knowledge and how this can contribute to community building. We then proceed to review three projects that create platforms for knowledge exchange and discuss their different approaches. This is followed by a discussion on the range of practices for sharing knowledge about places and in particular those that support social frameworks in a community setting. In conclusion, we propose directions for future work in the area.

  12. About Maggie's Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmens, Carol E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

  13. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  14. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk & leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants.

  15. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage.

  16. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage. PMID:26932790

  17. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage. PMID:26932790

  18. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-03-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage.

  19. Spatial mapping takes time.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q

    1998-01-01

    The experiment tested the prediction that spatial mapping takes time and asked whether time use is reflected in the overt behavior of a performing animal. The study examines this question by exploiting the expected behavioral differences of control rats and rats with hippocampal formation damage induced with fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions on a spatial navigation task. Previous studies have shown that control rats use a mapping strategy, in which they use the relative positions of environmental cues to reach places in space, whereas FF rats use a cue-based strategy, in which they are guided by a single cue or their own body orientation. Therefore, control and FF rats were overtrained on a complex foraging task in which they left a burrow to retrieve eight food pellets hidden around the perimeter of a circular table. The control rats retrieved the food pellets in order of their distance from the burrow, took direct routes to the food, and made few errors, all of which suggested they used a spatial strategy. The FF rats were less likely to retrieve food as a function of its distance, took a circular path around the perimeter of the table, and made many errors, suggesting they used a cue-based strategy. Despite taking shorter routes than the FF rats, the control rats had proportionally slower response speeds. Their slow response speeds support the hypothesis that spatial mapping takes time and that mapping time is reflected in behavior. The results are discussed in relation to their relevance to spatial mapping theory, hippocampal function, and the evolution of foraging strategies.

  20. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  1. Gateway to New Atlantis Attraction Takes Shape

    NASA Video Gallery

    The home of space shuttle Atlantis continues taking shape at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Crews placed the nose cone atop the second of a replica pair of solid rocket boosters. A life-...

  2. Finding Place in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Chris

    2011-01-01

    As a society, we are less and less comfortable in our localities. We have embraced the idea of a globalized placelessness, where everything, everywhere, resonates with a sameness. What do we lose, educationally and in society at large, when we reduce our inhabited places to those components that provide material wealth alone? If students and…

  3. Schools as Dangerous Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    When students set off for school each day how many of them or their caregivers consider for a moment that they will spend the day at a potentially dangerous place? On the contrary, students and caregivers probably view schools as safe havens, and official research suggests that this is the case for the majority of teachers and pupils. However,…

  4. Tracking Self into Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  5. Teaching With Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Designed for social studies educators, this theme issue presents 11 articles about historic places that feature a variety of ideas for elementary and secondary lesson plans, curricula, and program development. The articles are: (1) "Where did History Happen?" (Beth M. Boland); (2) "Creating a Partnership" (Carol D. Shull); (3) "Heritage Education:…

  6. The Value of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate…

  7. Designing Places for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Anne, Ed.

    This book presents information about the condition of schools around the United States. It also describes the link between architecture and academic success and offers suggestions for improving the design of existing and future school buildings. Eleven articles look at schools as places of deep meaning and show how that view can alter approaches…

  8. Creativity: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Finbarr

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that creativity has the greatest potential to flourish if a learning environment is embedded within a community that emphasises a deep sense of place. Yet in a globalised world, rootedness is often regarded as antithetical to creativity. But far from representing dead artefacts that are anti-modern and non-economic, culture and…

  9. Universities Are Funny Places!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Universities are funny places. They have a strong sense of hierarchy and rank. They have an amazing disparity in salary levels and status between staff, are class conscious, and are run by a large bureaucracy that oils and keeps the machinery going. They operate as educational institutions and yet also are entrepreneurial, marketing themselves in…

  10. Systematic Risk-Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Describes systematic risk-taking, a strategy designed to develop skills and increase self-esteem, confidence, and courage in gifted youth. The steps of systematic risk-taking include understanding the benefits, initial self-assessment for risk-taking categories, identifying personal needs, determining a risk to take, taking the risk, and…

  11. Settings: In a Variety of Place. . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairo, Peter; And Others

    This document consists of the fourth section of a book of readings on issues related to adult career development. The four chapters in this fourth section focus on settings in which adult career development counseling may take place. "Career Planning and Development in Organizations" (Peter Cairo) discusses several concepts and definitions…

  12. The Right Place, The Right Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, William G.; Irish, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Superintendents are in the right place at the right time to take advantage of a golden opportunity to reverse a trend that threatens the nation's schools and communities. They are now uniquely positioned to stop the retreat of good-hearted, well-intentioned citizens from public life. In this article, the authors present perpetual traps that…

  13. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  14. Take Steps Toward a Healthier Life | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is promoting wellness by encouraging individuals to take the stairs. In an effort to increase participation in this program, NIH has teamed up with Occupational Health Services (OHS). OHS is placing NIH-sponsored “Take the Stairs” stickers on stair entrances, stair exits, and elevators.

  15. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  16. Aging in place: knowing where you are.

    PubMed

    Rosel, Natalie

    2003-01-01

    Research on aging in place appropriately emphasizes the value of familiar surroundings. The current study contributes an exploration of elders' personal knowledge of where and with whom they are aging in place, knowledge actively accumulated from a lifetime spent in the same area. Structured conversations over a four-month period with 10 elders living on a peninsula in northern Maine provide richly detailed narratives of physical and social particulars of where they live. I use Rowles's (1978) image of concentric circles radiating out from home to organize the information gathered regarding each elder's dwelling, neighborhood and community. Most notable is the depth and detail of their personal knowledge of where they are and with whom they are growing old. I conclude that both the knowledge itself, and the sharing of that knowledge with others, contribute to the implicit and explicit support deemed so valuable for elders who age in place.

  17. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, kK.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical.

  18. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Breastfeeding in public places.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, E; Turnbull, D; Hiller, J E

    1999-06-01

    This study reports the results of a survey of restaurant and shopping center managers concerning breastfeeding in their facilities. Managers from 66 restaurants and 27 shopping centers were interviewed by telephone. One-third of the restaurant managers and 48% of the shopping center managers stated that a mother could breastfeed anywhere in their facility regardless of what other customers might say. The remaining managers would either discourage breastfeeding anywhere in their facility, suggest a mother move to a more secluded area if she wished to breastfeed, or were unsure how they would react. The variability in support for breastfeeding by managers of restaurants and shopping centers will continue to create uncertainty for mothers wishing to breastfeed in these public places.

  20. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  1. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  2. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  3. Rover Takes a Sunday Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation, made with images from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard-identification camera, shows the rover's perspective of its first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday. Engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack. The drive took approximately 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. Spirit first made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet).

  4. The Greenhouse: A Place for Year-Round Plant Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1989-01-01

    Activities that may take place in a greenhouse are discussed. Included are learning how to grow plants, plant growth, soil, vegetative reproduction, and plant habitat adaptations. Materials, procedures, and results are presented for the activities. (CW)

  5. Taking centre stage...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the

  6. Creating Sacred Places for Students in Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sandra J.

    This guide attempts to help teachers of American Indian students in grades 9-12 provide a culturally relevant education that takes place in the regular classroom, includes content related to Indian students' lives, makes students proud, expands to other experiences, and enhances learning. Creating sacred places means responding appropriately to…

  7. Creating Sacred Places for Students in Grades 7&8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sandra J.

    This guide attempts to help teachers of American Indian students in grades 7-8 provide a culturally relevant education that takes place in the regular classroom, includes content related to Indian students' lives, makes students proud, expands to other experiences, and enhances learning. Creating sacred places means responding appropriately to…

  8. Creating Sacred Places for Children in Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sandra J.

    This guide attempts to help teachers of American Indian children in grades 4-6 provide a culturally relevant education that takes place in the regular classroom, includes content related to Indian students' lives, makes students proud, expands to other experiences, and enhances learning. Creating sacred places means responding appropriately to…

  9. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves.

  10. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves. PMID:17593708

  11. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  12. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  13. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  14. Taking the Long View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Legal studies faculty need to take the long view in their academic and professional lives. Taking the long view would seem to be a cliched piece of advice, but too frequently legal studies faculty, like their students, get focused on meeting the next short-term hurdle--getting through the next class, grading the next stack of papers, making it…

  15. Extracting and Comparing Places Using Geo-Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, F. O.; Huang, H.; Andrienko, G.; Andrienko, N.; Capineri, C.; Farkas, K.; Purves, R. S.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing availability of Geo-Social Media (e.g. Facebook, Foursquare and Flickr) has led to the accumulation of large volumes of social media data. These data, especially geotagged ones, contain information about perception of and experiences in various environments. Harnessing these data can be used to provide a better understanding of the semantics of places. We are interested in the similarities or differences between different Geo-Social Media in the description of places. This extended abstract presents the results of a first step towards a more in-depth study of semantic similarity of places. Particularly, we took places extracted through spatio-temporal clustering from one data source (Twitter) and examined whether their structure is reflected semantically in another data set (Flickr). Based on that, we analyse how the semantic similarity between places varies over space and scale, and how Tobler's first law of geography holds with regards to scale and places.

  16. What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells.

    PubMed

    Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C

    2013-04-01

    Fleshy fruit acidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell.

  17. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  18. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  19. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  20. Orion Spacecraft Takes Shape

    NASA Video Gallery

    Technicians move the two halves of the Orion crew exploration vehicle's crew module into place to fuse them together at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, La. The Lockheed Martin Orio...

  1. Give/Take

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-12

    Give and Take are set of companion utilities that allow a secure transfer of files from one user to another without exposing the files to third parties. The named files are copied to a spool area. The reciever can retrieve the files by running the "take" program. Ownership of the files remains with the giver until they are taken. Certain users may be limited to take files only from specific givers. For these users, files may only be taken from givers who are members of the gt-uid-group where uid is the UNIX id of the limited user.

  2. Give/Take

    2007-09-12

    Give and Take are set of companion utilities that allow a secure transfer of files from one user to another without exposing the files to third parties. The named files are copied to a spool area. The reciever can retrieve the files by running the "take" program. Ownership of the files remains with the giver until they are taken. Certain users may be limited to take files only from specific givers. For these users, filesmore » may only be taken from givers who are members of the gt-uid-group where uid is the UNIX id of the limited user.« less

  3. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  4. Taking a Pulse on Your Practice.

    PubMed

    Hoagland-Smith, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Each medical practice, like a living organism, occasionally requires reading of its vital signs. As with human beings, one of those vital signs is the pulse. For your medical practice, just like your patients, there are numerous places from which to take that reading. This article reviews seven key pulses that provide insight into what is happening within the workplace culture of your practice.

  5. Take Your Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... better, the antibiotic is working in killing the bacteria, but it might not completely give what they call a "bactericidal effect." That means taking the bacteria completely out of the system. It might be ...

  6. Adjusting to New Places: International Student Adjustment and Place Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C.; Hong, Ji Y.; Pace, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data obtained from in-depth semistructured interviews, we examined international students' attachments to place in the local American Midwestern community where they have attended college for at least 2 years. The results of this study suggest that participants engage in a process of renegotiation of meanings attached to new places in…

  7. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  8. PLACE NAMES IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARDER, KELSIE B.

    ALTHOUGH "PLACE-NAMING" IS A BASIC HUMAN FUNCTION, THE STUDY OF THE ORIGIN OF PROPER NAMES OF PERSONS AND PLACES (ONOMASTICS) HAS BEEN LARGELY IGNORED BY AMERICAN PHILOLOGISTS AND TEACHERS OF ENGLISH. DESPITE A PAUCITY OF RESEARCH, HOWEVER, ANY ENGLISH TEACHER WHO WANTS TO INTEREST STUDENTS IN ONOMASTIC INVESTIGATION CAN EXPLOIT THE GREAT BODY OF…

  9. Taking a Broader View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    A study on stem cells is presented by understanding the environment in which they are found, the support cells and blood vessels as well as the protein scaffolds and other molecules. Researchers found that stem cells in reproductive tissue are surrounded by a pocket of support cells that hold them in place and align them to divide properly, so…

  10. Evolution Takes a Leap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Bernie

    2005-01-01

    Thirty years ago most resource sharing took place between libraries, with a few formal organizations (library consortia) providing logistical support. Today there are hundreds, perhaps thousands, of organizations around the world facilitating resource sharing. Automation has greatly accelerated the growth of resource sharing. As access to…

  11. SR-71 Taking Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of three U.S. Air Force SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft originally retired from operational service and loaned to NASA for a high-speed research program retracts its landing gear after taking off from NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. One of the SR-71As was later returned to the Air Force for active duty in 1995. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of

  12. Simulating Price-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  13. Take Pride in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    During the 1987-88 school year the Indiana Department of Education assisted the United States Department of the Interior and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources with a program which asked students to become involved in activities to maintain and manage public lands. The 1987 Take Pride in America (TPIA) school program encouraged volunteer…

  14. Take a Bow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Greg; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Performing-arts centers can provide benefits at the high school and collegiate levels, and administrators can take steps now to get the show started. When a new performing-arts center comes to town, local businesses profit. Events and performances draw visitors to the community. Ideally, a performing-arts center will play many roles: entertainment…

  15. Place recognition using batlike sonar.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map. PMID:27481189

  16. Place recognition using batlike sonar.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map.

  17. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  18. Spacial and temporal profiles of neutrophil accumulation in the reperfused ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    de Lorgeril, M.; Rousseau, G.; Basmadjian, A.; St-Jean, G.; Tran, D.C.; Latour, J.G. )

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate further the pathogenic role of neutrophils in evolving reperfused myocardial infarction, we investigated the dynamics of their accumulation and distribution in the ischemic myocardium. The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded in dogs for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 0, 3, 6, or 24 hours. 111In-labeled neutrophils were injected at the time of occlusion or after 16 hours of reperfusion. The area at risk was similar among groups. Infarct size expressed in percent of the area at risk was identical between groups reperfused for 6 (35.2 +/- 4.4%) or 24 (32.3 +/- 3.9%) hours but smaller (22.0 +/- 4.4%; p less than 0.05) after 3 hours of reperfusion. 111In-neutrophils accumulation quantified by scintigraphy correlated positively with infarct size (r = 0.64, p less than 0.005); accumulation rates (cells/h/cm2MI) were high during the first 3 (2288 +/- 754) and 6 hours (1953 +/- 463) but low (490 +/- 192) between 16 and 24 hours of reperfusion. Cells accumulating during reperfusion (12,566 +/- 2307 cells/g at 3 hours) were found within the borders of the necrotic area, and the cell counts (2420 +/- 724 cells/g, p less than 0.05) in the live tissue located within the area at risk after 3 hours of reperfusion were similar to those found in the subepicardium at the onset of reperfusion: (2240 +/- 571 cells/g). Only a few cells were detected in the normally perfused myocardium (67 +/- 33 cells/g). We conclude that reperfusion accumulation in the ischemic myocardium; the reaction takes place within 3-6 hours of reperfusion, a period of time where infarct size is growing by about 40%. These results support the concept that leukocytes may play a pathogenic role on infarct size in models with brief ischemia followed by reperfusion.

  19. Take the "C" Train

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author recalls several of her experiences in which she successfully pulled her boats out of river holes by throwing herself to the water as a sea-anchor. She learned this trick from her senior guides at a spring training. Her guides told her, "When you're stuck in a hole, take the "C" train."" "Meaning?" The author asked her…

  20. John Dewey and a Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayanandhan, Stephanie Raill

    2009-01-01

    If asked to define the idea of "place" one might struggle. Yet people across time and cultures readily share examples of important places or safe places or "foreign" places with one another and offer heartfelt descriptions in literature and art of childhood places, favorite places, strange places. Akinbola Akinwumi, paraphrasing Yi-Fu Tuan,…

  1. Model of statoconia accumulation in gravireceptors of mollusks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondrachuk, A. V.; Wiederhold, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of formation and accumulation of statoconia are different for Aplysia californica and Biomphalaria glabrata. In Aplysia californica, the fast growth of statoconia number occurs after the critical size (approximately 45 micrometers) of statocyst is reached; then the increase of statoconia number is proceeding with the nonmonotonic rate during the life of an animal. In Biomphalaria the growth of statoconia number occurs only in the initial phase. Then long-term evolution of statoconia in the absence of their generation is the result of their growth in the cyst lumen. In the case of Aplysia californica it is not clear whether a temporal change of the statoconia size distribution (SSD) is caused by statoconia growth in the cyst lumen similar to that in Biomphalaria (Model 1) or statoconia growth takes place in supporting cells until their release into the cyst lumen occurs. (Model 2). This problem is of practical importance because the majority of experiments related to the development of molluscan gravireceptors in altered gravity dealt with an initial phase of statoconia evolution in Aplysia californica and Biomphalaria glabrata. The purpose of the present work is the application of mathematical modeling to the analysis of mechanisms of statoconia formation by supporting cells.

  2. The Path Is Place: Skateboarding, Graffiti and Performances of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on two performances of place involving graffiti and skateboarding: the first looks at a graffiti intervention by SKL0, an urban artist in Singapore, and the second examines the "Long Live Southbank" ("LLSB") campaign to resist the relocation of Southbank's Undercroft, an appropriated skate space in London.…

  3. 76 FR 58473 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... area in less than 1.8 m of water. The proposed survey will take place on Apache's leases in Cook Inlet... in deeper water is called Ocean Bottom Receiver Location, which uses a small volume air gun (10 in\\3... terms of SEL than from the single water gun impulse (estimated at 188 dB re 1 Pa\\2\\-s) in...

  4. Physics Take-Outs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane; Hawkins, Stephanie; Beutlich, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Most teachers want students to think about their course content not only during class but also throughout their day. So, how do you get your students to see how what they learn in class applies to their lives outside of class? As physics teachers, we are fortunate that our students are continually surrounded by our content. How can we get them to notice the physics around them? How can we get them to make connections between the classroom content and their everyday lives? We would like to offer a few suggestions, Physics Take-Outs, to solve this problem.

  5. Why It Takes Prevention, Not Detection, to Fight Bioterrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janata, Jiri (Art)

    2005-01-01

    Following the events which took place on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks which occurred after that date, US authorities became concerned with the idea that an assault with chemical or biological weapons could take place on American territory or in American ships or planes. A worrisome model for such an assault was the 1995 terrorist…

  6. Correlates of Intellectual Risk Taking in Elementary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had the goal of exploring factors associated with elementary students' (N = 585) reports of intellectual risk taking in science. Intellectual risk taking (IRT) was defined as engaging in adaptive learning behaviors (sharing tentative ideas, asking questions, attempting to do and learn new things) that placed the learner at risk of…

  7. A Place on the Shelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2007-01-01

    If we read to discover new worlds, we also read to find ourselves. For gays and lesbians, this act of discovery can be problematic: literature has so often excluded them. In the last decades, as gays and lesbians have grown increasingly vocal in the effort to secure their rightful place in society, a broad range of fiction has emerged that…

  8. Creative Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and teaching materials are: "History in the Hands of Tomorrow's Citizens" (C. D. Shull; B. M. Boland); "On-Site Learning--The Power of Historic Places" (J. O. Horton); "Visualizing History--Inquiring Minds Want To…

  9. Place learning by mechanical contact.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven J; Turvey, Michael T

    2010-05-01

    For some animals (e.g. the night-active wandering spider) the encounters with the habitat that result in place learning are predominantly mechanical. We asked whether place learning limited to mechanical contact, like place learning in general, entails vectors tied to individual landmarks and relations between landmarks. We constructed minimal environments for blindfolded human participants. Landmarks were raised steps. 'Home' was a mechanically indistinct location. Travel was linear. The mechanical contacts were those of walking, stepping, and probing with a soft-tipped cane. Home-orienting activities preceded tests of finding home from a given location with landmarks unchanged or (unbeknown to participants) shifted. In a one-landmark environment, perceived home shifted in the same direction, with the same magnitude, as the shifted landmark. In an environment of two landmarks located in the same direction from home, shifting the further landmark toward home resulted in a change in home's perceived location that preserved the original ratio of distances separating home, nearer landmark, and further landmark. Both findings were invariant over the travel route to the test location and repetitions of testing. It seems, therefore, that for humans (and, perhaps, for wandering spiders), mechanical contact can reveal the vectors and relations specifying places.

  10. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  11. Sense of Place in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Pat, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal issue contains interviews, essays, short stories, and poetry focusing on sense of place in Appalachia. In interviews, author Wilma Dykeman discussed past and recent novels set in Appalachia with interviewer Sandra L. Ballard; and novelist Lee Smith spoke with interviewer Pat Arnow about how Appalachia has shaped her writing. Essays…

  12. Place recognition using batlike sonar

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14188.001 PMID:27481189

  13. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  14. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  15. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the snow accumulation and the ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken throughout the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores, coupled with the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing, have motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations.

  16. [Risk-taking behaviors among young people].

    PubMed

    Le Breton, David

    2004-01-01

    Risk-taking behaviors are often an ambivalent way of calling for help from close friends or family - those who count. It is an ultimate means of finding meaning and a system of values; it is a sign of an adolescent's active resistance and attempts to re-establish his or her place in the world. It contrasts with the far more incisive risk of depression and the radical collapse of meaning. In spite of the suffering it engenders, risk-taking nevertheless has a positive side, fostering independence in adolescents and a search for reference points. It leads to a better self-image and is a means of developing one's identity. It is nonetheless painful in terms of its repercussions in terms of injuries, death or addiction. The turbulence caused by risk-taking behaviors illustrates a determination to be rid of one's suffering and to fight on so that life can, at last, be lived. PMID:15918660

  17. The place of care in ethical theory.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1998-04-01

    The concept of care and a related ethical theory of care have emerged as increasingly important in biomedical ethics. This essay outlines a series of questions about the conceptualization of care and its place in ethical theory. First, it considers the possibility that care should be conceptualized as an alternative principle of right action; then as a virtue, a cluster of virtues, or as a synonym for virtue theory. The implications for various interpretations of the debate of the relation of care and justice are then explored, suggesting three possible meanings for that contrast. Next, the possibility that care theorists are taking up the debate over the relation between principles and cases is considered. Finally, it is suggested that care theorists may be pressing for consideration of an entirely new question in moral theory: the assessment of the normative appropriateness of relationships. Issues needing to be addressed in an ethic of relationships are suggested.

