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Sample records for accumulator fuel injection

  1. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  2. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nakatsuka, H.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-12-09

    A fuel injection nozzle is described which is adapted to be connected to a fuel injection pump and which serves to inject fuel into a combustion chamber in an internal combustion engine. The nozzle consists of: a body in which a suction passage and an accumulating chamber are defined, the suction passage being adapted to be connected with a fuel injection pump and the accumulating chamber being connected with the suction passage; a non-return valve means for allowing the fuel to flow from the suction passage to the accumulating chamber but prohibiting the fuel from flowing from the accumulating chamber to the suction passage; a needle valve means for injecting the fuel stored in the accumulating chamber into a combustion chamber in an engine, the needle valve means including a nozzle needle arranged coaxially and in series with the valve with end portions thereof being adjacent; a damping plunger coaxially fitted into the valve member in the manner that the damping plunger is urged toward the nozzle needle and has one end protruding into the damping chamber and engageable by the nozzle needle, throttle means disposed in the through hole in the damping plunger, for restricting the fuel flow between the damping chamber and the connector recess.

  3. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Luscomb, D.A.

    1984-05-22

    A fuel injection pump including a plunger and a piston movably disposed in a pumping chamber, means for initiating fuel injection and means for terminating fuel injection, the plunger periodically pressurizing fuel in a pressure chamber and the piston spaced from the plunger and allowing a metering chamber to fill with a metered quantity of fuel to be injected to an engine. The means for initiating injection comprises a pilot valve having a solenoid to selectively operate between either of two states and a control valve movable between first and second positions in response to the state of pilot valve, the first position filling the metering chamber with the metered quantity of fuel. The pilot valve determines the fuel quantity to be delivered to the engine relative to a signal from an electronic controller. An accumulator is pressurized during each cycle of the plunger to provide pressurized fuel during a metering phase. A variable orifice adjusts the rate of flow during the time fuel is being metered to metering chamber.

  4. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Kato, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-06-10

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for supplying fuel from a fuel tank to at least one combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: an injector housing defining therein a pressure cylinder bore, an injection cylinder bore and a timing cylinder bore connected in series with the pressure cylinder bore; a pressure plunger, fitted in the pressure cylinder bore and having one end defining, in the pressure cylinder bore, a pressure pump chamber communicating with the injection cylinder bore and the timing cylinder bore; first fuel supply means for supplying fuel from the fuel tank to the pressure pump chamber; pressurizing means for reciprocating the pressure plunger in the pressure cylinder bore in synchronism with the engine operation so as to pressurize fuel in the pressure pump chamber; an injection plunger, having a diameter smaller than the pressure plunger, fitted in the injection cylinder bore and having two ends defining, in the injection cylinder bore, an injection pump chamber and a first communicating chamber communicating with the pressure pump chamber; second fuel supply means for adjusting the quantity of the fuel from the fuel tank in accordance with engine operation conditions so as to supply the adjusted fuel quantity to the injection pump chamber; injection valve means for injecting the fuel into the fuel pump chamber toward a combustion chamber of the engine when the pressure in the pressure pump chamber is applied to the injection plunger through the first communicating chamber, and the fuel pressure in the injection pump chamber reaches a predetermined injection pressure.

  5. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  6. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Herth, H.; Kraus, B.; Sautter, W.; Wessel, W.

    1983-03-15

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes electromagnetic injection valves controlled by a fuel control unit which receives signals from a camshaft actuated switch, a position-dependent throttle transducer and an oxygen sensor. When the oxygen sensor changes output levels, the transmission of this information is delayed, by the action of a switching transistor controlled by a monostable multivibrator, for a period of time equal to the internal time constant of the multivibrator.

  7. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsbos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1993-07-27

    A high-pressure pump is described for a fuel injection system having a fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a relatively constant pressure to the pump, the pump comprising: a pump body having a pumping chamber defined therein; a mechanically driven linearly reciprocating plunger disposed in the pumping chamber, the plunger having a head end and a tail end, the plunger being linearly reciprocatable over a stroke range between an extended position and a retracted position, the pumping chamber extending beyond the extended position of the plunger to define a head portion of the pumping chamber; plunger spring means for resiliently biasing the plunger to its retracted position; an inlet valve disposed in the pump body for admitting fuel to the pumping chamber within the stroke range of the head end of the plunger; inlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the inlet valve to a closed position, the inlet valve being opened by a pressure differential when the head end of the plunger is retracted; an outlet valve disposed in the pump body for discharging fuel from the head portion of the pumping chamber; and outlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the outlet valve to a closed position; the inlet valve being a ball valve; a piston, the pump body further defining therein a leakage accumulator chamber, the leakage accumulator chamber being slidably divided by the piston into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, the posterior portion being at substantially atmospheric pressure, the collector groove communicating with the anterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber, recaptured fuel from the fuel injection nozzles also being communicated to the anterior portion of the accumulator chamber; and piston spring means for resiliently biasing the piston away from the posterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber.

  8. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Iwanaga, T.; Fujisawa, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for a diesel engine comprising: condition detection means for detecting operating conditions of the diesel engine including a rotational position thereof; low pressure fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a low pressure at an output port thereof; high pressure fuel pump means, having a pump chamber communicating with the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means, and plunger means reciprocable within the pump chamber for introducing fuel from the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means into the pump chamber during a movement in a predetermined direction of the plunger means and for pressurizing the introduced fuel during a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction so that pressurized fuel is delivered from the high pressure fuel pump means at an output port thereof; common rail fuel storage means, connected to the output port of the high pressure fuel pump means, for storing pressurized fuel delivered from the high pressure pump therein at a substantially continuous pressure.

  9. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for delivering fuel to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a pump housing with a fuel chamber therein to which fuel is supplied from a fuel tank; means for compressing fuel in the pump chamber and delivering the compressed fuel to the engine cylinders with such means including a pump plunger adapted to be reciprocated so as to introduce fuel into the pump chamber and to pressurize the introduced fuel; spill means for spilling to a low-pressure side on a fuel tank side the compressed fuel which was pressurized in the pump chamber to be delivered from the pump chamber to the engine cylinders, the spill mechanism including a spill passage communicating with the pump chamber and including a solenoid valve located in the spill passage for opening and closing the spill passage with predetermined timing; escape for allowing the compressed fuel pressurized in the pump chamber to escape to the low-pressure side of the fuel tank side.

  10. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  11. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  12. Fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, P.

    1985-04-02

    A fuel injection pump of the rotary distributor type includes a cam actuated plunger housing in a bore and an adjustable fuel control member which varies the amount of fuel supplied to the bore. The pump also includes a timing piston connected to the cam, the piston being biased by a spring against the action of fuel under pressure. In order to vary the timing under certain conditions a control piston serves as an abutment for the spring and the application of pressure to the control piston is controlled by a valve which has a valve element coupled to a throttle member of the pump the valve having a housing which is secured on the exterior of the pump.

  13. Fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Kanou, H.

    1987-03-31

    A fuel injection device is described for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a body having first and second bores formed therein and extending in the axial direction thereof; a delivering plunger fitted into the first bore and defining a delivering pump chamber therein; driving means for reciprocating the delivering plunger in synchronism to the engine; pressurized medium supplying means for supplying a pressurized medium under a constant pressure to the delivering pump chamber, the pressurized medium supplying means including a pressurized medium source and a control passage linking the pressurized medium source to the delivering pump chamber; an electromagnetic valve provided on the control passage for opening and closing the control passage; and an injection plunger fitted into the second bore and defining, in the second bore, a linking chamber communicating with the delivering pump chamber and an injection pump chamber, the linking chamber and the delivering chamber becoming a liquid-tight chamber when the electromagnetic valve closes the control passage.

  14. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  15. Governor for fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yogome, Y.; Itsuki, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shimizu, T.; Hamada, H.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes double-lever type governor for a fuel injection pump comprising: a governor case; a governor lever and a tension lever rotatably supported in the case and operatively associated with each other; a start spring interposed between the governor lever and the tension lever securing a start fuel increment stroke in the governor lever; a fuel regulating rack connected to the governor lever; a supporting shaft mounted in the case supporting both the governor lever and the tension lever for rotation; and a locking mechanism which connects both levers at the time when the start fuel increment stroke of the governor lever becomes zero or approximately zero to be eliminated.

  16. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  17. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  18. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  19. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  20. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  1. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  2. High-pressure fuel injection system for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a high-pressure fuel injection system for a diesel engine. This system consists of: (a) main pumps for injecting fuel each located at one of cylinders of the engine and formed with a fuel injecting port, a discharge valve located in a path connecting the first injected fuel space with the fuel injecting port. The discharge valve is opened when the fuel to be injected reaches a predetermined pressure level. A first injection timing fuel space fluidly connected with the first injected fuel space through a movable shuttle is filled with injection timing fuel, and a plunger varies the volume of the first injection timing fuel space; (b) a metering and distributing pump formed with injection fuel outputs and injection timing fuel outlets corresponding in number to the cylinders of the engine for discharging fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine; (c) fuel metering valves for metering fuel flowing into the second injected fuel space and second injection timing fuel space respectively; (d) pipes for fluidly connecting the first injected fuel space and first injection timing fuel space of the main pump for injecting fuel with the injected fuel outlets and injection timing fuel outlets of the metering and distributing pump respectively; and (e) a rocker arm mechanism for driving the plunger of the main pump for injecting fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine.

  3. Fuel Lubricity Requirements for Diesel Injection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    8. Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218 (AD A...injection pumps. The unitest pump stand and test equipment specification are described in more detail in the report by Montemayor and Owens*. A schematic...operation. * Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218

  4. Fuel system for rotary distributor fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Kelly, W.W.

    1993-06-01

    In a fuel injection pump having a drive shaft, a pump rotor driven by the drive shaft, reciprocating pumping means with periodic intake and pumping strokes to periodically receive an intake charge of fuel and deliver fuel at high pressure for fuel injection is described; a distributor head with a plurality of angularly spaced distributor outlets, the pump rotor providing a distributor rotor with a distributor port connected to the pumping means, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for sequential registration of the distributor port with the distributor outlets for distributing said high pressure delivery of fuel thereto; a fuel system for supplying fuel to the pumping means, having an end chamber at one end of the pump rotor and a fuel supply pump driven by the drive shaft and having an inlet and outlet, the supply pump outlet being connected to the end chamber for supplying fuel thereto, and a pressure regulator for regulating the fuel pressure in the end chamber; and a control valve connected between the pumping means and the end chamber and selectively opened during the intake strokes to supply fuel to the pumping means from the end chamber and during the pumping strokes to spill fuel from the pumping means into the end chamber to terminate said high pressure delivery of fuel; the improvement wherein the fuel system comprises a fuel return passage connected in series with the end chamber downstream thereof, wherein the pressure regulator is mounted in the return passage for regulating the upstream fuel pressure, including the upstream fuel pressure within the end chamber, and is connected for conducting excess fuel for return to the supply pump inlet, and wherein the supply pump is driven by the drive shaft to supply fuel at a rate exceeding the rate of said high pressure delivery of fuel for fuel injection and to provide excess fuel flow continuously through the end chamber and return passage to the pressure regulator.

  5. Solenoid-valve-controlled fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a solenoid-valve-controlled fuel injection device comprising: a fuel injection pump having a pump cylinder, a plunger rotatably and reciprocably disposed in the pump cylinder in a fluid-tight manner and defining a fuel pressurization chamber between a distal end of the plunger and the pump cylinder, a drive shaft rotatable in synchronism with an output shaft of an internal combustion engine, means responsive to rotation of the drive shaft for reciprocably displacing the plunger to pressurize fuel in the pressurization chamber, and a fuel chamber for being supplied with fuel from a fuel tank in response to rotation of the drive shaft, whereby the pressurized fuel can be fed into cylinders of the internal combustion engine; a solenoid valve for selectively opening and closing a communication passage by which the pressurization chamber and the fuel chamber communicate with each other; valve opening delay time detecting means for detecting a valve opening delay time of the solenoid valve; valve closing delay time detecting means for detecting a valve closing delay time of the solenoid valve; valve closing period calculating means for calculating a valve closing time of the solenoid valve according to operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; target fuel injection time calculating means for calculating a target fuel injection time according to the operating conditions of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, S.; Yamada, K.; Kushida, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection apparatus including a fuel injection pump which is adapted to carry out fuel intake, fuel pressurization, fuel injection and draining of cut-off fuel in accordance with the reciprocal movement of a plunger. The plunger is driven in synchronization with the rotational operation of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a first storing means for temporarily storing cut-off fuel drained at the same time of the termination of the fuel injection; a second storing means of changeable volume for temporarily storing fuel for intake, the second storing means having a movable member which is movable in response to the quantity of fuel introduced therein; a detecting means for producing a detection signal relating to the amount of fuel stored in the second storing means; a clamping means responsible to an electric signal for clamping the movable member; and a signal producing means for producing at least one condition signal relating to the operating condition of the internal combustion engine.

  7. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inoue, A.

    1987-03-24

    A fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having fuel injection nozzles, comprising: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity. It has a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity; a plurality of delivery valves each disposed such that fuel pressurized by the plunger is supplied to the engine through the delivery valve; and injection pipes connected, respectively, to the delivery valves to feed pressurized fuel discharged from the respective delivery valves; the delivery valves each being adapted to maintain a residual pressure within a corresponding one of the injection pipes at a value that enables to attain injection initiation pressure within an extent of rotation of the cam means corresponding to the first angular region.

  8. Fluidized-Solid-Fuel Injection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William

    1992-01-01

    Report proposes development of rocket engines burning small grains of solid fuel entrained in gas streams. Main technical discussion in report divided into three parts: established fluidization technology; variety of rockets and rocket engines used by nations around the world; and rocket-engine equation. Discusses significance of specific impulse and ratio between initial and final masses of rocket. Concludes by stating three important reasons to proceed with new development: proposed engines safer; fluidized-solid-fuel injection process increases variety of solid-fuel formulations used; and development of fluidized-solid-fuel injection process provides base of engineering knowledge.

  9. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ishiwata, H.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines is described comprising: a fuel injection pump which has a plunger caused to carry out a least reciprocal movement in a predetermined pattern in a bore formed in a plunger barrel to pressurize fuel in the plunge barrel and at least one control sleeve fitted on the plunger, a first actuator for regulating the position of the control sleeve to regulate the fuel injection rate; a second actuator for regulating the position of the plunger to regulate the fuel injection quantity; a first means responsive to at least one condition signal indicating the operating condition of the internal combustion engine for drivingly controlling the first and second actuators in such a way that the optimum fuel injection rate and fuel injection quantity can be obtained at each instant; a detecting means for detecting any trouble occurring in the control system for regulating the position of the control sleeve; and a second means for limiting the control operation by the first means so that an excessive rise in the inner pressure of the cylinders in the internal combustion engine is prevented when the occurrence of trouble is detected by the detecting means.

  10. Fuel injection valve for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, T.

    1987-01-13

    A fuel injection valve is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a nozzle holder having a fuel inlet port formed therein and connected to an injection pipe extending from a fuel injection pump; a nozzle body supported by the nozzle holder and having at least one nozzle hole and a pressure chamber formed therein at an end thereof remote from the nozzle holder. The pressure chamber is more remote from the injection pipe than the fuel inlet port. A fuel passage means is formed in the nozzle holder and the nozzle body and extends between the fuel inlet port and the pressure chamber. A nozzle needle is mounted within the nozzle body and liftable and returnable to open and close the nozzle hole, respectively, in response to an increase and a decrease in the pressure of fuel supplied into the pressure chamber. A nozzle spring means urges the nozzle needle in a direction of closing the nozzle hole. A central plunger is disposed in the nozzle holder for displacement in unison with the nozzle needle through a whole lifting stroke thereof. The central plunger has one end remote from the nozzle needle, the one end having an end face thereof disposed to receive pressure within the injection pipe through the fuel inlet port to thereby impart an urging force to the nozzle needle in the direction of closing the nozzle hole.

  11. Positive displacement electronic fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the plunger, spill port type, including a single plunger reciprocably and rotatably mounted in a plunger barrel, an engine driven camshaft having gear means and a number of camlobes thereon for reciprocating and rotating the plunger a number of times for each revolution of the camshaft through a number of pumping upstrokes and fuel intake downstrokes for injecting fuel sequentially into a number of engine cylinders. The plunger barrel defines a fuel fill-spill chamber at the end of the plunger connected to a solenoid valve controlled spill port for pressurization of the chamber during the upstroke of the plunger upon closure of the spill port by the valve, the plunger having a number of internal axially spaced passages connected to the chamber for filling the chamber with fuel on the fuel intake upstroke of the plunger or alternately directing fuel from the chamber to a fuel injection nozzle during pressurization of the chamber, means connecting one of the internal passages to a fuel supply passage and another passage to a fuel injection nozzle line past a check valve in the other passage. The passages are spaced such that rotation and reciprocation of the plunger through one stroke connects the chamber to one passage which disconnecting the chamber from the other passage, and vice-versa during the next successive stroke of the plunger, the other passage being connected successively one at a time to each injection line in the engine upon rotation of the camshaft, the engine having at least four cylinders, and the camshaft having four camlobes on a single cam, the lobes each being 90% in extent with a peak and an essentially long flat surface inbetween peaks providing a slower upstroke of the plunger than the downstroke thereby providing a longer time for injection than for fuel intake.

  12. Hypermixer Pylon Fuel Injection for Scramjet Combustors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-11

    wall cavities, intrusive geometries like pylons and struts , or a combination thereof. The type of fuel injection strategy largely depends on the...be affixed to combustor walls or placed on intru- sive geometries like struts or pylons. Wall injection comes with an inherent combustor airflow...only one wall . Using in-stream struts and pylons as fueling devices has been a common practice in scramjet design. Much research continues to be

  13. Fuel injection pump having voltage variation compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, E.; Miyaki, M.; Norimatsu, H.; Hobo, N.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Konishi, Y.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel injection pump is described for internal combustion engine, comprising: an enclosure; pump means including a plunger rotatingly and reciprocally movable in the enclosure to define a compression chamber of variable volume, the pump means coupling the compression chamber to a fuel inlet during an intake stroke of the plunger and connecting the compression chamber to a fuel outlet during a compression stroke of the plunger to thereby initiate injection of fuel to the outlet, the pump means being responsive to the speed of rotation of the engine to pressurize the fuel in the inlet; means for detecting the speed of the engine; a source of voltage having a tendency to vary; solenoid valve means operable when a voltage is applied thereto from the source for providing a pressure relief action of the fuel in the compression chamber to terminate the injection of fuel; a memory storing trimming data in locations addressable as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed; and control means for detecting the voltage of the source and responsive to the initiation of the fuel injection for determining the basic timing at which the fuel injection is to be terminated, reading trimming data out of the memory as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed, correcting the basic timing in accordance with the trimming data and applying the voltage of the source to the solenoid valve means at the corrected timing to thereby terminate the fuel injection.

  14. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, P.J.; Hilshos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a high-pressure pump for the injectors of an electronically controlled fuel system. It comprises: a pump body having a chamber therein, a reciprocal plunger in the chamber having a fixed stroke, a solenoid operated normally closed metering inlet valve for metering fuel into the chamber, a normally closed discharge valve, both of the valves being located within the pump body and closing respective fuel ports communicating with the chamber at one end of the plunger and means for controlling the amount of fuel discharged by the pump comprising an electronic control for the solenoid-operated valve to determine the time that the valve is held open during the intake stroke of the plunger; and a supply pump for delivering fuel at a relatively fixed pressure to the metering inlet valve.

  15. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  16. Fuel injection pump of the distribution type

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, T.; Sumitani, S.; Tani, T.; Miyaki, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-07-08

    A distribution type fuel injection pump is described for delivering fuel to each of the combustion chambers in an internal combustion engine consisting of: pump housing means including a pumping head in which a pumping chamber is defined; first fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the pumping chamber; fuel pressurizing means for applying pressure to the fuel in the pumping chamber; distributor means for distributing and delivering the fuel, which has been pressurized in the pumping chamber, to each of the combustion chambers in the engine; control plunger means actuated by the fuel pressure in the pumping chamber and including a control cylinder bore defined in the pumping head and a control plunger fitted into the control cylinder bore, the control cylinder bore being partitioned into a first chamber to which the fuel pressure in the pumping chamber is transmitted and which serves to apply this pressure to one end of the control plunger, and a second chamber defined by the other end of the control plunger; second fuel supply means for supplying an adjusted amount of fuel to the second chamber and including a control passage connected to the second chamber and an electromagnetic valve for opening and closing the control passage; and escaping means for allowing the fuel to escape from the second chamber when the fuel pressure in the second chamber becomes higher than a certain value.

  17. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR`s and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ``natural zinc`` plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry.

  18. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  19. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  20. Fuel injection pump with spill control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, having a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plungers have outward fuel intake strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. Bumping plunger timing means relatively angularly adjusts the cam ring and rotor adjusting the pumping plunger timing. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The improvement described here wherein the spill valve means comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor connected to the charge pump and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore. The spill control mechanism comprises first means for rotating each rotary spill valve member in unison with the rotor and in synchronism with the reciprocable movement of the pumping plungers for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The pumping plunger timing means and the first means provide for separate relative angular adjustment of the cam ring and rotor and relative angular adjustment of the rotary spill valve member of at least the one rotary spill valve and the rotor.

  1. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  2. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  3. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOEpatents

    Upatnieks, Ansis

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  4. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Nozaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.

    1986-05-06

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described which consists of: a plunger barrel; a plunger received within the plunger barrel for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion for suction, pressure delivery and distribution of fuel; a pair of cut-off ports formed in the plunger and the plunger barrel at a predetermined axial location and registrable with each other to spill pressurized fuel in the plunger into a zone under lower pressure; a communication passageway communicating a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof with the zone under lower pressure; a fuel suction passage extending between the pump working chamber and the zone under lower pressure; the communication passageway extending between the pump working chamber and an intermediate portion of the fuel suction passage; a solenoid valve arranged across the communication passageway for blocking same; and control means for controlling means for controlling the solenoid valve to cause same to selectively assume an open position and a closed position; wherein while the plunger moves toward the pump working chamber, the solenoid valve is closed by the control means to start injection of fuel present in the pump working chamber, and upon registration of the cut-off ports with each other, the fuel injection is terminated; the solenoid valve including a valve body disposed opposite an end face of the one end of the plunger; the control means including means for selectively energizing or deenergizing the solenoid for causing the valve body to selectively assume the closed position or the open position.

  5. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  6. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.

    1987-08-11

    A fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; and cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity, and a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity, and a third angular region preceding the first angular region, for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a velocity higher than the first velocity, but lower than the second velocity.

  7. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  8. Rotary distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Dordjevic, I.; Higgins, M.C.; Salzgeber, D.E.

    1993-07-20

    In a fuel injection pump having a pump body and distributor rotor in coaxial alignment, the pump body is described having a pumping chamber provided by an annular arrangement of pumping plunger bores with axes extending generally radially outwardly from the axis of the distributor rotor, a pumping plunger mounted in each plunger bore for reciprocation, annular cam means surrounding the annular arrangement of plunger bores for reciprocating the pumping plungers to provide alternating intake and pumping strokes thereof for respectively supplying intake charges of fuel to the pumping chamber and delivering high pressure charges of fuel from the pumping chamber for fuel injection, a distributor head with a plurality of distributor outlets, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for distributing the high pressure charges of fuel to the distributor outlets; the improvement wherein the pump body and distributor rotor have a central coaxial bore extending there through and providing a valve bore intersecting the annular arrangement of plunger bores, the pump body providing an annular valve seat around the central bore between one end thereof away from the distributor rotor and the intersection of the valve bore and annular arrangement of plunger bores, an elongated valve member mounted in the valve bore having a sealing head at one end thereof engageable with the annular valve seat and extending from the sealing head toward the other end of the central bore, a fuel supply chamber connected to the one end of the central bore for supplying fuel to the pumping chamber, valve actuating means comprising an electromagnet at the other end of the valve member from the sealing head and operable when energized to shift the valve member in one axial direction thereof to one of its the positions, and means for shifting the valve member in the opposite axial direction thereof to its other position when the electromagnet is deenergized.

  9. Cut-off fuel exhaust mechanism in fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeuchi, H.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump having an exhaust means for exhausting fuel from the fuel pump at the time of cut-off of fuel flow through the pump, comprising: a pump body for positioning in a pump space for containing fuel to be pumped, the pump body having a fuel passage extending thereinto from the pump space and a valve means in the fuel passage; a plunger barrel mounted in the pump body and having a plunger bore therein and a fuel intake port extending through the plunger barrel from a position opposite the inner end of the fuel passage into the plunger bore; a plunger rotatably and slidably mounted in the plunger bore and defining a pressurizing chamber at the inner end of the plunger bore; the plunger barrel having an oil passage extending from the end within which the pressurizing chamber is defined to the periphery of the plunger barrel; the pump body having a lead hole therethrough from a position opposite the end of the oil passage at the periphery of the plunger barrel to the outside of the pump body, and further having an oil chamber extending thereinto from a position on the pump body near the end of the oil passage and an exhaust passage extending from the inner part of the oil chamber to the outside of the pump body and opening into the pump space; a valve housing mounted on the pump body over the end of the lead hole and the opening into the oil chamber and having a valve guide hole therein opening into the oil chamber and having a valve seat around the end thereof and having an oil induction hole therethrough from a position opposite the end of the lead hole and into the valve guide hole.

  10. Air-assist fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Klomp, E.D.

    1987-09-15

    An air-assist fuel injection nozzle is described for use in discharging fuel into an associate combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The injection nozzle includes a nozzle body means. The straight walled spray tip portion has a plurality of radial discharge orifices extending. An axial bore in the body means extends from the opposite end to define a bushing, a needle plunger reciprocably received in the bushing between a fully raised position and a fully depressed position corresponding to the end of a suction stroke and the end of a pump stroke, respectively. The needle plunger has a radial supply passage and a radial discharge ports angularly aligned with the radial discharge orifices, wherein the discharge ports are in flow communication with the blind bore. The needle plunger and the interior portion of the enclosed end of the nozzle body means define a variable volume pump chamber. The nozzle body means includes a supply passage means with a check valve in fluid communication with the radial supply passage when the needle plunger is in the raised position. The opposite end of the supply passage means is to sequentially receive a metered quantity of pressurized fuel, and the needle plunger allows aeriform fluid flow from the combustion chamber into the pump chamber. The needle plunger blocks flow through the radial discharge orifices until such time as the needle plunger has moved a predetermined axial extent so that the radial discharge ports come into alignment with the radial discharge orifices to initiate an air-assist discharge of air, fuel vapors and fuel from the radial discharge orifices.

  11. Fuel injection control apparatus for use to engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Kano, H.; Ohmori, T.

    1987-06-30

    A fuel injection control apparatus is described for use in an engine comprising: a compression plunger driven in response to fuel injection timing which corresponds to the rotation of an engine; a compression pump chamber which is filled with fuel and whose volume is compressed when the compression plunger is driven; an injection plunger driven by fuel which is pushed out of the compression pump chamber by the operation of the compression plunger; an injection pump chamber defined by the injection plunger; means for filling the injection pump chamber with fuel whose amount has been determined in accordance with the conditions of the operation of the engine; a timing plunger slidable between a stop position and a full position, the amount of fuel the filling means provides to the injection pump chamber cooperating with the injection plunger to mechanically set the timing plunger at the full position corresponding to the amount of fuel to be injected. The timing plunger contacts the face on which the fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts at the full position when the compression plunger is not driven, the fuel in the compression pump chamber moves the timing plunger as fuel is pushed out of the compression pump chamber. The fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts on the injection plunger when the timing plunger is moved to the stop position; and fuel injection means, responsive to the operation of the compression plunger, for moving the timing plunger from the full position to the stop position, then raising the pressure of the compression pump chamber to drive the injection plunger. In this high pressure state it delivers the fuel in the injection pump chamber and injects it into an engine cylinder.

  12. Germanium accumulation-mode charge-injection-device process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Gallium doped germanium is suitable for applications in the detection of far infrared radiation. Measurements were made on experimental photoconductors (PCs), accumulation mode charge injection devices (AMCIDs), and the SSPC (a switched, sampled PC alternative to the AMCID). The results indicate that the SSPC, which had a responsivity near 1.5 amp/watt, is desirable for use in two dimensional detector arrays.

  13. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  14. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  15. Variable stroke, electronically controlled fuel injection control system

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, C.G.

    1987-02-17

    A fuel injection control system is described comprising an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft, a fuel supply, a spill valve in fluid communication with the fuel supply, a fuel injection nozzle, a fuel pump comprising a piston and cylinder, the cylinder in fluid communication with the fuel injection nozzle and the spill valve, means for actuating the fuel pump piston comprises means for actuating the fuel pump piston to achieve a constant velocity relative to angular rotation of the crankshaft for the piston during the delivery portion of the pumpstroke during the travel of the piston in the cylinder, means for closing the spill valve when the piston, during the delivery portion of the pumpstroke, reaches a first predetermined position in the fuel pump cylinder and opening the spill valve when the piston, during the delivery portion, reaches a second predetermined position in the fuel pump cylinder.

  16. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  17. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  19. Effects of physical properties of fuels on diesel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Henein, N.A.; Jawad, B.; Gulari, E. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the physical properties of the fuel, such as density, viscosity, surface tension, and bulk modulus of elasticity that affect many aspects of the diesel injection process. The effects of these fuel properties on the fuel pressure in the high-pressure line, rate of injection, leakage, spray penetration, and droplet size distribution were determined experimentally. The mechanism of spray development was investigated by injecting the fuel into a high-pressure chamber. A pulsed Malvern drop-size analyzer, based on Fraunhofer diffraction, was utilized to determine droplet size ranges for various fuels.

  20. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  1. Fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nishimaki, H.; Omori, T.; Sekijima, H.

    1988-07-26

    A fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine is described including: a compression plunger, defining a compression pump chamber and driven in accordance with the rotation of the engine, for expelling fuel filled in the compression pump chamber; an injection plunger, which defines an injection pump chamber and is driven by the pressure of the fuel expelled from the compression pump chamber, a quantity of fuel determined to correspond with engine conditions being filled in the injection pump chamber; a fuel injector to which the fuel filled in the injection pump chamber is supplied in accordance with an operation of the injection plunger, and which is opened by the pressure of the fuel to inject the quantity-controlled fuel; a timing passage which communicates with the compression pump chamber and is closed when compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression pump chamber, the delta port being closed by the compression plunger after the timing passage is closed, when the compression plunger is driven, so that an increase of fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber is delayed until after fuel is discharged from the compression pump chamber and the timing passage is closed.

  2. Diesel engine fuel injection system with a rate-of-injection control arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Izawa, A.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump for delivering a controlled quantity of high pressure fuel cyclically at a timing synchronized with the operation of the engine; (b) a fuel injection nozzle hydraulically connected to the injection pump for receiving high pressure fuel therefrom and injecting the fuel into an engine cylinder; (c) means for controlling a rate of injection of the system in response to operating conditions of the engine; and (d) passage means for providing, during each delivery stroke of the pump plunger, fluid communication between the pumping chamber and the variable volume chamber only for a predetermined initial phase of the delivery stroke. The variable volume chamber is hydraulically isolated from the pumping chamber during subsequent phases of the delivery stroke.

  3. Fuel injection pump device and method for settling the same

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, A.; Itoh, K.; Oikawa, H.; Vehara, K.

    1988-07-05

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump device which comprises: a delivery valve communicated with a pressurizing chamber formed in a housing, loaded by a spring and communicated with a fuel injection nozzle; a plunger with its one end facing the pressurizing chamber and the other end operatively connected with a cam which is driven by an engine; a fuel chamber provided so as to surround the plunger in the housing; an oil passage formed in the plunger so that its one end communicates to the pressurizing chamber and the other end communicates to the fuel chamber; a control sleeve slidably mounted on the outer periphery of the plunger in the fuel chamber; a control groove provided on the outer peripheral surface of the plunger for communicating the pressurizing chamber and fuel chamber to each other by way of the oil passages or for interrupting the same. The control groove has at least longitudinally directed edges and inclined edges provided with relation to the axis of the plunger; control ports provided on the control sleeve and communicating the control groove to the fuel chamber when a fuel injection is completed; an injection quantity control member supported on the housing for controlling a fuel injection quantity; an injection timing control member for moving the control sleeve in the axial direction of the plunger; fuel injection control means for controlling the injection quantity control member and the injection timing control member in accordance with signals from operating state information sources, the fuel injection means is composed so as to advance the injection timing control member on the basis of the information of the engine in a high speed region from the operating state information sources.

  4. Distributor-type fuel injection pump with preliminary injection control device

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, S.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-01-13

    A distributor-type fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, the fuel injection pump comprising: (a) a housing having a fuel chamber defined therein; (b) fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the fuel chamber under pressure dependent upon engine r.p.m.; (c) a barrel mounted within the housing and having a distribution hole communicating with the engine cylinder; (d) a plunger mounted within the barrel for axial and rotary motion therein and defining jointly with the barrel a pump working chamber communicating with the fuel chamber. The plunger has a main discharge port communicating at one end with the pump working chamber and alignable with the distribution hole for effecting a main fuel injection, and a preliminary discharge port communicating with the pump working chamber and alignable with the distribution hole before the alignment of the main discharge port with the distribution hole, thereby effecting a preliminary fuel injection before the main injection; and (e) means operatively connected with the plunger and actuatable in response to pressure within the fuel chamber, for controlling fuel injection timing. The control means includes a first means, actuatable in response to the pressure within the fuel chamber, for effecting the preliminary fuel injection when the pressure within the fuel chamber is at less than a predetermined value, and a second means, actuatable in response to the pressure within the fuel chamber, for preventing the preliminary fuel injection when the pressure within the fuel chamber is above the predetermined value.

  5. Distributor-type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Nozaki, S.

    1987-10-06

    A distributor-type fuel injection pump is described comprising: (a) a pump body including a rear portion and a head portion. The rear portion has a first bore and the head portion has a second bore extending in alignment with the first bore; (b) a drive shaft rotatably mounted in the first bore via at least two bearings; (c) a feed pump disposed in the pump body adjacent to the rear portion and connected in driven relation to the drive shaft, there being defined between the feed pump and the head portion a cam chamber; (d) a plunger slidably mounted in the second bore and defining between the second bore a pump working chamber; (e) a cam disposed in the cam chamber and connecting the drive shaft with the plunger so as to cause the latter to take rotational and reciprocating motions simultaneously, in unision with the rotation of the drive shaft; (f) a magnetic valve disposed on the head portion for opening and closing a fuel passage communicating with the pump working chamber; (g) a pair of oil seals mounted around the drive shaft and disposed on opposite sides of the feed pump; (h) the rear portion further having a first passageway communicating with the first bore between the two bearings for introducing a lubrication oil into a space defined between the first bore, the drive shaft and the bearings; (i) the drive shaft having at least one second oil passageway extending diametrically therethrough and opening at opposite ends to one of the bearings, and a third oil passageway extending axially therein and communicating the second oil passageway with the cam chamber; and (j) a bypass passage bypassing the cam chamber and communicating a discharge side of the feed pump with an inlet side of the fuel passage of the magnetic valve.

  6. Fuel injection system electromagnetic-valve controlled type

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    1989-01-31

    A fuel injection system for an engine is described including: (a) a fuel injection pump having a pump housing, a plunger associated with the pump housing and reciprocatively movable in relation to rotation of a crankshaft of the engine, and a fuel pressurizing chamber associated with the pump housing and variable in volume in response to reciprocative movement of the plunger; (b) supply passage means supplying fuel to the fuel pressurizing chamber, the supply passage means being closed substantially during a forward stroke of the plunger and being opened substantially during a backward stroke of the plunger; (c) forcible-delivery passage means connecting the fuel pressurizing chamber to at least one fuel injection nozzle of the engine; (d) release passage means communicating with the fuel pressurizing chamber.

  7. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  8. H{sup -} charge exchange injection for the NSNS accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-08-01

    A scheme for injection into the FODO cell of the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) Accumulator ring is discussed. A 400 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} carbon foil is chosen for a high stripping efficiency and for heating of the foil consideration. Additional schemes to reduce losses due to nuclear and Coulomb scattering at the foil are discussed. Subsequent loss from magnetic field ionization of the residual H{sup 0} component is estimated to be small comparable to nuclear loss. A method for sweeping and collecting the stripped electrons from the foil is presented.

  9. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  10. Distribution and regularity of injection from a multicylinder fuel-injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of performance test conducted on a six-cylinder commercial fuel-injection pump that was adjusted to give uniform fuel distribution among the cylinders at a throttle setting of 0.00038 pound per injection and a pump speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The throttle setting and pump speed were then varied through the operating range to determine the uniformity of distribution and regularity of injection.

  11. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  12. Electronic fuel injection for gas engine/compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Wertheimer, H.P.

    1998-12-31

    Conventional gas engine/compressors use cam operated fuel injectors. Fuel delivery to the engine is controlled by throttling the pressure to the fuel gas manifold that feeds the injectors. A mechanical or electronic governor regulates the position of the throttle. Power cylinder balance is adjusted with manual valves in the fuel feed pipes to each injector. This paper describes a recently introduced electronic fuel gas injection (EFGI{trademark}) system that modulates fuel delivery by controlling the open duration of the injectors. Balancing is achieved by electronically apportioning the pulses to the individual injectors. The camshaft, pushrods, rocker arms, cam followers, and balance valves, as well as the separate governor and throttle are not needed when EFGI is applied to two stroke engines. The system`s most striking feature is its ability to rebalance an engine in minutes. Emission reductions stem from balanced power cylinders, and optimized injection timing, which enhances fuel air mixing.

  13. Electromagnetically controlled distributor-type fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Levin, M.B.; Dutcher, W.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    With the advent of electronic controls and development of electromagnetically controlled fuel injection pumps, the cost of fuel systems using plunger-type pumps was substantially reduced. Further reduction in cost can be achieved if fewer solenoid valves are used. A new type of injection pump combining electromagnetic spill control principle with distributor-type operation is described. A review of the basic concept and operating principles is given, and test results as well as cost considerations are discussed.

  14. Lean direct wall fuel injection method and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel combustion chamber, and a method of and a nozzle for mixing liquid fuel and air in the fuel combustion chamber in lean direct injection combustion for advanced gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines. Liquid fuel in a form of jet is injected directly into a cylindrical combustion chamber from the combustion chamber wall surface in a direction opposite to the direction of the swirling air at an angle of from about 50.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a tangential line of the cylindrical combustion chamber and at a fuel-lean condition, with a liquid droplet momentum to air momentum ratio in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.12. Advanced gas turbines benefit from lean direct wall injection combustion. The lean direct wall injection technique of the present invention provides fast, uniform, well-stirred mixing of fuel and air. In addition, in order to further improve combustion, the fuel can be injected at a venturi located in the combustion chamber at a point adjacent the air swirler.

  15. Fueling efficiency of pellet injection on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Maingi, R.; Lasnier, C.J.; Ali Mahdavi, M.