  18. The Magical Place Called Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raplenovich, Kay

    1996-01-01

    "Create Your Own," month-long "Artist in Education" residencies sponsored by the Ohio Arts Council, are used to guide students and teachers through the process of taking the vision of an original opera conceived by students and turning it into a reality. A local opera company is actually created. "Create Your Own" shows children that opera can be…

  19. There's No Place Like School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the principal of a rural Oregon elementary school used a 21st Century Community Learning Centers grant and Title I funds to design a program to address homeless children's personal and social well-being. Kids eat a nutritious breakfast, take showers, get clothes washed, receive positive feedback, and participate in after-school…

  20. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  1. After Dark in the Antipodes: Pedagogy, Place and Queer Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Vicki; Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    This paper pursues issues of pedagogy, place and queer phenomenology in the context of what might be meant by the term "after-queer" or "what falls outside queer" as we currently theorise, practice and locate queer. Inspired by Sara Ahmed's account of how bodies become oriented by the ways in which they take up time and space, this paper…

  2. Places to Go: Google's Search Results for "Net Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In his Places to Go column for a special issue on the Net Generation, Stephen Downes takes an unexpected trip--to Google. According to Downes, Google epitomizes the essence of the Net Generation. Infinitely searchable and adaptable, Google represents the spirit of a generation raised in the world of the Internet, a generation that adapts…

  3. Descending the Watershed: Rethinking the "Place" of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Employs a first-person phenomenological approach to describe an expedition for teachers from the uppermost beginning of a Northern Rocky Mountain watershed to its river output at the bottom. Focuses on the roles of people and place in the construction of new knowledge about the environment. Takes traditional curriculum theory a step beyond simple…

  4. Taking human life.

    PubMed

    Brock, Dan W

    1985-07-01

    Alan Donagan's position regarding the morality of taking innocent human life, that it is impermissible regardless of the wishes of the victim, is criticized by Brock who argues for a rights-based alternative. His argument appeals to the nature of persons' actual interest in life and gives them an additional element of control which they lack if a nonwaivable moral duty not to kill prevails. The author rejects Donagan's view that stopping a life-sustaining treatment, even when a competent patient has consented, is morally wrong and that there is no moral difference between killing and allowing to die. A rights-based position permits stopping treatment of incompetent patients based on what the patient would have wanted or what is in his or her best interest, and allows the withholding of treatment from a terminally ill person, with the patient's consent and for a benevolent motive, to be evaluated as morally different from killing that patient.

  5. Slow and fast capacitive process taking place at the ionic liquid/electrode interface.

    PubMed

    Roling, Bernhard; Drüschler, Marcel; Huber, Benediki

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterise the interface between the ultrapure room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and a Au(111) working electrode at electrode potentials more positive than the open circuit potential (-0.14 V vs. Pt pseudo-reference). Plots of the potential-dependent data in the complex capacitance plane reveal the existence of a fast and a slow capacitive process. In order to derive the contribution of both processes to the overall capacitance, the complex capacitance data were fitted using an empirical Cole-Cole equation. The differential capacitance of the fast process is almost constant between -0.14 V and +0.2 V (vs. Pt pseudo-reference) and decreases at more positive potentials, while the differential capacitance of the slower process exhibits a maximum at +0.2 V. This maximum leads to a maximum in the overall differential capacitance. We attribute the slow process to charge redistributions in the innermost ion layer, which require an activation energy in excess of that for ion transport in the room temperature ionic liquid. The differential capacitance maximum of the slow process at +0.2 V is most likely caused by reorientations of the 1-butyl-1l-methylpyrrolidinium cations in the innermost layer with the positively charged ring moving away from the Au(111) surface and leaving behind voids which are then occupied by anions. In a recent Monte Carlo simulation by Federov, Georgi and Kornyshev (Electrochem. Commun. 2010, 12, 296), such a process was identified as the origin of a differential capacitance maximum in the anodic regime. Our results suggest that the time scales of capacitive processes at the ionic liquid/metal interface are an important piece of information and should be considered in more detail in future experimental and theoretical studies.

  6. To impose enhanced penalties for certain drug offense that take place on Federal property.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Nunes, Devin [R-CA-22

    2013-06-05

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Pairing K-12 Teachers with Geographic Researchers: Why It Should Take Place and How It Can.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orvis, Kenneth H.; Horn, Sally P.; Jumper, Sidney R.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that excitement can be infused into the K-12 geography curriculum by involving teachers in real research projects led by professional geographers. Describes a project where K-12 teachers and geographers participated in geography field research in the mountain highlands of the Valle Nuevo Scientific Reserve of the Dominican Republic. (CMK)

  8. When Private Schools Take Public Dollars: What's the Place of Accountability in School Voucher Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hentges, Christina M.; Petrilli, Michael J.; Winkler, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    Critics of school voucher programs argue that private schools that receive taxpayer dollars should be held accountable to the same standards as public schools. School choice supporters counter that private schools should be left alone to answer to the parents of their students. The authors advocate for a re-visit to the discussion of…

  9. Translational Science at the National Institute of Mental Health: Can Social Work Take Its Rightful Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, John S.; Ell, Kathleen; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2007-01-01

    Several recent national reports have noted that there is a 20-year gap between knowledge generated from our best clinical research and the utilization of that knowledge in our health and mental health care sectors. One solution to this dilemma has been the emergence of translational science. Translational science has become a top priority of the…

  10. A Reaction that Takes Place in Beakers but not in Conical Flasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin; Ophardt, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Inductors are substances that undergo a reaction and in so doing markedly accelerate or induce a simultaneous reaction. An experiment showing a reaction involving the oxidation of iodide to iodine by chromium (VI) found to be slow in the absence of acid, but which proceeded rapidly when iron (II) was induced is demonstrated.

  11. Does Reflective Learning Take Place in Online MBA Introductory Quantitative Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Blake A.; Walsh, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Online education has grown dramatically over the past 15 years. At the university level, researchers have shown that online education has both its advantages--greater flexibility and access to student--and disadvantages--like disconnection with other students and faculty. Another possible drawback for the students enrolled in an online course is…

  12. In what time scale proton transfer takes place in a live CHO cell?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojumdar, Supratik Sen; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2013-06-01

    Excited state proton transfer (ESPT) of pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate, HPTS) in a live Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is studied by time resolved confocal microscopy. The cytoplasm region of the cell is stained by a photoacid, HPTS (HA). The time constant of initial proton transfer (τPT) in the cell is found to be ˜10 times longer than that in bulk water, while the time constants of recombination (τrec) and dissociation (τdiss) in the cell are ˜3 times and ˜2 times longer, respectively. The slower rate of proton transfer (˜10 times) inside the CHO cell compared to that in bulk water is ascribed to slower solvation dynamics, lower availability of free water molecules, and disruption of hydrogen-bond network inside the cell. Translational and rotational diffusion of HPTS inside a single CHO cell have been investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and picosecond anisotropy measurement, respectively. Both the translational and rotational diffusion slow down inside the live cell. FCS studies indicate that HPTS remains tightly bound to a macromolecule inside the cell.

  13. Look What I Am Doing: Does Observational Learning Take Place in Evocative Task-Sharing Situations?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Luca; Iani, Cristina; Mariani, Michele; Nicoletti, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether physical and observational practice in task-sharing entail comparable implicit motor learning. To this end, the social-transfer-of-learning (SToL) effect was assessed when both participants performed the joint practice task (Experiment 1 – complete task-sharing), or when one participant observed the other performing half of the practice task (Experiment 2 – evocative task-sharing). Since the inversion of the spatial relations between responding agent and stimulus position has been shown to prevent SToL, in the present study we assessed it in both complete and evocative task-sharing conditions either when spatial relations were kept constant or changed from the practice to the transfer session. The same pattern of results was found for both complete and evocative task-sharing, thus suggesting that implicit motor learning in evocative task-sharing is equivalent to that obtained in complete task-sharing. We conclude that this motor learning originates from the simulation of the complementary (rather than the imitative) action. PMID:22905256

  14. Where Does the Transformation of Precipitated Ceria Nanoparticles in Hydroponic Plants Take Place?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Zhang, Junzhe; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Guo, Zhi; Zhang, Lijuan; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have been found to be partly biotransformed from Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in plants, yet the transformation process and mechanism are not fully understood. Here, we try to clarify the specific site and necessary conditions for the transformation of precipitated CeO2 NPs in hydroponic cucumber plants. Three different treatment modes were adopted according to whether the NPs were incubated with roots all the time or not. Results showed that exposure modes significantly affect the translocation and transformation of CeO2 NPs. In the normal exposure mode, Ce was present as a Ce(IV) and Ce(III) mixture in the roots and shoots, and the proportion of Ce(III) in the shoots was enhanced obviously with the increase of exposure time. The results of short-time incubation and petiole exposure modes suggested that CeO2 NPs could not be reduced within a short incubation time (3 h) or be further reduced inside the plant tissues. It was deduced that root surfaces are the sites, and the physicochemical interaction between the NPs and root exudates at the nanobio interface is the necessary condition for the transformation of CeO2 NPs in plant systems. These results will contribute to understanding the transformation mechanism of CeO2 and other metal-based NPs and properly evaluate their ecological effects. PMID:26237071

  15. Where Does the Transformation of Precipitated Ceria Nanoparticles in Hydroponic Plants Take Place?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Zhang, Junzhe; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Guo, Zhi; Zhang, Lijuan; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have been found to be partly biotransformed from Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in plants, yet the transformation process and mechanism are not fully understood. Here, we try to clarify the specific site and necessary conditions for the transformation of precipitated CeO2 NPs in hydroponic cucumber plants. Three different treatment modes were adopted according to whether the NPs were incubated with roots all the time or not. Results showed that exposure modes significantly affect the translocation and transformation of CeO2 NPs. In the normal exposure mode, Ce was present as a Ce(IV) and Ce(III) mixture in the roots and shoots, and the proportion of Ce(III) in the shoots was enhanced obviously with the increase of exposure time. The results of short-time incubation and petiole exposure modes suggested that CeO2 NPs could not be reduced within a short incubation time (3 h) or be further reduced inside the plant tissues. It was deduced that root surfaces are the sites, and the physicochemical interaction between the NPs and root exudates at the nanobio interface is the necessary condition for the transformation of CeO2 NPs in plant systems. These results will contribute to understanding the transformation mechanism of CeO2 and other metal-based NPs and properly evaluate their ecological effects.

  16. When Private Schools Take Public Dollars: What's the Place of Accountability in School Voucher Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hentges, Christina M.; Petrilli, Michael J.; Winkler, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    Of all the arguments that critics of school voucher programs advance, the one that may resonate loudest with the public concerns school accountability. Opponents say it's not fair to hold public schools accountable for their results (under No Child Left Behind and similar systems) and then let private schools receive taxpayer dollars--however…

  17. Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum functions take place in different subcellular compartments of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Bredeston, Luis M; Caffaro, Carolina E; Samuelson, John; Hirschberg, Carlos B

    2005-09-16

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes dysentery in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The lack of a defined Golgi apparatus in E. histolytica as well as in other protists led to the hypothesis that they had evolved prior to the acquisition of such organelle even though glycoproteins, glycolipids, and antigens have been detected, the latter of which react with antibodies against Golgi apparatus proteins of higher eukaryotes. We here provide direct evidence for Golgi apparatus-like functions in E. histolytica as well as for components of glycoprotein folding quality control. Using a combination of bioinformatic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches we have (a) cloned and expressed the E. histolytica UDP-galactose transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; its K(m) for UDP-galactose is 2.9 microm; (b) characterized vesicles in an extract of the above protist, which transport UDP-galactose into their lumen with a K(m) of 2.7 microm;(c) detected galactosyltransferase activity(ies) in the lumen of the above vesicles with the K(m) for UDP-galactose, using endogenous acceptors, being 93 microm;(d) measured latent apyrase activities in the above vesicles, suggesting they are in the lumen; (e) characterized UDP-glucose transport activities in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum-like vesicles with K(m)s for UDP-glucose of approximately 2-4 microm. Although the endoplasmic reticulum-like fraction showed UDP-glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase activity, the Golgi apparatus-like fraction did not. This fraction contained other glucosyltransferases. Together, these studies demonstrate that E. histolytica has different vesicles that play a role in protein glycosylation and folding quality control, analogous to the above organellar functions of higher eukaryotes.

  18. Systemic analysis of desertification processes taking place in the Limpopo river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Mario; Attorre, Fabio; Vitale, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Desertification and land degradation are phenomena that ranks among the greatest environmental challenges of our time. Desertification is a global issue, with serious implications worldwide for biodiversity, socio-economic stability and sustainable development. Biophysical indicators of land degradation and desertification, like Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and Total Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) were provided by remote sensing technology (MODIS). The study aims to evaluate the dynamical changes of NPP and Reco in the Limpopo river basin, a Southern African region that includes, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe, during the time period 2001-2010. In particular, the relations between NPP, Reco, environmental, physiological and land use parameters have been widely investigated through the application of a new and powerful statistical classifier, the Random Forest Analysis (RFA), and a general non-linear model, the Response Surface Regression Model (GRM). RFA highlighted that Temperature is one of the most important predictors affecting NPP and Reco in the Limpopo river basin. Conversely, other environmental parameters like, Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Vegetation cover rarely influence NPP and Reco. Our results provide information on desertification and land degradation phenomena and a first step for identifying practices to mitigate their negative impacts. However, it must be taken into account that NPP and Reco depend by a multitude of factors (e.g. human activities, socio-economic policies) and can vary in relation to spatial and temporal scale. In order to achieve a better understanding of land degradation and desertification processes, land use and socio-economic variables should be considered.

  19. Look what I am doing: does observational learning take place in evocative task-sharing situations?

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Luca; Iani, Cristina; Mariani, Michele; Nicoletti, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether physical and observational practice in task-sharing entail comparable implicit motor learning. To this end, the social-transfer-of-learning (SToL) effect was assessed when both participants performed the joint practice task (Experiment 1--complete task-sharing), or when one participant observed the other performing half of the practice task (Experiment 2--evocative task-sharing). Since the inversion of the spatial relations between responding agent and stimulus position has been shown to prevent SToL, in the present study we assessed it in both complete and evocative task-sharing conditions either when spatial relations were kept constant or changed from the practice to the transfer session. The same pattern of results was found for both complete and evocative task-sharing, thus suggesting that implicit motor learning in evocative task-sharing is equivalent to that obtained in complete task-sharing. We conclude that this motor learning originates from the simulation of the complementary (rather than the imitative) action.

  20. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alcohol testing site, you must ensure that it provides visual and aural privacy to the employee being tested, sufficient to prevent unauthorized persons from seeing or hearing test results. (d) If you are... privacy requirements of paragraph (c) is not readily available, this part allows a reasonable suspicion...

  1. Place prioritization for biodiversity content.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Aggarwal, Anshu; Garson, Justin; Margules, Chris R; Zeidler, Juliane

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use. PMID:12177533

  2. There's no place like home.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1996-02-01

    When the school system in tiny Colby, Kans., signed onto a health plan that excluded the only hospital in the entire county, its citizens learned an important lesson. ¿If we're not working together,¿ says the hospital's administrator, ¿health plans and medical centers are going to come in here and take business away from us.¿ Here's what they learned about keeping rural health care rural.

  3. There's no place like home.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1996-02-01

    When the school system in tiny Colby, Kans., signed onto a health plan that excluded the only hospital in the entire county, its citizens learned an important lesson. ¿If we're not working together,¿ says the hospital's administrator, ¿health plans and medical centers are going to come in here and take business away from us.¿ Here's what they learned about keeping rural health care rural. PMID:8616497

  4. Development and Testing of a Portable Vocal Accumulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyne, Harold A.; Hanson, Helen M.; Genereux, Ronald P.; Stevens, Kenneth N.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This research note describes the design and testing of a device for unobtrusive, long-term ambulatory monitoring of voice use, named the Portable Vocal Accumulator (PVA). The PVA contains a digital signal processor for analyzing input from a neck-placed miniature accelerometer. During its development, accelerometer recordings were obtained from 99…

  5. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the areally Integrated snow accumulation and the net ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation Include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken from isolated spots across the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores juxtaposed against the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing , has motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations as an option for obtaining spatially contiguous estimates. The objective of this PARCA continuation proposal was to complete an estimate of surface accumulation rate on the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from C-band radar backscatter data compiled in the ERS-1 SAR mosaic of data acquired during, September-November, 1992. An empirical equation, based on elevation and latitude, is used to determine the mean annual temperature. We examine the influence of accumulation rate, and mean annual temperature on C-band radar backscatter using a forward model, which incorporates snow metamorphosis and radar backscatter components. Our model is run over a range of accumulation and temperature conditions. Based on the model results, we generate a look-up table, which uniquely maps the measured radar backscatter, and mean annual temperature to accumulation rate. Our results compare favorably with in situ accumulation rate measurements falling within our study area.

  6. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  7. An anthropologist in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype. PMID:25436019

  8. Place of nutrition in yoga.

    PubMed

    Desai, B P

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  9. Multiway In-Place Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffert, Viliam; Gajdoš, Jozef

    We present an algorithm for asymptotically efficient k-way merging. Given an array A containing sorted subsequences A 1,...,A k of respective lengths n 1,...,n k , where sum_{i=1}kn_i = n, our algorithm merges A 1,...,A k in-place, into a single sorted sequence, performing lceil{lg k}rceil \\cdot n + o(n) element comparisons and 3·n + o(n) element moves. That is, our algorithm runs in linear time, with the number of moves independent of k, the number of input sequences.

  10. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  11. A Place Pedagogy for "Global Contemporaneity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret J.

    2010-01-01

    Around the globe people are confronted daily with intransigent problems of space and place. Educators have historically called for place-based or place-conscious education to introduce pedagogies that will address such questions as how to develop sustainable communities and places. These calls for place-conscious education have included liberal…

  12. Taking Care of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  13. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  14. Age-related decrease in the proportion of germinal center B cells from mouse Peyer's patches is accompanied by an accumulation of somatic mutations in their immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, A; Gilmore, D; Milstein, C

    1994-11-01

    Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and the generation of memory B cells seems to take place in germinal centers, which are chronically present in Peyer's patches. Age-associated changes in the germinal center B cell compartment of Peyer's patches and in the mutations of a kappa light chain transgene were analyzed in unimmunized mice. Somatic mutations accumulate in germinal center B cells slowly and continuously to reach an apparent plateau when the animals are around 5 months old. In contrast, the proportion of germinal center B cells reaches a maximum in very young mice (about 2 months old) and decreases progressively thereafter. These results suggest that the highly mutated B cells in older mice arise by the successive accumulation of mutations in memory cells. The data also show that the optimum time for the analysis of hypermutation of transgenes in Peyer's patches is when the mice are about 5 months old.

  15. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  16. Charge Accumulation Effects on Breakdown Condition of Capacitive Discharges in DC-biased RF Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, M.; Sato, M.

    1998-10-01

    Breakdown characteristics of capacitively coupled argon dc-biased rf (13.56 MHz) discharges are measured using an insulated electrode (IE) system made from glass-covered aluminum disk plates. In the IE system under the influence of a dc-biased rf field, charged particles generated in the discharge space will accumulate at the glass surface without leakage, which may weaken the dc electric field strength. After the dc-biased rf voltage is applied, a time lag Tl until breakdown is observed and the rf breakdown voltage V_rf is considerably lowered. For example, V_rf decreases by more than 10 % at Tl = 1000 sec. The values of V_rf which cause breakdown within Tl = 20 sec. in the IE system are compared with those for the bare metal electrode (BME) system for which no charge accumulation takes place. At low dc biases, they are almost the same for both systems. As the dc bias is increased, V_rf of the BME system becomes much smaller than that of the IE system. The decrease in V_rf can be explained by the occurring of secondary electron emission from the metal surface.

  17. In-place coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Fuel pipelines at military aviation facilities are critical to mission accomplishment. Clean aviation fuel, free from contamination, is a must for flight safety. Internal corrosion and pipeline leaks cannot be tolerated. Repairs to, and replacement of, pipelines that are often buried under thick, reinforced concrete, can be difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Excavations to uncover such lines can totally disrupt flight operations. An in-place pipeline internal rehabilitation service has been utilized recently to clean and internally coat three major military jet fuel pipelines serving military airfields in New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Florida. The rehabilitation projects were accomplished by UCISCO (Union Carbide Industrial Services Co.) with little or no disruptive excavation. The total process involves, first, thorough internal cleaning of the pipe using the SANDJET pipeline cleaning service to completely remove deposits and corrosion down to bare white metal and leave a clean blasted surface in a dry, inert nitrogen atmosphere - conditions ideal for application of a polyamide epoxy coating material. The epoxy coating provides a smooth, continuous inner surface that is free of holidays and helps improve the flow efficiency of the line as well as protecting products from possible corrosion contamination.

  18. The astrophysics of crowded places.

    PubMed

    Davies, Melvyn

    2002-12-15

    Today the Sun is in a relatively uncrowded place. The distance between it and the nearest other star is relatively large (about 200,000 times the Earth-Sun distance!). This is beneficial to life on Earth; a close encounter with another star is extremely unlikely. Such encounters would either remove the Earth from its orbit around the Sun or leave it on an eccentric orbit similar to a comet's. But the Sun was not formed in isolation. It was born within a more-crowded cluster of perhaps a few hundred stars. As the surrounding gas evaporated away, the cluster itself evaporated too, dispersing its stars into the Galaxy. Virtually all stars in the Galaxy share this history, and here I will describe the role of 'clusterness' in a star's life. Stars are often formed in larger stellar clusters (known as open and globular clusters), some of which are still around today. I will focus on stars in globular clusters and describe how the interactions between stars in these clusters may explain the zoo of stellar exotica which have recently been observed with instruments such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the X-ray telescopes XMM-Newton and Chandra. In recent years, myriad planets orbiting stars other than the Sun--the so-called 'extrasolar' planets--have been discovered. I will describe how a crowded environment will affect such planetary systems and may in fact explain some of their mysterious properties.

  19. The astrophysics of crowded places.

    PubMed

    Davies, Melvyn

    2002-12-15

    Today the Sun is in a relatively uncrowded place. The distance between it and the nearest other star is relatively large (about 200,000 times the Earth-Sun distance!). This is beneficial to life on Earth; a close encounter with another star is extremely unlikely. Such encounters would either remove the Earth from its orbit around the Sun or leave it on an eccentric orbit similar to a comet's. But the Sun was not formed in isolation. It was born within a more-crowded cluster of perhaps a few hundred stars. As the surrounding gas evaporated away, the cluster itself evaporated too, dispersing its stars into the Galaxy. Virtually all stars in the Galaxy share this history, and here I will describe the role of 'clusterness' in a star's life. Stars are often formed in larger stellar clusters (known as open and globular clusters), some of which are still around today. I will focus on stars in globular clusters and describe how the interactions between stars in these clusters may explain the zoo of stellar exotica which have recently been observed with instruments such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the X-ray telescopes XMM-Newton and Chandra. In recent years, myriad planets orbiting stars other than the Sun--the so-called 'extrasolar' planets--have been discovered. I will describe how a crowded environment will affect such planetary systems and may in fact explain some of their mysterious properties. PMID:12626265

  20. 75 FR 8652 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ....S. The survey will take place in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the U.S. in water depths... transect lines within the CNMI (see Figure 1 of L-DEO's application). The survey will take place in water... varies with water depth. The pulse interval is 1 s, but a common mode of operation is to broadcast...