    1998-05-01

    Pellet injection has been used on the DIII-D tokamak to study density limits and particle transport in H-mode and inner wall limited L-mode plasmas. These experiments have provided a variety of conditions in which to examine the fueling efficiency of pellets injected into DIII-D plasmas. The fueling efficiency defined as the total increase in number of plasma electrons divided by the number of pellet fuel atoms, is determined by measurements of density profiles before and just after pellet injection. The authors have found that there is a decrease in the pellet fueling efficiency with increased neutral beam injection power. The pellet penetration depth also decreases with increased neutral beam injection power so that, in general, fueling efficiency increases with penetration depth. The fueling efficiency is generally 25% lower in ELMing H-mode discharges than in L-mode due to an expulsion of particles with a pellet triggered ELM. A comparison with fueling efficiency data from other tokamaks shows similar behavior.

  16. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin

    Break-up and atomization of liquid fuel jet during transient injection process has a significant effect on the Diesel engine combustion efficiency and pollution. The mechanisms responsible for liquid jet instability and break-up at high pressure, during the transient start-up and steady mass flux periods, has been investigated using Navier-Stokes and level-set computations. Via post-processing, the role of vorticity dynamics is examined and shown to reveal crucial new insights. An unsteady, axisymmetric full-jet case is solved. Then, a less computationally intensive case is studied with a segment of the jet core undergoing temporal instability; agreement with the full-jet calculation is satisfactory justifying the segment analysis for three-dimensional computation. The results for surface-shape development are in agreement with experimental observations and other three-dimensional computations; the initial, axisymmetric waves at the jet surface created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability distort to cone shapes; next, three-dimensional character develops through an azimuthal instability that leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity, lobe shapes on the cones, and formation of liquid ligaments which extend from lobes on the cones. The cause of this azimuthal instability has been widely described as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, additional and sometimes more important causes are identified here. Counter-rotating, streamwise vortices within and around the ligaments show a relationship in the instability behavior for jets flowing into like-density fluid; thus, density difference cannot explain fully the three-dimensional instability as previously suggested. Furthermore, the formation of ligaments that eventually break into droplets and the formation of streamwise vorticity are caused by the same vortical dynamics. Waviness is identified on the ligaments which should result in droplet formation. The nonlinear development of the shorter azimuthal waves and

  17. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... reach the injection pump or injectors....

  18. Distributor-type fuel injection pump having injection rate control function for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, S.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a distributor-type fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and a plurality of fuel injection valves for injecting fuel into respective ones of the cylinders. The fuel injection pump includes a plunger arranged for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion in response to rotation of the engine to perform pressure delivery and distribution of fuel into the cylinders of the engine. The plunger has a first portion and a second portion having different diameters from each other, a first pump working chamber defined by the first portion, and a second pump working chamber defined by the second portion. Fuel delivery passageways are arranged for communication with the first pump working chamber and lead to respective ones of the fuel injection valves of the engine. A communication passageway is arranged for communicating the second pump working chamber with the fuel delivery passageways and a drain passageway is arranged for communicating the communication passageway with a zone under a lower pressure of the pump.

  19. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  20. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  1. System and method for injecting fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2012-12-04

    According to various embodiments, a system includes a staggered multi-nozzle assembly. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly includes a first fuel nozzle having a first axis and a first flow path extending to a first downstream end portion, wherein the first fuel nozzle has a first non-circular perimeter at the first downstream end portion. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly also includes a second fuel nozzle having a second axis and a second flow path extending to a second downstream end portion, wherein the first and second downstream end portions are axially offset from one another relative to the first and second axes. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly further includes a cap member disposed circumferentially about at least the first and second fuel nozzles to assemble the staggered multi-nozzle assembly.

  2. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  3. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Ian; Tatro, Clement A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  4. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same

    DOEpatents

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-02-21

    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein the fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.

  5. Multiplexed electrospray scaling for liquid fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, C. Mike; Hanrahan, Brendan; Lee, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    Evaporation and space-charge requirements are evaluated to understand the effect of device scaling and fuel preheating for a liquid fuel injector using a multiplexed electrospray (MES) configuration in compact combustion applications. This work reveals the influence of the droplet diameter, droplet velocity and droplet surface temperature as well as the surrounding gas temperature on the size and performance of microfabricated MES. Measurements from MES devices are used in the model to accurately account for the droplet diameter versus flow rate relationship, the minimum droplet diameter and the relevant droplet velocities. A maximum extractor electrode to ground electrode distance of 3.1 mm required to overcome space-charge forces is found to be independent of voltage or droplet velocity for large levels of multiplexing. This maximum distance also becomes the required evaporation length scale which imposes minimum fuel pre-heating requirements for large flow densities. Required fuel preheating is therefore evaluated for both ethanol and 1-butanol with combustor parameters relevant to fuel reformation, thermoelectric conversion, thermophotovoltaic conversion and thermionic conversion.

  6. Fuel injection control based on spill port opening timing correction

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, M.; Miyaki, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kobashi, M.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a fuel injection control system for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump including: a pump chamber; a low pressure chamber; plunger means reciprocating in synchronism with rotation of the engine for introducing fuel into the pump chamber, and for feeding the fuel under pressure from the pump chamber to a cylinder of the engine, detector means for detecting a reference position of the plunger, and for generating a detection signal indicative of the reference position, and a spill port coupled to the pump chamber and in communication with the low pressure chamber, (b) solenoid valve means for opening and closing the spill port; (c) first circuit means including first and second adjusting resistors, the first circuit means being replaceably disposed on the fuel injection pump; (d) first control means for calculating a fuel injection time period according to operating conditions of the engine; (e) second control means including second circuit means comprising first and second fixed resistors, the first fixed resistor being connected to the first adjusting resistor so as to produce a first voltage signal corresponding to a ratio of a resistance value of the first adjusting resistor to a resistance value of the first fixed resistor.

  7. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  8. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment.

  9. The relationship between fuel lubricity and diesel injection system wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Paul I.

    1992-01-01

    Use of low-lubricity fuel may have contributed to increased failure rates associated with critical fuel injection equipment during the 1991 Operation Desert Storm. However, accurate quantitative analysis of failed components from the field is almost impossible due to the unique service history of each pump. This report details the results of pump stand tests with fuels of equal viscosity, but widely different lubricity. Baseline tests were also performed using reference no. 2 diesel fuel. Use of poor lubricity fuel under these controlled conditions was found to greatly reduce both pump durability and engine performance. However, both improved metallurgy and fuel lubricity additives significantly reduced wear. Good correlation was obtained between standard bench tests and lightly loaded pump components. However, high contact loads on isolated components produced a more severe wear mechanism that is not well reflected by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator.

  10. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.22 Fuel-injection system. This system shall be...

  11. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  12. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays at Low-injection Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.

  13. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  14. Multi-fuel compression-ignition engine and fuel injection pump therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Pien, P.C.

    1990-06-18

    This patent describes a multi-fuel compression-ignition combustion engine. It includes a first source of primary fuel, a second source of secondary fuel, injection pump means including a body means having a bore therein, plunger means including a body means having a bore therein, plunger means movably mounted within the bore, the plunger means having an end portion defining with a portion of the bore a mixing chamber, first supply means for supplying primary fuel from the first source to the mixing chamber, second supply means for supplying secondary fuel from the second source to the mixing chamber so that the primary and secondary fuels are mixed in the mixing chamber to provide a mixture of the primary and secondary fuels.

  15. On the Possibility of Condensation during Supercritical Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lu; Reitz, Rolf

    2014-11-01

    Supercritical fuel injection into a nitrogen environment was simulated using Peng-Robinson equation of state. The real gas simulation was found to match the experimental injectant density much better than the ideal gas simulation, emphasizing the importance of applying realistic equation of state model. Possible fuel condensation processes were also investigated by considering the stability of the single phase by utilizing fundamental thermodynamics principles. Several conclusions from the experiments are also seen from the simulations. First, though both the injection and chamber pressures are above the critical pressure of the injectant, condensation can become possible as long as their temperature difference is large enough, and when this occurs, the fluid is able to enter the two-phase region. Condensation is found to be enhanced when the chamber temperature is further reduced, indicating that the fluid is in a state further away from the phase border. In addition, the newly formed condensed phase is found to exist only in the jet boundary where there are strong interactions between the ``hot'' injectant and the ``cold'' nitrogen. Finally, it was concluded that the local strong heat and mass exchange sent the mixture into the two-phase region by crossing the dew point line with the commencement of condensation. The research work was sponsored by Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories through the Advanced Engine Combustion Program (MOU 04-S-383).

  16. Injection timing control device for distributor-type fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuranaka, T.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an injection timing control device for combination with a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, the pump being of the type having a suction space filled with fuel under pressure variable as a function of the rotational speed of the engine, a pumping and distributing plunger, and a roller holder carrying rollers circumferentially arranged and disposed in camming engagement with the plunger the injection timing control device comprising: a cylinder; a timer piston slidably received within the cylinder. The timer piston is coupled to the roller holder such that displacement thereof causes a corresponding change in the cicumferential position of the roller holder,; a first chamber defined at one end of the timer piston; a second chamber defined at one end of the timer piston; a second chamber defined at an opposite end of the timer piston.

  17. A precious-metal free micro fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretthauer, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, integrated fuel cell (FC) type primary and secondary batteries attracted a great deal of attention as integrated on-chip power sources due to their high theoretical power densities. Unfortunately, the costs of these devices have been rather high. This is partially due to the involved clean-room processes, but also due to the fact that these devices generally rely on expensive precious-metals such as Pd and Pt. Therefore we developed a novel integrated FC type accumulator that is based on non-precious-metals only. The key component of the presented accumulator is its alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane that allows not only the usage of a low-cost AB5 type hydrogen storage electrode, but also the usage of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 as a precious-metal free bifunctional catalyst for the air-breathing electrode. Additionally the presented design requires only comparatively few cleanroom processes which further reduces the overall production costs. Although abdicating precious-metals, the presented accumulator shows an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V and a maximum power density of 0.66 mW cm-2 which is comparable or even superior to former precious-metal based cells.

  18. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  19. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    injected, turbo- charged, air- water intercooled engine which employs a fuel- lubricated high pressure common rail pump , and piezo- electric fuel injectors...military fuels. Many of these modern HPCR systems utilize fuel-lubricated high pressure pumps , and can generate upwards of 2000-bar fuel rail pressures...steps were allowed to meet their own steady state temperatures. In addition, engine oil sump temperature was dictated by an internal jacket water

  20. Fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, T.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Abe, S.; Natsuyama, Y.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a body having a cylinder bore, low pressure chamber, an overflow passage coupled to the cylinder bore and communicating with the low pressure chamber, and a feed passage formed in the cylinder bore and open to the cylinder bore; a plunger slidably housed in the cylinder bore to define a high pressure chamber therein; valve means for opening and closing the overflow passage to the cylinder bore according to a fuel pressure acting thereon, the valve means opening to cause undischarged surplus fuel to spill from the high pressure chamber through the overflow passage; a piezoelectric actuator attached to the body to expand and contract according to a voltage applied thereto to vary the fuel pressure in the control chamber and thereby open and close the valve means to control a fuel supply; and means for opening and closing the feed passage, the opening and closing means opening the feed passage to feed the low pressure fuel in the low pressure chamber to the control chamber through the overflow passage, the high pressure chamber and the feed passage on an intake action of the plunger and then closing the feed passage on an intake action of the plunger, and then closing the feed passage to hold the pressure in the control chamber at a desired value.

  1. ELECTRON CLOUD AT COLLIMATOR AND INJECTION REGION OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, L.; HSEUH, H.-C.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.; COUSINEAU, S.

    2005-05-16

    The beam loss along the Spallation Neutron Source's accumulator ring is mainly located at the collimator region and injection region. This paper studied the electron cloud build-up at these two regions with the three-dimension program CLOUDLAND.

  2. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  3. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  4. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  5. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  6. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  7. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  8. Size and accumulation of fuel reserves at stopover predict nocturnal restlessness in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Schläfke, Jan Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Early arrival at the breeding site positively affects the breeding success of migratory birds. During migration, birds spend most of their time at stopovers. Therefore, determining which factors shape stopover duration is essential to our understanding of avian migration. Because the main purpose of stopover is to accumulate fat as fuel for the next flight bout, fuel reserves at arrival and the accumulation of fuel are both expected to affect stopover departure decisions. Here, we determined whether fuel reserves and fuel accumulation predict a bird's motivation to depart, as quantified by nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe), using northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) that were captured and temporarily contained at spring stopover. We found that fuel reserves at capture were positively correlated with Zugunruhe, and negatively correlated with fuel accumulation. This indicates that fat birds were motivated to depart, whereas lean birds were set on staying and accumulating fuel. Moreover, the change in fuel reserves was positively correlated with the concurrent change in Zugunruhe, providing the first empirical evidence for a direct link between fuel accumulation and Zugunruhe during stopover. Our study indicates that, together with innate rhythms and weather, the size and accumulation of fuel reserves shape stopover duration, and hence overall migration time.

  9. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  10. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOEpatents

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann; DeLancey, James Peter; Primus, Roy James; Pintgen, Florian Peter

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  11. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  12. Diesel fuel injection pump with electronically controlled fuel spilling and cutoff and recirculation venting of split fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ito, Y.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for a diesel engine. The pump consists of a number of intercommunicating parts. The first part is a housing containing a bore. Analogously, the patent describes a plunger slidably fitted in the bore for reciprocation with respect to housing in response to engine rotation, the bore defining a high pressure chamber at one end of the plunger. A first electromagnetic valve for shutting off fuel to the pump when the engine is not running, is also described and characterized as having an inlet adapted to be connected to a source of fuel at a relatively low pressure and an outlet. Connected to the outlet of the first electromagnetic valve is the upstream end of a fuel supply passage. The downstream end of the fuel supply leads to the high pressure chamber. A means for communicating the high pressure chamber with a fuel injection line substantially only when the plunger is moving in a second direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber is represented. Similarly, a means for selectively communicating the high pressure chamber with a vent passage in order to control the amount of fuel delivered during each fuel injection is described and is characterized as a principal feature of this patent. This selective modality of communication consists of two components. The first component is a second electromagnetic valve having an inlet connected to the high pressure chamber and an outlet connected to the fuel supply passage. The second component is a means for selectively opening the second electromagnetic valve to communicate the high pressure chamber with the fuel supply passage for a predetermined minimum time in response to the closing of the first electromagnetic valve.

  13. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  14. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  15. A Compact Flexible Pellet Injection System for Fueling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2000-10-01

    A compact pellet injection system is being designed and built at ORNL to provide a flexible pellet fueling system for studies in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The system known as a ``pellet injector in a suitcase (PIS)'' is a pipe gun device with four barrels that uses a cryocooler for in-situ hydrogenic pellet formation. The system is being built to provide a flexible, low-cost fueling system that can be used on a number of plasma confinement experiments with minimal installation and operation costs. components in the system. It will use both propellant gas and a mechanical punch to accelerate the 1 - 4 mm size pellets to 100-1500 m/s. With the mechanical punch alone a low speed pellet, useful for curved guide tube applications, can be produced with minimal gas load eliminating the need for a large ballast volume. can be independently fired. diagnose the injector. The PIS is a flexible tool for fueling alternative concept devices such as MST and NSTX and for specialized studies in mainline tokamak experiments such as DIII-D and JET. The small size makes installation on such devices more feasible. of the system design and the expected performance will be presented.

  16. Long-range spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.

    PubMed

    Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2015-04-24

    We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a long-range spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal signal. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters.

  17. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  18. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  19. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  20. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  1. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  2. 78 FR 70240 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) 2011-26- 04 that applies to certain Lycoming Engines fuel injected reciprocating engines. AD 2011-26-04 requires inspection, replacement if necessary, and proper clamping of...

  3. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  4. The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson; Gardiner, A W

    1923-01-01

    Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.

  5. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  6. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  7. Numerical investigation of the impact of asymmetric fuel injection on shock train characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Bin; Chang, Juntao; Jiao, Xiaoliang; Bao, Wen; Yu, Daren

    2014-12-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the impact of asymmetric fuel injection on shock train characteristics using the commercial-code FLUENT. The asymmetry of fuel injection is examined by changing the fuel flow rates of the upper and lower wall fuel injectors. The numerical approach solves the two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, supplemented with a k-ω model of turbulence. As a result, different ways of fuel injections will always lead to shock train transitions, with the variations of shock train structure, strength and leading edge position. For symmetric fuel injection, the flowfield of the isolator is quite asymmetric with the boundary layer of the upper wall side developing much stronger than that of the lower wall, which is due to the heterogeneity of the incoming flow. Regarding to asymmetric fuel injection with more of lower wall side, though the pressures in the combustor are nearly the same, the first shock of the shock train converts between 'Distinct symmetric X type shock' and 'Obscure and weaker asymmetric shock' and the shock train leading edge moves upstream with the increase of the asymmetry level. With regard to asymmetric fuel injection with more of upper wall side, 'incomplete asymmetric X type shock' occurs and the shock train structures keep nearly the same with low level of fuel injection asymmetry. Unexpected results like unstart will happen when increasing the level of fuel injection asymmetry. And the isolator will come back to normal state by decreasing the differential of upper and lower wall sides fuel injections.

  8. The study on injection parameters of selected alternative fuels used in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Lew, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents selected results concerning fuel charging and spraying process for selected alternative fuels, including regular diesel fuel, rape oil, FAME, blends of these fuels in various proportions, and blends of rape oil with diesel fuel. Examination of the process included the fuel charge measurements. To this end, a set-up for examination of Common Rail-type injection systems was used constructed on the basis of Bosch EPS-815 test bench, from which the high-pressure pump drive system was adopted. For tests concerning the spraying process, a visualisation chamber with constant volume was utilised. The fuel spray development was registered with the use of VisioScope (AVL).

  9. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. The existing AD currently requires inspection, replacement if necessary, and proper clamping of externally mounted fuel injector fuel lines. That AD also exempts engines that have...

  10. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  11. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  12. Preloaded compliant linkage for fuel injection pump rack

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbon, E.S.; Krosney, M.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes in a fuel injection pump system for an internal combustion engine. The improvement comprising: a compliant linkage in the pump rack means positioned between a first portion of the pump rack means engaged by the gear and a second portion thereof which is connected to the plunger means. The linkage comprising a precompressed spring urging the first and second portions of the pump rack means apart from each other with a force greater than the value of load forces acting on the rack means during normal operation in the absence of abnormally strong transient load forces, but less than the driving force produced by the stepper output shaft; whereby the spring remains in its normal precompressed state during normal operation; is additionally compressed when transient load forces occur so as to permit continue normal operation of the gear even though the second portion of the rack means is arrested; and returns to its normal precompressed state when the transient local forces disappear, thus permitting the second portion of the pump rack means to assume its proper controlled position. Herein the first portion of the rack means is pivotable about an axis normal to the length of the pump rack means and is biased toward the gear by a spring.

  13. Diesel fuel injection pump with electromagnetic fuel spilling valve having pilot valve providing high responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ito, Y.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-04-01

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described having a plurality of cylinders coupled to a crankshaft, the fuel injection system consisting of: a housing with a cylindrical bore formed therein; an input shaft mounted coaxially with the bore and rotatable in a predetermined phase relation with the crankshaft of the engine; a plunger slidably mounted in the bore, one end of the plunger defining with the bore a high pressure chamber, and another end of the plunger being rotationally engaged with the input shaft but being free to move axially with respect to the input shaft; means for axially reciprocating the plunger in the bore according to the rotational position of the plunger; means for communicating the high pressure chamber selectively with respective cylinders of the engine according to the rotational position of the plunger substantially only when the plunger is moving in a delivery stroke, axially in a direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber; a valve body having an internal chamber communicating with the high pressure chamber, with a vent passage leading from the internal chamber for venting the high pressure chamber; a valve element located in the internal chamber and having an orifice, one side of the orifice communicating with the high pressure chamber; and an electromagnetically operated pilot valve which is selectively electromagnetically driven when electrical energy is supplied thereto so as to close a normally open passage which vents a space on the other side of the orifice remote from the high pressure chamber.