  1. Physics of deep plume melting: komatiitic melt accumulation and segregation in the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Harro; Arndt, Nick; Kohl, Svenja

    2014-05-01

    Komatiites are assumed to be produced in very hot mantle upwellings or plumes. Under such conditions, melting will take place deep within the upper mantle or even within or below the mantle transition zone. Due to its compressibility at such pressures, melt has a higher density than olivine. Whether it would remain buoyant with respect to a peridotitic mantle both above and below the olivine-wadsleyite phase boundary because of the presence of denser garnet remains an open issue, particularly in view of recent X-ray refraction data on molten basalts by Sanloup et al. (2013). We studied the physics of melting and melt segregation within hot upwelling mantle passing through the transition zone, with particular emphasis on the effect of depth-dependent density contrasts between melt and the ambient mantle. Assuming a 1D plume, we solved the two-phase flow equations of the melt-matrix system accounting for matrix compaction and porosity-dependent shear and bulk viscosity. We assumed a constant ascent velocity leading to a constant rate of melt generation. In a first model series, the level of neutral buoyancy zneutral is assumed to lie above the depth of onset of melting, i.e. there exists a region where dense melt may lag behind the solid phases within the rising plume. Depending on two non-dimensional numbers (accumulation number Ac, compaction resistance number Cr) we find four regimes: 1) time-dependent melt accumulation in standing and broadening porosity waves that scale with the compaction length, 2) steady-state weak melt accumulation near zneutral, 3) no melt accumulation due to small density contrast, 4) no melt accumulation due to high matrix viscosity. In regime 4 the high mantle viscosity prevents the opening of pore space and the accumulation of melt. In a second series, the rising mantle crosses the olivine-wadsleyite phase boundary, which imposes a jump in density contrast between melt and ambient mantle. In this case, a sharp melt fraction contrast

  2. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  3. Place-Identity in a School Setting: Effects of the Place Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcouyeux, Aurore; Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane

    2011-01-01

    Studies on place identity show positive relationships between the evaluation of a place and mechanisms involved in place identification. However, individuals also identify with places of low social prestige (places that bear a negative social image). Few authors investigate the nature of place identity processes in this case. The goal of this…

  4. Oh, the Places They Went: SBOs Share Their Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    "Oh the Places You'll Go!" That Dr. Seuss book is a standard gift for graduates as they are sent out into the world-whether it's off to college or into the world of work. "You can steer yourself any direction you choose." What direction did school business officials take to get where they are today? The most recent…

  5. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury.

  6. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. PMID:26334198

  7. Polling places, pharmacies, and public health: Vote & Vax 2012.

    PubMed

    Shenson, Douglas; Moore, Ryan T; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-06-01

    US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients. PMID:25879150

  8. Polling places, pharmacies, and public health: Vote & Vax 2012.

    PubMed

    Shenson, Douglas; Moore, Ryan T; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-06-01

    US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients.

  9. Polling Places, Pharmacies, and Public Health: Vote & Vax 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shenson, Douglas; Moore, Ryan T.; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2015-01-01

    US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients. PMID:25879150

  10. Robotic removal of zebra mussel accumulations in a nuclear power plant screenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kotler, S.R.; Mallen, E.C. [Indiana Michigan Power Co. Tamms, K.M.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussel accumulations in the power plant intake system have increased over the last four years and have become a maintenance issue. Several treatment methods have been used, including mechanical cleaning by divers. This is limited to areas of relatively low flow velocity. Various sections of the screenhouse are not accessible except during an outage or when one of the intake tunnels can be otherwise be blocked and flow reduced. In addition, diver services are relatively costly. For the above reasons, the Indiana Michigan Power Co., Cook Nuclear Plant, contracted with ARD Environmental Inc. to develop and test a robotic system as an alternative to cleaning by divers. The first phase of this project addressed the requirement to clean the screenhouse floor in all areas, including those with high flow velocity. Subsequent phases will address robotic cleaning of other areas of the intake and the screenhouse structures. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Demonstrate the ability to deploy and retrieve a modified XT1000 vehicle in the inlet bay and screen bays; (2) Remove the accumulations of zebra mussels and possibly other pumpable material from the floor; (3) Reduce or eliminate the need for diver services and reduce overall cost of removing accumulations of zebra mussels; and, (4) Critique operations and develop recommendations for further enhancements to the robotic equipment and materials handling system. Implementation of the operating plan commenced on September 8, 1994, and was completed on October 7, 1994. The project demonstrated that robotic techniques are an efficient and cost effective alternative to diver operations for mechanical removal of zebra mussels. In particular, the robotic system was able to operate effectively in the high flow velocity areas including those at the intake tunnels. The ability to operate in the high flow areas means that zebra mussel removal may take place at any time, without affecting normal plant operations.

  11. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  12. Take Your Leadership Role Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The principal authors of a new book, "Profiling Excellence in America's Schools," state that leadership is the single most important element for effective schools. The generic skills of leaders are flexibility, autonomy, risk taking, innovation, and commitment. Exceptional principals and teachers take their leadership and management roles…

  13. Taking Over a Broken Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Taking over a broken program can be one of the hardest tasks to take on. However, working towards a vision and a common goal--and eventually getting there--makes it all worth it in the end. In this article, the author shares the lessons she learned as the new director for the Bright Horizons Center in Ashburn, Virginia. She suggests that new…

  14. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  15. A Place at the Table: LTD as a Mediator of Memory Genesis.

    PubMed

    Connor, Steven A; Wang, Yu Tian

    2016-08-01

    Resolving how our brains encode information requires an understanding of the cellular processes taking place during memory formation. Since the 1970s, considerable effort has focused on determining the properties and mechanisms underlying long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses and how these processes influence initiation of new memories. However, accumulating evidence suggests that long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, particularly at glutamatergic synapses, is a bona fide learning and memory mechanism in the mammalian brain. The known range of mechanisms capable of inducing LTD has been extended to those including NMDAR-independent forms, neuromodulator-dependent LTD, synaptic depression following stress, and non-synaptically induced forms. The examples of LTD observed at the hippocampal CA1 synapse to date demonstrate features consistent with LTP, including homo- and heterosynaptic expression, extended duration beyond induction (several hours to weeks), and association with encoding of distinct types of memories. Canonical mechanisms through which synapses undergo LTD include activation of phosphatases, initiation of protein synthesis, and dynamic regulation of presynaptic glutamate release and/or postsynaptic glutamate receptor endocytosis. Here, we will discuss the pre- and postsynaptic changes underlying LTD, recent advances in the identification and characterization of novel mechanisms underlying LTD, and how engagement of these processes constitutes a cellular analog for the genesis of specific types of memories. PMID:25993993

  16. A Place at the Table: LTD as a Mediator of Memory Genesis.

    PubMed

    Connor, Steven A; Wang, Yu Tian

    2016-08-01

    Resolving how our brains encode information requires an understanding of the cellular processes taking place during memory formation. Since the 1970s, considerable effort has focused on determining the properties and mechanisms underlying long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses and how these processes influence initiation of new memories. However, accumulating evidence suggests that long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, particularly at glutamatergic synapses, is a bona fide learning and memory mechanism in the mammalian brain. The known range of mechanisms capable of inducing LTD has been extended to those including NMDAR-independent forms, neuromodulator-dependent LTD, synaptic depression following stress, and non-synaptically induced forms. The examples of LTD observed at the hippocampal CA1 synapse to date demonstrate features consistent with LTP, including homo- and heterosynaptic expression, extended duration beyond induction (several hours to weeks), and association with encoding of distinct types of memories. Canonical mechanisms through which synapses undergo LTD include activation of phosphatases, initiation of protein synthesis, and dynamic regulation of presynaptic glutamate release and/or postsynaptic glutamate receptor endocytosis. Here, we will discuss the pre- and postsynaptic changes underlying LTD, recent advances in the identification and characterization of novel mechanisms underlying LTD, and how engagement of these processes constitutes a cellular analog for the genesis of specific types of memories.

  17. Using Mnemonics to Learn Place Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah W.

    1995-01-01

    Learning place geography is an important part of school geography. Reports on research findings addressing effective ways to teach place geography. Finds that research indicates significant differences between mnemonic and non-mnemonic treatment groups. (CFR)

  18. Secondary Lesson Plan: Place and Relative Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John

    1989-01-01

    Presents a secondary education geography lesson plan for teaching the theme of place and relative location. Provides samples of student materials. Using Japan as an example, shows how place and relative location can be used to study a country. (KO)

  19. 47 CFR 0.481 - Place of filing applications for radio authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. 0.481 Section 0.481 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Taking Examinations § 0.481 Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. For locations...

  20. 29 CFR 780.140 - Place of performing the practice as a factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.140 Place of performing the practice as a factor. So long as the farming operations to which a farmer's practice pertains... altered by the fact that the farming operations take place on more than one farm or by the fact that...

  1. 29 CFR 780.140 - Place of performing the practice as a factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.140 Place of performing the practice as a factor. So long as the farming operations to which a farmer's practice pertains... altered by the fact that the farming operations take place on more than one farm or by the fact that...

  2. 29 CFR 780.140 - Place of performing the practice as a factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.140 Place of performing the practice as a factor. So long as the farming operations to which a farmer's practice pertains... altered by the fact that the farming operations take place on more than one farm or by the fact that...

  3. 29 CFR 780.140 - Place of performing the practice as a factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.140 Place of performing the practice as a factor. So long as the farming operations to which a farmer's practice pertains... altered by the fact that the farming operations take place on more than one farm or by the fact that...

  4. 29 CFR 780.140 - Place of performing the practice as a factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.140 Place of performing the practice as a factor. So long as the farming operations to which a farmer's practice pertains... altered by the fact that the farming operations take place on more than one farm or by the fact that...

  5. 47 CFR 0.481 - Place of filing applications for radio authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. 0.481 Section 0.481 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Taking Examinations § 0.481 Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. For locations...

  6. Thinking outside the Box: Placing Park and Recreation Professionals in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel; Hibbler, Dan; McKenney, Alexis; Blitzer, Laura

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that it is time to place park and recreation professionals in K-12 schools on a permanent basis. Their proposal is based on the following observations: (1) school facilities are grossly underutilized; (2) the majority of a child's life takes place outside the classroom; (3) park and recreation programs are effective "hooks" for…

  7. 5 CFR 919.520 - Who places the information into the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List System § 919.520 Who places the information into the EPLS? Federal officials who take actions to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who places the information into the EPLS? 919.520 Section 919.520 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED)...

  8. 47 CFR 0.481 - Place of filing applications for radio authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. 0.481 Section 0.481 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Taking Examinations § 0.481 Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. For locations...

  9. 47 CFR 0.481 - Place of filing applications for radio authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. 0.481 Section 0.481 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Taking Examinations § 0.481 Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. For locations...

  10. 47 CFR 0.481 - Place of filing applications for radio authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. 0.481 Section 0.481 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Taking Examinations § 0.481 Place of filing applications for radio authorizations. For locations...

  11. Hawaii Play Fairway Analysis: Hawaiian Place Names

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-11-15

    Compilation of Hawaiian place names indicative of heat. Place names are from the following references: Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert, 1976, Place Names of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI 96822, 289 pp. ; Bier, J. A., 2009, Map of Hawaii, The Big Island, Eighth Edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI  96822, 1 sheet.; and Reeve, R., 1993, Kahoolawe Place Names, Consultant Report No. 16, Kahoolawe Island Conveyance Commission, 259 pp.

  12. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  13. Atypical Polyphosphate Accumulation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Polyphosphate accumulation by Paracoccus denitrificans was examined under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. Polyphosphate synthesis by this denitrifier took place with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor and in the presence of an external carbon source. Cells were capable of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis, but no polyphosphate was produced when PHB-rich cells were incubated under anoxic conditions in the absence of an external carbon source. By comparison of these findings to those with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms thought to be responsible for phosphate removal in activated sludge systems, it is concluded that P. denitrificans is capable of combined phosphate and nitrate removal without the need for alternating anaerobic/aerobic or anaerobic/anoxic switches. Studies on additional denitrifying isolates from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor suggested that polyphosphate accumulation is widespread among denitrifiers. PMID:10698794

  14. Northwest Literature and a Sense of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Harold P.

    Teachers should help students gain a sense of where they stand. It is difficult to imagine literature without a sense of place--places bridge time and evoke and recreate the past. To compose is to remember, to recreate, and a sense of place begins the composing. Some northwestern U.S. books illustrate the point. In a college literature class,…

  15. Anthropological Studies of Native American Place Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Traces development of Native American place name studies from Boas (1880s) to the present. Argues that place names convey information about physical environments but also reveal how people perceive, conceptualize, and utilize their environment. Suggests the utility of place names as a framework for cultural analysis and describes recent…

  16. Sense of Place in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alex; Stedman, Richard C.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    Although environmental education research has embraced the idea of sense of place, it has rarely taken into account environmental psychology-based sense of place literature whose theory and empirical studies can enhance related studies in the education context. This article contributes to research on sense of place in environmental education from…

  17. Literacy, Place and the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Observing that place may be understood in a range of sometimes conflicting ways, the paper picks up on recent work within literacy studies on notions of place-making and locational disadvantage to argue for increasingly sophisticated and reflexive uses of place in the field, as a counterpoint to both increasing educational standardisation and…

  18. Growth, Politics, and the Stratification of Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic inequalities among interdependent places are described as a dimension of stratification of persons and organizations. Concludes that territorial differentiation is influenced by political action, that place is often an important basis of collective action, and that places consciously attempt to influence growth in desired directions.…

  19. Using PlacesOnline in Instructional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Michael W.; Owusu, Francis; Roseman, Curtis C.

    2008-01-01

    PlacesOnLine.org is a Web portal that provides easy access to high quality Web sites that focus on places from around the world. It is intended for use by a wide range of people, including professional geographers, teachers and students at all levels, and the general public. This article explores the potential uses of PlacesOnLine as an…

  20. The Space Place: Adventures in Informal Education - and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D.; Leon, N.

    2001-12-01

    products both economical and comprehensive. While the Space Place effort started as a New Millennium Program effort, it was quickly expanded to all NASA missions who wish to participate. The team soon realized that the informal education community wanted a variety of content - not just more and more information about a few missions, but rather a continuous infusion of new content from new missions. This expansion of the Space Place program allows any mission to take advantage of the existing Space Place infrastructure and alliances - and provides the much-needed variety of materials that the informal education community desires. This poster session will provide an overview of the Space Place effort within the informal education community, and will illustrate some of the valuable lessons learned by the team in working with this rich and varied community.

  1. Teaching Kids with Learning Disabilities to Take Public Transit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…

  2. Taking Research into Schools: The West Lothian Action Enquiry Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnie, Lynne M.; Allen, Kristen; Beck, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the efforts of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) to develop its practice in the area of research. It will argue that the Action Enquiry model of service delivery can empower teaching staff and may allow an effective means of change and improvement to take place in schools. This model steers research towards providing…

  3. Phenylpropanoid amides of serotonin accumulate in witches' broom diseased bamboo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Tanaka, Chihiro; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Tsuda, Mitsuya

    2003-11-01

    Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae), causes the witches' broom disease in bamboo, particularly Phyllostachys bambusoides. Since it was observed that endogenous indole-3-acetic acid is reduced in the twigs of the diseased bamboo, the symptoms (bushy appearance) may be induced by reduction in auxin levels. Furthermore, two indolic compounds accumulated in diseased twigs, these being identified as N-p-coumaroylserotonin and N-feruloylserotonin by LC-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses. N-p-Coumaroylserotonin possesses antifungal activity against A. take.

  4. Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs. This is called directly observed therapy. Side Effects and Other Problems Women who may be pregnant, who are pregnant, or who are breastfeeding should talk to their provider before taking these ...

  5. Taking Action for Healthy Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research on relationship between physical activity, good nutrition, and academic performance. Offers several recommendations for how schools can take action to improve the nutrition and fitness of students. (PKP)

  6. LRO Takes the Moon's Temperature

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the December 2011 lunar eclipse, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar surface. Since different rock sizes cool at different rates, scientists will be able to infer...

  7. LRO Takes the Moon's Temperature

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the June 2011 lunar eclipse, scientists will be able to get a unique view of the moon. While the sun is blocked by the Earth, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar ...

  8. Taking America To New Heights

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new heights with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...

  9. Jasmonic acid transient accumulation is needed for abscisic acid increase in citrus roots under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Hernando, Bárbara; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    Phytohormones are central players in sensing and signaling numerous environmental conditions like drought stress. In this work, an experimental system based on severe drought was established and hormone profiling together with gene expression of key enzymes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis was studied in roots of citrumelo CPB 4475 (a commercial citrus rootstock) plants. JA concentration transiently increased after a few hours of stress, returning to control levels 30 h after the onset of the condition. A more progressive ABA accumulation was observed, with the onset of this increase at the same time or right after the JA transient accumulation. Molecular data suggested that, at least, part of the hormonal regulation takes place at the biosynthetic level. These observations also pointed to a possible involvement of JA on ABA biosynthesis under stress. To test this hypothesis, JA and ABA biosynthesis were chemically inhibited and subsequently phenotypes rescued by the addition of exogenous hormones. Results showed that the early JA accumulation was necessary for the subsequent ABA increase in roots under stress whereas the opposite could not be stated. The model includes a burst of JA in roots of citrus under severe drought stress conditions that leads to a more progressive ABA accumulation that will induce later plant responses. The present work adds a new level of interaction between JA and ABA at the biosynthetic level that together with the previously described interaction between signal transduction cascades of the two hormones would allow plants to fine-tune specific responses to different stimuli.

  10. The activity of HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE 1 regulates accumulation of galactolipids containing 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Anders K.; Fahlberg, Per; Johansson, Oskar N.; Hamberg, Mats; Andersson, Mats X.; Ellerström, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis produces galactolipids containing esters of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and dinor-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (dnOPDA). These lipids are referred to as arabidopsides and accumulate in response to abiotic and biotic stress. We explored the natural genetic variation found in 14 different Arabidopsis accessions to identify genes involved in the formation of arabidopsides. The accession C24 was identified as a poor accumulator of arabidopsides whereas the commonly used accession Col-0 was found to accumulate comparably large amounts of arabidopsides in response to tissue damage. A quantitative trait loci analysis of an F2 population created from a cross between C24 and Col-0 located a region on chromosome four strongly linked to the capacity to form arabidopsides. Expression analysis of HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE 1 (HPL1) showed large differences in transcript abundance between accessions. Transformation of Col-0 plants with the C24 HPL1 allele under transcriptional regulation of the 35S promoter revealed a strong negative correlation between HPL1 expression and arabidopside accumulation after tissue damage, thereby strengthening the view that HPL1 competes with ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE (AOS) for lipid-bound hydroperoxide fatty acids. We further show that the last step in the synthesis of galactolipid-bound OPDA and dnOPDA from unstable allene oxides is exclusively enzyme-catalyzed and not the result of spontaneous cyclization. Thus, the results presented here together with previous studies suggest that all steps in arabidopside biosynthesis are enzyme-dependent and apparently all reactions can take place with substrates being esterified to galactolipids. PMID:27422994

  11. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  12. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  13. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  14. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  15. The WorkPlace distributed processing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Henderson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Real time control problems require robust, high performance solutions. Distributed computing can offer high performance through parallelism and robustness through redundancy. Unfortunately, implementing distributed systems with these characteristics places a significant burden on the applications programmers. Goddard Code 522 has developed WorkPlace to alleviate this burden. WorkPlace is a small, portable, embeddable network interface which automates message routing, failure detection, and re-configuration in response to failures in distributed systems. This paper describes the design and use of WorkPlace, and its application in the construction of a distributed blackboard system.

  16. Sense of Place in the Practice and Assessment of Place-Based Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semken, Steven; Freeman, Carol Butler

    2008-01-01

    We teach earth, ecological, and environmental sciences in and about "places" imbued with meaning by human experience. Scientific understanding is but one of the many types of meanings that can accrue to a given place. People develop emotional attachments to meaningful places. The "sense of place," encompassing the meanings and attachments that…

  17. Take Charge of Your Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marshall A.

    2013-01-01

    Today's work world is full of uncertainty. Every day, people hear about another organization going out of business, downsizing, or rightsizing. To prepare for these uncertain times, one must take charge of their own career. This article presents some tips for surviving in today's world of work: (1) Be self-managing; (2) Know what you…

  18. Taking Stands for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lorinda; Rios, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe efforts to help students take a stand for social justice in the College of Education at one predominantly White institution in the western Rocky Mountain region. The authors outline the theoretical frameworks that inform this work and the context of our work. The focus is on specific pedagogical strategies used…

  19. Four Takes on Tough Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Odden, Allan; Rolle, Anthony; Guthrie, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Educational Leadership talks with four experts in the fields of education policy and finance about how schools can weather the current financial crisis. Michael A. Rebell focuses on the recession and students' rights; Allan Odden suggests five steps schools can take to improve in tough times; Anthony Rolle describes the tension between equity and…

  20. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  1. Taking Stock and Standing down

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeler, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Standing down is an action the military takes to review, regroup, and reorganize. Unfortunately, it often comes after an accident or other tragic event. To stop losses, the military will "stand down" until they are confident they can resume safe operations. Standing down is good for everyone, not just the military. In today's fast-paced world,…

  2. College Presidents Take on 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    College presidents have long gotten flak for refusing to take controversial stands on national issues. A large group of presidents opened an emotionally charged national debate on the drinking age. In doing so, they triggered an avalanche of news-media coverage and a fierce backlash. While the criticism may sting, the prime-time fracas may help…

  3. Pair take top science posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockley, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Australia's science minister Kim Carr has appointed physical scientists to key posts. Penny Sackett, an astronomer, takes over as the government's chief scientist this month, while in January geologist Megan Clark will become chief executive of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the county's largest research agency. Both five-year appointments have been welcomed by researchers.

  4. When perspective taking increases taking: reactive egoism in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Epley, Nicholas; Caruso, Eugene; Bazerman, Max H

    2006-11-01

    Group members often reason egocentrically, believing that they deserve more than their fair share of group resources. Leading people to consider other members' thoughts and perspectives can reduce these egocentric (self-centered) judgments such that people claim that it is fair for them to take less; however, the consideration of others' thoughts and perspectives actually increases egoistic (selfish) behavior such that people actually take more of available resources. A series of experiments demonstrates this pattern in competitive contexts in which considering others' perspectives activates egoistic theories of their likely behavior, leading people to counter by behaving more egoistically themselves. This reactive egoism is attenuated in cooperative contexts. Discussion focuses on the implications of reactive egoism in social interaction and on strategies for alleviating its potentially deleterious effects. PMID:17059307

  5. Classrooms as Safe Places To Be Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Derek

    This paper contends that classrooms should be safe places for students and their teachers to be wrong, suggesting that this concept should provide the mainspring for educational reform in Hong Kong and in other places in the world. It notes that education in Hong Kong is harsh and has a tendency to label students; for the majority of students,…

  6. Coloring in the Emotional Language of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Making educational places more inviting to learners is a key aspect of Invitational Theory. This paper introduces a simple technique for sensitizing learners and instructors to how their environment affects their feelings and ability to learn. It describes a learning exercise that may be used to assess, evaluate and transform places, to promote…

  7. Section 2--Psychology in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, Graham Richards published "Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective." Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which…

  8. A Quiet Place for Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    As electronic gadgets predominate a student's life, there comes a need for silence. A quiet place free of electromagnetic spectrum waves, dirty and stray electricity, and the endless chirps, whistles, beeps, and customized signaling. A quiet place can offer solitude for meditation, inspiration, and spiritual awareness. Student involvement in the…

  9. Agency as Place in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Grant R.; Patrizio, Kami M.

    2015-01-01

    We build upon the conceptualizations of agency in teacher education presented in the three previous articles in this issue to address the question of "where" agency occurs in the context of globalization. We rely on theories of place and place-based education to illuminate the paradoxical dimensions of the global commons, raising…

  10. Place-Identity in Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proshansky, Harold M.

    The concept of place identity is a theoretical necessity for understanding the impact of the urban environment on the individual. Place identity refers to clusters of perceptions in the form of images, memories, facts, ideas, beliefs, values, and behavior tendencies relevant to the individual's existence in the physical world. These clusters are…

  11. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  12. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  13. Urban Environmental Education and Sense of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Urban environmental educators are trying to connect students to the urban environment and nature, and thus develop a certain sense of place. To do so, educators involve students in environmental stewardship, monitoring, activism, and outdoor recreation in cities. At the same time, sense of place has been linked to pro-environmental behaviors and…

  14. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  15. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  16. 45 CFR 1703.301 - Meeting place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meeting place. 1703.301 Section 1703.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT Conduct of Meetings § 1703.301 Meeting place. Meetings...