  14. Short-lasting accumulation in osteoid bone seams of radioactive iron injected as citrate into mice.

    PubMed

    Huser, H; Gerber, L; Eichenberger, P; Waelti, E; Cottier, H

    1988-05-01

    The possible role in vivo of osseous structures in binding radioactive iron injected as a low-molecular-weight complex was studied in mice, using combined autoradiography and histomorphometry on sections of undecalcified, plastic-embedded femur epiphyses/metaphyses. A single intraperitoneal injection of 10 microCi 59Fe (1.2 micrograms Fe) per animal as citrate within 3 hours led to a preferential accumulation of this metal in the osteoid mineralized tissue interphase (osteoid seams) of bone. Within the next 2 days the labeling intensity in this localization diminished markedly to approximate levels of the bone marrow and calcified bone. The bulk of the injected radioiron was utilized according to known erythrokinetics. Findings suggest a direct entry of "free," ie, not transferrin-bound, iron into osteoid seams and its consecutive rapid removal from this site.

  15. Zero-Gravity Fuel-Cell Product-Water Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    Assortment of documents describes simple, passive system that removes water formed from reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. Designed for use in zero gravity, system does not require any machinery or external source of power. Works by capillary action and differential pressure.

  16. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  17. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  18. Controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjusting member of a fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eheim, F.; Hofer, G.; Konrath, K.; Straubel, M.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjustment element of a fuel injection pump including an adjusting lever pivotable around a shaft. The adjusting lever is coupled with a fuel-quantity adjusting element, a drag lever pivotable around the shaft of the adjusting lever. The drag lever communicates with the adjusting lever by way of a coupling element. An adjustable governor spring assembly is arranged to act on the drag lever, a stop for stopping the drag lever, further including a device for generating rpm-dependent force transmittable to the drag lever by means of an actuating element thereof and counter to the governor spring assembly, whereby the drag lever and the adjusting lever are coupled for movement together at least at the end of each relative movement effected by the actuating element. The actuating element acts directly upon the drag lever and the adjusting lever during deflection by way of a predetermined relative adjustment distance between the drag lever and the adjusting lever for adjustment by the actuating element, at least one spring arranged between the adjusting lever and a fixed support. At least one spring acts on the adjusting lever to force the adjusting lever into contact with an adjustable stop which is adjustable in dependence from the operating parameters of the combustion engine.

  19. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  20. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made.

  1. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  2. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  3. A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Parks, P.B.

    1999-06-14

    Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.

  4. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  5. Hypotensive Effect and Accumulation of Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes in Blood and Tissues after Intravenous and Subcutaneous Injection.

    PubMed

    Timoshin, A A; Lakomkin, V L; Abramov, A A; Ruuge, E K; Vanin, A F

    2016-12-01

    Subcutaneous injection of Oxacom with glutathione-bound dinitrosyl iron complex as the active principle produced a slower drop of mean BP and longer accumulation of protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes in whole blood and tissues than intravenous injection of this drug, while durations of hypotensive effect in both cases were practically identical. In contrast to intravenous injection of the drug, its subcutaneous administration was not characterized by a high concentration of protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes in the blood at the onset of experiment; in addition, accumulation of these NO forms in the lungs was more pronounced after subcutaneous injection than after intravenous one.

  6. Effect of combustor geometry and fuel injection scheme on the combustion process in a supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zun; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Bai, Xue-Song

    2016-12-01

    The combustion process in a hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor with a rearwall-expansion cavity was investigated numerically under inflow conditions of Ma=2.52 with stagnation pressure P0=1.6 Mpa and stagnation temperature T0=1486 K. The numerical solver was first evaluated for supersonic reactive flows in a similar combustor configuration where experimental data is available. Wall-pressure distribution was compared with the experiments, and grid independency analysis and chemical mechanism comparison were conducted. The numerical results showed fairly good agreements with the available experimental data under supersonic combustion conditions. Then the numerical solver was used to study the effects of combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and injection equivalence ratio on the combustion process. It was found that under the same fuel injection condition, the combustor configuration with a rearwall-expansion cavity is in favor of the supersonic combustion mode and present better ability of thermal choking prevention than the other combustor configurations. For the rearwall-expansion cavity combustor, the supersonic flow field was found to be sensitive to the injector position and injection scheme, but not highly sensitive to the injection pressure. Besides, rearwall-expansion cavity with the combined fuel injection scheme (with an injection upstream the cavity and a direct injection on the rear wall) is an optimized injection scheme during the flame stabilization process.

  7. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  8. Fuel Injection Strategy for a Next Generation Pulse Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Fuel is fed to the injectors from a fuel tank which is pressure regulated with nitrogen. Pressurized hydraulic fluid is supplied to the injectors...of total pressure losses, and the removal of auxiliary oxygen system previously required to initiate a detonation wave in fuel-air mixtures within...development of a new design, in particular the reduction of total pressure losses, and the removal of auxiliary oxygen system previously required

  9. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

  10. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  11. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  12. Gate field plate IGBT with trench accumulation layer for extreme injection enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaorui; Chen, Wanjun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Nan; Tao, Hong; Shi, Yijun; Ma, Yinchang; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A gate field plate IGBT (GFP-IGBT) with extreme injection enhancement is proposed and verified using TCAD simulations. The GFP-IGBT features a gate field plate (GFP) inserted into n-drift region directly and a tiny P-base region separated from the GFP. In the ON-state, the accumulation layer is formed near to not only the bottom but also the side of the trench, which enhances electron injection efficiency. And the tiny P-base region reduces the holes extracted by reverse-biased P-base/N-drift junction. Both the GFP and tiny P-base contribute to achieving extreme injection enhancement, leading to a low forward voltage drop. In the OFF-state, due to the low stored charges in N-buffer layer, GFP-IGBT shows a short current fall time, leading to a decrease of turn-off loss. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional IGBT, the GFP-IGBT offers a forward voltage drop reduction of 25% or current fall time reduction of 89% (i.e. turn-off loss reduction of 53%), resulting in low power loss. The excellent device performance, coupled with a commercial IGBT-compatible fabrication process, makes the proposed GFP-IGBT a promising candidate for power switching applications.

  13. Effects of supercritical environment on hydrocarbon-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Bongchul; Kim, Dohun; Son, Min; Koo, Jaye

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effects of environment conditions on decane were investigated. Decane was injected in subcritical and supercritical ambient conditions. The visualization chamber was pressurized to 1.68 MPa by using nitrogen gas at a temperature of 653 K for subcritical ambient conditions. For supercritical ambient conditions, the visualization chamber was pressurized to 2.52 MPa by using helium at a temperature of 653 K. The decane injection in the pressurized chamber was visualized via a shadowgraph technique and gradient images were obtained by a post processing method. A large variation in density gradient was observed at jet interface in the case of subcritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions. Conversely, for supercritical injection in supercritical ambient conditions, a small density gradient was observed at the jet interface. In a manner similar to that observed in other cases, supercritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions differed from supercritical ambient conditions such as sphere shape liquid. Additionally, there were changes in the interface, and the supercritical injection core width was thicker than that in the subcritical injection. Furthermore, in cases with the same injection conditions, the change in the supercritical ambient normalized core width was smaller than the change in the subcritical ambient normalized core width owing to high specific heat at the supercritical injection and small phase change at the interface. Therefore, the interface was affected by the changing ambient condition. Given that the effect of changing the thermodynamic properties of propellants could be essential for a variable thrust rocket engine, the effects of the ambient conditions were investigated experimentally.

  14. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  15. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  16. High pressure electronic common-rail fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, T.M.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes an electromagnetically actuated fuel pump for a diesel engine fuel injection. It comprises a body adapted to receive fuel from a source; a rotatable camshaft supported in the body so as to be rotatable about an axis, and having a pair of cam lobes including a first cam lobe and a second cam lobe adapted to rotate in an annular path about the axis of rotation of the camshaft; at least one pair of reciprocating pumping elements mounted in the body perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft, each of the pumping elements including an elongated plunger having an axial passage including a first end and a second end; and means for fluidly connecting the pumping elements to fuel injection means for passing fuel under pressure thereto in response to rotation of the camshaft.

  17. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  18. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  19. Large Eddy Simulation Of The Fuel Injection In Scramjet Combustion Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, R. J. R.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-05-01

    Fuel injection in a typical scramjet combustion chamber is a very challenging flow to characterise either in experimental or computational studies. It involves multi- species compressible turbulent features with complex coherent flow structures arising as a result of sonic fuel injection transverse or inclined to the free-stream super- sonic flow. In this paper the fuel injection in the HyShot- II combustion chamber is studied using an Implicit LES method employing a modified very high order accurate numerical method. To gain accurate mean inflow boundary conditions, a thermally perfect gas formulation has been employed in preliminary simulations of the inlet ramp and cowl configuration. The results of these simulations are presented and validated against wind tunnel data.

  20. Mixing enhancement in a scramjet combustor using fuel jet injection swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesberg, Sonja M.

    The scramjet engine has proven to be a viable means of powering a hypersonic vehicle, especially after successful flights of the X-51 WaveRider and various Hy-SHOT test vehicles. The major challenge associated with operating a scramjet engine is the short residence time of the fuel and oxidizer in the combustor. The fuel and oxidizer have only milliseconds to mix, ignite and combust in the combustion chamber. Combustion cannot occur until the fuel and oxidizer are mixed on a molecular level. Therefore the improvement of mixing is of utmost interest since this can increase combustion efficiency. This study investigated mixing enhancement of fuel and oxidizer within the combustion chamber of a scramjet by introducing swirl to the fuel jet. The investigation was accomplished with numerical simulations using STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamic software. The geometry of the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility was used to model the isolator, combustor and nozzle of a scramjet engine for simulation purposes. Experimental data from previous research at the facility was used to verify the simulation model before investigating the effect of fuel jet swirl on mixing. The model used coaxial fuel jet with a swirling annular jet. Single coaxial fuel jet and dual coaxial fuel jet configurations were simulated for the investigation. The coaxial fuel jets were modelled with a swirling annular jet and non-swirling core jet. Numerical analysis showed that fuel jet swirl not only increased mixing and entrainment of the fuel with the oxidizer but the mixing occurred further upstream than without fuel jet swirl. The burning efficiency was calculated for the all the configurations. An increase in burning efficiency indicated an increase in the mixing of H2 with O2. In the case of the single fuel jet models, the maximum burning efficiency increase due to fuel injection jet swirl was 23.3%. The research also investigated the possibility that interaction between two

  1. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-03-24

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes a plurality of tube assemblies, wherein each of the tube assemblies includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. Each tube assembly includes a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream portion to the downstream portion or from the upstream portion through the downstream portion. At least one injection system is coupled to at least one tube assembly of the plurality of tube assemblies. The injection system includes a fluid supply member that extends from a fluid source to the downstream portion of the tube assembly. The fluid supply member includes a first end portion located in the downstream portion of the tube assembly, wherein the first end portion has at least one first opening for channeling fluid through the tube assembly to facilitate reducing a temperature therein.

  2. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  3. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  4. Cycle Performance of a Pulse Detonation Engine with Supercritical Fuel Injection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-23

    Franke (Member) date iv AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-M14 Abstract Pulse detonation engines ( PDE ) rely on rapid ignition and formation of...on detonation tubes one and four .................................................... 61 Figure 34. Diagram of PDE engine with supercritical fuel...the detonation tube of PDE for several fuel injection temperatures with a stoichiometric JP-8/air mixture with a frequency of 20 Hz and an ignition

  5. Effects of Fuel Temperature on Injection Process and Combustion of Dimethyl Ether Engine.

    PubMed

    Guangxin, Gao; Zhulin, Yuan; Apeng, Zhou; Shenghua, Liu; Yanju, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of fuel temperature on the injection process in the fuel-injection pipe and the combustion characteristics of compression ignition (CI) engine, tests on a four stroke, direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine were conducted. Experimental results show that as the fuel temperature increases from 20 to 40 °C, the sound speed is decreased by 12.2%, the peak line pressure at pump and nozzle sides are decreased by 7.2% and 5.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the injection timing is retarded by 2.2 °CA and the injection duration is extended by 0.8 °CA. Accordingly, the ignition delay and the combustion duration are extended by 0.7 °CA and 4.0 °CA, respectively. The cylinder peak pressure is decreased by 5.4%. As a result, the effective thermal efficiency is decreased, especially for temperature above 40 °C. Before beginning an experiment, the fuel properties of DME, including the density, the bulk modulus, and the sound speed were calculated by "ThermoData." The calculated result of sound speed is consistent with the experimental results.

  6. Injection nozzle materials for a coal-fueled diesel locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, R.L.; Leonard, G.L.; Johnson, R.N.; Lavigne, R.G.

    1990-12-31

    In order to identify materials resistant to coal water mixture (CWM) erosive wear, a number of materials were evaluated using both orifice slurry and dry air erosion tests. Both erosion tests ranked materials in the same order, and the most erosion resistant material identified was sintered diamond compact. Based on operation using CWM in a single-cylinder locomotive test, superhard nozzle materials such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, and perhaps TiB{sub 2} were found to be necessary in order to obtain a reasonable operating life. An injection nozzle using sintered diamond compacts was designed and built, and has operated successfully in a CWM fired locomotive engine.

  7. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. That AD currently requires inspection, replacement...

  8. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  9. A Comparison of Fuel Sprays from Several Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the tests results of a series of tests made of the sprays from 14 fuel injection nozzles of 9 different types, the sprays being injected into air at atmospheric density and at 6 and 14 times atmospheric density. High-speed spark photographs of the sprays from each nozzle at each air density were taken at the rate of 2,000 per second, and from them were obtained the dimensions of the sprays and the rates of spray-tip penetration. The sprays were also injected against plasticine targets placed at different distances from the nozzles, and the impressions made in the plasticine were used as an indication of the distribution of the fuel within the spray. Cross-sectional sketches of the different types of sprays are given showing the relative sizes of the spray cores and envelopes. The characteristics of the sprays are compared and discussed with respect to their application to various types of engines.

  10. Diesel fuel injection pump with signal rotor giving reference position and rotation position signals

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Y.; Kobayashi, F.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a distribution type fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and cylinders. The fuel injection system consists of: an input shaft mounted for rotation in a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft; a housing; a plunger; a combination of a cam plate and a cam follower incorporated between the input shaft and the plunger to drive the plunger in a first axial direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber in a first group of certain spaced rotational phases of the input shaft. A spring biases the plunger in a second axial direction opposite to the first axial direction to increase the size of the high pressure chamber in a second group of certain spaced rotational phases. Each rotational phase of the second group is located between corresponding two adjacent ones of the first group of rotational phases; means for communicating the high pressure chamber with a source of fuel when the plunger is moving in the second axial direction and for communicating the high pressure chamber with successive ones of the plurality of cylinders when the plunger is moving in the first axial direction; a solenoid valve which selectively vents the high pressure chamber according to selective energization and deenergization thereof to control the amount of fuel supplied to respective ones of the cylinders; a signal rotor having signal generating means circumferentially spaced around a circular portion thereof; a signal pickup means for detecting each of the signal generating means as it passes a predetermined location adjacent to the circular portion of the signal rotor; an electronic calculating means for calculating an amount of fuel to be injected for each fuel injection according to engine rotational speed and accelerator pedal opening amount. The calculating means determines a rotational angle of the crankshaft.

  11. Experimental Studies of Diestrol-Micro Emulsion Fuel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine under Varying Injection Pressures and Timings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Gopal Radhakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    The research work on biodiesel becomes more attractive in the context of limited availability of petroleum fuels and rapid increase of harmful emissions from diesel engine using conventional fossil fuels. The present investigation has dealt with the influence of biodiesel-diesel-ethanol (diestrol) water micro emulsion fuel (B60D20E20M) on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine under different injection pressure and timing. The results revealed that the maximum brake thermal efficiency of 32.4% was observed at an injection pressure of 260 bar and injection timing of 25.5°bTDC. In comparison with diesel, micro emulsion fuel showed reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) by 40 and 24%, respectively. Further, micro emulsion fuel decreased nitric oxide (NO) emission and smoke emission by 7 and 20.7%, while the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is similar to that of diesel.

  12. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  13. [Research on NEDC ultrafine particle emission characters of a port fuel injection gasoline car].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jin; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-12-01

    A Santana gasoline car with multi-port fuel injection (PFI) system was used as the research prototype and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was employed to investigate the exhaust ultrafine particle number and size distribution characters of the tested vehicle in new European driving cycle (NEDC). The tested results showed that the vehicle's nuclear particle number, accumulation particle number, as well as the total particle number emission increased when the car drove in accelerated passage, and the vehicle's particle number emission was high during the first 40 seconds after test started and when the speed was over 90 km x h(-1) in extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) in NEDC. The ultrafine particle distribution of the whole NEDC showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, with diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameter was 24 nm. The ultrafine particle distribution of the urban driving cycle named by the economic commission for Europe (ECE) e. g. ECE I, ECE II - IV, the extra urban driving cycle e. g. EUDC, and the idling, constant speed, acceleration, deceleration operation conditions of NEDC all showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, also with particle diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameters of different driving cycle and different driving mode were from 14 nm to 42 nm. Therefore, the ultrafine particle emissions of the tested PFI gasoline car were mainly consisted of nuclear mode particles with a diameter of less than 50 nm.

  14. Performance of a Fuel-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Using a Hydrogenated Safety Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.

  15. Fuel injector system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  16. Androgen-dependent accumulation of carnitine by rat epididymis after injection of [3H]butyrobetaine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bohmer, T; Hansson, V

    1975-08-01

    After i.m. injection of [3H]butyrobetaine into rats, the accumulation of carnitine into the epididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, testis and heart was studied. The concentration of radiolabeled carnitine into the cauda epididymis increased linearly with time up to 72 h after the injection of the precursor, while its level in the prostate and seminal vesicles decreased rapidly. Very low levels of carnitine were found in the testis. Castration reduced the carnitine accumulation by cauda epididymis to 6% of the control levels while treatment of castrated animals with testosterone propionate (500 mug/day) partly restored the carnitine uptake. Similar treatment with 17beta-oestradiol valerate or 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone had no effect. Surprisingly, cyproterone acetate (5 mg/day) also significantly stimulated carnitine accumulation by the epididymis to a level above that of the castrated controls. Simultaneous injection of both cyproterone acetate and testosterone propionate to castrated animals caused an additive effect of these steroids. This indicated that cyproterone acetate in this system is working as a weak androgen. Treatment of rats with 17beta-oestradiol valerate also reduced carnitine accumulation by the cauda epididymis. This is due to suppression of pituiatry gonadotrophin secretion, since concommitant treatment with testosterone propionate (500 mug/day) caused a normalization of the carnitine uptake. Treatment of intact rats with cyproterone acetate significantly reduced the epididymal weight, but not the carnitine accumulation. 17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone treatment had no effect either on the epididymal weight or the accumulation of the carnitine. Unilateral orchiectomy reduced the carnitine accumulation by the cauda epididymis to about 40% of that occurring in the non-operated control side. This indicates that the luminal contact between the testis and epididymis or the luminal content of the epididymis itself is of importance for the androgen

  17. Method for building or repairing rotary injection fuel pump piston cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.J. Jr.; Ash, E.G.

    1986-06-17

    A rotary fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine including a housing with inlet and outlet passages, a rotor having a longitudinal axis journaled in the housing having a rotor body with angularly spaced radially extending bores and a fuel passage in communication with the inner ends of the bores having inlet and outlet ports which communicate alternately with the inlet and outlet passages during rotation of the rotor for alternately conducting fuel to and from the bores respectively, a plunger assembly for each bore comprising a pump plunger reciprocally mounted in the bore to sequentially receive charges of fuel from and deliver them to the inlet and outlet passages respectively, and a plunger operating roller and roller shoe at the outer end of the plunger having a radial position relative to the axis of the rotor, a cam ring with an inner cam contour surrounding the rotor in the plane of revolution of the rollers engageable therewith to translate the cam contour into reciprocal movement of the plungers, and a plunger stroke limit mechanism for limiting the outward stroke of the plungers and thereby regulate the quantity of fuel injected during each inward pumping stroke thereof, a timing advance connector connected to the cam ring for changing the radial position of the lobes in the plane of revolution of the rollers relative to the rollers to thereby advance or retard the fuel injection depending upon the position of the cam ring, a timing means controlling the movement of a hydraulic timing piston mounted in a cylinder which moves the connector.

  18. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Nozaki, S.; Yamada, K.

    1986-08-12

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a suction space filled with fuel under pressure variable as a function of the rotational speed of the engine; a plunger driven by the engine for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion to effect suction of fuel from the suction space into a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof, pressure delivery of fuel from the pump working chamber and distribution of the fuel into cylinders of the engine; suction ports formed in the plunger and identical in number with the cylinders of the engine. The suction ports with the pump working chamber; a first communication passageway communicating the suction space with the pump working chamber; a second communication passageway having a restriction therein. The second communication passageway is disposed to sequentially register with the suction ports as the plunger rotates for communicating the suction space with each of the suction ports that registers with the second communication passageway; a solenoid valve disposed to selectively open and close the first communication passageway; a selector valve operable to assume, independently of the opening and closing action of the solenoid valve, a first valve position wherein the first communication passageway is closed and simultaneously the second communication passageway is opened, at the start of the engine, and a second valve position wherein the second communication passageway is closed and simultaneously the first communication passageway is is opened, during operation of the engine other than at the start of the engine; and control means operable in response to operating conditions of the engine to control the solenoid valve to alternately open and close so as to achieve required fuel injection quantity and required injection timing.

  19. Fuel injection pump having a compact spill-port timing control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, T.; Miyaki, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-03-04

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump. This pump consists of a compression chamber adapted to be coupled to a source of fuel; fuel injection nozzles; a rotary plunger rotatably driven by an internal combustion engine, the plunger including means for defining a common passageway connected at one end to the compression chamber, the plunger further including means for defining angularly spaced apart spill ports branching off the common passageway to an outside surface thereof and a fuel delivery port branching off the common passageway, the fuel delivery port being selectively movable into and out of alignment with each one of the nozzles by rotation of the plunger; a magnetized rotary ring including means for defining a spill groove extending along the inner wall thereof, the ring being mounted on the plunger and rotatable, with respect to the plunger, between at least a first angular position, the ring consists of a cylindrical structure having differently magnetized equally divided arcuate sections, the groove being formed on the inner wall of the cylindrical structure and substantially axially extending from one end of the structure; spring means for biasing the ring toward one of the first and second angular positions; a stationary core surrounding the ring; and a coil wound on the core for generating a rotative thrust on the ring for selectively moving the ring between the first and second angular positions in response to a control signal.

  20. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  1. Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Karigan, G. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An accumulator particularly adapted for use in controlling the pressure of a stream of fluid in its liquid phase utilizing the fluid in its gaseous phase was designed. The accumulator is characterized by a shell defining a pressure chamber having an entry throat for a liquid and adapted to be connected in contiguous relation with a selected conduit having a stream of fluid flowing through the conduit in its liquid phase. A pressure and volume stabilization tube, including an array of pressure relief perforations is projected into the chamber with the perforations disposed adjacent to the entry throat for accommodating a discharge of the fluid in either gaseous or liquid phases, while a gas inlet and liquid to gas conversion system is provided, the chamber is connected with a source of the fluid for continuously pressuring the chamber for controlling the pressure of the stream of liquid.

  2. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  3. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  4. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  5. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  6. Atomization and vaporization characteristics of airblast fuel injection inside a venturi tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, H.; Chue, T.-H.; Lai, M.-C.; Tacina, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical characterization of the capillary fuel injection, atomization, dispersion, and vaporization of liquid fuel in a coflowing air stream inside a single venturi tube. The experimental techniques used are all laser-based. Phase Doppler analyzer was used to characterize the atomization and vaporization process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence visualizations give good qualitative picture of the fuel droplet and vapor distribution. Limited quantitative capabilities of the technique are also demonstrated. A modified version of the KIVA-II was used to simulate the entire spray process, including breakup and vaporization. The advantage of venturi nozzle is demonstrated in terms of better atomization, more uniform F/A distribution, and less pressure drop. Multidimensional spray calculations can be used as a design tool only if care is taken for the proper breakup model, and wall impingement process.

  7. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  8. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  9. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves. PMID:22163597

  10. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less

  11. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  12. Electrical injection and detection of spin accumulation in silicon at 500 K with magnetic metal/silicon dioxide contacts.

    PubMed

    Li, C H; van 't Erve, O M J; Jonker, B T

    2011-01-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors has identified the electron's spin angular momentum as a new state variable that should be explored as an alternative to the electron's charge for use beyond the size scaling of Moore's Law. A major obstacle has been achieving control of the spin variable at temperatures required for practical applications. Here we demonstrate electrical injection, detection and precession of spin accumulation in silicon, the cornerstone material of device technology, at temperatures that easily exceed these requirements. We observe Hanle precession of electron spin accumulation in silicon for a wide range of bias, show that the magnitude of the Hanle signal agrees well with theory, and that the spin lifetime varies with silicon carrier density. These results confirm spin accumulation in the silicon transport channel to 500 K rather than trapping in localized interface states, and enable utilization of the spin variable in practical device applications.

  13. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  14. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  15. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  16. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  17. Significance of chamber pressure to complex multi-phase physics in jet engine fuel injection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Rainer; Oefelein, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Injection processes in jet engines at chamber pressures in excess of the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid fuel are not well understood. Under some conditions, a distinct two-phase interface may not exist anymore which eliminates the presence of classical spray atomization phenomena. A comprehensive model for jet engine fuel injections is derived to quantify the conditions under which the interfacial dynamics transition to diffusion-dominated mixing processes without surface tension. At certain conditions, the model shows two-phase interfaces with substantially increased thicknesses and distinctively reduced mean free paths in comparison to ambient pressure conditions. Then, the underlying assumptions of a distinct two-phase interface do not apply anymore and the interface along with its surface tension is shown to deteriorate as it broadens substantially. As a consequence of this physical complexity, the conceptual view of spray atomization and evaporation as an appropriate model for jet engine injection processes is, contrary to conventional wisdom, questionable at certain operating conditions. Instead, a Large Eddy Simulation using a dense-fluid approximation is applied which takes the complex thermo-physics of real-fluid behavior into account.

  18. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  19. Study on Model Based Combustion Control of Diesel Engine with Multi Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemura, R.; Yamasaki, Y.; Kaneko, S.

    2016-09-01

    A controller for model-based control of diesel engine with triple injection were developed with a combustion model. In the combustion model, an engine cycle is discretized into several representative points in order to improve calculation speed, while physical equations are employed to expand the versatility. The combustion model can predict in-cylinder pressure and temperature in these discrete points. Prediction accuracy of the combustion model was evaluated by comparison with experimental result. A controller was designed with the combustion model in order to calculate optimal fuel injection pattern for controlling in-cylinder pressure peak timing. The controller's performance was evaluated through simulation in which the combustion model was used as a plant model.

  20. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  1. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  2. On the near-wall accumulation of injectable particles in the microcirculation: smaller is not better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Rin; Choi, Myunghwan; Kopacz, Adrian M.; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Liu, Wing Kam; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Although most nanofabrication techniques can control nano/micro particle (NMP) size over a wide range, the majority of NMPs for biomedical applications exhibits a diameter of ~100 nm. Here, the vascular distribution of spherical particles, from 10 to 1,000 nm in diameter, is studied using intravital microscopy and computational modeling. Small NMPs (<=100 nm) are observed to move with Red Blood Cells (RBCs), presenting an uniform radial distribution and limited near-wall accumulation. Larger NMPs tend to preferentially accumulate next to the vessel walls, in a size-dependent manner (~70% for 1,000 nm NMPs). RBC-NMP geometrical interference only is responsible for this behavior. In a capillary flow, the effective radial dispersion coefficient of 1,000 nm particles is ~3-fold larger than Brownian diffusion. This suggests that sub-micron particles could deposit within diseased vascular districts more efficiently than conventional nanoparticles.

  3. Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A·m−3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A·m−3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  4. On the near-wall accumulation of injectable particles in the microcirculation: smaller is not better

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Rin; Choi, Myunghwan; Kopacz, Adrian M.; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Liu, Wing Kam; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Although most nanofabrication techniques can control nano/micro particle (NMP) size over a wide range, the majority of NMPs for biomedical applications exhibits a diameter of ~100 nm. Here, the vascular distribution of spherical particles, from 10 to 1,000 nm in diameter, is studied using intravital microscopy and computational modeling. Small NMPs (≤100 nm) are observed to move with Red Blood Cells (RBCs), presenting an uniform radial distribution and limited near-wall accumulation. Larger NMPs tend to preferentially accumulate next to the vessel walls, in a size-dependent manner (~70% for 1,000 nm NMPs). RBC-NMP geometrical interference only is responsible for this behavior. In a capillary flow, the effective radial dispersion coefficient of 1,000 nm particles is ~3-fold larger than Brownian diffusion. This suggests that sub-micron particles could deposit within diseased vascular districts more efficiently than conventional nanoparticles. PMID:23801070

  5. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A; Pihl, Josh A; Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  6. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  7. Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

    2014-07-15

    The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures.

  8. Charge accumulation in an MNOS structure with carrier injection from the field electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Maslovskii, V.M.; Nagin, A.P.; Chernyshev, Yu.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the parameters of trapping centers by injecting electrons into the insulator of an MIS structure from the field electrode, when a negative voltage pulse with amplitude U and duration t is applied to it. The results indicate that in silicon nitride, just as in silicon oxide, degradation is apparently caused by the trapping of holes in traps formed by Si-H bonds. The trapping of a hole stimulates the breaking of the bond and the appearance of a mobile H/sup +/ ion. In this case, the mobile H/sup +/ ions, appearing as a result of the flow of the hole current, passivate the incomplete bonds of the silicon atoms and thereby decrease the concentration of electron-trapping centers.

  9. Some Factors Affecting the Reproducibility of Penetration and the Cut-Off of Oil Sprays for Fuel-injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author)

  10. Regression rate study of porous axial-injection, endburning hybrid fuel grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.

    This experimental and theoretical work examines the effects of gaseous oxidizer flow rates and pressure on the regression rates of porous fuels for hybrid rocket applications. Testing was conducted using polyethylene as the porous fuel and both gaseous oxygen and nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Nominal test articles were tested using 200, 100, 50, and 15 micron fuel pore sizes. Pressures tested ranged from atmospheric to 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 207 kPa to 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests, and oxidizer injection velocities ranged from 35 m/s to 80 m/s for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 7.5 m/s to 16.8 m/s for the nitrous oxide tests. Regression rates were determined using pretest and posttest length measurements of the solid fuel. Experimental results demonstrated that the regression rate of the porous axial-injection, end-burning hybrid was a function of the chamber pressure, as opposed to the oxidizer mass flux typical in conventional hybrids. Regression rates ranged from approximately 0.75 mm/s at atmospheric pressure to 8.89 mm/s at 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and 0.21 mm/s at 207 kPa to 1.44 mm/s at 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests. The analytical model was developed based on a standard ablative model modified to include oxidizer flow through the grain. The heat transfer from the flame was primarily modeled using an empirically determined flame coefficient that included all heat transfer mechanisms in one term. An exploratory flame model based on the Granular Diffusion Flame model used for solid rocket motors was also adapted for comparison with the empirical flame coefficient. This model was then evaluated quantitatively using the experimental results of the gaseous oxygen tests as well as qualitatively using the experimental results of the nitrous oxide tests. The model showed agreement with the experimental results indicating it has potential for giving insight into the flame structure in this motor configuration

  11. The Influence on Exhaust Gas Components and Fuel Consumption of Injection of Concentrated NOx into Diesel Engine Intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    The authors inject NO into a diesel engine intake and investigate the reduction of NOx generation at the combustion chamber at first. The result shows that 20 - 30% of the injected NO (0.225 ∼ 0.72 slm) is reduced. Discussion through the calculation of the extended Zeldovich mechanism suggests that the reduction is mainly attributed to the region where equivalence ratio ranges in 1.1 - 1.5 and that the reaction between NO and hydrocarbon species slightly contributes to the NO reduction. Moreover, another experimental result shows that the injection of NO slightly improves specific fuel consumption, e.g. 0.4% at NO injection of 0.72 slm for intake airflow of 285 slm. Calculation of reaction enthalpy of NO reduction and CO oxidation considerably meets the experimental results on the change in fuel consumption.

  12. Numerical investigation of scale effect of various injection diameters on interaction in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Qi, Yin-Yin; Liu, Wei-Lai; Xu, Bao-Jian; Ge, Jia-Ru; Xuan, Xiang-Chun; Jen, Tien-Chien

    2016-12-01

    The incident shock wave generally has a strong effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow, possibly due to its affecting the interaction between incoming flow and fuel through various operation conditions. This study is to address scale effect of various injection diameters on the interaction between incident shock wave and transversal cavity injection in a cold kerosene-fueled scramjet combustor. The injection diameters are separately specified as from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in 0.5 mm increments when other performance parameters, including the injection angle, velocity and pressure drop are all constant. A combined three dimensional Couple Level Set & Volume of Fluids (CLSVOF) approach with an improved K-H & R-T model is used to characterize penetration height, span expansion area, angle of shock wave and sauter mean diameter (SMD) distribution of the kerosene droplets with/without considering evaporation. Our results show that the injection orifice surely has a great scale effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flows. Our findings show that the penetration depth, span angle and span expansion area of the transverse cavity jet are increased with the injection diameter, and that the kerosene droplets are more prone to breakup and atomization at the outlet of the combustor for the orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. The calculation predictions are compared against the reported experimental measurements and literatures with good qualitative agreement. The simulation results obtained in this study can provide the evidences for better understanding the underlying mechanism of kerosene atomization in cold supersonic flow and scramjet design improvement.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLED SINGLE-LAYER PZT FOR PIEZO STACK IN FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2010-01-01

    Poled single-layer PZT has been characterized in as-extracted and as-received states. PZT plate specimens in the former were extracted from a stack. Flexure strength of PZT was evaluated by using ball-on-ring and 4-point bend tests. Fractography showed that intergranular fractures dominated the fracture surface and that volume pores were the primary strength-limiting flaws. The electric field effect was investigated by testing the PZT in open circuit and coercive field levels. An asymmetrical response on the biaxial flexure strength with respect to the electric field direction was observed. These experimental results will assist reliability design of the piezo stack that is being considered in fuel injection system.

  14. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  15. Effects of fuel injection on mixing and upstream interactions in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qiuya

    Scramjet engine performance has been studied experimentally and computationally almost under steady-state conditions. Transients of the airflow and fueling in the scramjet's isolator or combustor create important fluid-dynamic/ combustion interactions. Spark schlieren photography was employed to study the effects of pressure rise in the combustion chamber on the isolator flow at three conditions with isolator entrance Mach number of 1.6, 1.9 and 2.5, covering the range of dual-mode combustion and transition to full scramjet operation. Heat release through combustion in the model scramjet was simulated by incrementally blocking the flow exit until upstream-interaction was induced and a shock train formed in the isolator. Theoretical predictions of the pressure rise in the isolator under separated flow conditions were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. The prediction is sensitive to the accurate modeling of the isolator inlet conditions and the correct selection of wall friction coefficient. Gaseous helium and argon have been transversely injected into a Mach 1.6 airflow simulating a light and a heavy fuel injection behind a thin triangular pylon placed upstream, in the isolator, which has a negligible impact on pressure losses. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to observe the penetration and mixing in the test section at three cross-sections including the recirculation region and beyond. Results were compared to the no-pylon cases, which showed the presence of the pylon resulted in improving both penetration and spreading of the jet. Simulation for shock wave/ boundary-layer interaction was conducted in Fluent for case of M=1.9 at 60% blockage by using k-ε RNG model with two different near wall treatments. In both cases, the shock ran out of isolator before the computation converged, this is different from experimental results. Proper actual wall friction force may have a very important effect on the computation, which needs

  16. Controlling Accumulation of Fermentation Inhibitors in Biorefinery Recycle Water Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Leak, David; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Andras, Calin

    2009-01-01

    Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4- hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700mW/m2 (356W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by -Proteobacteria (50%), along with -Proteobacteria (28%), -Proteobacteria (14%), -Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusions Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

  17. Controlling accumulation of fermentation inhibitors in biorefinery recycle water using microbial fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton, Choo Y

    2009-01-01

    Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700 mW/m2 (356 W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by δ-Proteobacteria (50%), along with β-Proteobacteria (28%), α-Proteobacteria (14%), γ-Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20 mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusion Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs. PMID:19338657

  18. Investigation of ecological parameters of four-stroke SI engine, with pneumatic fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The publication presents the results of tests to determine the impact of using waste fuels, alcohol, to power the engine, on the ecological parameters of the combustion engine. Alternatively fuelled with a mixture of iso- and n-butanol, indicated with "X" and "END, and gasoline and a mixture of fuel and alcohol. The object of the study was a four-stroke engine with spark ignition designed to work with a generator. Motor power was held by the modified system of pneumatic injection using hot exhaust gases developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz, controlled by modern mechatronic systems. Tests were conducted at a constant speed for the intended use of the engine. The subject of the research was to determine the control parameters such as ignition timing, mixture composition and the degree of exhaust gas recirculation on the ecological parameters of the engine. Tests were carried out using partially quality power control. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  19. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  20. The Use of Large Valve Overlap in Scavenging a Supercharged Spark-ignition Engine Using Fuel Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of more complete scavenging on the full throttle power and the fuel consumption of a four-stroke-cycle engine. The NACA single-cylinder universal test engine equipped with both a fuel-injection system and a carburetor was used. The engine was scavenged by using a large valve overlap and maintaining a pressure in the inlet manifold of 2 inches of mercury above atmospheric. The maximum valve overlap used was 112 degrees. Tests were conducted for a range of compression ratios from 5.5 to 8.5. Except for variable speed tests, all tests were conducted at an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. The results of the tests show that the clearance volume of an engine can be scavenged by using a large valve overlap and about 2 to 5 inches of mercury pressure difference between the inlet and exhaust valve. With a fuel-injection system when the clearance volume was scavenged, a b.m.e.p. of over 185 pounds per square inch and a fuel consumption of 9.45 pound per brake horsepower per hour were obtained with a 6.5 compression ratio. An increase of approximately 10 pounds per square inch b.m.e.p. was obtained with a fuel-injection system over that with a carburetor.

  1. Accumulative charge separation for solar fuels production: coupling light-induced single electron transfer to multielectron catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-17

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into a fuel holds promise to provide a significant part of the future renewable energy demand of our societies. Solar energy technologies today generate heat or electricity, while the large majority of our energy is used in the form of fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel would satisfy our needs for storable energy on a large scale. Solar fuels can be generated by absorbing light and converting its energy to chemical energy by electron transfer leading to separation of electrons and holes. The electrons are used in the catalytic reduction of a cheap substrate with low energy content into a high-energy fuel. The holes are filled by oxidation of water, which is the only electron source available for large scale solar fuel production. Absorption of a single photon typically leads to separation of a single electron-hole pair. In contrast, fuel production and water oxidation are multielectron, multiproton reactions. Therefore, a system for direct solar fuel production must be able to accumulate the electrons and holes provided by the sequential absorption of several photons in order to complete the catalytic reactions. In this Account, the process is termed accumulative charge separation. This is considerably more complicated than charge separation on a single electron level and needs particular attention. Semiconductor materials and molecular dyes have for a long time been optimized for use in photovoltaic devices. Efforts are made to develop new systems for light harvesting and charge separation that are better optimized for solar fuel production than those used in the early devices presented so far. Significant progress has recently been made in the discovery and design of better homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for solar fuels and water oxidation. While the heterogeneous ones perform better today, molecular catalysts based on transition metal complexes offer much greater tunability of electronic and

  2. Electric field effects on spin accumulation in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} using tunable spin injection contacts at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerbeek, A. M.; Vries, E. K. de; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.; Dankert, A.; Dash, S. P.