  17. Spatial representations of place cells in darkness are supported by path integration and border information

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sijie; Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Effective spatial navigation is enabled by reliable reference cues that derive from sensory information from the external environment, as well as from internal sources such as the vestibular system. The integration of information from these sources enables dead reckoning in the form of path integration. Navigation in the dark is associated with the accumulation of errors in terms of perception of allocentric position and this may relate to error accumulation in path integration. We assessed this by recording from place cells in the dark under circumstances where spatial sensory cues were suppressed. Spatial information content, spatial coherence, place field size, and peak and infield firing rates decreased whereas sparsity increased following exploration in the dark compared to the light. Nonetheless it was observed that place field stability in darkness was sustained by border information in a subset of place cells. To examine the impact of encountering the environment’s border on navigation, we analyzed the trajectory and spiking data gathered during navigation in the dark. Our data suggest that although error accumulation in path integration drives place field drift in darkness, under circumstances where border contact is possible, this information is integrated to enable retention of spatial representations. PMID:25009477

  18. Finding similar places using the observation-to-generalization place model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a novel observation-to-generalization place model is proposed. It is shown how this model can be used to formally define the problem of finding geographically similar places. The observation-to-generalization model differentiates between observations of phenomena in the environment at a specific location and time, and generalizations about places that are inferred from these observations. A suite of operations is defined to find similar places based on the invariance of generalized place properties, and it is demonstrated how these functions can be applied to the problem of finding similar places based on the topics that people write about in place descriptions. One use for similar-place search is for exploratory research that will enable investigators to perform case-control studies on place data.

  19. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/001225.htm Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is ...

  20. Exploring Space and Place with Walking Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phil; Bunce, Griff; Evans, James; Gibbs, Hannah; Hein, Jane Ricketts

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few…

  1. Anthropogenic Mercury Accumulation in Watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Drohan, P. J.; Lawler, D.; Grimm, J.; Grant, C.; Eklof, K. J.; Bennett, J.; Naber, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is a critical environmental stress that affects ecosystems and human health. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited over large geographic areas to downwind landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. The northern Appalachian Mountains are downwind of major atmospheric mercury emissions sources. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the region. Here, we explored mercury accumulation in forested landscapes - in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at 10 forested locations, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. To quantify mercury accumulation in terrestrial environments, we measured soil mercury concentrations within and surrounding 12 vernal pools spanning various physiographic settings in the region. Given that vernal pools have large inputs of water via precipitation yet do not have any stream discharge outflow, they are likely spots within the forested landscape to accumulate pollutants that enter via wet atmospheric deposition. To quantify mercury accumulation in aquatic environments, we sampled mercury concentrations in streams draining 35 forested watersheds, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains.

  2. Growth of the eye lens: I. Weight accumulation in multiple species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the accumulation of wet and/or dry weight in the ocular lens as a function of age in different species. Methods Wet weights and/or fixed dry weights were obtained from measurements in the author’s laboratory and from the literature for over 14,000 lenses of known-ages, representing 130 different species. Various algorithms were tested to determine the most suitable for describing the relationship between lens weight and age. Results For 126 of the species examined, lens growth is continuous throughout life but asymptotic and can be reasonably described with a single logistic equation, W=Wm e-(k/A), where W is lens wet or dry weight; Wm is the maximum asymptotic weight, k is the logistic growth constant and A is the time from conception. For humans, elephants, hippopotami, minks, wild goats and woodchucks, lens growth appears to be biphasic. No gender differences could be detected in the lens weights for 70 species but male lenses are reportedly 10% larger than those of females in northern fur seals and pheasants. Dry weight accumulation is faster than that for wet weight in all species except birds and reptiles where the rates are the same. Low lens growth rates are associated with small animals with short gestation periods and short life spans. Conclusions Lens growth is continuous throughout life and, for most species, is independent of gender. For most, growth takes place through a monophasic asymptotic mode and is unaffected by events such as hibernation. This makes lens weight measurement a reliable tool for age determination of species culled in the wild. Compaction of the growing lens generates different properties, appropriate to an animal's lifestyle. How these events are controlled remains to be established. PMID:24715758

  3. Processing, mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of ultrafine grained zirconium fabricated by accumulative roll bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ling

    The aim of this study is to produce large quantities of bulk zirconium with an ultrafine grained microstructure and with enhanced properties. Accumulative roll bonding (ARB), a severe plastic deformation technique based on rolling, is chosen due to its availability in industrial environment. The texture, microstructure and mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine grained (ufg) Zr fabricated by accumulative roll bonding is investigated by electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and mechanical testing. A reasonably homogeneous and equiaxed ufg structure, with a large fraction of high angle boundaries (HABs, ˜70%), can be obtained in Zr after only two ARB cycles. The average grain size, counting only HABs (theta>15°), is 400 nm. (Sub)grain size is equal to 320 nm. The yield stress and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) values are nearly double those from conventionally processed Zr with only a slight loss of ductility. Optimum processing conditions include large thickness reductions per pass (˜75%), which enhance grain refinement, and a rolling temperature (T ˜ 0.3Tm) at which a sufficient number of slip modes are activated, with an absence of significant grain growth. Grain refinement takes place by geometrical thinning and grain subdivision by the formation of geometrically necessary boundaries. The formation of equiaxed grains by geometric dynamic recrystallization is facilitated by enhanced diffusion due to adabatic heating. Optical microscopy examination and shear testing suggest accepted bonding quality compared to that achieved in materials processed by diffusion bonding and that obtained in other ARB studies. Biocompatibility of ultrafine grained Zr processed by large strain rolling is studied by evaluating the behavior of human osteoblast cells. It is suggested that ultrafine grained Zr has a similar good biocompatibility as Ti6Al4V alloy and conventional Zr with a large grain size have. The improved mechanical properties together with

  4. Crowdsourcing a Collective Sense of Place.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Andrew; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew T; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical construct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally analyze and quantify the shared meaning of place. By aggregating references to human activities within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocultural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assigning to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective sense of place. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics. PMID:27050432

  5. Crowdsourcing a Collective Sense of Place

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Andrew; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew T.; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical construct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally analyze and quantify the shared meaning of place. By aggregating references to human activities within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocultural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assigning to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective sense of place. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics. PMID:27050432

  6. Directional control of hippocampal place fields.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, K J; Donnett, J G; Burgess, N; O'Keefe, J M

    1997-10-01

    Pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus fire whenever the animal is in a particular place, suggesting that the hippocampus maintains a representation of the environment. Receptive fields of place cells (place fields) are largely determined by the distance of the rat from environmental walls. Because these walls are sometimes distinguishable only by their orientation with respect to the outside room, it has been hypothesised that a polarising directional input enables the cells to locate their fields off-centre in an otherwise symmetrical environment. We tested this hypothesis by gaining control of the rat's internal directional sense, independently of other cues, to see whether manipulating this sense could, by itself, produce a corresponding alteration in place field orientation. Place cells were recorded while rats foraged in a rectangular box, in the absence or presence of external room cues. With room cues masked, slow rotation of the rat and the box together caused the fields to rotate accordingly. Rotating the recording box alone by 180 degrees rarely caused corresponding field rotation, while rotating the rat alone 180 degrees outside the environment and then replacing it in the recording box almost always resulted in a corresponding rotation of the fields. This shows that place field orientation can be controlled by controlling the internal direction-sense of the rat, and it opens the door to psycho-physical exploration of the sensory basis of the direction sense. When room cues were present, distal visual cues predominated over internal cues in establishing place field orientation.

  7. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  8. Arrest of segregation leads to accumulation of highly intertwined catenated dimers: dissection of the final stages of SV40 DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Sundin, O; Varshavsky, A

    1981-09-01

    When SV40-infected cells are placed into hypertonic medium, newly synthesized DNA accumulates as form C catenated dimers. These molecules consist of two supercoiled monomer circles of SV40 DNA interlocked by one or more topological inter-twinings and are seen as transiently labeled inter-mediates during normal replication. Form C catenated dimers represent pure segregation intermediates, replicative DNA structures in which DNA synthesis is complete but which still require topological separation of the two daughter circles. Hypertonic shock seems to block selectively a type II topoisomerase activity involved in disentangling the two circles. This is reflected in the fact that form C catenated dimers that accumulate during the block are highly intertwined with catenation linkage numbers up to C(L) = 20. While initiation of replication is also inhibited by hypertonic treatment, ongoing SV40 DNA synthesis is not affected, and replication is free to proceed from the earliest cairns structure through to form C catenated dimers. The block to segregation is rapidly and completely released by shifting the cells back to normal medium. A much slower recovery of DNA segregation takes place on prolonged incubation in hypertonic medium, perhaps because of some cellular homeostatic mechanism. The results of this work lead to a detailed view of the final stages of SV40 DNA replication.

  9. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    PubMed Central

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by – more or less qualified – advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  10. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking.

    PubMed

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  11. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.; Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infanual (Mercenaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different from the accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.

  12. Chloroplasts continuously monitor photoreceptor signals during accumulation movement.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hidenori; Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Under low light conditions, chloroplasts gather at a cell surface to maximize light absorption for efficient photosynthesis, which is called the accumulation response. Phototropin1 (phot1) and phototropin2 (phot2) were identified as blue light photoreceptors in the accumulation response that occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Adiantum capillus-veneris with neochrome1 (neo1) as a red light photoreceptor in A. capillus-veneris. However, the signal molecule that is emitted from the photoreceptors and transmitted to the chloroplasts is not known. To investigate this topic, the accumulation response was induced by partial cell irradiation with a microbeam of red, blue and far-red light in A. capillus-veneris gametophyte cells. Chloroplasts moved towards the irradiated region and were able to sense the signal as long as its signal flowed. The signal from neo1 had a longer life than the signal that came from phototropins. When two microbeams with the same wavelength and the same fluence rate were placed 20 μm apart from each other and were applied to a dark-adapted cell, chloroplasts at an equidistant position always moved towards the center (midpoint) of the two microbeams, but not towards either one. This result indicates that chloroplasts are detecting the concentration of the signal but not the direction of signal flow. Chloroplasts repeatedly move and stop at roughly 10 s intervals during the accumulation response, suggesting that they monitor the intermittent signal waves from photoreceptors.

  13. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  14. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  15. Recent sedimentary history of organic matter and nutrient accumulation in the Ohuira Lagoon, northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Frignani, Mauro; Tesi, Tommaso; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2007-08-01

    (210)Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates, as well as a suite of geochemical proxies (Al, Fe, delta(13)C, delta(15)N), were used to assess the time-dependent variations of C, N, and P fluxes recorded in two sediment cores collected at Ohuira Lagoon, in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during the last 100 years. Sedimentary C, N, and P concentrations increased with time and were related to land clearing, water impoundment, and agriculture practices, such as fertilization. C:N:P ratios and delta(13)C suggested an estuarine system that is responsive to increased C loading from a N-limited phytoplankton community, whereas delta(15)N values showed the transition between an estuarine-terrestrial to an estuarine-more marine environment, as a consequence of the declining freshwater supply into the estuary due to the channeling and impoundment of El Fuerte River between 1900 and 1956. The recent increases in nutrient fluxes (2- to 9-fold the pre-anthropogenic fluxes of C and N, and 2 to 13 times for P) taking place in the mainland from the 1940s, were related to the expansion of the intensive agriculture fields and to the more recent development of shrimp farming activities.

  16. Damage accumulation in MgO irradiated with MeV Au ions at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller-Perea, Diana; Debelle, Aurélien; Thomé, Lionel; Behar, Moni

    2016-09-01

    The damage accumulation process in MgO single crystals under medium-energy heavy ion irradiation (1.2 MeV Au) at fluences up to 4 × 1014 cm-2 has been studied at three different temperatures: 573, 773, and 1073 K. Disorder depth profiles have been determined through the use of the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling configuration (RBS/C). The analysis of the RBS/C data reveals two steps in the MgO damage process, irrespective of the temperature. However, we find that for increasing irradiation temperature, the damage level decreases and the fluence at which the second step takes place increases. A shift of the damage peak at increasing fluence is observed for the three temperatures, although the position of the peak depends on the temperature. These results can be explained by an enhanced defect mobility which facilitates defect migration and may favor defect annealing. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps confirm the results obtained with the RBS/C technique.

  17. Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, T M; Coutinho, D A; Lacerda, L D; Moraes, M O; Rebelo, M F

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks) and low (outdoor tanks) Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1); hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1) and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1), Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w.) relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals.

  18. Children and Place: A Natural Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Valerie G.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents seven outdoor activities on the environment and ecology to be used at the K-12 grade level. Connects students with the environment they live in and develops the critical sense of place. (Contains 26 references.) (YDS)

  19. Place identification and positive realities of aging.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A

    2001-03-01

    The concepts of place attachment and place identity inform this study of the experiences of older African Americans in a small town in the midwestern United States. Life stories collected from ordinary people remembering the past fifty years offer a view of aging which is contrary to the widely reported negative status that stems from lifelong experiences of injustice and inequality. Individuals do not see themselves in such a state. Experiences relative to identification with and the attachment to a place hold powerful memories for older people. The cumulative memories of place allow individuals to maintain a favorable self-image in spite of the contingencies of later life. This affirms a positive rather than negative view of aging in a region people call 'God's Country'. PMID:14617990

  20. 45 CFR 213.13 - Place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STATES ON CONFORMITY OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PLANS TO FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS Preliminary Matters-Notice and... Department is located or in such other place as is fixed by the Administrator in light of the...

  1. 45 CFR 213.13 - Place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES ON CONFORMITY OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PLANS TO FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS Preliminary Matters-Notice and... Department is located or in such other place as is fixed by the Administrator in light of the...

  2. 45 CFR 213.13 - Place.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STATES ON CONFORMITY OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PLANS TO FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS Preliminary Matters-Notice and... Department is located or in such other place as is fixed by the Administrator in light of the...

  3. Place identification and positive realities of aging.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A

    2001-03-01

    The concepts of place attachment and place identity inform this study of the experiences of older African Americans in a small town in the midwestern United States. Life stories collected from ordinary people remembering the past fifty years offer a view of aging which is contrary to the widely reported negative status that stems from lifelong experiences of injustice and inequality. Individuals do not see themselves in such a state. Experiences relative to identification with and the attachment to a place hold powerful memories for older people. The cumulative memories of place allow individuals to maintain a favorable self-image in spite of the contingencies of later life. This affirms a positive rather than negative view of aging in a region people call 'God's Country'.

  4. Spatial analysis and indicator building for metal accumulation in mosses.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland

    2004-11-01

    Mosses are used as passive accumulation monitors for metal accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. Under leadership of the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection Germany took part in the previous European-wide moss monitoring campaigns 1990, 1995 and 2000. The investigations accomplished thereby cannot be presented completely in this article. The remarks rather concentrate on methodical aspects of the statistical data analysis. In Chapter 2 the design of data collection is summarized. Chapter 3 treats the geostatistical analysis and transformation of point data to areal information. Chapter 4 describes the aggregation of the element-specific metal concentrations in mosses to a spatially and temporally differentiated indicator of metal accumulation by means of descriptive and multivariate statistics. The work presented is only a small part of geostatistics and multivariate statistics which fit for analysis of moss monitoring data. Taking the results presented here as a basis, the following steps would further be of great importance: cluster-analytic evaluation of the results of the Moss Monitoring 1990 and 1995, detailing the cluster results using additional empirical and location describing information (e.g. moss species, ecoregions, site and species specific variability of metal accumulation) as well as optimizing the indicator buildung by testing of multivariate statistical regression models (e.g. Classification and Regression Trees). PMID:15473533

  5. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  6. A Tie for Third Place: Teens Need Physical Spaces as well as Virtual Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Paula Brehm

    2006-01-01

    "Third places" or public and informal gathering places have declined over the years. Third places, which are "neutral ground" where people gather to discuss, interact, and enjoy the company of those they know, are important for the health of communities. It's a known fact that teens have a strong need to socialize, and their third-space options…

  7. Foundations of Place: A Multidisciplinary Framework for Place-Conscious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenewald, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides educators at all levels with a theoretical rationale for place-conscious education; it also discusses pedagogical pathways, and institutional challenges, to place-consciousness. Drawing on insights from phenomenology, critical geography, bioregionalism, ecofeminism, and other place-conscious traditions, the author gathers…

  8. Operationalizing Place: Discovering, Reasoning about, and Exploring Place Knowledge from Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Benjamin Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Places and place types, such as "small town", play a fundamental role in how people organize knowledge about the world. Although places are commonly referenced in human communication, often they are not canonically defined and many of the properties people associate with them have proved difficult to operationalize. In information…

  9. Remembering the Roots of Place Meanings for Place-Based Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Place-based education seeks to connect learners to local environments through a variety of strategies that increase environmental awareness and connectedness to particular parts of the world. The concept of place meanings encompasses the subjective ways people construct meaning through their experiences with an array of settings. Place meanings…

  10. Nutrient-contaminant (Pu) plant accumulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    A model was developed which simulates the movement and daily accumulation of nutrients and contaminants in crop plants resulting from known physiological processes in the plant. In the model, the daily contaminant accumulation is governed by daily increase in plant biomass derived from photosynthesis and by the specified thermodynamic activity of the bioavailable contaminant species in soil or hydroponic solutin. Total accumulation and resulting concentration in the plant's root, stem and branch, leaf, and reproductive compartments can be simulated any time during the growing season. Parameters were estimated from data on plutonium accumulation in soybeans and the model was calibrated against this same data set. The plutonium distribution in the plant was found to be most sensitive to parameters related to leaf accumulation. Contamination at different times during the growing season resulted in a large change in predicted leaf accumulation but very little change in predicted accumulation in other plant parts except when contamination occurred very late in the growing season.

  11. Long-range spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.

    PubMed

    Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2015-04-24

    We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a long-range spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal signal. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters.

  12. Relationship between Nitrite Reduction and Active Phosphate Uptake in the Phosphate-Accumulating Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain JR 12

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Yoram; van Rijn, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    Phosphate uptake by the phosphate-accumulating denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. JR12 was examined with different combinations of electron and carbon donors and electron acceptors. Phosphate uptake in acetate-supplemented cells took place with either oxygen or nitrate but did not take place when nitrite served as the final electron acceptor. Furthermore, nitrite reduction rates by this denitrifier were shown to be significantly reduced in the presence of phosphate. Phosphate uptake assays in the presence of the H+-ATPase inhibitor N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), in the presence of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), or with osmotic shock-treated cells indicated that phosphate transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of this bacterium was mediated by primary and secondary transport systems. By examining the redox transitions of whole cells at 553 nm we found that phosphate addition caused a significant oxidation of a c-type cytochrome. Based on these findings, we propose that this c-type cytochrome serves as an intermediate in the electron transfer to both nitrite reductase and the site responsible for active phosphate transport. In previous studies with this bacterium we found that the oxidation state of this c-type cytochrome was significantly higher in acetate-supplemented, nitrite-respiring cells (incapable of phosphate uptake) than in phosphate-accumulating cells incubated with different combinations of electron donors and acceptors. Based on the latter finding and results obtained in the present study it is suggested that phosphate uptake in this bacterium is subjected to a redox control of the active phosphate transport site. By means of this mechanism an explanation is provided for the observed absence of phosphate uptake in the presence of nitrite and inhibition of nitrite reduction by phosphate in this organism. The implications of these findings regarding denitrifying, phosphate removal wastewater plants is discussed. PMID

  13. Modeling place field activity with hierarchical slow feature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz

    2015-01-01

    What are the computational laws of hippocampal activity? In this paper we argue for the slowness principle as a fundamental processing paradigm behind hippocampal place cell firing. We present six different studies from the experimental literature, performed with real-life rats, that we replicated in computer simulations. Each of the chosen studies allows rodents to develop stable place fields and then examines a distinct property of the established spatial encoding: adaptation to cue relocation and removal; directional dependent firing in the linear track and open field; and morphing and scaling the environment itself. Simulations are based on a hierarchical Slow Feature Analysis (SFA) network topped by a principal component analysis (ICA) output layer. The slowness principle is shown to account for the main findings of the presented experimental studies. The SFA network generates its responses using raw visual input only, which adds to its biological plausibility but requires experiments performed in light conditions. Future iterations of the model will thus have to incorporate additional information, such as path integration and grid cell activity, in order to be able to also replicate studies that take place during darkness. PMID:26052279

  14. Ready, Set and No Place to Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailyn, Lotte

    1980-01-01

    Many technically-trained managers become stranded halfway up the corporate chain of advancement at mid-career. This article discusses efforts companies may take to open new pathways for these individuals. (Author/RE)

  15. Risk taking among diabetic clients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D H; Schwartz-Barcott, D; Patterson, B

    1992-01-01

    Diabetic clients must make daily decisions about their health care needs. Observational and anecdotal evidence suggests that vast differences exist between the kinds of choices diabetic clients make and the kinds of chances they are willing to take. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a diabetic risk-assessment tool. This instrument, which is based on subjective expected utility theory, measures risk-prone and risk-averse behavior. Initial findings from a pilot study of 18 women clients who are on insulin indicate that patterns of risk behavior exist in the areas of exercise, skin care, and diet. PMID:1729123

  16. Finding lichens in all the right places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The scientific process of discovery can take surprising twists.Take William Bull, a professor emeritus of geosciences at the University of Arizona, with whom Eos recently spoke. One day in December 1989, as Bull gazed across the pastoral New Zealand scenery with sheep grazing in the foreground of the Southern Alps, his paranoia led to a new discovery about how to date past earthquakes and possibly help to forecast future ground shaking.