    2014-05-26

    We report on features in charge transport and spin injection in an oxide semiconductor, Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}. This is demonstrated using electrically tunable spin injection contacts which exploit the large electric field at the interface and its interplay with the relative permittivity of the semiconductor. We realize spin accumulation in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} which displays a unique dependence of the spin lifetime with bias polarity. These findings suggest a strong influence of the interface electric field on the charge transport as well as on spin accumulation unlike in conventional semiconductors and opens up promising avenues in oxide spintronics.

  3. Effects of Fuel Spray Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single- Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor were performed to assess the effects of fuel spray modeling in predicting combustion instability. Concurrently...239.18 Effects of Fuel Spray Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine

  4. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Jonathan H.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Bisson, Scott E.; Patterson, Brian D.; Ruggles, Adam J.; Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Huang, Erxiong; Cicone, Dave J.; Sphicas, Panos

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  5. A laser-induced-fluorescence visualization study of transverse, sonic fuel injection in a nonreacting supersonic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C.; Graves, J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper reports work which has been conducted in the first phase of a research program which is to provide a data base of spatially-resolved measurements in nonreacting supersonic combustors. In the measurements, a nonintrusive diagnostic technique based on the utilization of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is employed. The reported work had the objective to conduct LIF visualization studies of the injection of a simulated fuel into a Mach 2.07 airstream for comparison with corresponding numerical calculations. Attention is given to injection from a single orifice into a constant-area duct, injection from a single orifice behind a rearward-facing step, and injection from staged orifices behind a rearward-facing step.

  6. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  7. Compact Modeling of Floating-Base Effect in Injection-Enhanced Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor Based on Potential Modification by Accumulated Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takao; Miyake, Masataka; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a compact model of the injection-enhanced insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) applicable for circuit optimization. The main development is modeling the hole accumulation in the floating-base region. It is demonstrated that the observed negative gate capacitance is well reproduced with the developed model.

  8. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  9. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    DOE PAGES

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; ...

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated themore » investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in X-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain

  10. Laboratory endurance test of sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engine fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.; Ziejewski, M.

    1983-12-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested using the test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Association. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of seven oligopeptides in microbial fuel cell by micro-fluidic chip with reflux injection mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zijian; Lin, Xiuli; Wang, ZongWen; Fu, FengFu

    2012-10-15

    In this work, a reflux injection mode for the cross form micro-fluidic chip was studied. This injection mode could flexibly control the length of sample plug from less than one channel width (<83 μm) to tens of channel widths (millimeter-sized) by adjusting the injection time. Namely, the separation resolution or sample detection sensitivity could be selectively improved by changing injection time. Composed of four steps, the reflux injection mode alleviated the electrophoretic sampling bias and prevented sample leakage successfully. On a micro-fluidic chip coupled with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detector, the injection mode was applied to separate seven oligopeptides, namely GG, GL, RPP, KPV, VKK, WYD and YWS. All analytes were completely separated and detected within 12 min with detection limits of 25-625 nmol/L. At last, the proposed method had been successfully applied to detect oligopeptides consumed by bacillus licheniformis in anode chamber of microbial fuel cell (MFC) to study the effect of oligopeptides on the MFC running.

  12. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  13. Blockade of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, reduces the growth of orthotopically injected colon cancer cells via limiting cancerassociated fibroblast accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Yamato; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi; Baba, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) accumulate at tumor sites through the interaction between a chemokine, CCL3, and its receptor, CCR5, in the late phase of colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Here we examined the effect of a CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc, on tumor growth arising from the orthotopic injection of mouse or human colon cancer cell lines into the cecal wall by focusing on CAFs. Orthotopic injection of either cell line caused tumor formation together with leukocyte infiltration and fibroblast accumulation. Concomitant oral administration of maraviroc reduced tumor formation with few effects on leukocyte infiltration. In contrast, maraviroc reduced the intratumor number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts, which express epidermal growth factor, a crucial growth factor for colon cancer cell growth. These observations suggest that maraviroc or other CCR5 antagonists might act as novel anti-CRC drugs to dampen CAFs, an essential cell component for tumor progression. PMID:27340784

  14. Effects of salinity on the accumulation of hemocyte aggregates and bacteria in the gills of Callinectes sapidus, the Atlantic blue crab, injected with Vibrio campbellii.

    PubMed

    Ikerd, Jennifer L; Burnett, Karen G; Burnett, Louis E

    2015-05-01

    In addition to respiration and ion regulation, crustacean gills accumulate and eliminate injected particles, along with hemocyte aggregates that form in response to those particles. Here we report that the dose of Vibrio campbellii previously shown to induce a decrease in respiration and hemolymph flow across the gill in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, also triggered the formation of aggregates containing four or more hemocytes in the gills, compared with saline-injected controls. More bacteria were trapped and rendered non-culturable per unit weight by anterior respiratory gills than posterior gills specialized for ion regulation. Further, more bacteria accumulated in the anterior gills of animals held at 30 ppt than those at 10 ppt. Thus, the role of the gills in immune defense comes at an energetic cost to this and likely to other crustaceans; this cost is influenced by acclimation salinity and the position and specialized function of individual gills.

  15. Characterization of Ethylene/JP-10 Fuel Injection Profiles for a Valveless Pulse Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    4. Turn ON 24 VDC in the control room cabinet 5. OPEN Main Air (HP Air Tank Valve) and High Pressure Air a. Blue hand valve should be opened...geometry at various flow rates. Additionally, JP10 fuel concentration profiles were determined for several fuel injector actuation pressures and at...profiles were determined for several fuel injector actuation pressures and at various alignments using the same diagnostic approach. vi THIS PAGE

  16. Fuel Surrogate Physical Property Effects on Direct Injection Spray and Ignition Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    jet was steady. As shown in Figure 2, the model was capable of capturing the general radial and axial fuel vapor distribution trends. At 25 mm...UNCLASSIFIED 1 Introduction Typical hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines, such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel, are composed of hundreds...to thousands of hydrocarbon (HC) species. Such a large number of species in high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with detailed chemistry

  17. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  18. Injection, atomization, ignition and combustion of liquid fuels in high-speed air streams. Annual scientific report 1 December 81-31 December 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schetz, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation approach to studying hot flow subsonic cross-stream fuel injection problems in a less complex and costly cold flow facility was developed. A typical ramjet combustion chamber fuel injection problem was posed where ambient temperature fuel (Kerosene) is injected into a hot airstream. This case was transformed through two new similarity parameters involving injection and freestream properties to a simulated case where a chilled injectant is injected into an ambient temperature airstream. Experiments for the simulated case using chilled Freon-12 injected into the Va. Tech 23 x 23 cm. blow-down wind tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 0.44 were run. The freestream stagnation pressure and temperature were held at 2.5 atm. and 300 degrees K respectively. Results showed a clear picture of the mechanisms of jet decomposition in the presence of rapid vaporization. Immediately after injection a vapor cloud was formed in the jet plume, which dissipated downstream leaving droplets on the order of 8 to 10 microns in diameter for the conditions examined. This represents a substantial reduction compared to baseline tests run at the same conditions with water which had little vaporization. The desirability of using slurry fuels for aerospace application has long been recognized, but the problems of slurry combustion have delayed their use. The present work is an experimental and numerical investigation into the break-up and droplet formation of laminar slurry jets issuing into quiescent air.

  19. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  20. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  1. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, January 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.; Frenklach, M.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments by Carnot (Tustin, CA) have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. One speculation is that introducing the diluent gases on the fuel side of the flame affects the prompt-NO mechanism causing the greater effectiveness. The objective of our research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for fuel (hydrogen or methane) combustion and NO{sub x} formation. These simulations allow the calculation of NO{sub x} emission indices for a wide range of conditions. Parametric studies were conducted in which the diluent was added either on the fuel or air side of the flame for a wide range of flow conditions. Preliminary results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in FIR effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side versus air-side dilution.

  2. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, B.; Green, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  3. Experimental evaluation of premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evolve and evaluate a premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using Jet A fuel. Three types of air blast injectors, an air assist nozzle and a simplex pressure atomizer were tested. Air swirlers with vane angles up to 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution. The work was done in a 12-cm (4.75-in.) diameter tubular rig. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa (3 and 5 atm), inlet air temperatures up to 800 K (980 F), velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) and fuel-air ratios of 0.01 and 0.025. Uniform spatial fuel distributions that were within plus or minus 10 percent of the mean were obtained. Complete vaporization of the fuel was achieved with air blast configurations at inlet air temperatures of 550 K (530 F) and higher. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent for configurations without air swirlers and less than 1 percent for configurations with a 30 deg vane angle air swirler.

  4. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  5. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James D.; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  6. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin

    2006-02-01

    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  7. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  8. Coefficients of discharge of fuel-injection nozzles for compression-ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the coefficients of discharge of nozzles with small, round orifices of the size used with high-speed compression-ignition engines. The injection pressures and chamber back pressures employed were comparable to those existing in compression-ignition engines during injection. The construction of the nozzles was varied to determine the effect of the nozzle design on the coefficient. Tests were also made with nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve, both with a plain and with a helically grooved stem. It was found that a smooth passage before the orifice is requisite for high flow efficiency. A beveled leading edge before the orifice gave a higher coefficient of discharge than a rounded edge. The results with the nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve having a plain stem duplicated those with the nozzles assembled at the end of a straight tube of constant diameter. Lower coefficients were obtained with the nozzles assembled in an injection valve having a helically grooved stem. When the coefficients of nozzles of any one geometrical shape were plotted against values of corresponding Reynold's numbers for the orifice diameters and rates of flow tested, it was found that experimental points were distributed along a single curve.

  9. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  10. Evaluation of fuel injection configurations to control carbon and soot formation in small GT combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Briehl, D.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate hardware configurations which attempt to minimize carbon formation and soot production without sacrificing performance in small gas turbine combustors has been conducted at the United Technologies Research Center. Four fuel injectors, embodying either airblast atomization, pressure atomization, or fuel vaporization techniques, were combined with nozzle air swirlers and injector sheaths, and evaluated at test conditions which included and extended beyond standard small gas turbine combustor operation. Extensive testing was accomplished with configurations embodying either a spill return or a T-vaporizer injector. Minimal carbon deposits were observed on the spill return nozzle for tests using either Jet A or ERBS test fuel. A more extensive film of soft carbon was observed on the vaporizer after operation at standard engine conditions, with large carbonaceous growths forming on the device during off-design operation at low combustor inlet temperature. Test results indicated that smoke emission levels depended on the combustor fluid mechanics (especially the mixing rates near the injector), the atomization quality of the injector and the fuel hydrogen content.

  11. Subcritical and supercritical fuel injection and mixing in single and binary species systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arnab

    Subcritical and supercritical fluid injection using a single round injector into a quiescent atmosphere comprising single and binary species was investigated using optical diagnostics. Different disintegration and mixing modes are expected for the two cases. In the binary species case, the atmosphere comprised an inert gas of a different composition than that of the injected fluid. In single species case, the atmosphere consisted of the same species as that of the injected fluid. Density values were quantified and density gradient profiles were inferred from the experimental data. A novel method was applied for the detection of detailed structures throughout the entire jet center plane. Various combinations of injectant and chamber conditions were tested and a wide range of density ratios were covered. The subcritical cases demonstrated the importance of surface tension and inertial forces, while the supercritical cases showed no signs of surface tension and, in most situations, resembled the mixing characteristics of a gaseous jet injected into a gaseous environment. A comparison between the single and binary species systems has also been provided. A detailed laser calibration procedure was undertaken to account for the laser absorption through the gas and liquid phases and for fluorescence in the non-linear excitation regime for high laser pulse energy. Core lengths were measured for binary species cases and correlated with visualization results. An eigenvalue approach was taken to determine the location of maximum gradients for determining the core length. Jet divergence angles were also calculated and were found to increase with chamber-to-injectant density ratio for both systems. A model was proposed for the spreading angle dependence on density ratio for both single and binary species systems and was compared to existing theoretical studies and experimental work. Finally, a linear stability analysis was performed for the jet injected into both subcritical and

  12. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  13. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  14. Critical Design Parameters for Pylon-Aided Gaseous Fuel Injection Upstream of a Flameholding Cavity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    regions of separated flow a simple 1-equation models such as the Spalart - Allmaras turbulence model could not be used33. The k-ω turbulence model has...temperature, turbulent intensity, and the turbulent to molecular viscosity ratio. This same boundary condition was used as the fuel injector inlet. The...Hypersonic Air Breathing Propulsion Branch. The k-ω turbulence model was utilized in conjunction with a multiple-species formulation of the viscous and

  15. Ignition and Flame Development in the Case of Diesel Fuel Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holfelder, Otto

    1936-01-01

    To investigate the process of ignition and combustion in the case of spray injection into heated air, a new form of apparatus is developed and the tests carried out with it described. Photographs of the spray before and after ignition are obtained at frequencies of 500 pictures per second. Pressures and temperatures are simultaneously recorded on oscillograms. Information on the initial conditions, ignition time lag, period of complete combustion, place where ignition starts, and general course of the combustion is obtained.

  16. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  17. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of this research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses, first, computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for methane combustion and NO{sub x} formation, and, second, experimental studies of laminar, CH{sub 4}-air, jet flames.

  18. Early direct-injection, low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel in an optical engine utilizing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle.

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Christopher R.; Radovanovic, Michael S.; Milam, David M.; Martin, Glen C.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2008-04-01

    Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes x 70/mD and 5 holes x 35/mD) with 103-/gmm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70/mD before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load. High-speed movies of natural luminosity were acquired by viewing through a window in the cylinder wall and through a window in the piston to provide quasi-3D information about the combustion process. These movies revealed that advanced combustion phasing resulted in intense pool fires within the piston bowl, after the end of significant heat release. These pool fires are a result of fuel-films created when the injected fuel impinged on the piston surface. The emissions results showed a strong correlation with pool-fire activity. Smoke and NO/dx emissions rose steadily as pool-fire intensity increased, whereas HC and CO showed a dramatic increase with near-zero pool-fire activity.

  19. Effect of Viscosity on Fuel Leakage Between Lapped Plungers and Sleeves and on the Discharge from a Pump-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1935-01-01

    Test data and analysis show that the rate of fuel leakage between a lapped plunger and sleeve varies directly with the density of the fuel, the diameter of the plunger, the pressure producing the leakage, and the cube of the mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve. The rate varies inversely as the length of the lapped fit and the viscosity of the fuel. With a mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve of 0.0001 inch the leakage amounts to approximately 0.2 percent of the fuel injected with gasoline and as low as 0.01 percent with diesel fuel oils. With this mean clearance an effective seal is obtained when the length of the lap is three times the diameter of the lap. The deformation of the sleeve and plunger under pressure is sufficient to change the rate of leakage appreciably from that which would be obtained if the clearance was constant under pressure.

  20. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).

  1. Enhancement of β-amyloid oligomer accumulation after intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, which involves central insulin signaling in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fangju; Jia, Jianping; Qin, Wei

    2014-11-12

    The β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomer rather than fibrillar Aβ has become the important focus of recent studies on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin signaling plays important roles in cognitive disease, such as AD. However, in-vivo evidence for the link between central insulin signaling and the Aβ oligomer are lacking, and the mechanisms underlying the effect of central insulin signaling on AD are still elusive. Our team has established the Presenilin-1 Val97Leu mutant transgenic (PS1V97L) AD mouse model with the intraneuronal Aβ oligomer as the potential initiator for other pathologies, but without extracellular amyloid plaque formation. Using this model, we investigated the roles of disturbed central insulin signaling induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in the progression of AD. We observed that PS1V97L mice after intracerebroventricular injection of STZ showed increased Aβ oligomer accumulation and aggravated spatial learning and memory deficit in the absence of diabetes symptoms. Furthermore, STZ administration inhibited the activation of the insulin receptor and enhanced the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, which was accompanied by increased production of carboxy-terminal fragments from the amyloid precursor protein, in the brain of PS1V97L mice. Overall, our study provided in-vivo evidence for a role of central insulin signaling in AD progression.

  2. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Final report, January 1995--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. The results of both the numerical simulations and the experiments suggest that, although molecular transport and chemical kinetic phenomena are affected by the location of diluent addition depending on flow conditions, the greater effectiveness of FIR over FGR in practical applications may result from differences in turbulent mixing and heat transfer. Further research is required to understand how differences in diluent-addition location affect NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames. The present study, however, provides an underlying basis for understanding how flow conditions can affect flame chemistry. 51 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. The N.A.C.A. Photographic Apparatus for Studying Fuel Sprays from Oil Engine Injection Valves and Test Results from Several Researches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    Apparatus for recording photographically the start, growth, and cut-off of oil sprays from injection valves has been developed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The apparatus consists of a high-tension transformer by means of which a bank of condensers is charged to a high voltage. The controlled discharge of these condensers in sequence, at a rate of several thousand per second, produces electric sparks of sufficient intensity to illuminate the moving spray for photographing. The sprays are injected from various types of valves into a chamber containing gases at pressures up to 600 pounds per square inch. Several series of pictures are shown. The results give the effects of injection pressure, chamber pressure, specific gravity of the fuel oil used, and injection-valve design, upon spray characteristics.

  5. Nonlinear Burn Control in Tokamaks using Heating, Non-axisymmetric Magnetic Fields, Isotopic fueling and Impurity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajares, Andres; Schuster, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    Plasma density and temperature regulation in future tokamaks such as ITER is arising as one of the main problems in nuclear-fusion control research. The problem, known as burn control, is to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the burning plasma while avoiding thermal instabilities. Prior work in the area of burn control considered different actuators, such as modulation of the auxiliary power, modulation of the fueling rate, and controlled impurity injection. More recently, the in-vessel coil system was suggested as a feasible actuator since it has the capability of modifying the plasma confinement by generating non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. In this work, a comprehensive, model-based, nonlinear burn control strategy is proposed to integrate all the previously mentioned actuators. A model to take into account the influence of the in-vessel coils on the plasma confinement is proposed based on the plasma collisionality and the density. A simulation study is carried out to show the capability of the controller to drive the system between different operating points while rejecting perturbations. Supported by the US DOE under DE-SC0010661.

  6. Bioethanol Blending Reduces Nanoparticle, PAH, and Alkyl- and Nitro-PAH Emissions and the Genotoxic Potential of Exhaust from a Gasoline Direct Injection Flex-Fuel Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria; Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline and also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI vehicles. However, increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with GDI technology with yet unknown health impacts. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess their genotoxic potential. Particle number emissions when operating the vehicle in the hWLTC (hot started worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle) with E10 and E85 were lowered by 97 and 96% compared with that of E0. CO emissions dropped by 81 and 87%, while CO2 emissions were reduced by 13 and 17%. Emissions of selected PAHs were lowered by 67-96% with E10 and by 82-96% with E85, and the genotoxic potentials dropped by 72 and 83%, respectively. Ethanol blending appears to reduce genotoxic emissions on this specific flex-fuel GDI vehicle; however, other GDI vehicle types should be analyzed.

  7. Elevated acetyl-CoA by amino acid recycling fuels microalgal neutral lipid accumulation in exponential growth phase for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lina; Shen, Hui; Wang, Nan; Tatlay, Jaspaul; Li, Liang; Tan, Tin Wee; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2017-04-01

    Microalgal neutral lipids [mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs)], feasible substrates for biofuel, are typically accumulated during the stationary growth phase. To make microalgal biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels, generating strains that trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase is a promising biological approach. The regulatory mechanisms to trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase (TAEP) are important to be uncovered for advancing economic feasibility. Through the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by sodium dichloroacetate, acetyl-CoA level increased, resulting in TAEP in microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta. We further reported refilling of acetyl-CoA pool through branched-chain amino acid catabolism contributed to an overall sixfold TAEP with marginal compromise (4%) on growth in a TAG-rich D. tertiolecta mutant from targeted screening. Herein, a three-step α loop-integrated metabolic model is introduced to shed lights on the neutral lipid regulatory mechanism. This article provides novel approaches to compress lipid production phase and heightens lipid productivity and photosynthetic carbon capture via enhancing acetyl-CoA level, which would optimize renewable microalgal biofuel to fulfil the demanding fuel market.

  8. Beneficial effect of diosgenin as a stimulator of NGF on the brain with neuronal damage induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and neurotoxicant injection

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eun-Ji; Jee, Seung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the beneficial effects of diosgenin (DG) on the multiple types of brain damage induced by Aβ-42 peptides and neurotoxicants, alterations in the specific aspects of brain functions were measured in trimethyltin (TMT)-injected transgenic 2576 (TG) mice that had been pretreated with DG for 21 days. Multiple types of damage were successfully induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and TMT injection into the brains of TG mice. However, DG treatment significantly reduced the number of Aβ-stained plaques and dead cells in the granule cells layer of the dentate gyrus. Significant suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Bax/Bcl-2 expression was also observed in the DG treated TG mice (TG+DG group) when compared with those of the vehicle (VC) treated TG mice (TG+VC group). Additionally, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) was dramatically enhanced in TG+DG group, although it was lower in the TG+VC group than the non-transgenic (nTG) group. Furthermore, the decreased phosphorylation of downstream members in the TrkA high affinity receptor signaling pathway in the TG+VC group was significantly recovered in the TG+DG group. A similar pattern was observed in p75NTR expression and JNK phosphorylation in the NGF low affinity receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced in the TG+DG group, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was lower in the TG+DG group than the TG+VC group. These results suggest that DG could exert a wide range of beneficial activities for multiple types of brain damage through stimulation of NGF biosynthesis. PMID:27382379

  9. The accumulation of metals and their toxicity in the marine intertidal invertebrates cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Arenicola marina exposed to pulverised fuel ash in mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Jenner, H A; Bowmer, T

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the accumulation of metals and related biological effects from Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA), three intertidal benthic invertebrates were used in exposure studies with different mixtures of PFA sediments. After the first run of 90 days, high mortality was found in the lugworm Arenicola marina. After intermittent exposure to PFA, high mortality was also found for the cockle Cerastoderma edule. No mortality occurred with the baltic tellin Macoma balthica. Metal accumulation differed widely among the species. A. marina accumulated As to high levels in PFA mixtures, which may be attributed to changes in the redox potential of the sediment. It also appeared from this study that Zn levels in M. balthica tissue, for both control and exposed animals, are apparently normal but extremely high. Disposal of PFA in marine coastal waters will radically affect community structure at the dumping site. Accumulation of certain elements like As will be favoured in the mixing zone at the borders of a dump site due to a higher organic content and consequent higher bioavailability.

  10. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  11. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  12. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; ...

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  13. Non-Intrusive, Laser-Based Imaging of Jet-A Fuel Injection and Combustion Species in High Pressure, Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; deGroot, Wilhelmus A.

    2001-01-01

    The emphasis of combustion research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is on collaborating with industry to design and test gas-turbine combustors and subcomponents for both sub- and supersonic applications. These next-generation aircraft combustors are required to meet strict international environmental restrictions limiting emissions. To meet these goals, innovative combustor concepts require operation at temperatures and pressures far exceeding those of cur-rent designs. New and innovative diagnostic tools are necessary to characterize these flow streams since existing methods are inadequate. The combustion diagnostics team at GRC has implemented a suite of highly sensitive, nonintrusive optical imaging methods to diagnose the flowfields of these new engine concepts. By using optically accessible combustors and flametubes, imaging of fuel and intermediate combustion species via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) at realistic pressures are now possible. Direct imaging of the fuel injection process through both planar Mie scattering and PLIF methods is also performed. Additionally, a novel combination of planar fuel fluorescence imaging and computational analysis allows a 3-D examination of the flowfield, resulting in spatially and temporally resolved fuel/air volume distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and other combustion phenomena. Stable species such as CO2, O2, N2O. and hydrocarbons are also investigated by a newly demonstrated 1-D, spontaneous Raman spectroscopic method. This visible wavelength Raman technique allows the acquisition of quantitative. stable species concentration measurements from the flow.

  14. Non-Intrusive, Laser-Based Imaging of Jet-A Fuel Injection and Combustion Species in High Pressure, Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; deGroot, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The emphasis of combustion research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is on collaborating with industry to design and test gas-turbine combustors and subcomponents for both sub- and supersonic applications. These next-generation aircraft combustors are required to meet strict international environmental restrictions limiting emissions. To meet these goals, innovative combustor concepts require operation at temperatures and pressures far exceeding those of current designs. New and innovative diagnostic tools are necessary to characterize these flow streams since existing methods are inadequate. The combustion diagnostics team at GRC has implemented a suite of highly sensitive, nonintrusive optical imaging methods to diagnose the flowfields of these new engine concepts. By using optically accessible combustors and flame-tubes, imaging of fuel and intermediate combustion species via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) at realistic pressures are now possible. Direct imaging of the fuel injection process through both planar Mie scattering and PLIF methods is also performed. Additionally, a novel combination of planar fuel fluorescence imaging and computational analysis allows a 3-D examination of the flowfield, resulting in spatially and temporally resolved fuel/air volume distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and other combustion phenomena. Stable species such as CO2, O2, N2, H2O, and hydrocarbons are also investigated by a newly demonstrated 1-D, spontaneous Raman spectroscopic method. This visible wavelength Raman technique allows the acquisition of quantitative, stable species concentration measurements from the flow.

  15. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  16. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  17. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  18. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; Johnson, James W.

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in

  19. Accumulation of carnitine in rat epididymis after injection of [3H]butyrobetaine in vivo: quantitative aspects, and the effects of androgens and antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Bøhmer, T

    1978-01-01

    After i.m. injection of [3H]butyrobetaine into intact and castrated rats, the specific activity of plasma carnitine remained nearly constant over 24--96 h and epididymal uptake of carnitine was constant per unit time up to 72 h. The uptake ratio of intact to castrated rats was high at 48, 72 and 96 h after injection. Administration of estradiol valerate over 20 days reduced carnitine uptake in epididymis. This reduction was dose-dependent when estrogen was administered i.m. at 0.33--10 microgram/day levels. A maximum reduction of 90% was obtained with the 10 microgram dose. A dose increase from 33 to 100 microgram/day caused no further reduction. Norspiroxenone (2--10 mg/day) and SK 7670 (1.5 and 7.5 mg/day) were less effective than estradiol valerate (10 microgram/day) in suppressing carnitine uptake in epididymis. Epididymal carnitine uptake in estradiol valerate treated rats (33 microgram/day for 20 days) increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under testosterone propionate treatment (50, 250, 1250 microgram/day). Carnitine uptake increased to 80% of the nonsuppressed levels when testosterone propionate was adminsitered over a 6-day period at 1250 microgram/day. Dihydrotestosterone increased epididymal carnitine uptake to the same extent as testosterone propionate. delta4-androstene-3,17-dione and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (50 microgram/day) were less effective, stimulating uptake to only 15% and 40% respectively of the testosterone propionate (250 microgram/day) stimulated levels. Changes in epididymal carnitine uptake evoked by various experimental procedures were closely paralleled by weight changes in the ventral prostate. This response resemblance indicates a similarity between the androgen sensitivity of the prostate gland and that of the carnitine uptake system in epididymis. The dose-dependent effect of estrogen on the accumulation of epididymal carnitine, together with the marked responses induced in this system by manipulation of its

  20. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  1. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) an esterified cycle dehydration product of sorbitol which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  2. Mitigation of divertor heat flux by high-frequency ELM pacing with non-fuel pellet injection in DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; ...

    2017-03-23

    Experiments have been conducted on DIII-D investigating high repetition rate injection of non-fuel pellets as a tool for pacing Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and mitigating their transient divertor heat loads. Effective ELM pacing was obtained with injection of Li granules in different H-mode scenarios, at frequencies 3–5 times larger than the natural ELM frequency, with subsequent reduction of strike-point heat flux. However, in scenarios with high pedestal density (~6 × 1019 m–3), the magnitude of granule triggered ELMs shows a broad distribution, in terms of stored energy loss and peak heat flux, challenging the effectiveness of ELM mitigation. Furthermore, transientmore » heat-flux deposition correlated with granule injections was observed far from the strike-points. As a result, field line tracing suggest this phenomenon to be consistent with particle loss into the mid-plane far scrape-off layer, at toroidal location of the granule injection.« less

  3. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

  4. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  5. Investigation of the mechanism in RIJKE pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Progress report, August 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract No. DE-AS04-85AL31881. This three year investigation started in August 1989 and its objective was to elucidate the mechanisms that control the driving of pulsations in the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustor developed under a preceding DOE contracts. It was demonstrated in that contract that the developed Rijke type pulse combustor can burn a variety of light and heavy liquid fuel oils with high combustion efficiencies while using low excess air, which produces high thermal efficiencies. Since the elucidation of the driving mechanism in the Rijke pulse combustor required the use of optical diagnostics (e.g., radiation measurements), it was decided to perform these investigations in a Rijke pulse combustor that burned propane instead of a liquid fuel in order to avoid difficulties that are often encountered due to the presence of liquid droplets in the combustion region. Consequently, an effort was made to develop a Rijke pulse combustor that is similar to the one developed in the preceding program and demonstrated similar performance characteristics. Such a pulse combustor was developed in the early phases of this program. The developed experimental setup was provided with capabilities for measuring steady combustor temperature distributions, the characteristics of the excited pressure oscillations, the exhaust flow composition, the characteristics of the flow field and the reaction rates. This pulse combustor consists of a cylindrical tube that is attached to a decoupling chamber at each end. Fuel and air are supplied via a tangential air/fuel injection system that is located at a distance of L/4 from the combustor entrance, where L is the combustor length. Part of the combustor tube, where combustion occurs, is water cooled. This section is also equipped with flat quartz windows to permit optical diagnostics.

  6. Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, Z.K.

    2006-05-15

    Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

  7. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  8. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table.

  9. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  10. Investigation of Performance of 9-Cylinder Engine Using Large Valve Overlap and Eclipse Fuel-Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1941-11-01

    period is approximately 80 crankshaft degrees. The engine cylinders and pistons had been modified as shown in figure 1. The Intake valve is...shorter than standard and is partially shrouded by the ledge which has. been added in the cylinder head. The top of the piston is grooved in...made with the same type of cylinder piston , and injection equipment and with cams giving normal timing and valve overlaps of

  11. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  12. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  13. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  15. Performance Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emission of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Water/Oil Emulsions as Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    PD pressure dorp across the meriam laminar flow element PSI pounds per square inch RAIR ideal gas constant for air RFG rotational function generator...with a 1/2 inch layer of Smooth Kote insulation. Intake Air Flow Meter The intake air flow is measured using a Meriam Laminar Flow Element. The air...Precision Instrumentation (+ or -) Fuel Flow i-i000 gr 0.01 gr Fisher/Ainswarth ’. LC-IO000 Air Flow 0-200 CFm 0.5 CFM Meriam LFE Speed 0-7000 RPM 2.0

  16. A LH2 engine fuel system on board - Cold GH2 injection into two-stroke engine with LH2 pump

    SciTech Connect

    Furuhama, S.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    An LH2-tank with a range of 400 km was installed in the rear trunk of a small passenger car in June, 1980. Tests demonstrated the overall feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled car: the tank attained a maximum power 20% to 20% higher than its gasoline counterpart and about twice as high as those of premixed engines. There was no backfire or knocking, and a very low NOx emission level was achieved by injecting -30 to -50 C cold hydrogen gas, pressurized by an LH2-pump, into the two-stroke engine. The LH2-pump was developed by the Musashi Institute of Technology the barrel and the plunger are made of metal and a durable, low friction material, respectively. The plunger clearance was reduced to about 3 microns under operating conditions, thereby making fuel leakage from the plunger clearance negligible. Proper tank pressures were obtained according to the pump speed. The maximum speed of the car was recorded at 135 km/h. Future objectives include the production of an engine with a higher compression ratio through the development of a high pressure pump having a discharge pressure above 6 MPa, and the improvement of the heat insulation performance of the LH2-tank.

  17. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  18. [The main pharmacokinetic parameters of p-tyrosol upon intravenous injection in rats. II. Verification of the pharmacokinetics linearity and evaluation of the possible accumulation].

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, G A; Plotnikov, M B; Smol'iakova, V I; Cherkashina, I V; Tolstikova, T G; Krysin, A P; Sorokina, I V

    2006-01-01

    The main pharmacokinetic parameters of p-tyrosol after single (in 3 doses) and repeated intravenous injection were studied in rats. The content ofp-tyrosol in the blood plasma was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of p-tyrosol are linear in the dose range from 50 to 200 mg/kg. Repeated administration leads to accelerated metabolic elimination of p-tyrosol.

  19. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  20. Application of advanced diesel technology to inland waterway towboats. variable timing, electronic fuel injection. Final report, September 1985-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, D.P.

    1989-03-01

    This report represents the test and evaluation of advanced diesel technology components on the DDC Series 149 Marine engine. The tests were conducted on an inland-waterways towboat and consist of over 20,000 engine hours of operation during the testing. The Detroit Diesel Series 16V-149 engine rated at 900 SHP was tested aboard the M/V ESCATAWPA owned and operated by Warrior and Gulf Navigation Company. Both port and starboard engines were instrumented to measure engine operating parameters, propeller-shaft torque, and fuel consumption. The data were collected by a computer-based data-acquisition system and written to floppy disc for analysis. The tasks included: (1) baseline evaluation of naturally-aspirated (NA) engines; (2) upgrade both engines to turbocharged intercooled and blower bypassed (TIB) configuration and measure performance; (3) upgrade port engine with Detroit Diesel electronic control (DDEC) and measure performance; (4) change port engine to high-torque rise governor setting and measure performance; (5) upgrade starboard engine with DDEC.

  1. Fuel Injector With Shear Atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, George W.; Mills, Virgil L.; Smith, Durward B., II; Beacom, William F.

    1995-01-01

    Atomizer for injecting liquid fuel into combustion chamber uses impact and swirl to break incoming stream of fuel into small, more combustible droplets. Slanted holes direct flow of liquid fuel to stepped cylindrical wall. Impact on wall atomizes liquid. Air flowing past vanes entrains droplets of liquid in swirling flow. Fuel injected at pressure lower than customarily needed.

  2. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  3. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  4. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  5. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  6. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  7. Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Ming-Chia D.

    2003-01-01

    The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  8. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  9. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  10. IN-SITU AIR INJECTION, SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION AND ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION: A CASE STUDY IN A JP-4 JET FUEL CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) conducted a joint demonstration of in situ remediation of a JP-4 jet fuel spill at the USCG Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The jet fuel was trapped beneath a clay layer that ext...

  11. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling. Progress report, August 16, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-12-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  12. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  13. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  14. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  15. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fondaparinux injection.Talk to your doctor about the risk of using fondaparinux injection. ... Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood ... Xa inhibitors. It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.

  16. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  17. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of ... gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone injection ...

  18. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  19. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  20. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  1. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  2. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  3. The Fundamental Principles of High-speed Semi-diesel Engines. Part I: a General Discussion of the Subject of Fuel Injection in Diesel Engines and Detailed Descriptions of Many Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner,

    1926-01-01

    Three questions relating to the technical progress in the utilization of heavy oils are discussed. The first question considers solid injection in high-speed automobile engines, the second concerns the development of the hot-bulb engine, and the third question relates to the need for a more thorough investigation of the processes on which the formatation of combustible, rapidly-burning mixtures depend.

  4. Variable volume combustor with aerodynamic fuel flanges for nozzle mounting

    DOEpatents

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-20

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a number of support struts supporting the fuel nozzles and for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The fuel injection system also may include a number of aerodynamic fuel flanges connecting the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the support struts.

  5. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  6. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  7. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  8. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  9. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  10. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... mix and inject it.Teduglutide comes as a kit containing vials of teduglutide powder for injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes ...

  11. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  12. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the ... people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat ...

  13. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  14. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  15. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  16. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  17. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas causing pain and joint damage), chronic plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... etanercept injection is used to treat chronic plaque psoriasis, it may be injected twice a week during ...

  18. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  19. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to ...

  20. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  1. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  2. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  3. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  4. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  5. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  6. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  7. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  8. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  9. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  10. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  11. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  12. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  13. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  14. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  15. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  16. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  17. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  18. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  19. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  1. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  2. Atomization of liquid fuels. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, R

    1925-01-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a nozzle to inject fuel into an engine. The design of the nozzle is open, without any compulsory or automatic stop-valve. The fuel injection is regulated simply by the pressure and the adjustment of the fuel pump.

  3. Apparatus and method for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2014-08-12

    A nozzle includes a fuel plenum and an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. A primary fuel channel includes an inlet in fluid communication with the fuel plenum and a primary air port in fluid communication with the air plenum. Secondary fuel channels radially outward of the primary fuel channel include a secondary fuel port in fluid communication with the fuel plenum. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the secondary fuel channels. A method for mixing fuel and air in a nozzle prior to combustion includes flowing fuel to a fuel plenum and flowing air to an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. The method further includes injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through a primary fuel passage, injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through secondary fuel passages, and injecting air from the air plenum through the primary fuel passage.

  4. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  5. Radial flow fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Means, Gregory Scott; Boardman, Gregory Allen; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-07-05

    A combustor for a gas turbine generally includes a radial flow fuel nozzle having a fuel distribution manifold, and a fuel injection manifold axially separated from the fuel distribution manifold. The fuel injection manifold generally includes an inner side portion, an outer side portion, and a plurality of circumferentially spaced fuel ports that extend through the outer side portion. A plurality of tubes provides axial separation between the fuel distribution manifold and the fuel injection manifold. Each tube defines a fluid communication path between the fuel distribution manifold and the fuel injection manifold.

  6. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  7. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  8. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  9. Fuel nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  10. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  11. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  12. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Greenville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greenville, SC; Lacy, Benjamin [Greenville, SC; York, William David [Greenville, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Greenville, SC

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  13. 17 CFR 256.152 - Fuel stock expenses undistributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., analysis and management of fuel supply contracts or agreements, the accumulation of fuel information and its interpretation, the logistics and handling of fuel, and other related support functions, as...

  14. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  15. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  16. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  17. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  18. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  19. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman's uterus while she is pregnant), breast cancer, lung cancer, certain cancers of the head and neck; certain ... Methotrexate injection is also used along with rest, physical therapy and ... treat rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing the activity of the immune system.

  20. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with diet and certain cholesterol-lowering medications (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [statins]) in ... familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (an inherited condition in which cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally) or ...

  1. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with diet and certain cholesterol-lowering medications, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), in ... heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (HeFH; an inherited condition in which cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally) or ...

  2. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  3. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  4. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  5. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, eye problems other than CMV retinitis, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Ganciclovir injection may cause infertility (difficulty becoming pregnant). However, if you are a ...

  6. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  7. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as levofloxacin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  9. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  10. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  11. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  12. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Epinephrine injection is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by ... or stings, foods, medications, latex, and other causes. Epinephrine is in a class of medications called alpha- ...

  13. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  14. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to treat certain types of stomach cancer that have spread to other parts of the ... weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. ...