  17. Learning as Existential Engagement with/in Place: Departing from Vandenberg and the Reams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This article takes Vandenberg's critique of Ream and Ream's view on the Deweyan learning environment as a departing point to explore the educational meaning of place. The divergence between Vandenberg and the Reams reminds us that the place is not merely a physical site for learners to be located in but also a horizon to be engaged with.…

  18. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Schwieren, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  19. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  20. Towards a chronotopic theory of "place" in place-based education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-12-01

    The notion of place, as in place- based education, has received considerable attention in educational theorizing because of its potential to link students, their lifeworlds, and their experiences in particular settings to formal education. However, in current debates of place-based education, the notion of place is emerging as problematic. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a rethinking of place in a form that is appropriate for describing and theorizing its occurrence in a world we share with others. We understand place as the result of a dialectical and dialogical relation of the material world and its chronotopic (time-space) nature in the various conversations (discourses) in which it is constituted as this place; that is, we view place as a lived entity that results from a dialogical transaction between a community and its material environment at a particular moment in cultural-historical time and which hence shapes and is shaped by the identity of the people. We exemplify our rethinking with a case of an environmental education project in which place unfolds as a chronotope from a dialogue between scientific and indigenous voices. The implications of this rethinking of place for place-based education are discussed.

  1. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  2. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  3. ACCUMULATION OF FLAMMABLE GAS IN SEALED WASTE TRANSFER ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-06-24

    This report assesses potential accumulation of flammable gases in sealed waste transfer structures. A hypothetical scenario was analyzed in which flammable gas was generated by spilled waste on the transfer structure floor. Results showed that the flammable gas concentration builds slowly and it would take decades to reach the lower flammability limit (LFL) in these hypothetical scenarios. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are used to provide a conservative assessment of the flammable gas hazard. This assessment includes steel transfer structures, transfer structures with external coatings (e.g., coatings applied during interim isolation), and internal coatings (e.g., polyurea that is being applied to active transfer structures as part of Project W-314).

  4. Infrared astronomy takes center stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick C.; Gatley, Ian; Hollenbach, David

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of infrared astronomy, including the ability to detect cool matter, explore the hidden universe, reveal a wealth of spectral lines, and reach back to the beginning of time are outlined. Ground-based infrared observations such as observations in the thermal infrared region are discussed as well as observations utilizing infrared telescopes aboard NASA aircraft and orbiting telescopes. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy are described, and it is pointed out that infrared astronomers can penetrate obscuring dust to study stars and interstellar matter throughout the Milky Way galaxy. Application of various infrared instruments to the investigation of stars and planets is emphasized, and focus is placed on the discovery of clouds or disks of particles around mature stars and acquisition of high-resolution spectra of the gaseous and solid materials orbiting on the fringes of the solar system.

  5. Place attachment among retirees in Greensburg, Kansas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Cartlidge, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    On 4 May 2007 an ef-5 tornado leveled 95 percent of Greensburg, Kansas. Because city leaders encouraged everyone to use “green” building techniques as they rebuilt their homes and businesses, not only has the return to normalcy been exceedingly slow, but some of the town's older residents feel that officials have overlooked their needs. These minor episodes of discord enabled us to learn what features are most important to people in retirement. The features include identifiable landmarks, a space in which to socialize, and age-specific businesses. We assert that the lessons learned in Greensburg are applicable to other communities with a sizable older population. As baby boomers rapidly enter retirement they will seek places to live that are elder friendly and enable them to effectively bond with place. As previous research attests, people who have a strong attachment to place commonly have a good quality of life. PMID:22319811

  6. Cure-in-place process for seals

    DOEpatents

    Hirasuna, Alan R.

    1981-01-01

    A cure-in-place process which allows a rubber seal element to be deformed to its service configuration before it is cross-linked and, hence, is a plastic and does not build up internal stress as a result of the deformation. This provides maximum residual strength to resist the differential pressure. Furthermore, the process allows use of high modulus formulations of the rubber seal element which would otherwise crack if cured and then deformed to its service configuration, resulting in a seal which has better gap bridging capability. Basically, the process involves positioning an uncured seal element in place, deforming it to its service configuration, heating the seal element, curing it in place, and then fully seating the seal.

  7. Place attachment among retirees in Greensburg, Kansas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Cartlidge, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    On 4 May 2007 an ef-5 tornado leveled 95 percent of Greensburg, Kansas. Because city leaders encouraged everyone to use “green” building techniques as they rebuilt their homes and businesses, not only has the return to normalcy been exceedingly slow, but some of the town's older residents feel that officials have overlooked their needs. These minor episodes of discord enabled us to learn what features are most important to people in retirement. The features include identifiable landmarks, a space in which to socialize, and age-specific businesses. We assert that the lessons learned in Greensburg are applicable to other communities with a sizable older population. As baby boomers rapidly enter retirement they will seek places to live that are elder friendly and enable them to effectively bond with place. As previous research attests, people who have a strong attachment to place commonly have a good quality of life.

  8. Taking charge: a personal responsibility.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D M

    1987-01-01

    Women can adopt health practices that will help them to maintain good health throughout their various life stages. Women can take charge of their health by maintaining a nutritionally balanced diet, exercising, and using common sense. Women can also employ known preventive measures against osteoporosis, stroke, lung and breast cancer and accidents. Because women experience increased longevity and may require long-term care with age, the need for restructuring the nation's care system for the elderly becomes an important women's health concern. Adult day care centers, home health aides, and preventive education will be necessary, along with sufficient insurance to maintain quality care and self-esteem without depleting a person's resources. PMID:3120224

  9. Consumer views about aging-in-place

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Karen; Kay, Debra; Foot, Jan; Pastakia, Khushnum

    2015-01-01

    Background Supporting older people’s choices to live safely and independently in the community (age-in-place) can maximize their quality of life and minimize unnecessary hospitalizations and residential care placement. Little is known of the views of older people about the aging-in-place process, and how they approach and prioritize the support they require to live in the community accommodation of their choice. Purpose To explore and synthesize the experiences and perspectives of older people planning for and experiencing aging-in-place. Methods Two purposively sampled groups of community-dwelling people aged 65+ years were recruited for individual interviews or focus groups. The interviews were semistructured, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Themes were identified by three researchers working independently, then in consort, using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. Results Forty-two participants provided a range of insights about, and strategies for, aging-in-place. Thematic saturation was reached before the final interviews. We identified personal characteristics (resilience, adaptability, and independence) and key elements of successful aging-in-place, summarized in the acronym HIPFACTS: health, information, practical assistance, finance, activity (physical and mental), company (family, friends, neighbors, pets), transport, and safety. Discussion This paper presents rich, and rarely heard, older people’s views about how they and their peers perceive, characterize, and address changes in their capacity to live independently and safely in the community. Participants identified relatively simple, low-cost, and effective supports to enable them to adapt to change, while retaining independence and resilience. The findings highlighted how successful aging-in-place requires integrated, responsive, and accessible primary health and community services. PMID:26604723

  10. Place Enrichment by Mining the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Ana O.; Pereira, Francisco C.; Biderman, Assaf; Ratti, Carlo

    In this paper, we address the assignment of semantics to places. The approach followed consists on leveraging from web online resources that are directly or indirectly related to places as well as from the integration with lexical and semantic frameworks such as Wordnet or Semantic Web ontologies. We argue for the wide applicability and validity of this approach to the area of Ubiquitous Computing, particularly for Context Awareness. We present our system, KUSCO, which searches for semantics associations to a given Point Of Interest (POI). Particular focus is provided to the experimentation and validation aspects.

  11. Cluster II quartet take the stage together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    This is the only occasion on which all four of ESA's Cluster II spacecraft will be on display together in Europe. Four Spacecraft, One Mission The unique event takes place near the end of the lengthy assembly and test programme, during which each individual spacecraft is being assembled in sequence, one after the other. Two have already completed their assembly and systems testing and are about to be stored in special containers at IABG prior to shipment to the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan next spring. In the case of the other two, flight models 5 and 8, installation of the science payloads has finished, but their exhaustive series of environmental tests at IABG have yet to begin. Following delivery to the launch site next April, the satellites will be launched in pairs in June and July 2000. Two Soyuz rockets, each with a newly designed Fregat upper stage, are being provided by the Russian-French Starsem company. This will be the first time ESA satellites have been launched from the former Soviet Union. Cluster II is a replacement for the original Cluster mission, which was lost during the maiden launch of Ariane 5 in June 1996. ESA, given the mission's importance in its overall strategy in the area of the Sun-Earth connection, decided to rebuild this unique project. ESA member states supported that proposal. On 3 April 1997, the Agency's Science Programme Committee agreed. Cluster II was born. European Teamwork Scientific institutions and industrial enterprises in almost all the 14 ESA member states and the United States are taking part in the Cluster II project. Construction of the eight Cluster / Cluster II spacecraft has been a major undertaking for European industry. Built into each 1200 kg satellite are six propellant tanks, two pressure tanks, eight thrusters, 80 metres of pipework, about 5 km of wiring, 380 connectors and more than 14 000 electrical contacts. All the spacecraft were assembled in the giant clean room at the Friedrichshafen plant of

  12. No More Robots: Building Kids' Character, Competence, and Sense of Place. [Re]Thinking Environmental Education. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Place-based education offers a compelling opportunity to engage students in the life of their community. More than just taking a field trip, participants in a place-based project make sustained efforts to make a difference and learn basic skills along the way. Academic concepts come to life as real-world problems are investigated from a local…

  13. Viewing Places: Students as Visual Ethnographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a micro-ethnographic study that took place during a summer research course for six undergraduate and four graduate students majoring in the disciplines of architecture, art education, geography, landscape architecture and an integrative arts program. The research sought to implement ethnographic, visual methods as a means to…

  14. Make Your School Library a Noisy Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    A common stereotype of a library is that of a place wherein people are required to be quiet. However, the author prefers a noisy and active library wherein books and ideas are discussed, recommended, and shared. The author believes that speaking is inextricably intertwined with thinking, and reading requires reflection on and a response to someone…

  15. What Kind of Place Is Secondary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Monie; Vivian, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Secondary school introduces students to a public space that differs from the private spaces commonly found in elementary schools. One of the markers signaling a transition from private to public space is the use of discourse. Secondary schools are places where social practices reject the democratic and caring activities found in the elementary…

  16. Knowing Our Place in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of the country, career and technical education programs are connecting learning with the resources, culture, history and people of the places where they are based. They are also forging a special connection between education and the needs of the community. Two such programs are discussed in this article. In the first example,…

  17. Teenagers in Public and Private Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Florence C.

    In this paper the physical characteristics of community sites that are common gathering places for adolescents are described and recommendations are given for improving their use. It is suggested that there are some common factors in the society and in the organization of many towns and cities in the United States that contribute to the appearance…

  18. An Outside Place for Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article was motivated by Summer 2006 Canadian Social Studies: History Alive! Old Sources, New Technologies. In light of technological advancements, programs, and efforts to enhance social studies, it appears history educators have forgotten about and overlook the benefits of leading children to authentic, historical places that exist outside…

  19. Good Jobs--but Places for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with men and women's experience of elite positions and with the extent to which such positions are seen as places for women, so as to provide an insight into their commitment to continuing in them. Senior management in universities are elite positions in terms of income; those who occupy them are relatively powerful…

  20. Finding Your Place in Art History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lauren Parmelee

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art history project used with fifth-grade students where they selected a famous painting as a background for a self-portrait. Explains how the students used Adobe Photoshop to place a digital photograph of themselves into a scanned image of the artwork. (CMK)

  1. Place Names in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hugo

    1978-01-01

    Students find place names--and their origins--interesting. A number of German examples are given, ranging from the Familiar Koeln (Colonia) and Koblenz (Confluentes) to the less familiar Wien ( Celtic vindos, "white water") and Weimar (wihmari, sacred swamp). (WGA)

  2. Engaging Places: Teacher Research. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The report was commissioned by the Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) to provide quantitative and qualitative information on the perspectives of teachers, headteachers and governors, from the three pilot regions (London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber), towards using local buildings, places and spaces to support learning…

  3. Place cell activation predicts subsequent memory.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, R Jonathan; White, John A; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-10-01

    A major quandary in memory research is how hippocampal place cells, widely recognized as elements of a spatial map, contribute to episodic memory, our capacity to remember unique experiences that depends on hippocampal function. Here we recorded from hippocampal neurons as rats performed a T-maze alternation task in which they were required to remember a preceding experience over a delay in order to make a subsequent spatial choice. As it has been reported previously in other variations of this task, we observed differential firing that predicted correct subsequent choices, even as the animal traversed identical locations prior to the choice. Here we also observed that most place cells also fired differently on correct as compared to error trials. Among these cells, a large majority fired strongly before the delay or during the retrieval phase but were less active or failed to activate when the animal subsequently made an error. These findings join the place cell phenomenon with episodic memory performance dependent on the hippocampus, revealing that memory accuracy can be predicted by the activation of single place cells in the hippocampus.

  4. Rethinking the Place of Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schissel, Bernard; Schissel, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    According to the annual United Nations declarations based on the Human Development Index (HDI), Canada remains one of the best places in the world in which to live. Ironically, this declaration of socio-economic superiority does not extend to the young people in the society. Although post-industrial societies like Canada and the United States may…

  5. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  6. How an ROV-placed grout

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, A.J.

    1986-06-01

    A remotely installed grout bag system, developed jointly by Stolt-Nielsen Seaway Technology Ltd., SeaMark Ltd. and Colos Colcrete Ltd., was used to correct and support a free span on Total Oil Marine's Frigg-St. Fergus pipe line system. The author gives details on how the system works and cost advantages over diver-placed grout bag supports.

  7. What a Queer Place Is School!?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter,

    2012-01-01

    Schools are queer places. Who would have thought that a book focusing on gender and sexual diversity in schools would even be necessary today? But in a time where education seems to have regressed in its liberalism, coupled with increased accessibility to information and knowledge, Elizabeth Meyer's Gender and Sexual Diversity in Schools: An…

  8. The National Register of Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed

    2002-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and materials are: "The National Register of Historic Places Today" (C. D. Shull); "The (Economic) Value of National Register Listing" (D. D. Rypkema); "The National Register and Heritage Areas" (B. Barrett);…

  9. Indian Place Names in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasque, Thomas J.

    A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

  10. In-Time On-Place Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauters, Merja; Purma, Jukka; Leinonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to look at how mobile video recording devices could support learning related to physical practices or places and situations at work. This paper discusses particular kind of workplace learning, namely learning using short video clips that are related to physical environment and tasks preformed in situ. The paper…

  11. Place and Space: Calhoun's Fatal Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrmann, G. P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how John C. Calhoun's speech "On Reception of the Abolition Petitions," illuminates his logical defense of slavery, while revealing that the logic was inextricably bound up in a powerful psycho-logic. Focuses on the role metaphor plays, particularly the functions of place, space, and related symbolic indices of orientation. (JD)

  12. Placing Teachers in Global Governance Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the focus on teacher policies and practices by a range of global actors and explores their meaning for the governance of teachers. Through a historical and contemporary reading, I argue that an important shift in the locus of power to govern has taken place. I show how the mechanisms of global governance of teachers are being…

  13. Video Games and the Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article the author explores the construction of place within virtual worlds and, in particular, in video games that appeal widely to children and youths. With the notable exception of "edutainment" titles, gaming and education have traditionally been viewed as separate pursuits. Yet, after school, millions of children and teens spend…

  14. Who Places into Developmental Education and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretlow, Joshua, III; Wathington, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    Having garnered national attention, high failure rates in developmental education present a significant barrier to state and national policymakers' goals of increasing the percentage of adults who earn a college credential. However, a majority of the research fails to consider why students place into developmental education. This piece…

  15. Places to Go: Pedagogy in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In this edition of Places to Go, Stephen Downes explores Pedagogy in Action, a Web site that seeks to provide pedagogical resources and support to educators in the field of scientific education. Managed by Carleton College, a small Midwestern liberal arts college, Pedagogy in Action, argues Downes, exemplifies what the Internet can do: increase…

  16. An Internationalized Stewardship of Urban Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latz, Gil; Sutton, Susan Buck; Hill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Metropolitan universities in the United States are driven by the intertwined missions of broadening educational access and serving their surrounding communities. International education historically has been placed somewhat apart from such missions. This separation has little justification in these globalized times, however--a realization that…

  17. Visual Place Learning in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ofstad, Tyler A.; Zuker, Charles S.; Reiser, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of insects to learn and navigate to specific locations in the environment has fascinated naturalists for decades. While the impressive navigation abilities of ants, bees, wasps, and other insects clearly demonstrate that insects are capable of visual place learning1–4, little is known about the underlying neural circuits that mediate these behaviors. Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for dissecting the neural circuitry underlying complex behaviors, from sensory perception to learning and memory. Flies can identify and remember visual features such as size, color, and contour orientation5, 6. However, the extent to which they use vision to recall specific locations remains unclear. Here we describe a visual place-learning platform and demonstrate that Drosophila are capable of forming and retaining visual place memories to guide selective navigation. By targeted genetic silencing of small subsets of cells in the Drosophila brain we show that neurons in the ellipsoid body, but not in the mushroom bodies, are necessary for visual place learning. Together, these studies reveal distinct neuroanatomical substrates for spatial versus non-spatial learning, and substantiate Drosophila as a powerful model for the study of spatial memories. PMID:21654803

  18. The Bay in Place of a Glacier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The cultural resource specialist at Glacier Bay National Park (Alaska) explains the collaborative efforts of park staff and the Hoonah Tlingit to overcome language and cultural barriers in documenting park place names and clan oral history and traditions. The new park-community relationship, which follows decades of conflict, includes training…

  19. Places to Go: YouTube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 2005 by three former PayPal employees, YouTube has revolutionized the Internet, marking a change from the static Internet to the dynamic Internet. In this edition of Places to Go, Stephen Downes discusses how the rise of a ubiquitous media format--Flash video--has made YouTube's success possible and argues that Flash video has important…

  20. Jamestown and Disneyland: Two Places in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Tideman, Robert

    This unit for high school students uses two dissimilar places in time; (2) Jamestown, Virginia, founded in 1607, one of the earliest settlements in the United States and (2) Disneyland, California, built in 1956, an institution of contemporary culture. The lessons address two fundamental questions in geography: (1) where? and (2) why here rather…

  1. Embodied Reimagining of Pedagogical Places/Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Shilpi; Bryzzheva, Lyudmila

    2012-01-01

    Students often find themselves disconnected from foundations courses such as Philosophy of Education, citing the abstract nature of some of the ideas studied and a perceived disconnect from practical issues. Moreover, the place/space of the university classroom itself can be seen to contribute to students' disengagement and stunting of their…

  2. Reframing Primary Curriculum through Concepts of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Kerith; Green, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Australian curricula name "sustainability" as a key priority area with implications for preparing pre-service teachers. In the research that generated this paper, we asked: How can framing teaching through space and place inform pre-service teachers' pedagogical thinking and practice? In new third year Bachelor of Education…

  3. Parentally-Placed Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernosia, Art

    This monograph provides an overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), its regulations, and relevant case law regarding parentally-placed students with disabilities in private schools. Following a brief review of early judicial decisions and the IDEA regulations concerning parental placements, a summary of current IDEA…

  4. Place knowing of persons and populations: restoring the place work of nursing.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-01

    Place emerges when space acquires definition in social constructions of meaning as landscape-languages, which reflect assumptions about physical and social realities. The place work of nursing, which resonated throughout Nightingale's work and the profession's evolution, focuses on human health and healing in the historical transitions and landscape-languages of populations. However, evidence-based practice dominated by empirical knowing inadequately addresses complex health and illness dynamics between place and populations. Translating evidence to the life course experiences of individuals and populations requires place knowing of human situated embodiment within discrete space. An exploration of the concept of place, its application to nursing, and the need for a place paradigm for practice is presented. A sense of salience and situated cognition has been identified as the essential element of the transformation needed in the education of nurses. Place knowing integrates other patterns of knowing (empirical, ethical, aesthetical, personal, unknowing, sociopolitical, and emancipatory) in a situated cognition. Place knowing, like other established patterns of knowing, is a significant epistemological foundation of nursing. Place knowing allows the nuanced intricately complex dynamics of embodied situated human health and illness to be examined, the salience of the particulars to be considered, and the whole of the landscape-languages to emerge.

  5. 76 FR 40697 - Water and Wastewater Trade Mission to Australia Taking Place September 12-15, 2011; Now Opened to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... water supply, and other civil projects. Composites, Chemicals and Plastics A wide variety of chemicals... products in the composites, chemicals and plastics Industries. Oil and Gas Field Machinery Oil and gas is a... construction or well-along in the planning stages. Modernization and restoration of existing machinery...

  6. The Learner, the Media and the Community: How Does Learning Take Place in the Other CALL Triangle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this research project, students in applied linguistics were asked to keep blogs over a three-month period in which they reported on their online informal learning of English through activities such as social networking, downloading films and TV series and listening to music on demand. The study is situated within the framework of complexity…

  7. A Study of the Effect upon the Self Concept of Delinquents When Interaction Takes Place with Mental Patients. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, J. Robert

    The primary concern of this research was to examine the effect, on the self concept of delinquent male adolescents, of a relationship in which they perceive themselves as helpers to other human beings. A group of 20 delinquents were paired with patients at a mental hospital. A comparable control group was selected. All procedures and measurement…

  8. Do Epigenetic Events Take Place in the Vastus Lateralis of Patients with Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Ausin, Pilar; Martinez-Llorens, Juana; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction is a major comorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Several biological mechanisms including epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle atrophy. Investigations conducted so far have focused on the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction in advanced COPD. We assessed whether the epigenetic profile may be altered in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild COPD, normal body composition, and mildly impaired muscle function and exercise capacity. In vastus lateralis (VL) of mild COPD patients with well-preserved body composition and in healthy age-matched controls, expression of DNA methylation, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HTAs) and deacetylases (HDACs), protein acetylation, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligases, and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared to healthy controls, in the VL of mild COPD patients, muscle function and exercise capacity were moderately reduced, DNA methylation levels did not differ, miR-1 expression levels were increased and positively correlated with both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and quadriceps force, HDAC4 protein levels were increased, and muscle fiber types and sizes were not different. Moderate skeletal muscle dysfunction is a relevant feature in patients with mild COPD and preserved body composition. Several epigenetic events are differentially expressed in the limb muscles of these patients, probably as an attempt to counterbalance the underlying mechanisms that alter muscle function and mass. The study of patients at early stages of their disease is of interest as they are a target for timely therapeutic interventions that may slow down the course of the disease and prevent the deleterious effects of major comorbidities. PMID:25013984

  9. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... United States. If the person who performed the activity on behalf of the FSC is an independent contractor... variable contract terms, such as price, credit terms, quantity, or time or manner of delivery, or specifies... new price. The written confirmation by the FSC of an oral agreement on a variable contract...

  10. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... United States. If the person who performed the activity on behalf of the FSC is an independent contractor... variable contract terms, such as price, credit terms, quantity, or time or manner of delivery, or specifies... new price. The written confirmation by the FSC of an oral agreement on a variable contract...

  11. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... United States. If the person who performed the activity on behalf of the FSC is an independent contractor... variable contract terms, such as price, credit terms, quantity, or time or manner of delivery, or specifies... new price. The written confirmation by the FSC of an oral agreement on a variable contract...

  12. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... United States. If the person who performed the activity on behalf of the FSC is an independent contractor... variable contract terms, such as price, credit terms, quantity, or time or manner of delivery, or specifies... new price. The written confirmation by the FSC of an oral agreement on a variable contract...

  13. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... United States. If the person who performed the activity on behalf of the FSC is an independent contractor... variable contract terms, such as price, credit terms, quantity, or time or manner of delivery, or specifies... new price. The written confirmation by the FSC of an oral agreement on a variable contract...

  14. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is a single-toilet room, having a full-length privacy door, within which urination can occur. (1) No... include is a multistall restroom. (1) Such a site must provide substantial visual privacy (e.g., a toilet... agent in all toilets or secure the toilets to prevent access; or (ii) Conduct all collections in...

  15. 49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is a single-toilet room, having a full-length privacy door, within which urination can occur. (1) No... include is a multistall restroom. (1) Such a site must provide substantial visual privacy (e.g., a toilet... agent in all toilets or secure the toilets to prevent access; or (ii) Conduct all collections in...

  16. Thermal accumulation and the early development of Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Rand, Peter W; Holman, Mary S; Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H; DeGaetano, Arthur T; Smith, Robert P

    2004-06-01

    We examined the relationship between the accumulation of thermal energy and the onset of oviposition and eclosion of the northern deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and explored the usefulness of comparing degree days (DD) required for larval emergence with area-wide National Weather Service (NWS) data to construct maps indicating where the establishment of this vector tick would be climatologically constrained. Initially, the validity of basal temperatures for egg and larval development was confirmed by prolonged incubations of gravid females and eggs at 6 degrees C and 10 degrees C respectively. Next, the number of DD accumulated in situ from the placement of gravid females to oviposition, and from oviposition to larval emergence, were measured using temperature data loggers placed next to fall- and spring-fed ticks held within individual vials under leaf litter in multiple enclosures located in diverse biophysical regions of Maine. Finally, when it was found that total DD to larval emergence, as measured in ambient air above the enclosures, compared favorably with DD accumulated simultaneously at nearby NWS stations, maps were constructed, based on archived NWS data, to demonstrate where temperatures were sufficient to allow the hatching of larvae both within one season and over the last three decades as I. scapularis has advanced into northern New England. PMID:15266754

  17. Case study of McCormick place cogeneration project

    SciTech Connect

    Overstreet, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    In the authors business of providing district energy services, competition is the key to his being able to have a positive impact on the environment, business stability, and economic activity. In the district energy industry, the competitive options are for property owners to continue to self generate energy to meet their needs, purchase energy from a company that utilizes electricity during off-peak hours to produce chilled water or take advantage of a total solution of purchasing tri-generation energy from Trigen-Peoples District Energy Company. Tri-generation is an innovative technology which involves the simultaneous production of steam, chilled water, and electricity. The McCormick Place cogeneration project calls for producing steam and chilled water (co-) for use by the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA). The plant will produce electricity (tri-) to run the production equipment.

  18. Denmark's Boernehavens: A Place to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    During the author's trips to Denmark as an instructor of American college students studying abroad, he led groups to visit several "boernehavens," which are the Danish equivalents of U.S. preschools for children ages 3 to 5. Danish society values confident individuals who can take initiative when faced with challenges and opportunities. Pedagogues…

  19. Women's Place in Man's Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Carol

    1979-01-01

    Drawing on literary and psychological sources, the author documents how theories of the life cycle, by taking men as models, have failed to account for the experience of women. She argues that this bias has promoted a concern with autonomy and achievement at the expense of attachment and intimacy. (CT)

  20. Vestibular symptoms and history taking.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, A

    2016-01-01

    History taking is an essential part in the diagnostic process of vestibular disorders. The approach to focus strongly on the quality of symptoms, like vertigo, dizziness, or unsteadiness, is not that useful as these symptoms often coexist and are all nonspecific, as each of them may arise from vestibular and nonvestibular diseases (like cardiovascular disease) and do not permit to distinguish potentially dangerous from benign causes. Instead, patients should be categorized if they have an acute, episodic, or chronic vestibular syndrome (AVS, EVS, or CVS) to narrow down the spectrum of differential diagnosis. Typical examples of disorders provoking an AVS would be vestibular neuritis or stroke of peripheral or central vestibular structures, of an EVS Menière's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or vestibular migraine and of a CVS long-standing uni- or bilateral vestibular failure or cerebellar degeneration. The presence of triggers should be established with a main distinction between positional (change of head orientation with respect to gravity), head motion-induced (time-locked to head motion regardless of direction) and orthostatic position change as the underlying disorders are quite different. Accompanying symptoms also help to orient to the underlying cause, like aural or neurologic symptoms, but also chest pain or dyspnea. PMID:27638064

  1. Take-all or nothing.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Restrepo, M; Groenewald, J Z; Elliott, M L; Canning, G; McMillan, V E; Crous, P W

    2016-01-01

    Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces by combining morphology and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and rpb1. Two new genera, Falciphoriella and Gaeumannomycella were subsequently introduced in Magnaporthaceae. The resulting phylogeny revealed several cryptic species previously overlooked within Gaeumannomyces. Isolates of Gaeumannomyces were distributed in four main clades, from which 19 species could be delimited, 12 of which were new to science. Our results show that the former varieties Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici represent species phylogenetically distinct from G. graminis, for which the new combinations G. avenae and G. tritici are introduced. Based on molecular data, morphology and host preferences, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. maydis is proposed as a synonym of G. radicicola. Furthermore, an epitype for Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae was designated to help stabilise the application of that name. PMID:27504028

  2. Embodied Experiences of Place: A Study of History Learning with Mobile Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, S.; Jewitt, C.; Sakr, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study that takes a multimodal analytical approach to examine how mobile technologies shape students' exploration and experience of place during a history learning activity in situ. In history education, mobile technologies provide opportunities for authentic experiential learning activities that have the potential…

  3. 28 CFR 2.47 - Warrant placed as a detainer and dispositional review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dispositional review. 2.47 Section 2.47 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE... serving a new sentence in a federal, state or local institution, a parole violation warrant may be placed... section, the Commission may take any action specified in § 2.52. (e)(1) A parole violator whose parole...

  4. The Place of Literature in an English Language Teaching Program: What Do Students Think about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tehan, Patricia; Yuksel, Dogan; Inan, Banu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and opinions of students towards the use and place of literature course in language teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3 groups of students: (a) the students who had not taken any literature courses before (n = 7), (b) the students who were taking a literature course at the time of the…

  5. A Researcher "Called" to "Taboo" Places?: A Burgeoning Research Method in African-Centered Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kmt G.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a self-reflexive analysis of the complexities of conducting Afrocentric education research while living with a "double consciousness." Having been "called" to places that are considered to be "taboo" the author takes readers on a journey that begins in his busy mind and ends in on the African continent in a "rabbit hole."…

  6. Places as Recovery Machines: Vulnerability and Neighborhood Change after Major Hurricanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Jeremy F.; Elliott, James R.

    2008-01-01

    This study advances a conceptual framework for understanding the transformation of places into recovery machines after major hurricanes. This framework contends that in the years following such disasters, pro-growth coalitions take advantage of new sources of material and symbolic capital to promote further demographic growth. It also contends…

  7. Exploring the Place of Exemplary Science Teaching. This Year in School Science 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley-Oliphant, Ann E., Ed.

    Exemplary science teaching is an experience that fosters wonder, excitement, and risk-taking. This book presents essays which attempt to describe the culture of classrooms of exemplary science teachers. Chapter titles are: "Exploring the Place of Exemplary Science Teaching" (Ann E. Haley-Oliphant); "The Voices of Exemplary Science Teachers" (Ann…

  8. Territory, Region and Place in Polish Geographical Education in the Context of the Globalization Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirog, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of evolution of the conception of selection and arrangement of regional education themes in Poland in 1960-2008 with special consideration for the understanding of territory and region in geographical education. Nowadays, at the time of an intense globalization process taking place, the meaning of the delimitation…

  9. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  10. Arsenic uptake, accumulation and phytofiltration by duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Hu, Ying; Liu, Yunxia; Chen, Baodong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates arsenic (As) accumulation and tolerance of duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. and its potential for As phytofiltration. S. polyrhiza was able to survive in high concentration of As(V) solution. The EC50 values (+/- SE) based on the external As(V) were (181.66 +/- 20.12) micromol/L. It accumulated (999 +/- 95) mg As/kg dw when exposed in 320 micromol/L As(V) solution for one week, and was able to take up appropriately 400 mg As/kg dw in tissues without a significant biomass loss. The EC50 values (the effective concentration of As(V) in the nutrient solution that caused a 50% inhibition on biomass production) was (866 +/- 68) mg/kg dw for the tissues, indicating that S. polyrhiza had a high capability of As accumulation and tolerance. The uptake kinetic parameters Vmax was (55.33 +/- 2.24) nmol/(g dw min) and Km was (0.144 +/- 0.011) mmol/L. Within 72 hr, S. polyrhiza decreased As concentration in the solution from 190 to 113 ng/mL with a removal rate of 41%. The study suggested that this floating aquatic plant has some potential for As phytofiltration in contaminated water bodies or paddy soils.

  11. Accumulation of cadmium and zinc in Evodiopanax innovans.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Chisato; Kobayashi, Motoharu; Kanaya, Shotaro

    2009-12-01

    The use of tree species for phytoremediation of contaminated soil offers the advantage of a large biomass in which to store contaminants. We investigated the cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation ability of Evodiopanax innovans, a common deciduous tree species belonging to the Araliaceae family and widely found in secondary forests in Japan. Sampling was conducted at an old silver mine. Leaf samples were collected from nine tree species, including E. innovans. The seasonal variation of metal concentrations in the leaves and the detailed distribution of metals in the leaves and twigs of E. innovans were measured. We also analyzed the contents of organic acids in the leaves. The highest concentration of Cd in the leaves of E. innovans was 118 μg/g, which exceeds the threshold level for being considered a Cd hyperaccumulator (100 μg/g). For Zn, the highest value was 1040 μg/g in leaves, which is less than required to qualify as a Zn hyperaccumulator. Both Cd and Zn were found to accumulate in the petioles and veins of leaves and the bark of twigs. Since the oxalic acid content of leaves showed a weak correlation with Cd concentration, oxalic acid may play an important role in the accumulation of Cd. Taking both the Cd concentration level and the biomass of this woody plant into consideration, it may be possible to use E. innovans for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  12. Molecular analysis of polyphosphate accumulation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, A; Ohtake, H

    2000-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), its accumulation and disappearance, is the most striking aspect of polyP metabolism in bacteria. Imbalance between polyP synthesis and degradation results in fluctuations of polyP by 100- to 1000-fold. We here review recent results with respect to this polyP metabolism in bacteria. PolyP accumulation in response to amino acid starvation, accompanied by increased levels of stringent factors, has been observed in Escherichia coli. Inhibition by stringent factors of polyphosphatase interrupts the dynamic balance between the synthesis and degradation of polyP, accounting for polyP accumulation. Polyphosphate kinase is required for activation of intracellular protein degradation, which is required for adaptation at the onset of amino acid starvation. The adaptation to amino acid starvation is mediated by the network of stringent response and polyP metabolism. PolyP accumulation independent of stringent response has also been observed. Novobiocin, an inhibitor for DNA gyrase, stimulated accumulation of polyP but not that of stringent factors. However, a temperature-sensitive DNA gyrase mutant did not exhibit polyP accumulation at the non-permissive temperature. Antagonistic relationship of polyP to nucleic acid synthesis, explored by Harold, appears to be more complicated. We discuss relationship of Pi regulation to polyP accumulation in E. coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. A function of polyP as an in vivo phosphagen affecting polyP accumulation is also discussed.

  13. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  14. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-25 Accumulators. (a) An accumulator is an unfired pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each...

  15. "Our Place in History": Inspiring Place-Based Social History in Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenewald, David A.; Koppelman, Nancy; Elam, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a teacher development program that engages history and social studies teachers in making connections between learning and the well-being of places in which people actually live. "Our Place in History" is a three-year, federally-funded professional development institute for twenty teachers from diverse communities in…

  16. Apply an Augmented Reality in a Mobile Guidance to Increase Sense of Place for Heritage Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Lien; Hou, Huei-Tse; Pan, Chao-Yang; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Based on the sense of place theory and the design principles of guidance and interpretation, this study developed an augmented reality mobile guidance system that used a historical geo-context-embedded visiting strategy. This tool for heritage guidance and educational activities enhanced visitor sense of place. This study consisted of 3 visitor…

  17. "My Place": Exploring Children's Place-Related Identities through Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Emma; Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle; Pointon, Pam; Nikolajeva, Maria; Spring, Erin; Taylor, Liz; Wyse, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how children perceive and represent their placed-related identities through reading and writing. It reports on the findings of an 18-month interdisciplinary project, based at Cambridge University Faculty of Education, which aimed to consider children's place-related identities through their engagement with, and creation…

  18. "Knowing your Place in the World:" How Place and Culture Support and Obstruct Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing international interest in learning outside the classroom; place-based education is one manifestation of this. In this article, some conceptualisations of place are considered and attention drawn to alignments with habitus at micro, meso and macro levels. I develop a concept of cultural density as an explanatory tool to theorise…

  19. Regulatory RNAs discovered in unexpected places.

    PubMed

    Pek, Jun Wei; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have discovered both small and long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) encoded in unexpected places. These ncRNA genes were surprises at the time of their discovery, but many quickly became well-accepted families of functional regulatory RNA species. Even after years of extensive gene annotation studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies, new types of ncRNA genes continue to be discovered in unexpected places. We highlight ncRNAs that have atypical structures and that are encoded in what are generally considered 'junk' sequences, such as spacers and introns. We also discuss current bottlenecks in the approaches for identifying novel ncRNAs and the possibility that many remain to be discovered. PMID:26424536

  20. Forwardly-placed firearm fire control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Frickey, Steven J.

    2001-12-22

    A firearm fire control assembly for disposition in a forwardly placed support-hand operative relationship within a firearm having a combination of a firing pin and a firearm hammer adapted to engage and fire a cartridge, a sear assembly to alternately engage and disengage the combination of the firearm hammer and firing pin, and a trigger assembly including a movable trigger mechanism that is operable to engage the sear assembly to cause the firearm hammer firing pin combination to fire the firearm, a fire control assembly including a fire control depression member and a fire control rod operably connected to the depression member, and being positioned in a forward disposition disposed within a forestock of the firearm, and the depression member adapted to be operably engaged and depressed by the user's conventional forwardly placed support hand to maneuver the fire control rod to provide firing control of the firing of the firearm.

  1. Being there: the library as place*

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Frieda

    2004-01-01

    The value of the library as place is examined in this Janet Doe Lecture. The lecture, which is intended to focus on the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship, presents an overview of the library as a place in society from ancient times to the present. The impact of information technology and changes in the methods of scholarly publication from print to digital are addressed as well as the role of the library as the repository of the written historical record of cultures. Functions and services of libraries are discussed in light of the physical library facility of the future. Finally, librarians are asked to remember the enduring values of librarianship in planning libraries of the future. PMID:14762459

  2. Achievement Place: development of the elected manager system.

    PubMed

    Phillips, E L; Phillips, E A; Wolf, M M; Fixsen, D L

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to compare several administrative systems at Achievement Place, a family style behavior modification program for pre-delinquent boys. One aspect of the motivation system at Achievement Place was the token economy in which the youths could earn or lose points that could be exchanged for privileges. Several arrangements for assigning routine tasks and for providing token consequences for task performance were compared for their effectiveness in accomplishing the tasks and for their preference by the boys. The independent variables studied included: (1) individually assigned tasks versus group assigned tasks; (2) consequences for individual performance versus consequences for group performance; (3) a peer managership that could be earned by the highest bidder versus a peer managership that could be determined democratically by the peers. The results suggested that among those systems studied the system that best met the criteria of effectiveness and preference involved a democratically elected peer manager who had the authority both to give and to take away points for his peers' performances.

  3. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  4. Holding Cargo in Place With Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam fills entire container to protect cargo from shock and vibration. Originally developed for stowing space debris and spent satellites in Space Shuttle for return to Earth, encapsulation concept suitable for preparing shipments carried by truck, boat, or airplane. Equipment automatically injects polyurethane foam into its interior to hold cargo securely in place. Container of rectangular or other cross section built to match shape of vehicle used.

  5. The Young Men of Marram Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Diana Armatage

    2010-01-01

    Bucky is 29 years old. Jesse is 27 is years old. Paul is 23 years old. They have lived together at Marram Place, a four-bedroom house, for over a year and have become best friends. Each works 20 hours per week in the community for his own spending money. After work, the guys walk, swim, work on computers, help with the housework, deliver a…

  6. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    -host-alternating) were advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis.

  7. Long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids

    PubMed Central

    Bell, James R; Alderson, Lynda; Izera, Daniela; Kruger, Tracey; Parker, Sue; Pickup, Jon; Shortall, Chris R; Taylor, Mark S; Verrier, Paul; Harrington, Richard

    2015-01-01

    advancing their phenology faster than those that were not. 6. Climate drives phenology and traits help explain how this takes place biologically. Phenology and trait ecology are critical to understanding the threat posed by emerging pests such as Myzus persicae nicotianae and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis, as revealed by the species accumulation analysis. PMID:25123260

  8. In-place filter testing summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, J.P.; Garcia, E.D.; Ortega, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The most common method of identifying particle penetration through a filter or adsorber system is through the performance of a periodic penetration test, i.e., in-place test or leak test using an aerosol or gas vapor to challenge the filter or adsorber system. The aerosol is usually formed by vaporization of a liquid, di-2(ethelhexyl sebacate) (DEHS), and allowed to condense to form liquid particles of a certain size and distribution. The gas vapor is formed by vaporization of Freon 11 liquid. The periodic penetration test, although conducted annually, can and has been demonstrated to show the beginning degradation of a filter or adsorber system. Other evidence of penetration can include detection of radiation downstream of the filter system or the existence of an unusually low pressure drop across the filter, i.e., torn filter, etc. However, these kinds of occurrences show up instantaneously and could release radioactive material to the atmosphere before the systems could be shut down. When a filter system fails the in--place test or is showing evidence of.filter or component degradation, corrective measures are put into place in order to return,the system back to its best operating condition. This report presents a summary of all filter tests.

  9. Visual place recognition with repetitive structures.

    PubMed

    Torii, Akihiko; Sivic, Josef; Okutomi, Masatoshi; Pajdla, Tomas

    2015-11-01

    Repeated structures such as building facades, fences or road markings often represent a significant challenge for place recognition. Repeated structures are notoriously hard for establishing correspondences using multi-view geometry. They violate the feature independence assumed in the bag-of-visual-words representation which often leads to over-counting evidence and significant degradation of retrieval performance. In this work we show that repeated structures are not a nuisance but, when appropriately represented, they form an important distinguishing feature for many places. We describe a representation of repeated structures suitable for scalable retrieval and geometric verification. The retrieval is based on robust detection of repeated image structures and a suitable modification of weights in the bag-of-visual-word model. We also demonstrate that the explicit detection of repeated patterns is beneficial for robust visual word matching for geometric verification. Place recognition results are shown on datasets of street-level imagery from Pittsburgh and San Francisco demonstrating significant gains in recognition performance compared to the standard bag-of-visual-words baseline as well as the more recently proposed burstiness weighting and Fisher vector encoding. PMID:26440272

  10. 150,000 years of loess accumulation in central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Britta J. L.; Evans, Michael E.; Froese, Duane G.; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.

    2016-03-01

    The Halfway House site in interior Alaska is arguably the most studied loess deposit in northwestern North America. The site contains a complex paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental record, but has lacked the robust chronologic control that would allow its full potential to be exploited. Detailed reexamination of stratigraphy, paleomagnetics and tephrostratigraphy reveals a relatively complete marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to Holocene record constrained by the Old Crow (124 ± 10 ka), VT (106 ± 10 ka), Sheep Creek-Klondike (ca. 80 ka), Dominion Creek (77 ± 8 ka) and Dawson (ca. 30.2 cal ka BP) tephras. We show two well-developed paleosols formed during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e and 5a, while MIS 5c and 5b are either poorly represented or absent. The new tephrostratigraphy presented here is the most complete one to date for the late Pleistocene and indicates MIS 5 sediments are more common than previously recognized. A magnetic excursion within the sediments is identified as the post-Blake excursion (94.1 ± 7.8 ka), providing independent age control and adding to the increasing body of evidence that Alaskan loess is a detailed recorder of variations of the Earth's magnetic field over time. A high-resolution magnetic susceptibility profile placed into this new chronostratigraphic framework supports the hypothesis that wind-intensity is the main variable controlling fluctuations in susceptibility. Correlation of the susceptibility record to global marine δ18O records is complicated by highly variable accumulation rates. We find the lowest rates of accumulation during peak warm and cold stages, while abrupt increases are associated with periods of transition between marine isotope (sub)stages. Building on previous accumulation models for Alaska, surface roughness is likely a leading variable controlling loess accumulation rates during transitions and peak cold periods, but the negligible accumulation during MIS 5e and 5a suggests that loess production was

  11. Cluster II quartet take the stage together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    This is the only occasion on which all four of ESA's Cluster II spacecraft will be on display together in Europe. Four Spacecraft, One Mission The unique event takes place near the end of the lengthy assembly and test programme, during which each individual spacecraft is being assembled in sequence, one after the other. Two have already completed their assembly and systems testing and are about to be stored in special containers at IABG prior to shipment to the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan next spring. In the case of the other two, flight models 5 and 8, installation of the science payloads has finished, but their exhaustive series of environmental tests at IABG have yet to begin. Following delivery to the launch site next April, the satellites will be launched in pairs in June and July 2000. Two Soyuz rockets, each with a newly designed Fregat upper stage, are being provided by the Russian-French Starsem company. This will be the first time ESA satellites have been launched from the former Soviet Union. Cluster II is a replacement for the original Cluster mission, which was lost during the maiden launch of Ariane 5 in June 1996. ESA, given the mission's importance in its overall strategy in the area of the Sun-Earth connection, decided to rebuild this unique project. ESA member states supported that proposal. On 3 April 1997, the Agency's Science Programme Committee agreed. Cluster II was born. European Teamwork Scientific institutions and industrial enterprises in almost all the 14 ESA member states and the United States are taking part in the Cluster II project. Construction of the eight Cluster / Cluster II spacecraft has been a major undertaking for European industry. Built into each 1200 kg satellite are six propellant tanks, two pressure tanks, eight thrusters, 80 metres of pipework, about 5 km of wiring, 380 connectors and more than 14 000 electrical contacts. All the spacecraft were assembled in the giant clean room at the Friedrichshafen plant of

  12. Men: Take Charge of Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... charge of your health. Make small changes every day. Small changes can add up to big results – ... screening . Ask your doctor about taking aspirin every day. If you are age 50 to 59, taking ...

  13. Guide for Patients Taking Nonsteroidal Immunosuppressive Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking adalimumab, etanercept, or in iximab: Check your temperature frequently, and report a fever to your physician ... Receptor Antagonists For patients taking basiliximab: Check your temperature frequently, and report a fever to your physician ...

  14. Taking medicines - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine you take. Know what medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements you take. Make a list of your medicines ... Will this medicine change how any of my herbal or dietary supplements work? Ask if your new medicine interferes with ...

  15. Take-off of heavily loaded airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proll, A

    1928-01-01

    In the present article, several suggestions will be made for shortening the otherwise long take-off distance. For the numerical verification of the process, I will use a graphic method for determining the take-off distance of seaplanes.

  16. Taking your blood pressure at home (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure you are taking your blood pressure correctly. Compare your home machine with the one at your ... sure you are taking your blood pressure correctly. Compare your home machine with the one at your ...

  17. Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    The need for safe, lightweight, less expensive, and more reliable launch vehicle components is being driven by the competitiveness of the commercial launch market. The United States has lost 2/3 of the commercial lunch market to Europe. As low cost Russian and Chinese vehicles become available, the US market share could be reduced even further. This international climate is driving the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program at NASA. The goal of the SSTO program is to radically reduce the cost of safe, routine transportation to and from space with a totally reusable launch vehicle designed for low-cost aircraft-like operations. Achieving this goal will require more efficient uses of materials. Composite materials can provide this program with the material and structural efficiencies needed to stay competitive in the international launch market place. In satellite systems the high specific properties, design flexibility, improved corrosion and wear resistance, increased fatigue life, and low coefficient of thermal expansion that are characteristic of composite materials can all be used to improve the overall satellite performance. Some of the satellites that may be able to take advantage of these performance characteristics are the Tethered Satellite Systems (TOSCIFER, AIRSEDS, TSS2, SEDS1, and SEDS2), AXAF, GRO, and the next generation Hubble Space Telescope. These materials can also be utilized in projects at the NASAIMSFC Space Optics Technology and System Center of Excellence. The successful implementation of composite materials requires accurate performance characterization. Materials characterization data for composite materials is typically generated using flat coupons of finite width. At the free edge of these coupons the stress state is exacerbated by the presence of stiffness and geometric discontinuities. The exacerbated stress state has been shown to dominate the damage accumulation in these materials and to have a profound affect on the material constants

  18. Gene limiting cadmium accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisei; Yamaji, Naoki; Kono, Izumi; Huang, Chao Feng; Ando, Tsuyu; Yano, Masahiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2010-09-21

    Intake of toxic cadmium (Cd) from rice caused Itai-itai disease in the past and it is still a threat for human health. Therefore, control of the accumulation of Cd from soil is an important food-safety issue, but the molecular mechanism for the control is unknown. Herein, we report a gene (OsHMA3) responsible for low Cd accumulation in rice that was isolated from a mapping population derived from a cross between a high and low Cd-accumulating cultivar. The gene encodes a transporter belonging to the P(1B)-type ATPase family, but shares low similarity with other members. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that the transporter from the low-Cd cultivar is functional, but the transporter from the high-Cd cultivar had lost its function, probably because of the single amino acid mutation. The transporter is mainly expressed in the tonoplast of root cells at a similar level in both the low and high Cd-accumulating cultivars. Overexpression of the functional gene from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar selectively decreased accumulation of Cd, but not other micronutrients in the grain. Our results indicated that OsHMA3 from the low Cd-accumulating cultivar limits translocation of Cd from the roots to the above-ground tissues by selectively sequestrating Cd into the root vacuoles.

  19. 50 CFR 216.11 - Prohibited taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS... jurisdiction of the United States to take any marine mammal on the high seas, or (b) Any person, vessel, or conveyance to take any marine mammal in waters or on lands under the jurisdiction of the United States, or...

  20. 50 CFR 216.11 - Prohibited taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS... jurisdiction of the United States to take any marine mammal on the high seas, or (b) Any person, vessel, or conveyance to take any marine mammal in waters or on lands under the jurisdiction of the United States, or...

  1. 50 CFR 216.11 - Prohibited taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS... jurisdiction of the United States to take any marine mammal on the high seas, or (b) Any person, vessel, or conveyance to take any marine mammal in waters or on lands under the jurisdiction of the United States, or...

  2. 50 CFR 216.11 - Prohibited taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS... jurisdiction of the United States to take any marine mammal on the high seas, or (b) Any person, vessel, or conveyance to take any marine mammal in waters or on lands under the jurisdiction of the United States, or...

  3. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  4. [The place of alcohol in hospital meals].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Broyer, Nathalie; Flot-Arnould, Laurent; Ploton, Louis

    2011-09-01

    Wine and other types of alcohol are generally seen as an important part of French tradition. A study was carried out at Mâcon hospital to reflect on the place of alcohol in meals served on short stay medical-surgical wards. The results show that the consumption of wine, which was already modest ten years ago, had almost disappeared by 2010, without the offer having been restricted. It would seem that it is possible to be hospitalised for a few days without drinking wine.

  5. [The place of otorhinolaryngology in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology.

  6. [The place of otorhinolaryngology in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology. PMID:27351043

  7. OSL-based lateral progradation and aeolian sediment accumulation rates for the Apalachicola Barrier Island Complex, North Gulf of Mexico, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, W. J.; López, G. I.

    2010-11-01

    Vertical sediment cores in five separate beach ridge complexes along the north-east Gulf of Mexico Coast were recovered and dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz: these are located on Cape San Blas (CSB), Little St. George Island (LSGI), Richardson's Hammock (RH), St. Joseph Peninsula (SJP) and Saint Vincent Island (SVI). All of these landforms are coastal barrier systems situated along a 100 km stretch of the Florida Panhandle, U.S.A. Two samples were collected for dating from each core. Ridge accumulation rates (RAR) associated with lateral progradation were calculated from the dated samples. We also determined average sediment accumulation rates (ASAR) for two intervals within each sediment core. All OSL ages within the sediment cores were found to be in stratigraphic order or in a few cases statistically indistinguishable. Moreover, all dated ridges were found to be in correct temporal sequence based on their geomorphic positions. Rapidly accreted sequences were found to be backed by St. Joseph Bay in the western region of the study area. More slowly accreted sequences were associated with the more eastern stretches of the study area backed by St. Vincent Sound and Apalachicola Bay. Our ASAR results are in accord with an Australian study of modern dune accumulation. Perhaps our most important finding is that in the barrier island environments of this north-eastern Gulf Coast region, aeolian sedimentation continues well after full vegetative cover develops and stranding of landward ridges takes place. This confirms our similar earlier observation on SVI (López and Rink, 2008). We find that up to approximately one order of magnitude lower sedimentation rates occur after an initial period of more rapid aeolian accumulation for the vertical intervals studied in foredune ridges. Lateral progradation rates of ridge sequences were highly variable within the study area, ranging from 92 to 848 m/100 years, but we did find agreement

  8. Spatial variation in rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in a boreal bog

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlson, M.; Oekland, R.H.

    1998-12-01

    Although previous studies hint at the occurrence of substantial spatial variation in the accumulation rates of C and N in bogs, the extent to which rates may vary on high-resolution spatial and temporal scales is not known. A main reason for the lack of knowledge is that it is problematic to determine the precise age of peat at a given depth. The authors determined rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the uppermost decimeters of a bog ecosystem using the pine method, which enables accurate dating of surface peat layers. They combined accumulation data with numerical and geostatistical analyses of the recent vegetation to establish the relationship between bog vegetation and rate of peat accumulation. Use of a laser technique for spatial positioning of 151 age-determined peat cores within a 20 x 20 m plot made it possible to give the first tine-scaled account of spatial and temporal variation in rates of mass, carbon, and nitrogen accumulation during the last century. Rates of C and N accumulation were highly variable at all spatial scales studied. For example, after {approximately}125 yr of peat growth, C and N accumulation varied by factors of five and four, respectively, from 25 to 125 g/dm{sup 2} for C, and from 0.7 to 2.6 g/dm{sup 2} for N. It takes 40 yr of peat accumulation before significant amounts of C are lost through decay. Hummocks built up by Sphagnum fuscum and S. rubellum were able to maintain average rates of C accumulation that exceed 2 g{center_dot}dm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot} yr{sup {minus}1} during 50 yr of growth. The authors argue that data on spatial variation in rates of C accumulation are necessary to understand the role of boreal peatlands in the greenhouse effect and global climate.

  9. Expressing freedom and taking liberties: the paradoxes of aberrant science.

    PubMed

    Little, M

    2006-06-01

    Complete freedom does not exist, despite people's preparedness to die for it. Scientific freedom is much defended and yet much misunderstood. Scientists have limits imposed on their freedom by the disciplines and discourse communities in which they place themselves. Freedom within these socially constructed constraints needs to be distinguished from taking liberties with the rules and practices that make up these constraints, and validate the activities of special groups within society. Scientists (and the public) perceive taking liberties with science's rules and practices as aberrant science, and they often react punitively. Aberrant science can be broadly examined under four headings: wicked science, naughty science, dysfunctional science, and ideologically unacceptable science. When we examine examples of perceived aberrant science, we find that these categories of "misconduct" are connected and often confused. Scientific freedom needs to be redefined with due regard to current understandings of scientists as human beings facing powerful social pressures to deliver results of a particular kind.

  10. HAWK-I Takes Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    -I/VLT) HAWK-I takes images in the 0.9 to 2.5 micron domain over a large field-of-view of 7.5 x 7.5 arcminutes. This is nine times larger than that of ISAAC, another near-infrared imager on the VLT that went into operation in late 1998. ISAAC has shown how deep near-infrared images can contribute uniquely to the discovery and study of large, distant galaxies, and to the study of discs around stars or even very low mass objects, down to a few Jupiter masses. HAWK-I will build on this experience by being able to study much larger areas with an excellent image quality. HAWK-I has four 2k x 2k array detectors, i.e. a total of 16 million 0.1 arcsecond pixels. "Until the availability of the James Webb Space Telescope in the next decade, it is clear that 8-m class telescopes will provide the best sensitivity achievable in the near-infrared below 3 microns," explained Mark Casali, the ESO scientist responsible for the instrument. Given the wide field, fine sampling and the high sensitivity of HAWK-I, the deepest scientific impact is expected in the areas of faint sources. "With its special filter set, HAWK-I will allow us to peer into the most distant Universe," said Markus Kissler-Patig, the Instrument Scientist. "In particular, with HAWK-I, we will scrutinise the very first objects that formed in the Universe." HAWK-I will also be very well suited for the search for the most massive stars and for the least massive objects in our Galaxy, such as hot Jupiters. But HAWK-I will also be a perfect instrument for the study of outer Solar System bodies, such as distant, icy asteroids and comets. HAWK-I is the eleventh instrument to be installed at ESO's VLT. It bridges the gap between the first and the second generation instruments to be installed on this unique facility.

  11. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  12. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  13. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  14. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  15. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  16. 19 CFR 10.534 - Accumulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.534 Accumulation. (a) Originating materials of Singapore or the United States...

  17. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TF<1) at all levels of metal treatment. Among the 4 transgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  18. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... investment contained in Account 2001, Telecommunications Plant in Service. (b) This account shall be credited... plant in service. (Note also Account 3300, Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating.) (c) At the time...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... investment contained in Account 2001, Telecommunications Plant in Service. (b) This account shall be credited... plant in service. (Note also Account 3300, Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating.) (c) At the time...

  20. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....3100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... investment contained in Account 2001, Telecommunications Plant in Service. (b) This account shall be credited... plant in service. (Note also Account 3300, Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating.) (c) At the time...

  1. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg‑1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  2. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  3. The place and time of drugs.

    PubMed

    Duff, Cameron

    2014-05-01

    'Context' is one of the most enduring analytical devices in social science accounts of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, although its elaboration tends to emphasise macro-structural processes (like economic change, law enforcement, health policy, racism or stigma) at the expense of more finely-grained understandings of the place and time of consumption. Drawing on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the assemblage, and its reception in recent critical geographies of AOD use, I will characterise context as an assemblage of social, affective and material forces. Such a characterisation is not indifferent to the range of structural forces that are often understood to mediate AOD use. Rather, it is concerned to document how these forces actually participate in the modulations of consumption. The assemblage will thus be construed in ways that align context with the 'real conditions' (place and time) of drug use. I will develop this argument by way of a case study drawn from a recent qualitative study of the social contexts of methamphetamine use in Melbourne. My goal is to document the ways 'context' is produced in the activity of drug use, and how 'context' so constructed, comes to modulate this use. By contrasting traditional approaches to the analysis of context with methods borrowed from Deleuze, I aim to transcend structural understandings of context in order to clarify the active, local and contingent role of contexts in the mediation of what bodies do 'on' and 'with' drugs.

  4. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-09-27

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.

  5. Active place recognition using image signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelson, Sean P.

    1992-11-01

    For reliable navigation, a mobile robot needs to be able to recognize where it is in the world. We previously described an efficient and effective image-based representation of perceptual information for place recognition. Each place is associated with a set of stored image signatures, each a matrix of numbers derived by evaluating some measurement functions over large blocks of pixels. One difficulty, though, is the large number of inherently ambiguous signatures which bloats the database and makes recognition more difficult. Furthermore, since small differences in orientation can produce very different images, reliable recognition requires many images. These problems can be ameliorated by using active methods to select the best signatures to use for the recognition. Two criteria for good images are distinctiveness (is the scene distinguishable from others?) and stability (how much do small viewpoint motions change image recognizability?). We formulate several heuristic distinctiveness metrics which are good predictors of real image distinctiveness. These functions are then used to direct the motion of the camera to find locally distinctive views for use in recognition. This method also produces some modicum of stability, since it uses a form of local optimization. We present the results of applying this method with a camera mounted on a pan-tilt platform.

  6. Readers of narratives take the protagonist's geographical perspective. Evidence from an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, Enrique; Beltrán, David; León, Inmaculada; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This ERP study explores how the reader's brain is sensitive to the protagonist's perspective in the fictitious environment of narratives. Participants initially received narratives describing a protagonist living in a given geographical place. Later on they were given short paragraphs describing another character as "coming" or "going" to a place either close to or distant from the protagonist. Paragraphs referring to distant places elicited larger negative waves than those with places close to the protagonist. Moreover, narratives with the verb to come incoherent with the protagonist's perspective (e.g., "she came to the distant place") elicited larger negative-going waves in the 320-400ms time window than coherent paragraphs (e.g., "she came to the close place"). These results indicate that readers of narratives were able to take the protagonist's geographical perspective, showing discourse-level coherence effects when they read motion sentences with the marked deictic verb to come. PMID:26866764

  7. Metal accumulation by wood-decaying fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Al, and Pb) in the sporophores of ten wood-decaying macromycete species were related to concentrations in the wood substrates. Manganese, Sr, Ca, and Pb were usually excluded by the fungi; K, Rb, and to a lower degree, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg and Na were accumulated. Accumulation ratios are compared with similar ratios for soil and litter inhabiting species previously studied.

  8. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes.

  9. Sodium accumulation in Atriplex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.A.; Caldwell, M.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1984-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the ecological significance and the significance to arid land reclamation of sodium accumulation and nonaccumulation in Atriplex. There was a continuum in the genetic tendency of Atriplex canescens to accumulate sodium, from populations which accumulated almost no sodium to populations which accumulated up to 7% in the leaves. There were also substantial differences in sodium uptake between populations of A. tridentata, A. falcata and A. gardneri, with some populations having less than 0.1% leaf sodium and other populations having up to 5 or 6%. In three experiments (a field study, a greenhouse pot study and a hydroponics study) there were no significant differences in salinity tolerance between sodium accumulating and nonaccumulating A. canescens: both genotypes were highly salt tolerant. There was a significant buildup of sodium in the soil beneath sodium accumulating Atriplex plants, both in natural populations and on revegetated oil shale study plots. The sodium buildup was not sufficient to be detrimental to the growth or establishment of most herbaceous species, but with older Atriplex plants or with more saline soil, the buildup could potentially be detrimental. 14 references, 42 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:25389129

  11. Elevation of dwelling at 80 North Broad Place, SW, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of dwelling at 80 North Broad Place, SW, originally built to house workers from the nearby Merrimack Mill - 80 North Broad Place, Southwest (House), 80 North Broad Place, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Rapid transport and high accumulation of amorphous silica in the Congo deep-sea fan: A preliminary budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Ragueneau, Olivier; Jacques, Vincent; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Moriceau, Brivaëla; Khripounoff, Alexis; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the transfer and retention of silicon (Si) along continental margins are poorly understood, but play a major role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the oceanic biological pump of carbon. Deep-sea fans are well recognized as carbon sink spots, but we lack knowledge about the importance of the fans in the global Si cycle. Here, we provide a first estimate of the role played by the Congo deep-sea fan, one of the biggest in the world, in the Si cycle. Sediment cores sampled in the deep-sea fan were analyzed to build a Si mass balance. An exceptionally high accumulation rate of amorphous silica aSiO2 (2.29 ± 0.58 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) was found, due to a high sedimentation rate and the presence of aluminum in the sediments. Although favored by bioirrigation, recycling fluxes remained low (0.3 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) and reconstructed input fluxes could only be explained by lateral inputs coming from the canyon. Preliminary calculations show that the rapid transport of aSiO2 through the canyon and the excellent preservation efficiency in the sediments imply that 50% of aSiO2 river inputs from the Congo River accumulate annually in the deep-sea fan. Si:C ratios in deep-sea fan sediments were very low (0.2) and only three times as high as those measured in the river itself, which suggests that material from the river and the continental shelf was delivered directly through the canyon, with very little time for Si and C cycle decoupling to take place.

  13. The molten globule of β(2)-microglobulin accumulated at pH 4 and its role in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi; Makabe, Koki; Maki, Kosuke; Goto, Yuji; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-01-23

    The acid transition of β(2)-microglobulin (β2m) was studied by tryptophan fluorescence, peptide circular dichroism, and NMR spectroscopy. The protein exhibits a three-state transition with an equilibrium intermediate accumulated at pH4 (25°C). The pH4 intermediate has typical characteristics of the molten globule (MG) state; it showed a native-like secondary structure without specific side-chain tertiary structure, and the hydrodynamic radius determined by pulse field gradient NMR was only 20% larger than that of the native state. The accumulation of the pH4 intermediate is very analogous to the behavior of apomyoglobin, for which the pH4 MG has been well characterized, although β2m, a β-protein, is structurally very different from α-helical apomyoglobin. NMR pH titration of histidine residues of β2m has also indicated that His84 has an abnormally low pK(a) value in the native state. From the pH dependence of the unfolding transition, the protonations of this histidine and 10 weakly abnormal carboxylates triggered the transition from the native to the MG state. This behavior is again analogous to that of apomyoglobin, suggesting a common mechanism of production of the pH4 MG. In contrast to the folding of apomyoglobin, in which the MG was equivalent to the burst-phase kinetic folding intermediate, the burst-phase refolding intermediate of β2m, detected by stopped-flow circular dichroism, was significantly more structured than the pH4 intermediate. It is proposed that the folding of β2m from its acid-denatured state takes place in the following order: denatured state→MG→burst-phase intermediate→native state. PMID:23154171

  14. Motor neurons and the sense of place.

    PubMed

    Jessell, Thomas M; Sürmeli, Gülşen; Kelly, John S

    2011-11-01

    Seventy years ago George Romanes began to document the anatomical organization of the spinal motor system, uncovering a multilayered topographic plan that links the clustering and settling position of motor neurons to the spatial arrangement and biomechanical features of limb muscles. To this day, these findings have provided a structural foundation for analysis of the neural control of movement and serve as a guide for studies to explore mechanisms that direct the wiring of spinal motor circuits. In this brief essay we outline the core of Romanes's findings and place them in the context of recent studies that begin to provide insight into molecular programs that assign motor pool position and to resolve how motor neuron position shapes circuit assembly. Romanes's findings reveal how and why neuronal positioning contributes to sensory-motor connectivity and may have relevance to circuit organization in other regions of the central nervous system.

  15. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  16. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.

  17. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems. PMID

  18. Complications during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal stages and place of delivery in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul I; Akhter, Halida H

    2006-10-01

    The utilization of safe motherhood services including maternity care in Bangladesh is very poor. Only a very small proportion of deliveries takes place in a hospital/clinic. This study is based on data from a follow-up study on maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh. Analysis is performed on the nature of complications by place of delivery. Most of the deliveries have taken place in the women's own or her mother's home. In addition, home deliveries are mostly assisted either by an untrained birth attendant or by relatives or others. Education, economic status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, regular visits for antenatal care, past history of breathing problems and liver diseases, and palpitation during pregnancy appear to have significant association with place of delivery in rural Bangladesh. The utilization of a hospital/clinic instead of birth at home is higher among women with secondary or higher level of education, who desired the pregnancy, and who made regular visits for antenatal care. Delivery at a mother's home appears to be positively associated with higher economic status, desired pregnancy, gainful employment, and visits for antenatal care. If the respondents suffer from diseases/symptoms, then it is more likely that the delivery would take place in the mother's home.

  19. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  20. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    PubMed

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  1. An atypical pattern of accumulation of scopolamine and other tropane alkaloids and expression of alkaloid pathway genes in Hyoscyamus senecionis.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Esmail; Shahriari Ahmadi, Farajollah; Ghotbi Ravandi, Elnaz; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2013-09-01

    A cDNA encoding hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H, EC 1.14.11.11), a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the last two steps in the scopolamine biosynthetic pathway, was isolated from Hyoscyamus senecionis, a medicinal plant endemic to the Iranian plateau. Expression analysis indicates that Hsh6h is expressed in all tested organs of H. senecionis including roots, rhizomes, leaves, stems and flowers unlike the other tropane alkaloid producing species. In parallel to this, in leaves, levels of scopolamine, the product of H6H, were higher than the substrate hyoscyamine. These data suggest that not only does the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine take place in the root, followed by translocation to aerial parts, but also accumulated hyoscyamine in the aerial parts may be converted to scopolamine by activity of HsH6H. Analysis of expression profiles of putrescine N-methyltransferase and tropinone reductase I and II genes also indicates the organ-independent expression of these genes. Here we also introduce H. senecionis as an important tropane alkaloid producing species with its thick underground parts as a source of hyoscyamine, while its leaves can be considered as a source of scopolamine.

  2. Time-weighted accumulations ap(. tau. ) and Kp(. tau. )

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.L. )

    1987-09-01

    The planetary geomagnetic indices Kp and ap are widely used in space geophysics. They provide an estimate of maximum magnetic perturbation within a 3-hour period. Many geophysical properties are clearly related to the indices, through energy transfer from a common disturbance source, but direct correlation is often lacking because of poor matching between the frequency of sampling and the physical response functions. The index ap({tau}) is a simple accumulation of the linear ap calculated with an attenuation factor {tau} included to take account of natural temporal relaxation. The case for ap({tau}) and the related Kp({tau}) is made using applications to the variability of the plasma environment in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. These examples of improved correlation suggest that time-weighted integration might profitably be applied to other indices.

  3. Vaccine innovation, translational research and the management of knowledge accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Ohid; Nightingale, Paul

    2012-12-01

    What does it take to translate research into socially beneficial technologies like vaccines? Current policy that focuses on expanding research or strengthening incentives overlooks how the supply and demand of innovation is mediated by problem-solving processes that generate knowledge which is often fragmented and only locally valid. This paper details some of the conditions that allow fragmented, local knowledge to accumulate through a series of structured steps from the artificial simplicity of the laboratory to the complexity of real world application. Poliomyelitis is used as an illustrative case to highlight the importance of experimental animal models and the extent of co-ordination that can be required if they are missing. Implications for the governance and management of current attempts to produce vaccines for HIV, TB and Malaria are discussed.

  4. A flight experiment to determine GPS photochemical contamination accumulation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tribble, A. C.; Haffner, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    It was recently suggested that photochemically deposited contamination, originating from volatiles outgassed by a spacecraft, may be responsible for the anomalous degradation in power seen on the GPS Block 1 vehicles. In an attempt to confirm, or deny, the photochemical deposition rates predicted, a study was undertaken to design a flight experiment to be incorporated on the GPS vehicles currently in production. The objective was to develop an inexpensive, light weight instrument package that would give information on the contamination levels within a few months of launch. Three types of apparatus were studied, Quartz Crystal Microbalances, (QCM's), modified solar cells, and calorimeters. A calorimeter was selected due primarily to its impact on the production schedule of the GPS vehicles. An analysis of the sensitivity of the final design is compared to the predicted contamination accumulation rates in order to determine how long after launch it will take the experiment to show the effects of photochemical contamination.

  5. Accumulation of swimming bacteria near an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jay; Li, Guanglai

    2012-11-01

    Microbes inhabit planet earth over billions of years and have adapted to diverse physical environment of water, soil, and particularly at or near interfaces. We focused our attention on the locomotion of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at the interface of water/solid or water/air. We measured the distribution of a forward swimming strain of C. crescentus near a surface using a three-dimensional tracking technique based on dark field microscopy and found that the swimming bacteria accumulate heavily within a micrometer from the surface. We attribute this accumulation to frequent collisions of the swimming cells with the surface, causing them to align parallel to the surface as they continually move forward. The extent of accumulation at the steady state is accounted for by balancing alignment caused by these collisions with rotational Brownian motion of the micrometer-sized bacteria. We performed a simulation based on this model, which reproduced the measured results. Additional simulations demonstrate the dependence of accumulation on swimming speed and cell size, showing that longer and faster cells accumulate more near a surface than shorter and slower ones do. The overarching goal of our study is to describe interfacial microbial behavior through detailed analysis of their motion. We acknowledge support by NSF PHY 1058375.

  6. Geomorphic control of landscape carbon accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbloom, N.A.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Schimel, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use the CREEP process-response model to simulate soil organic carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in Iowa. Our primary objectives are to identify spatial patterns of carbon accumulation, and explore the effect of erosion on basin-scale C accumulation. Our results point to two general findings. First, redistribution of soil carbon by erosion results in a net increase in basin-wide carbon storage relative to a noneroding environment. Landscape-average mean residence times are increased in an eroding landscape owing to the burial/preservation of otherwise labile C. Second, field observations taken along a slope transect may overlook significant intraslope variations in carbon accumulation. Spatial patterns of modeled deep C accumulation are complex. While surface carbon with its relatively short equilibration time is predictable from surface properties, deep carbon is strongly influenced by the landscape's geomorphic and climatic history, resulting in wide spatial variability. Convergence and divergence associated with upland swales and interfluves result in bimodal carbon distributions in upper and mid slopes; variability in carbon storage within modeled mid slopes was as high as simulated differences between erosional shoulders and depositional valley bottoms. The bimodality of mid-slope C variability in the model suggests that a three-dimensional sampling strategy is preferable over the traditional two-dimensional analog or "catena" approach. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.; Silverstein, J.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

  8. Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D

    2004-03-01

    Methods of finding larvae and pupae of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are described and the known types of breeding sites used by sandflies are listed. Three ways of detecting sandfly breeding places are the use of emergence traps placed over potential sources to catch newly emerged adult sandflies; flotation of larvae and pupae from soil, etc., and desiccation of media to drive out the larvae. Even so, remarkably little information is available on the ecology of the developmental stages of sandflies, despite their importance as vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and phleboviruses affecting humans and other vertebrates in warmers parts of the world. Regarding the proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniases, information on breeding sites is available for only 15 out of 29 species of sandflies involved in the Old World and 12 out of 44 species of sandflies involved in the Americas, representing approximately 3% of the known species of Phlebotominae. Ecotopes occupied by immature phlebotomines are usually organically rich moist soils, such as the rain forest floor (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. whitmani in the Amazon; Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trapidoi in Panama), or contaminated soil of animal shelters (Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America, Phlebotomus argentipes in India; P. chinensis in China; P. ariasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus in Europe). Developmental stages of some species (P. langeroni and P. martini in Africa; P. papatasi in Eurasia; Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America), have been found in a wide range of ecotopes, and many species of sandflies employ rodent burrows as breeding sites, although the importance of this niche is unclear. Larvae of some phlebotomines have been found in what appear to be specialized niches such as Lu. ovallesi on buttress roots of trees in Panama; P. celiae in termite hills in Kenya; P. longipes and P. pedifer in caves and among rocks in East Africa. Old World species found as immatures in

  9. Long-range spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.

    PubMed

    Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2015-04-24

    We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a long-range spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal signal. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters. PMID:25955071

  10. Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Place: Lessons for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    Sense of place is lauded as critical to developing an environmentally conscious and responsive citizenry. Calls for place-based education have often arisen from an emotional plea to reconnect to the land, become rooted, and conserve natural places. However, in reality, sense of place encompasses a multidimensional array that is not only…

  11. A Sense of Autonomy in Young Children's Special Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carie

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…

  12. Location Matters: The Rhetoric of Place in Protest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Danielle; Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Social movements often deploy place rhetorically in their protests. The rhetorical performance and (re)construction of places in protest can function in line with the goals of a social movement. Our essay offers a heuristic framework--place in protest--for theorizing the rhetorical force of place and its relationship to social movements. Through…

  13. 27 CFR 31.72 - Place of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Place of sale. 31.72... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration § 31.72 Place of sale... constructively, is the place of sale....

  14. 12 CFR 1024.37 - Force-placed insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Force-placed insurance. 1024.37 Section 1024.37... (REGULATION X) Mortgage Servicing § 1024.37 Force-placed insurance. (a) Definition of force-placed insurance. (1) In general. For the purposes of this section, the term “force-placed insurance” means...

  15. Cadmium accumulation retard activity of functional components of photo assimilation and growth of rice cultivars amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake mediated alterations in functional components of photo assimilation during conversion of cow dung and poultry cast to vermicompost were studied in two Indian rice cultivars; MO 16 and MTU 7029. It was found that higher amount of Cd accumulate in plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost which in turn damaged functional components in photo assimilation. Enhancement of root growth was recognized as reason for Cd accumulation. Metabolic alterations noticed among plants were not taken place during application of raw materials used for vermicomposting such as cow dung and poultry cast amendment. Rice varieties accumulated Cd differentially where MTU 7029 accumulated more Cd compare to MO 16. It was also noticed that existence of negative correlation between zinc status of the plant and Cd accumulation.

  16. Comprehensive model of damage accumulation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, K. R. C.; Benistant, F.; Jaraiz, M.; Rubio, J. E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Ion implantation induced damage accumulation is crucial to the simulation of silicon processing. We present a physically based damage accumulation model, implemented in a nonlattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, that can simulate a diverse range of interesting experimental observations. The model is able to reproduce the ion-mass dependent silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature of a range of ions from C to Xe, the amorphous layer thickness for a range of amorphizing implants, the superlinear increase in damage accumulation with dose, and the two-layered damage distribution observed along the path of a high-energy ion. In addition, this model is able to distinguish between dynamic annealing and post-cryogenic implantation annealing, whereby dynamic annealing is more effective in removing damage than post-cryogenic implantation annealing at the same temperature.

  17. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  18. The place of culture in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Rousseau, Cécile; Lashley, Myrna

    2007-01-01

    Members of a multicultural society must all be subject to the same equitable system of justice. However, culture exerts profound influences on human behavior, and cultural considerations have a place in determinations of capacity and in appropriate sentencing. Cultural psychiatry can contribute to forensic psychiatry by helping to contextualize individuals' actions and experiences. This contextualizing can be done through cultural consultations that employ interpreters and culture brokers to identify the role of culture in individuals' psychopathology. Clarifying how cultural background has affected individuals' capacity to form a criminal intent or control their behavior may allow a better determination of level of culpability and guide appropriate sentencing. However, framing behavior as culturally influenced may also stereotype and stigmatize specific groups. To avoid this, culture must be understood in terms of power relationships between minority groups and the dominant society. Cultural factors are not only relevant to the experience of specific groups but pervade the entire judicial system shaping the process of moral and legal reasoning.

  19. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    PubMed

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  20. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    PubMed

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance.

  1. THOR: Connecting People, Places, and Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert; Diepenbroek, Michael; Brown, Josh; Demeranville, Tom; Stocker, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The THOR project is a 30 month project funded by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 programme. THOR aims to expand the integration of persistent identifiers (PIDs) into platforms, services and workflows. This will place PIDs at the fingertips of researchers, building them into the services that they already use, across disciplines, regions and systems. The aim is not to build new, standalone services, but to work with existing systems and the community to increase the use of PIDs and to solve shared problems. By creating new, and improved, integrations of PIDs in the services that researchers actually use, we aim to ensure that PIDs are embedded in research outputs and activities from the very beginning, with no additional effort for researchers. We will present the ongoing THOR efforts in the context of earth sciences, describing how PIDs are changing the way we work with research data and how Pangaea is contributing to its success. We will also set out the THOR roadmap, and highlight some of the developments of greatest relevance to the earth sciences community.

  2. Putting sex education in its place.

    PubMed

    Cassell, C

    1981-04-01

    In order to help reduce fears and anxieties regarding the influence of sex education in a public school setting, school and community sexuality educators need to better articulate the difference between formal and structured sex education and non-formal, informal and incidental sex learning. Sex education is only 1 aspect of the sexual learning process. 2 main points have to be clarified for parents and the general public to set the stage for a new way to view the school and community involvement in the sexual learning process: the schools' sexuality education courses constitute only a small portion of the sexual learning process; and sexual learning is not an event for youth only, but a process spanning life. Sex education (the process) connotates an academic setting with a specific curricula taught by a trained instructor, but sexual learning relates to environmental, non-formal incidental learning from a multitude of sources. Studies indicate that teenagers receive about 90% of their contraceptive and sexuality informaation from peers and mass media and that these sources of information are becoming their preferred sources of sex education. What is needed is a way to address and improve the conditions of sexual learning in the community. As home is the ideal environment for primary and positive sexual learning, parents need support in their role as sex educators. Classroom sexuality education curricula in all school settings have a solid place in the process of sexual learning.

  3. Lasting Benefits: The Long-Term Legacy of the Assisted Places Scheme for Assisted Place Holders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Sally; Sims, Stuart; Whitty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The "Assisted Places Scheme" was introduced in 1980 by the Conservative Government to provide a "ladder of opportunity" for academically able students from poor homes. Over the next 17 years, more than 75,000 pupils received means-tested assistance from public funds to attend the most selective and prestigious private schools…

  4. Comparison of outcomes between surgically placed and percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis catheters: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, R; Gupta, S; Agarwal, S K; Bhowmik, D; Mahajan, S

    2016-01-01

    There is lack of adequate data on comparison of outcomes between percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters inserted by nephrologists and PD catheters placed by surgeons. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of PD catheters inserted by surgeons (by open surgical or laparoscopic technique) and compare them with those inserted by nephrologists among ESRD patients who underwent elective PD catheter insertions between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of catheters removed because of primary nonfunction. The secondary outcome measures were catheter survival, patient survival, and incidence of complications of catheter insertion. A total of 143 PD catheter insertions (88 by surgeons and 55 by nephrologists) performed in 132 patients were considered for the analysis. The primary nonfunction rate of PD catheter insertions in both groups was comparable (18.2% and 7.3%, P = 0.08). Break-in period was shorter in Group N (p = <0.001). No differences were noted in patient or catheter survival. Percutaneously placed PD catheters performed by nephrologists have comparable outcomes with surgically placed PD catheters among selected cases and have the advantage of lower costs, avoidance of operation theater scheduling issues, smaller incision length, and shorter break-in period. Therefore, more nephrologists should acquire the expertise on percutaneous PD catheter placement as it leads to lesser waiting times and better utilization of PD. PMID:27512299

  5. Comparison of outcomes between surgically placed and percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis catheters: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Gupta, S.; Agarwal, S. K.; Bhowmik, D.; Mahajan, S.

    2016-01-01

    There is lack of adequate data on comparison of outcomes between percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters inserted by nephrologists and PD catheters placed by surgeons. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of PD catheters inserted by surgeons (by open surgical or laparoscopic technique) and compare them with those inserted by nephrologists among ESRD patients who underwent elective PD catheter insertions between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of catheters removed because of primary nonfunction. The secondary outcome measures were catheter survival, patient survival, and incidence of complications of catheter insertion. A total of 143 PD catheter insertions (88 by surgeons and 55 by nephrologists) performed in 132 patients were considered for the analysis. The primary nonfunction rate of PD catheter insertions in both groups was comparable (18.2% and 7.3%, P = 0.08). Break-in period was shorter in Group N (p = <0.001). No differences were noted in patient or catheter survival. Percutaneously placed PD catheters performed by nephrologists have comparable outcomes with surgically placed PD catheters among selected cases and have the advantage of lower costs, avoidance of operation theater scheduling issues, smaller incision length, and shorter break-in period. Therefore, more nephrologists should acquire the expertise on percutaneous PD catheter placement as it leads to lesser waiting times and better utilization of PD. PMID:27512299

  6. Boston's Arnold Arboretum: A Place for Study and Recreation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alan

    This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file for the Arnold Arboretum (Massachusetts) and other source material about the Arboretum and Frederick Law Olmstead. The lesson focuses on the first arboretum in the United States, which was part of Olmstead's plan for Boston's park system, known as the "Emerald…

  7. Landscape Evolution and Carbon Accumulation: Uniformitarianism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, N. A.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.; Schimel, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    What is the role of hillslope transport in long-term carbon accumulation in soils? How do parent material, climate, and landform interact to produce the landscapes we observe today and to what extent can we use present day conditions to infer the dominant processes of the past? We use the CREEP [Rosenbloom, N.A. et al., 2001] process-response model to ask these questions, exploring the time-evolution of landscape form, soil distribution, and carbon accumulation in an undisturbed prairie site in western Iowa [Harden, J.W. et al., 2002]. The CREEP model simulates differential transport of soil particles, blanket deposition of atmospheric 10Be with eolian dust, and passive advection of soil carbon and 10Be, enabling the preferential enrichment and burial of rapidly moving soil constituents. By comparing landscape-wide average accumulations of 10Be to borehole observations at three hillslope positions, we conclude that the distribution of clay-adsorbed 10Be cannot be explained by co-transport with clay particles alone. Rather, 10Be appears to behave as a more complex tracer than originally assumed, requiring an explicit, independent parameterization of wet deposition and transport. By comparison, model carbon accumulation strongly reflects patterns of clay redistribution indicating that in situ carbon turnover is faster than redistribution. Observed vertical distributions of soil properties, including 10Be, could only be explained by assuming variations in deposition and erosion rates, specifically periods of accumulation, followed by periods of transport. This effect might not be apparent if only landform shape, geometry, and soil depth were considered and vertical distributions of soil properties were not explicitly simulated. The current landscape reflects a history of strong shifts in erosion and accumulation rates that cannot be simulated using a uniform parameterization of long-term landscape-evolution processes.

  8. Teach Kids Test-Taking Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers can do something to help ensure students will do better on tests. They can actively teach test-taking skills so pupils will be better armed in the battle to acquire knowledge. The author challenges teachers to use the suggestions provided in this article in the classroom, and to share them with their students. Test-taking strategies will…

  9. On the Duty of Not Taking Offence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    2005-01-01

    People take offence too easily and are encouraged to do so by, e.g., institutional harassment policies. "Offensive" is sometimes equated with "anything that offends someone", sometimes with a definitive list of specific behaviours. When is it justifiable to take offence? Distinctions need to be drawn: between offensive to the senses and to the…

  10. Note Taking as a Generative Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peper, Richard J.; Mayer, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of note taking on "what is learned" by college undergraduates from videotaped lectures. The results suggest that note taking can result in a broader learning outcome, rather than just more learning overall, because an assimilative encoding process is encouraged. (Author/GDC)

  11. Does Anticipation Training Affect Drivers' Risk Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Frank P.; Horswill, Mark S.; Alexander, Jane L.

    2006-01-01

    Skill and risk taking are argued to be independent and to require different remedial programs. However, it is possible to contend that skill-based training could be associated with an increase, a decrease, or no change in risk-taking behavior. In 3 experiments, the authors examined the influence of a skill-based training program (hazard…

  12. Academic Risk Taking, Development, and External Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Margaret M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Academic risk taking--the selection of schoollike tasks ranging in difficulty and probability of success--was examined for 602 students in grades 4, 6, and 8 in Taiwan. Results of a self-report measure of tolerance for failure and a risk-taking task are discussed concerning self-enhancement versus self-assessment goals, metacognitive skills, and…

  13. Giving Ourselves Permission to Take Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    What's a risk? It's when one doesn't know what will happen when she/he takes action. Risks can be little or big, calculated or stupid. Every new idea carries risks--and the challenge to face them and see what will happen. Nobody becomes smart, creative, self-confident, and respectful of others without taking risks--remaining open to possibilities…

  14. Architecture and health care: a place for sociology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daryl; Nettleton, Sarah; Buse, Christina; Prior, Lindsay; Twigg, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists of health and illness have tended to overlook the architecture and buildings used in health care. This contrasts with medical geographers who have yielded a body of work on the significance of places and spaces in the experience of health and illness. A review of sociological studies of the role of the built environment in the performance of medical practice uncovers an important vein of work, worthy of further study. Through the historically situated example of hospital architecture, this article seeks to tease out substantive and methodological issues that can inform a distinctive sociology of healthcare architecture. Contemporary healthcare buildings manifest design models developed for hotels, shopping malls and homes. These design features are congruent with neoliberal forms of subjectivity in which patients are constituted as consumers and responsibilised citizens. We conclude that an adequate sociology of healthcare architecture necessitates an appreciation of both the construction and experience of buildings, exploring the briefs and plans of their designers, and observing their everyday uses. Combining approaches and methods from the sociology of health and illness and science and technology studies offers potential for a novel research agenda that takes healthcare buildings as its substantive focus.

  15. Architecture and health care: a place for sociology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daryl; Nettleton, Sarah; Buse, Christina; Prior, Lindsay; Twigg, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists of health and illness have tended to overlook the architecture and buildings used in health care. This contrasts with medical geographers who have yielded a body of work on the significance of places and spaces in the experience of health and illness. A review of sociological studies of the role of the built environment in the performance of medical practice uncovers an important vein of work, worthy of further study. Through the historically situated example of hospital architecture, this article seeks to tease out substantive and methodological issues that can inform a distinctive sociology of healthcare architecture. Contemporary healthcare buildings manifest design models developed for hotels, shopping malls and homes. These design features are congruent with neoliberal forms of subjectivity in which patients are constituted as consumers and responsibilised citizens. We conclude that an adequate sociology of healthcare architecture necessitates an appreciation of both the construction and experience of buildings, exploring the briefs and plans of their designers, and observing their everyday uses. Combining approaches and methods from the sociology of health and illness and science and technology studies offers potential for a novel research agenda that takes healthcare buildings as its substantive focus. PMID:25929329

  16. STS-99 Commander Kregel places sign identifying mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the White Room attached to the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A, STS-99 Commander Kevin Kregel gets ready to place a sign identifying the mission at the entrance to the orbiter Endeavour. Other crew members gathered around are (left to right) Mission Specialists Janice Voss (Ph.D.), Gerhard Thiele, Janet Lynn Kavandi (Ph.D.) and Mamoru Mohri (behind Kregel), and Pilot Dominic Gorie (at right). Thiele is with the European Space Agency and Mohri is with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. The crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which provide them with simulated countdown exercises, emergency egress training, and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. Launch of Endeavour on the 11-day mission is scheduled for Jan. 31 at 12:47 p.m. EST.

  17. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  18. Disentangling adolescent pathways of sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Henrich, Christopher C

    2009-11-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using Latent Class Growth Analyses (LCGA), models indicated that the majority of adolescents engaged in sexual risk and alcohol use. In joint trajectory analyses, LCGA revealed six risk taking classes: sex and alcohol, moderate risk taking, joint risk taking, moderate alcohol, alcohol risk, and alcohol and delinquency experimentation. Editors' Strategic Implications: School administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the study's findings with respect to the need for prevention programs to target early adolescents and integrate prevention messages about alcohol use and sexual risk taking.

  19. Aluminium Accumulation in Leaves of 127 Species in Melastomataceae, with Comments on the Order Myrtales

    PubMed Central

    JANSEN, STEVEN; WATANABE, TOSHIHIRO; SMETS, ERIK

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and systematic significance of aluminium accumulation is surveyed based on semi‐quantitative tests of 166 species, representing all tribes and subfamilies of the Melastomataceae as well as a few members of related families within the Myrtales. The character is strongly present in nearly all members of the Memecylaceae and in most primitive taxa of the Melastomataceae, while non‐accumulating taxa are widespread in the more derived tribes of the Melastomataceae. The variable distribution of Al accumulation in advanced clades of the latter family is probably associated with the tendency to herbaceousness, although it is unclear whether the more herbaceous representatives have developed more specialized Al‐response mechanisms that may exclude high Al levels from the shoot. It is hypothesized that Al accumulation is symplesiomorphic for Melastomataceae and Memecylaceae, and that the feature characterizes the most primitive families in the Myrtales. Indeed, Al accumulation is also characteristic of Crypteroniaceae, Rhynchocalycaceae and Vochysiaceae. Crypteroniaceae and Rhynchocalycaceae probably take a basal position in a sister clade of the Memecylaceae and Melastomataceae, while Al accumulation suggests a basal position for Vochysiaceae in the Myrtaceae clade. PMID:12125773

  20. Cardiovascular disease and work place exposures.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D

    1984-01-01

    The typical occupational cohort study includes all causes of mortality. However, emphasis is usually placed on the presence or absence of excess cancer mortality. A systematic review of completed occupational cohort studies to assess the findings and patterns of cardiovascular mortality would be useful. Although many of these studies will illustrate the "healthy worker effect" with deficits in mortality, particularly from cardiovascular causes, a thorough review should indicate certain exposures needing further research. A recently published study of heart disease mortality in the rubber industry illustrates the potential use of such a literature review with subsequent follow up. Production workers in the rubber industry have shown small excesses in CAHD mortality. A follow-up study at one plant confirmed the known association between carbon disulfide and atherosclerosis, as well as suggested two new causal associations between CAHD and the use of phenol and ethanol as solvents. What additional techniques can be used to generate hypotheses on heart disease and occupation? Some possibilities include: A recent article describes the use of the results of occupational disease surveillance systems for occupational cancer research. A review of such systems for heart disease would be equally useful. It would be useful to review the quality and quantity of occupational data that has been collected in prospective cohort studies, such as those in Framingham and Evans County. The importance of examining the association between occupational exposures and heart disease include: Assessing whether adequate protection is afforded by current limits on exposure to substances known to cause heart disease (carbon disulfide, nitrates, and carbon monoxide).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)