  15. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  16. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  17. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  18. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  20. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  1. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  2. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  3. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  4. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  5. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  6. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  7. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  8. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  9. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  10. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  11. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  12. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  13. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  14. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  15. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  16. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  17. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  18. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  19. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  20. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is in a class of medications ... a treatment cycle if you experience serious side effects of the medication or if blood tests show ...

  1. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with chronic (on-going) pain that is not caused by ... by protecting the bowel from the effects of opioid (narcotic) medications.

  2. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  3. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so that the body can eliminate it.

  4. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  5. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  6. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  7. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  8. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  9. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  10. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  11. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  12. Unit fuel injector and system therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Roosa, V.D.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a unit fuel injector for an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, an associated cylinder head and a cam shaft driven by the engine. The injector unit consists of: an injection nozzle received in a bore in the cylinder head, the nozzle including an injection valve and a discharge tip at one end to inject pressurized fuel into the cylinder; an injector housing having a pair of generally parallel, laterally offset, overlapping, contiguous bores, the housing being adapted to be mounted to the engine and the housing receiving the injection nozzle in one of the bores; a fuel injection pump mounted in the housing and including a pump plunger actuable by the cam shaft; a fuel inlet in the housing including a fuel inlet passage in the housing in communication with the pump chamber to supply fuel under low pressure to the pump chamber.

  13. Preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1990-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance with CO contamination of the H.sub.2 fuel stream is substantially improved by injecting O.sub.2 into the fuel stream ahead of the fuel cell. It is found that a surface reaction occurs even at PEM operating temperatures below about 100.degree. C. to oxidatively remove the CO and restore electrode surface area for the H.sub.2 reaction to generate current. Using an O.sub.2 injection, a suitable fuel stream for a PEM fuel cell can be formed from a methanol source using conventional reforming processes for producing H.sub.2.

  14. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  15. Properly synchronized measurements of droplet sizes for high-pressure intermittent coal-water slurry fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    1993-11-01

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation with a laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique. This technique allowed measurement of Sauter mean diameters (SMD's) near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 micron mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. A correlation of the SMD with the injection conditions was determined which show a satisfactory agreement with the measured SMD data. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure.

  16. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  17. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  18. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  19. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, a wound that has not healed, or liver disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Ramucirumab injection may harm your unborn baby. You ...

  20. Reslizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infusion or for a short period of time after the infusion has finished.You will receive each injection of reslizumab in a doctor's office or medical facility. You will stay in the office for some time after you receive the medication so your doctor ...

  1. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane ... Dexrazoxane injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: pain or swelling in the place ...

  2. Variable volume combustor with center hub fuel staging

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present application and the resultant patent provide a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a center hub for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The center hub may include a first supply circuit for a first micro-mixer fuel nozzle and a second supply circuit for a second micro-mixer fuel nozzle.

  3. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianova, E. A. Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2015-12-15

    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed.

  4. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  5. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  6. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  7. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  8. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-21

    the dense ambient air cause a deceleration. The classical " mushroom " cap for the developing jet is shredded and non-existent at high Reynolds...decelerates along the gas chamber. However, for higher Reynolds numbers the mushroom -shaped cap deforms drastically within a few microseconds after the ... the orifice, drag forces due to the dense ambient air cause a deceleration. The classical ” mushroom ” cap for the developing jet is shredded

  9. Fuel supplying device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, T.; Miki, T.; Nakamura, H.; Takamiya, B.

    1982-07-13

    A fuel supplying device for an internal combustion engine is disclosed which has a fuel supply passage for introducing fuel fed from a fuel pump at a substantially constant pressure to a fuel injector operative at a predetermined constant pressure. The fuel injector is installed at a congregated portion of engine intake manifolds. A metering valve includes a motor so that the pressure drop is maintained substantially constant by a differential regulator. The metering valve is disposed in an intermediate portion of the fuel supply passage. Calculating means including a servo signal generator calculates an injection flow amount causing a predetermined air/fuel ratio on the basis of signals of various engine running factors. An operational signal output from the servo signal generating circuit of the calculating means is applied to the drive motor means for driving said metering valve to thereby inject fuel into the intake manifolds.

  10. Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William

    This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

  11. Diesel engine combustion of sunflower oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zubik, J.; Sorenson, S.C.; Goering, C.E.

    1984-09-01

    The performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel, a blend of 25% sunflower oil in diesel fuel, and sunflower oil methyl ester have been compared. All fuels performed satisfactorily in a direct injection diesel engine, with the fuels derived from sunflower oil giving somewhat higher cylinder pressures and rates of pressure rise due to a higher percentage of 'premixed' burning than the diesel fuel. General performance and emissions characteristics of the two fuels were comparable, with the oil based fuels giving lower smoke readings. 15 references.

  12. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  13. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  14. Experiments on the Distribution of Fuel in Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1933-01-01

    The distribution of fuel in sprays for compression-ignition engines was investigated by taking high-speed spark photographs of fuel sprays reproduced under a wide variety of conditions, and also by injecting them against pieces of plasticine. A photographic study was made of sprays injected into evacuated chambers, into the atmosphere, into compressed air, and into transparent liquids. Pairs of identical sprays were injected counter to each other and their behavior analyzed. Small high velocity air jets were directed normally to the axes of fuel sprays, with the result that the envelope of spray which usually obscures the core was blown aside, leaving the core exposed on one side. The results showed that the distribution of the fuel within the sprays was very uneven.

  15. Liquid Fuels from Microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D. A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-08-01

    The goal of the DOE/SERI Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae. Microalgae can accumulate large quantities of lipids and can thrive in high salinity water, which currently has no other use.

  16. Engine performance with a hydrogenated safety fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1933-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the engine performance obtained with a hydrogenated safety fuel developed to eliminate fire hazard. The tests were made on a single-cylinder universal test engine at compression ratios of 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0. Most of the tests were made with a fuel-injection system, although one set of runs was made with a carburetor when using gasoline to establish comparative performance. The tests show that the b.m.e.p. obtained with safety fuel when using a fuel-injection system is slightly higher than that obtained with gasoline when using a carburetor, although the fuel consumption with safety fuel is higher. When the fuel-injection system is used with each fuel and with normal engine temperatures the b.m.e.p. with safety fuel is from 2 to 4 percent lower than with gasoline and the fuel consumption about 25 to 30 percent higher. However, a few tests at an engine coolant temperature of 250 F have shown a specific fuel consumption approximating that obtained with gasoline with only a slight reduction in power. The idling of the test engine was satisfactory with the safety fuel. Starting was difficult with a cold engine but could be readily accomplished when the jacket water was hot. It is believed that the use of the safety fuel would practically eliminate crash fires.

  17. Pellet injection into ATF plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wilgen, J.B.; Bell, J.D.; England, A.C.; Fisher, P.W.; Howe, H.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Uckan, T.; Wing, W.R. ); Bell, G.L. ); Qualls, A.L. ); Sudo, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Based on the favorable empirical scaling of stellarator confinement with increasing electron density, pellet fueling is expected to result in significant performance improvement of the ATF plasma. With gas-puff fueling, NBI heated plasmas in ATF are limited by a thermal collapse. Pellet fueling provides a potential means to delay this effect and gain access to the favorable high density confinement regime. To provide flexibility for optimization and physics studies, eight different pellet sizes are available. To date, line average densities of up to 4 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} have been achieved with a single pellet injected into a 0.7 MW NBI plasma at 0.95 T; the results from optimization studies with up to 1.5 MW of NBI power at 2 T will be presented.

  18. Sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.

    1984-11-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested in direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. A test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Assocation was used. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test. Field tests and engine manufacturers evaluations are needed to further quantify the long term effect of the fuel on engine durability. 14 references.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of zinc tannate after intratesticular injection.

    PubMed

    Migally, N B; Fahim, M S

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight sexually mature male rats were injected intratesticularly with either 1, 3, or 6 mg zinc tannate (Kastrin) or with saline (as control). Zinc localized only in low concentration in primary spermatocytes and could not be detected in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, spermatids, or spermatozoa. Forty-eight hours after injection of 1 mg Kastrin, zinc was accumulated in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes while, after injection of 3 mg, zinc was preferentially localized in Sertoli cells and spermatids; however, zinc was observed in the spermatids and spermatozoa 48 h after injection with 6 mg, and germ cells lost their identity and were fragmented after 1 week.

  20. The Use of Synthetic JP-8 Fuels in Military Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    constant, the higher fuel density caused DF-2 to have a higher quantity mass of fuel injected for the same command period. Thus, DF-2 had a higher fuel...mixing and evaporation of the fuels which becomes more evident later in the heat release analysis. Table 7 summarizes the fuel consumption for the...Busch, H., Keppeler, S., Schaberg, P., and Schnell , M., 200 , “Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel E g

  1. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Leasing, Recycling, and Proliferation: Modeling a Global View

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Victor H.; Crozat, Matthew P.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Hill, Robert

    2005-05-15

    A system dynamics model was created to simulate fuel cycle interactions between two separate nuclear entities, and this model was employed to investigate fuel leasing arrangements. The model was also adapted to evaluate proliferation and economic implications of an international leasing regime. For a nuclear growth scenario, an open fuel cycle results in extensive spent-fuel accumulation. For a closed fuel cycle, the leasing fuel cycle shows potential to reduce proliferation concern, especially if coupled with improved security and safeguard technology.

  3. Effects of fuel nozzle design on performance of an experimental annular combustor using natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Schultz, D. F.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of various fuel nozzles were conducted with natural gas fuel in a full-annulus combustor. The nozzles were designed to provide either axial, angled, or radial fuel injection. Each fuel nozzle was evaluated by measuring combustion efficiency at relatively severe combustor operating conditions. Combustor blowout and altitude ignition tests were also used to evaluate nozzle designs. Results indicate that angled injection gave higher combustion efficiency, less tendency toward combustion instability, and altitude relight characteristics equal to or superior to those of the other fuel nozzles that were tested.

  4. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  5. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  6. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  7. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  8. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF TRACE JET FUEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BLOOD USING IN-FIELD LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH SUBSEQUENT LABORATORY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS AND ON-COLUMN LARGE VOLUME INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing te...

  9. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  10. Fuel governor for controlled autoignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Jade, Shyam; Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li

    2016-06-28

    Methods and systems for controlling combustion performance of an engine are provided. A desired fuel quantity for a first combustion cycle is determined. One or more engine actuator settings are identified that would be required during a subsequent combustion cycle to cause the engine to approach a target combustion phasing. If the identified actuator settings are within a defined acceptable operating range, the desired fuel quantity is injected during the first combustion cycle. If not, an attenuated fuel quantity is determined and the attenuated fuel quantity is injected during the first combustion cycle.

  11. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  12. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  13. Effect of sunflower oil on a diesel fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Schunk, S.; Pratt, G.

    1982-05-01

    A typical farm tractor diesel fuel system (injection pump, fuel lines, filters and injectors) was tested on a test stand at various temperatures using sunflower oil, diesel fuel, and mixtures of the two as fuels. Measurements taken included fuel volume delivered by the injector line pressure at the injector, pressure drop across the filter, transfer pump pressure, and fuel injection timing. Results indicate that low percentages of sunflower oil may be used successfully in the system under summer conditions. Design changes to the system may be necessary for higher percentages of sunflower oil and cold conditions.

  14. Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1939-01-01

    The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.

  15. Concentric fuel line system

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, A.N.; Parker, E.G.

    1993-08-31

    In a fuel injection type of fuel distribution system for motor vehicles, a connector structure is described comprising, in combination: an integral fuel line formed of an innermost tube having a first duct defined therein for carrying a first fuel component of the fuel distribution system, an intermediate tube being spaced from and surrounding the innermost tube so as to form a second duct there between for carrying a second fuel component of the fuel distribution system, and an outer tube being spaced from and surrounding the intermediate tube so as to form a third duct there between for carrying a third fuel component of the fuel distribution system; manifold means having a first coupling union, a second coupling union disposed upstream of the first coupling union, and a third coupling union disposed upstream of the second coupling union; the first coupling union including a first axial bore for receiving one end of the innermost tube, and a first passageway in fluid communication with the first duct; the second coupling union including a second axial bore for receiving one end of the intermediate tube, and a second passageway in fluid communication with the second duct; the third coupling union including a third axial bore for receiving one end of the outer tube, and a third passageway in fluid communication with the third duct; the first coupling union having a first mounting hole, extending transversely to the first axial bore, for receiving first screw so that an outer peripheral edge portion of the first screw is tangentially aligned with an outer circumferential wall portion of the innermost tube so as to mechanically and positively secure the one end thereof with the first axial bore; the second coupling union including a second mounting hole, extending transversely to the second axial bore, for receiving a second screw.

  16. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T

    1937-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  17. Electronic controlled fuel supply system for high pressure injector

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.L.; Perr, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an electronically controlled fuel supply system for supplying fuel and timing fluid to a plurality of fuel injectors in an internal combustion engine, wherein each of the injectors includes a hydraulic link formed by the timing fluid which cooperates with a serially arranged plunger assembly to pressurize the fuel to be injected wherein the hydraulic link may have a variable effective length in response to variations in pressure of the timing fluid supplied to the the injector, the fuel supply system. It includes pump means fluidically connected to a fuel reservoir for pumping fuel from the reservoir to fuel channel means for supplying fuel to the injections and to timing means for supplying timing fluid to the injectors at a sufficient flow rate and pressure to operate the system; valve means fluidically interposed between the pump means and the fuel channel means and the timing fluid channel means for regulating the fuel supply to the fuel channel means and to the timing fluid channel means; electronically controlled fuel pressure regulating means fluidically connected to the pump means and to the injectors for regulating the pressure of the fuel to be supplied through the fuel channel means to the injectors for controlling the quantity of fuel to be injected by the injector.

  18. Development of carbon slurry fuels for transportation (hybrid fuels, phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Dodge, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel are developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations are formulated using eight different materials. A variety of properties are examined including ash content, sulfur content, particle size distribution, and rheological properties. Attempts are made to determine the effects of these variations on these fuel properties on injection, atomization, and combustion processes. The slurries are also tested in a single cylinder CLR engine in both direct injection and prechamber configurations. The data includes the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. The slurries perform very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicate that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids are burning in the engine. It appears that the prechamber engine configuration is more tolerant of the slurries than the direct injection configuration.

  19. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  20. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  1. Analysis of fuel vaporization, fuel/air mixing, and combustion in lean premixed/prevaporized combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, J.M.; Penko, P.F.; Cline, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    Requirements to reduce pollutant emissions from gas turbines used in aircraft propulsion and ground-based power generation have led to consideration of lean premixed/prevaporized (LPP) combustion concepts. This paper describes a series of the LPP combustor analyses performed with KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional CFD code for problems involving sprays, turbulence, and combustion. Modifications to KIVA-II`s boundary condition and chemistry treatments have been made to meet the needs of the present study. The study examines the relationships between fuel vaporization, fuel/air mixing, and combustion in a generic LPP combustor. Parameters considered include: mixer tube diameter, mixer tube length, mixer tube configuration (straight versus converging/diverging tubes), air inlet velocity, air inlet swirl angle, secondary air injection (dilution holes), fuel injection velocity, fuel injection angle, number of fuel injection ports, fuel spray cone angle, and fuel droplet size. Cases have been run with and without combustion to examine the variations in fuel/air mixing and potential for flashback due to the above parameters. The degree of fuel/air mixing is judged by comparing average, minimum, and maximum fuel/air ratios at the exit of the mixer tube, while flame stability is monitored by following the location of the flame front as the solution progresses from ignition to steady state.

  2. Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, T.M.; Somers, J.H.; Hellman, K.H.

    1982-08-01

    Recent data obtained by EPA on identification and quantification of different emissions (i.e., characterization) from a variety of diesel engines is summarized. Extensive work has been done comparing emissions from some light duty diesel and gasoline passenger cars. The work on the diesel vehicles was expanded to include tests with five different diesel fuels to determine how fuel composition affects emissions. This work showed that use of a poorer quality fuel frequently made emissions worse. The investigation of fuel composition continued with a project in which specific fuel parameters were systematically varied to determine their effect on emissions. EPA is presently testing a variety of fuels derived from coal and oil shale to determine their effects on emissions. EPA has also tested a heavy duty Volvo diesel bus engine designed to run on methanol and diesel fuel, each injected through its own injection system. The use of the dual fuel resulted in a reduction in particlates and NO/sub x/ but an increase in HC and CO compared to a baseline Volvo diesel engine running on pure diesel fuel. Finally, some Ames bioassay tests have been performed on samples from the diesel passenger cars operated on various fuels and blends. An increase in Ames test response (mutagenicity) was seen when the higher aromatic blend was used and also when a commercial cetane improver was used. Samples from the Volvo diesel bus engine fueled with methanol and diesel fuel showed that use of a catalyst increased the Ames response.

  3. Fundamental Investigation of Jet Fuel Spray and Ignition Process in an Optically Accessible Piston Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    design of Almy engines. Tests were perf01med using #2 diesel fuel, jet fuel (JP8), and a hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel (HRJ). Ambient the1modynamic...1+~ .,:-•. ~-~ ~~~~·~~· · -~ ~- --~~ 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Transient, diesel , injection, optical engine 16. SECURITY...Tests were performed using #2 diesel fuel, jet fuel (JP8), and a hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel (HRJ). Ambient thermodynamic conditions and fuel

  4. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Epidural Injections An epidural injection provides temporary or prolonged relief ... limitations of Epidural Injection? What is an Epidural Injection? An epidural injection is an injection of medication ...

  5. Status of hydrogen fuel cell electric buses worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Eudy, Leslie; Singer, Gregg; Jermer, Boris; Asselin-Miller, Nick; Wessel, Silvia; Patterson, Timothy; Marcinkoski, Jason

    2014-12-01

    This review summarizes the background and recent status of the fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration projects in North America and Europe. Key performance metrics include accumulated miles, availability, fuel economy, fuel cost, roadcalls, and hydrogen fueling. The state-of-the-art technology used in today's fuel cell bus is highlighted. Existing hydrogen infrastructure for refueling is described. The article also presents the challenges encountered in these projects, the experiences learned, as well as current and future performance targets.

  6. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  7. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  8. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  9. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  10. Internal baffling for fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

    2014-08-05

    A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

  11. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  12. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  13. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  14. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  15. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  16. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  17. Mechanical fuel injector for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, K.D.

    1993-08-31

    An apparatus is described for injecting fuel into an internal combustion engine having an air inlet containing an adjustable air throttle valve, comprising: a hollow injector body having a cylindrical bore therein; a compression head closing one end of the bore; a pump head closing an opposite end of the bore; a plunger piston reciprocally moveable within the cylinder bore defining a variable volume fuel pumping chamber formed by the injector body, the compression head, and a first end of the piston, and a variable volume compression chamber formed by the injector body, the pump head and a second end of the piston; fuel supply means connected to the pumping chamber; fuel passage means interconnecting the pumping chamber, the compression chamber and the fuel supply means; air supply means connected to the fuel passage means; fuel/air discharge means connected to the compression chamber; an injection nozzle located in the engine and connected to the fuel/air discharge means for injecting a mixture of fuel and air into the engine for combustion therein; and actuator means operably interconnecting the piston and the engine for reciprocating the piston within the cylinder bore of the injector body.

  18. Fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Belsom, Keith Cletus; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Thomas, Larry Lou

    2016-03-22

    A fuel nozzle for a gas turbine generally includes a main body having an upstream end axially separated from a downstream end. The main body at least partially defines a fuel supply passage that extends through the upstream end and at least partially through the main body. A fuel distribution manifold is disposed at the downstream end of the main body. The fuel distribution manifold includes a plurality of axially extending passages that extend through the fuel distribution manifold. A plurality of fuel injection ports defines a flow path between the fuel supply passage and each of the plurality of axially extending passages.

  19. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  20. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation