Science.gov

Sample records for accumulator fuel injection

  1. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  2. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  3. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsbos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1993-07-27

    A high-pressure pump is described for a fuel injection system having a fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a relatively constant pressure to the pump, the pump comprising: a pump body having a pumping chamber defined therein; a mechanically driven linearly reciprocating plunger disposed in the pumping chamber, the plunger having a head end and a tail end, the plunger being linearly reciprocatable over a stroke range between an extended position and a retracted position, the pumping chamber extending beyond the extended position of the plunger to define a head portion of the pumping chamber; plunger spring means for resiliently biasing the plunger to its retracted position; an inlet valve disposed in the pump body for admitting fuel to the pumping chamber within the stroke range of the head end of the plunger; inlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the inlet valve to a closed position, the inlet valve being opened by a pressure differential when the head end of the plunger is retracted; an outlet valve disposed in the pump body for discharging fuel from the head portion of the pumping chamber; and outlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the outlet valve to a closed position; the inlet valve being a ball valve; a piston, the pump body further defining therein a leakage accumulator chamber, the leakage accumulator chamber being slidably divided by the piston into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, the posterior portion being at substantially atmospheric pressure, the collector groove communicating with the anterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber, recaptured fuel from the fuel injection nozzles also being communicated to the anterior portion of the accumulator chamber; and piston spring means for resiliently biasing the piston away from the posterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber.

  4. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  5. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  6. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  7. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  8. Fuel injection pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

  9. Governor for fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yogome, Y.; Itsuki, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shimizu, T.; Hamada, H.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes double-lever type governor for a fuel injection pump comprising: a governor case; a governor lever and a tension lever rotatably supported in the case and operatively associated with each other; a start spring interposed between the governor lever and the tension lever securing a start fuel increment stroke in the governor lever; a fuel regulating rack connected to the governor lever; a supporting shaft mounted in the case supporting both the governor lever and the tension lever for rotation; and a locking mechanism which connects both levers at the time when the start fuel increment stroke of the governor lever becomes zero or approximately zero to be eliminated.

  10. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  11. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  12. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  13. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  14. Fuel injector train with variable injection rate

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.

    1990-07-31

    This patent describes a fuel injection train for injecting fuel at a reduced rate during a portion of a fuel injection cycle. It comprises: a fuel injector having a plunger and plunger biasing means having a predetermined spring rate for biasing the plunger to control the injection rate of the injector, a rocker arm for applying force to the plunger in response to force applied thereto, cam assembly means, and a elongate push rod means mounted between the cam assembly means and the rocker means. The cam assembly means operating to apply force to the push rod means to cause the push rod means to apply force to the rocker arm.

  15. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  16. Method and apparatus for injecting fuel for a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Omachi, Y.

    1986-07-15

    An apparatus is described for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber for a diesel engine in which an intended fuel injection is carried out by way of the steps of extracting plunger actuating force from an engine driving system via a cam actuating mechanism, accumulating the plunger actuating force in a resilient means in the form of a spring for a certain period of time, releasing the accumulated force by way of deenergization of electromagnetic force and actuating the plunger in a stationary nozzle body affixed to the combustion chamber with the accumulated force to inject fuel into the combustion chamber via stationary injection holes. The apparatus consists of: a plunger actuating force extracting system including a cam rotated by means of a cam shaft, a vertically extending actuating rod and a rocker arm in operative connection with the upper end of the actuating rod at the one free end thereof, a coil spring serving as a plunger actuating force accumulating means, the coil spring being disposed between the other free end of the rocker arm and the upper end part of the plunger, and an electromagnetic coil adapted to release the accumulated plunger actuating force by way of demagnetization which is effected at a predetermined time, the electromagnetic coil being in operative association with the plunger in the nozzle body so as to open the latter during magnetization which is effective in raising up the plunger of which upper part serves as a magnetic core.

  17. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inoue, A.

    1987-03-24

    A fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having fuel injection nozzles, comprising: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity. It has a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity; a plurality of delivery valves each disposed such that fuel pressurized by the plunger is supplied to the engine through the delivery valve; and injection pipes connected, respectively, to the delivery valves to feed pressurized fuel discharged from the respective delivery valves; the delivery valves each being adapted to maintain a residual pressure within a corresponding one of the injection pipes at a value that enables to attain injection initiation pressure within an extent of rotation of the cam means corresponding to the first angular region.

  18. Positive displacement electronic fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the plunger, spill port type, including a single plunger reciprocably and rotatably mounted in a plunger barrel, an engine driven camshaft having gear means and a number of camlobes thereon for reciprocating and rotating the plunger a number of times for each revolution of the camshaft through a number of pumping upstrokes and fuel intake downstrokes for injecting fuel sequentially into a number of engine cylinders. The plunger barrel defines a fuel fill-spill chamber at the end of the plunger connected to a solenoid valve controlled spill port for pressurization of the chamber during the upstroke of the plunger upon closure of the spill port by the valve, the plunger having a number of internal axially spaced passages connected to the chamber for filling the chamber with fuel on the fuel intake upstroke of the plunger or alternately directing fuel from the chamber to a fuel injection nozzle during pressurization of the chamber, means connecting one of the internal passages to a fuel supply passage and another passage to a fuel injection nozzle line past a check valve in the other passage. The passages are spaced such that rotation and reciprocation of the plunger through one stroke connects the chamber to one passage which disconnecting the chamber from the other passage, and vice-versa during the next successive stroke of the plunger, the other passage being connected successively one at a time to each injection line in the engine upon rotation of the camshaft, the engine having at least four cylinders, and the camshaft having four camlobes on a single cam, the lobes each being 90% in extent with a peak and an essentially long flat surface inbetween peaks providing a slower upstroke of the plunger than the downstroke thereby providing a longer time for injection than for fuel intake.

  19. Smart Materials for Fuel Injection Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Nabil

    2000-08-20

    The demands of stringent emissions and a robust engine dynamic torque response characteristic require innovative, accurate and repeatable control of the fuel injection event. Recent advances in piezo-material actuators have warranted the pursuit of its application to advanced heavy-duty truck fuel injection systems. This presentation will report on design and testing of an advanced electronic unit injector for the Detroit Diesel Series 60 truck engine.

  20. Fuel injection pump having voltage variation compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, E.; Miyaki, M.; Norimatsu, H.; Hobo, N.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Konishi, Y.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel injection pump is described for internal combustion engine, comprising: an enclosure; pump means including a plunger rotatingly and reciprocally movable in the enclosure to define a compression chamber of variable volume, the pump means coupling the compression chamber to a fuel inlet during an intake stroke of the plunger and connecting the compression chamber to a fuel outlet during a compression stroke of the plunger to thereby initiate injection of fuel to the outlet, the pump means being responsive to the speed of rotation of the engine to pressurize the fuel in the inlet; means for detecting the speed of the engine; a source of voltage having a tendency to vary; solenoid valve means operable when a voltage is applied thereto from the source for providing a pressure relief action of the fuel in the compression chamber to terminate the injection of fuel; a memory storing trimming data in locations addressable as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed; and control means for detecting the voltage of the source and responsive to the initiation of the fuel injection for determining the basic timing at which the fuel injection is to be terminated, reading trimming data out of the memory as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed, correcting the basic timing in accordance with the trimming data and applying the voltage of the source to the solenoid valve means at the corrected timing to thereby terminate the fuel injection.

  1. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  2. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1995-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  3. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  4. Fuel injection pump with spill control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, having a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plungers have outward fuel intake strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. Bumping plunger timing means relatively angularly adjusts the cam ring and rotor adjusting the pumping plunger timing. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The improvement described here wherein the spill valve means comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor connected to the charge pump and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore. The spill control mechanism comprises first means for rotating each rotary spill valve member in unison with the rotor and in synchronism with the reciprocable movement of the pumping plungers for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The pumping plunger timing means and the first means provide for separate relative angular adjustment of the cam ring and rotor and relative angular adjustment of the rotary spill valve member of at least the one rotary spill valve and the rotor.

  5. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  6. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Nozaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.

    1986-05-06

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described which consists of: a plunger barrel; a plunger received within the plunger barrel for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion for suction, pressure delivery and distribution of fuel; a pair of cut-off ports formed in the plunger and the plunger barrel at a predetermined axial location and registrable with each other to spill pressurized fuel in the plunger into a zone under lower pressure; a communication passageway communicating a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof with the zone under lower pressure; a fuel suction passage extending between the pump working chamber and the zone under lower pressure; the communication passageway extending between the pump working chamber and an intermediate portion of the fuel suction passage; a solenoid valve arranged across the communication passageway for blocking same; and control means for controlling means for controlling the solenoid valve to cause same to selectively assume an open position and a closed position; wherein while the plunger moves toward the pump working chamber, the solenoid valve is closed by the control means to start injection of fuel present in the pump working chamber, and upon registration of the cut-off ports with each other, the fuel injection is terminated; the solenoid valve including a valve body disposed opposite an end face of the one end of the plunger; the control means including means for selectively energizing or deenergizing the solenoid for causing the valve body to selectively assume the closed position or the open position.

  7. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  8. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.

    1987-08-11

    A fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; and cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity, and a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity, and a third angular region preceding the first angular region, for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a velocity higher than the first velocity, but lower than the second velocity.

  9. Rotary distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Dordjevic, I.; Higgins, M.C.; Salzgeber, D.E.

    1993-07-20

    In a fuel injection pump having a pump body and distributor rotor in coaxial alignment, the pump body is described having a pumping chamber provided by an annular arrangement of pumping plunger bores with axes extending generally radially outwardly from the axis of the distributor rotor, a pumping plunger mounted in each plunger bore for reciprocation, annular cam means surrounding the annular arrangement of plunger bores for reciprocating the pumping plungers to provide alternating intake and pumping strokes thereof for respectively supplying intake charges of fuel to the pumping chamber and delivering high pressure charges of fuel from the pumping chamber for fuel injection, a distributor head with a plurality of distributor outlets, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for distributing the high pressure charges of fuel to the distributor outlets; the improvement wherein the pump body and distributor rotor have a central coaxial bore extending there through and providing a valve bore intersecting the annular arrangement of plunger bores, the pump body providing an annular valve seat around the central bore between one end thereof away from the distributor rotor and the intersection of the valve bore and annular arrangement of plunger bores, an elongated valve member mounted in the valve bore having a sealing head at one end thereof engageable with the annular valve seat and extending from the sealing head toward the other end of the central bore, a fuel supply chamber connected to the one end of the central bore for supplying fuel to the pumping chamber, valve actuating means comprising an electromagnet at the other end of the valve member from the sealing head and operable when energized to shift the valve member in one axial direction thereof to one of its the positions, and means for shifting the valve member in the opposite axial direction thereof to its other position when the electromagnet is deenergized.

  10. Numerical simulation of transverse fuel injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Marlon; Riggins, David W.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    A review of recent work at NASA Langley Research Center to compare the predictions of transverse fuel injector flow fields and mixing performance with experimental results is presented. Various cold (non-reactive) mixing studies were selected for code calibration which include the effects of boundary layer thickness and injection angle for sonic hydrogen injection into supersonic air. Angled injection of helium is also included. This study was performed using both the three-dimensional elliptic and the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) versions of SPARK. Axial solution planes were passed from PNS to elliptic and elliptic to PNS in order to efficiently generate solutions. The PNS version is used both upstream and far downstream of the injector where the flow can be considered parabolic in nature. The comparisons are used to identify experimental deficiencies and computational procedures to improve agreement.

  11. Fuel injection for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, M.W.; Fry, C.B.; Rix, D.M.; Krivoy, R.

    1991-12-17

    This paper describes a fuel injector for use in an internal combustion engine. It comprises: an injector body having a first cylindrical bore and a second cylindrical bore, the second cylindrical bore being coaxially positioned relative to and in communication with the first cylindrical bore; control means for metering a predetermined volume of fuel at high pressure; a metering barrel having a metering chamber for receiving the predetermined volume of fuel at high pressure, the metering barrel being connected to the injector body; a timing plunger chamber forming part of the second cylindrical bore and being in continuous fluid communication with the control means for metering the predetermined volume of fuel; a timing plunger adapted for movement within the timing plunger chamber; a coupling member adapted for movement within the first cylindrical bore; the coupling member and the timing plunger being in abutting relationship and being free to move independently within the first cylindrical bore and the second cylindrical bore respectively, the timing plunger motion being controlled by the control means to meter the predetermined volume of fuel; and an injection nozzle in communication with the metering plunger chamber for delivering the predetermined volume of fuel into the engine.

  12. Air-assist fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Klomp, E.D.

    1987-09-15

    An air-assist fuel injection nozzle is described for use in discharging fuel into an associate combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The injection nozzle includes a nozzle body means. The straight walled spray tip portion has a plurality of radial discharge orifices extending. An axial bore in the body means extends from the opposite end to define a bushing, a needle plunger reciprocably received in the bushing between a fully raised position and a fully depressed position corresponding to the end of a suction stroke and the end of a pump stroke, respectively. The needle plunger has a radial supply passage and a radial discharge ports angularly aligned with the radial discharge orifices, wherein the discharge ports are in flow communication with the blind bore. The needle plunger and the interior portion of the enclosed end of the nozzle body means define a variable volume pump chamber. The nozzle body means includes a supply passage means with a check valve in fluid communication with the radial supply passage when the needle plunger is in the raised position. The opposite end of the supply passage means is to sequentially receive a metered quantity of pressurized fuel, and the needle plunger allows aeriform fluid flow from the combustion chamber into the pump chamber. The needle plunger blocks flow through the radial discharge orifices until such time as the needle plunger has moved a predetermined axial extent so that the radial discharge ports come into alignment with the radial discharge orifices to initiate an air-assist discharge of air, fuel vapors and fuel from the radial discharge orifices.

  13. Cut-off fuel exhaust mechanism in fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeuchi, H.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump having an exhaust means for exhausting fuel from the fuel pump at the time of cut-off of fuel flow through the pump, comprising: a pump body for positioning in a pump space for containing fuel to be pumped, the pump body having a fuel passage extending thereinto from the pump space and a valve means in the fuel passage; a plunger barrel mounted in the pump body and having a plunger bore therein and a fuel intake port extending through the plunger barrel from a position opposite the inner end of the fuel passage into the plunger bore; a plunger rotatably and slidably mounted in the plunger bore and defining a pressurizing chamber at the inner end of the plunger bore; the plunger barrel having an oil passage extending from the end within which the pressurizing chamber is defined to the periphery of the plunger barrel; the pump body having a lead hole therethrough from a position opposite the end of the oil passage at the periphery of the plunger barrel to the outside of the pump body, and further having an oil chamber extending thereinto from a position on the pump body near the end of the oil passage and an exhaust passage extending from the inner part of the oil chamber to the outside of the pump body and opening into the pump space; a valve housing mounted on the pump body over the end of the lead hole and the opening into the oil chamber and having a valve guide hole therein opening into the oil chamber and having a valve seat around the end thereof and having an oil induction hole therethrough from a position opposite the end of the lead hole and into the valve guide hole.

  14. Fuel injection control apparatus for use to engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Kano, H.; Ohmori, T.

    1987-06-30

    A fuel injection control apparatus is described for use in an engine comprising: a compression plunger driven in response to fuel injection timing which corresponds to the rotation of an engine; a compression pump chamber which is filled with fuel and whose volume is compressed when the compression plunger is driven; an injection plunger driven by fuel which is pushed out of the compression pump chamber by the operation of the compression plunger; an injection pump chamber defined by the injection plunger; means for filling the injection pump chamber with fuel whose amount has been determined in accordance with the conditions of the operation of the engine; a timing plunger slidable between a stop position and a full position, the amount of fuel the filling means provides to the injection pump chamber cooperating with the injection plunger to mechanically set the timing plunger at the full position corresponding to the amount of fuel to be injected. The timing plunger contacts the face on which the fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts at the full position when the compression plunger is not driven, the fuel in the compression pump chamber moves the timing plunger as fuel is pushed out of the compression pump chamber. The fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts on the injection plunger when the timing plunger is moved to the stop position; and fuel injection means, responsive to the operation of the compression plunger, for moving the timing plunger from the full position to the stop position, then raising the pressure of the compression pump chamber to drive the injection plunger. In this high pressure state it delivers the fuel in the injection pump chamber and injects it into an engine cylinder.

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  17. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  18. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  19. Fuel injection assembly for gas turbine engine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Candy, Anthony J. (Inventor); Glynn, Christopher C. (Inventor); Barrett, John E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injection assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor, including at least one fuel stem, a plurality of concentrically disposed tubes positioned within each fuel stem, wherein a cooling supply flow passage, a cooling return flow passage, and a tip fuel flow passage are defined thereby, and at least one fuel tip assembly connected to each fuel stem so as to be in flow communication with the flow passages, wherein an active cooling circuit for each fuel stem and fuel tip assembly is maintained by providing all active fuel through the cooling supply flow passage and the cooling return flow passage during each stage of combustor operation. The fuel flowing through the active cooling circuit is then collected so that a predetermined portion thereof is provided to the tip fuel flow passage for injection by the fuel tip assembly.

  20. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  1. Fuel injection pump device and method for settling the same

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, A.; Itoh, K.; Oikawa, H.; Vehara, K.

    1988-07-05

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump device which comprises: a delivery valve communicated with a pressurizing chamber formed in a housing, loaded by a spring and communicated with a fuel injection nozzle; a plunger with its one end facing the pressurizing chamber and the other end operatively connected with a cam which is driven by an engine; a fuel chamber provided so as to surround the plunger in the housing; an oil passage formed in the plunger so that its one end communicates to the pressurizing chamber and the other end communicates to the fuel chamber; a control sleeve slidably mounted on the outer periphery of the plunger in the fuel chamber; a control groove provided on the outer peripheral surface of the plunger for communicating the pressurizing chamber and fuel chamber to each other by way of the oil passages or for interrupting the same. The control groove has at least longitudinally directed edges and inclined edges provided with relation to the axis of the plunger; control ports provided on the control sleeve and communicating the control groove to the fuel chamber when a fuel injection is completed; an injection quantity control member supported on the housing for controlling a fuel injection quantity; an injection timing control member for moving the control sleeve in the axial direction of the plunger; fuel injection control means for controlling the injection quantity control member and the injection timing control member in accordance with signals from operating state information sources, the fuel injection means is composed so as to advance the injection timing control member on the basis of the information of the engine in a high speed region from the operating state information sources.

  2. Fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nishimaki, H.; Omori, T.; Sekijima, H.

    1988-07-26

    A fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine is described including: a compression plunger, defining a compression pump chamber and driven in accordance with the rotation of the engine, for expelling fuel filled in the compression pump chamber; an injection plunger, which defines an injection pump chamber and is driven by the pressure of the fuel expelled from the compression pump chamber, a quantity of fuel determined to correspond with engine conditions being filled in the injection pump chamber; a fuel injector to which the fuel filled in the injection pump chamber is supplied in accordance with an operation of the injection plunger, and which is opened by the pressure of the fuel to inject the quantity-controlled fuel; a timing passage which communicates with the compression pump chamber and is closed when compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression pump chamber, the delta port being closed by the compression plunger after the timing passage is closed, when the compression plunger is driven, so that an increase of fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber is delayed until after fuel is discharged from the compression pump chamber and the timing passage is closed.

  3. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Fuel injection system electromagnetic-valve controlled type

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    1989-01-31

    A fuel injection system for an engine is described including: (a) a fuel injection pump having a pump housing, a plunger associated with the pump housing and reciprocatively movable in relation to rotation of a crankshaft of the engine, and a fuel pressurizing chamber associated with the pump housing and variable in volume in response to reciprocative movement of the plunger; (b) supply passage means supplying fuel to the fuel pressurizing chamber, the supply passage means being closed substantially during a forward stroke of the plunger and being opened substantially during a backward stroke of the plunger; (c) forcible-delivery passage means connecting the fuel pressurizing chamber to at least one fuel injection nozzle of the engine; (d) release passage means communicating with the fuel pressurizing chamber.

  5. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, E.; Steinwart, J.; Will, P.

    1981-01-06

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes an air suction pipe, a throttle valve located in the pipe, and a member, upstream of the throttle valve, which is actuatable by air flowing through the suction pipe so as to move a piston valve to dose a quantity of fuel to a fuel injection nozzle. The system includes a duct which bypasses the throttle valve, the duct having a valve which closes the duct when the throttle valve is closed and when the engine is above the idling speed. Dosing of fuel is thereby stopped during coasting of a vehicle, leading to decreased fuel consumption.

  6. Fuel injection control apparatus with forced fuel injection during engine startup period

    SciTech Connect

    Ibuki, N.; Takemoto, E.; Hayakawa, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nagase, M.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection control apparatus for an internal combustion diesel engine which is started by an engine starter, comprising: engine operating parameter detecting means for detecting operating parameters of the engine, the operating parameter detecting means including an engine speed sensor which generates by electromagnetic induction an engine speed indicating sinusoidal signal having a frequency indicating the speed of the engine when the speed is higher than a predetermined speed value and an amplitude variable as a function of the speed of the engine when the speed is lower than the predetermined speed value and a substantially constant amplitude when the engine speed is higher than the predetermined speed value; fuel injection quantity of calculating means for calculating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine in accordance with the detected operating parameters of the engine; engine start detecting means for detecting when the engine starter is being operated and generating an output signal indicating the operation of the engine starter; verifying means for verifying that the speed indicating signal is valid or invalid depending on whether the amplitude is higher or lower than a predetermined threshold, respectively.

  7. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...-14-07, Amendment 39-15602 (73 FR 39574), for certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured...

  8. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  9. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  10. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin

    Break-up and atomization of liquid fuel jet during transient injection process has a significant effect on the Diesel engine combustion efficiency and pollution. The mechanisms responsible for liquid jet instability and break-up at high pressure, during the transient start-up and steady mass flux periods, has been investigated using Navier-Stokes and level-set computations. Via post-processing, the role of vorticity dynamics is examined and shown to reveal crucial new insights. An unsteady, axisymmetric full-jet case is solved. Then, a less computationally intensive case is studied with a segment of the jet core undergoing temporal instability; agreement with the full-jet calculation is satisfactory justifying the segment analysis for three-dimensional computation. The results for surface-shape development are in agreement with experimental observations and other three-dimensional computations; the initial, axisymmetric waves at the jet surface created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability distort to cone shapes; next, three-dimensional character develops through an azimuthal instability that leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity, lobe shapes on the cones, and formation of liquid ligaments which extend from lobes on the cones. The cause of this azimuthal instability has been widely described as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, additional and sometimes more important causes are identified here. Counter-rotating, streamwise vortices within and around the ligaments show a relationship in the instability behavior for jets flowing into like-density fluid; thus, density difference cannot explain fully the three-dimensional instability as previously suggested. Furthermore, the formation of ligaments that eventually break into droplets and the formation of streamwise vorticity are caused by the same vortical dynamics. Waviness is identified on the ligaments which should result in droplet formation. The nonlinear development of the shorter azimuthal waves and

  11. Lean direct wall fuel injection method and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel combustion chamber, and a method of and a nozzle for mixing liquid fuel and air in the fuel combustion chamber in lean direct injection combustion for advanced gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines. Liquid fuel in a form of jet is injected directly into a cylindrical combustion chamber from the combustion chamber wall surface in a direction opposite to the direction of the swirling air at an angle of from about 50.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a tangential line of the cylindrical combustion chamber and at a fuel-lean condition, with a liquid droplet momentum to air momentum ratio in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.12. Advanced gas turbines benefit from lean direct wall injection combustion. The lean direct wall injection technique of the present invention provides fast, uniform, well-stirred mixing of fuel and air. In addition, in order to further improve combustion, the fuel can be injected at a venturi located in the combustion chamber at a point adjacent the air swirler.

  12. Effects of injection angle and pressure on mixing performance of fuel injection via various geometries for upstream-fuel-injected scramjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Hideaki

    2016-11-01

    Effective fuel injection and mixing is of crucial importance for reliable operation of scramjet engines, where fuel must be injected into high-speed crossflow and mixed with air at an extremely short timescale. This paper presents the results of a numerical study that investigates the effects of the injection angle and pressure for various orifice shapes on fuel mixing characteristics into hypersonic airflow at Mach 5, aiming at the application to scramjet operation with upstream fuel injection at Mach 10. The mixing performance has been evaluated with respect to the mixing efficiency, total pressure recovery, fuel penetration, and streamwise circulation. Significant influence of the injection angle and intensity on the mixing has been observed in conjunction with the geometric features of the injector orifice. An additional performance parameter, namely the mixing vorticity effectiveness, has been found to be an effective measure to quantify the contribution of the streamwise vorticity in mixing enhancement.

  13. Manually adjustable override for fuel injection regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, L.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a manually adjustable override apparatus for connection to the vacuum hose fitting of an existing fuel pressure regulator of the type containing a diaphragm to selectively alter the fuel-to-air ratio fed to fuel injectors. It comprises a fitting adapted to be installed in fluid communication between the vacuum chamber of the fuel pressure regulator and the existing vacuum manifold, plunger means slidably mounted in the fitting and having one end extending outwardly therefrom to engage the diaphragm of the existing fuel pressure regulator, and manual adjustment means on the fitting including resilient mean operatively connected to the plunger means for applying a selective resilient force on the diaphragm of the existing fuel pressure regulator, such that upon decreasing the force applied by the plunger means the diaphragm will operate to provide the factory set fuel-to-air mixture, and upon increasing the force applied by the plunger means the diaphragm will operate under an increased resilient force in excess of the factory set condition whereby the factory set fuel-to-air ratio may be selectively altered.

  14. Heat Transfer to Fuel Sprays Injected into Heated Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selden, Robert F; Spencer, Robert C

    1938-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.

  15. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  16. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  17. System and method for injecting fuel

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2012-12-04

    According to various embodiments, a system includes a staggered multi-nozzle assembly. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly includes a first fuel nozzle having a first axis and a first flow path extending to a first downstream end portion, wherein the first fuel nozzle has a first non-circular perimeter at the first downstream end portion. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly also includes a second fuel nozzle having a second axis and a second flow path extending to a second downstream end portion, wherein the first and second downstream end portions are axially offset from one another relative to the first and second axes. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly further includes a cap member disposed circumferentially about at least the first and second fuel nozzles to assemble the staggered multi-nozzle assembly.

  18. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  19. Gas and liquid fuel injection into an enclosed swirling flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N. T.; Andrews, G. E.

    1984-06-01

    The use of swirler air for atomization has been tested with direct central propane injection and with direct central kerosene and gas oil injection, and its results have been compared with those for nonswirling flow systems under the same conditions. Direct propane injection results in a major extension of stability limits, by comparison to results for premixing, while with liquid fuel injection the stability limits are generally worse than for premixed fuel and air. This may be due to the action of the centrifugal forces on the liquid droplets in the swirl flow, which results in outer swirl flow vaporization and weaker mixtures in the core recirculation region than would be the case for propane injection. A comparison with nonswirling system performance indicated that all emission levels were higher with swirl for propane.

  20. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Ian; Tatro, Clement A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  1. Fuel injection nozzle unit for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kushida, T.; Yamada, K.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle unit for an internal combustion engine, including a nozzle body having injection holes and a pressure chamber formed therein, a nozzle needle fitted in the nozzle body and being liftable in the nozzle body to open the injection holes, a nozzle spring urging the nozzle needle in a direction of closing the injection holes, and a central plunger having one end thereof arranged opposite one end of the nozzle needle at a distance corresponding to a predetermined lift. The central plunger has another end face which is supplied with pressurized fuel, and the central plunger is liftable together with the nozzle needle against the pressure of the pressurized fuel when the predetermined lift is exceeded, the nozzle needle being lifted by a fuel pressure supplied to the pressure chamber to effect fuel injection. The improvement described here comprises: an annular-shaped, radially deformable piezo-electric element provided around the central plunger, the piezo-electric element having a substantially central hole therein which is penetrated by the central plunger; and means for selectively electrically energizing and deenergizing the piezo-electric element to selectively radially deform the piezo-electric element to thereby selectively reduce the diameter of the central hole thereof.

  2. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment. PMID:27267738

  3. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment.

  4. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  5. Two-stage, hydraulic-assisted fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, D.H.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for internal combustion engines including, in combination, a nozzle body means having a fuel inlet means at one end and a fuel injection spray orifice means at its opposite spray outlet end with a discharge passage means interconnecting the inlet means to the spray orifice means; a valve seat in the passage means upstream of the spray orifice means, a spring chamber means in the nozzle body means intermediate the ends, a pressure actuated injection valve in the nozzle body movable relative to the valve seat and having one end extending into the spring chamber means; a first spring means and second spring means in the spring chamber means operatively connected to each other and to the injection valve to effect the opening of the injection valve in two stages is controlled by the first spring means; and the second spring means with a first stage opening as controlled by the first spring and a second state opening as controlled by both the first and second spring. A valve controlled orifice passage means is in flow communication at one end with the discharge passage means and at its opposite end with the spring chamber means.

  6. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays at Low-injection Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.

  7. Apparatus for adjustably controlling valve movement and fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.R.; Shyu, T.P.; Weber, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus is described for adjustably controlling valve movement and fuel injection of an engine having at least one fuel injection system, one exhaust valve system, one intake valve system, a microprocessor controller for receiving input signals and delivering engine controlling electrical signals, and a liquid pressure system, comprising: a single piezoelectric motor connectable to the microprocessor controller and the liquid pressure system and being adapted to receive engine controlling electrical signals from the microprocessor and controllably delivering pressurized liquid signals to the liquid pressure system in response to the received signal; and a spool valve having a single spool, the valve having a plurality of inlets and outlets and being connectable to the liquid pressure system for receiving pressurized liquid signals therefrom and controllably moving the single spool of the spool valve and delivering valve and injection controlling signals to the valve systems and injector system and controlling both valve movement and fuel injection responsive to engine controlling electrical signals received by the piezoelectric motor.

  8. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  9. A precious-metal free micro fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretthauer, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, integrated fuel cell (FC) type primary and secondary batteries attracted a great deal of attention as integrated on-chip power sources due to their high theoretical power densities. Unfortunately, the costs of these devices have been rather high. This is partially due to the involved clean-room processes, but also due to the fact that these devices generally rely on expensive precious-metals such as Pd and Pt. Therefore we developed a novel integrated FC type accumulator that is based on non-precious-metals only. The key component of the presented accumulator is its alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane that allows not only the usage of a low-cost AB5 type hydrogen storage electrode, but also the usage of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 as a precious-metal free bifunctional catalyst for the air-breathing electrode. Additionally the presented design requires only comparatively few cleanroom processes which further reduces the overall production costs. Although abdicating precious-metals, the presented accumulator shows an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V and a maximum power density of 0.66 mW cm-2 which is comparable or even superior to former precious-metal based cells.

  10. Long-range spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.

    PubMed

    Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2015-04-24

    We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a long-range spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal signal. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters.

  11. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  12. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  13. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  14. 30 CFR 57.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped with a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped with a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19013 - Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19013 Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered hoists. Where any diesel or similar fuel-injection engine is used to power a hoist, the engine shall be equipped with a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel- and other fuel-injection-powered...

  20. Development of a fuel injected two-stroke gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Plohberger, D.; Mikulic, L.A.; Landfahrer, K.

    1988-01-01

    AVL's development of a semi-direct injected two-stroke engine employed a carburetted 250cc production motorcycle engine as a baseline. Special emphasis was placed on the investigation of fuel jet and scavenge flow interactions. To evaluate the scavenge flow pattern, a steady flow test procedure was developed and applied. The results of scavenging system optimization were confirmed by subsequent engine tests which showed significant gains in power output. Completion of the first phase of the research program resulted in the development of a semi-direct injection system using currently available automotive low pressure manifold injection system components. Compared to the original carburetted engine, significant improvements were demonstrated, including a 30% reduction of fuel consumption, a reduction of up to 60% in hydrocarbon emissions and up to 70% in carbon monoxide emission, averaged over the engine's speed and load range. Engine BMEP and power characteristics were maintained and improved. In addition, the critical idle operating conditions were improved significantly by stabilizing the combustion with minimized cyclic variations. The results of thermodynamic cycle analyses, based both on engine test measurements and on calculations, are presented. Finally, the paper compares the semi-direct and direct injection systems and presents an outlook based on some of the results of the current phase of AVL's low emission two-stroke engine research program.

  1. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  2. Energy accumulation and improved performance in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Hart, John

    The mechanisms for electron transfer from the microorganisms found in anaerobic sludge to the anode electrode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been investigated. In doing so, both the energy accumulation and improved performance were observed as a result of the addition of exogenous Na 2SO 4. Treatment of anaerobic sludge by centrifugation and washing can provide samples devoid of sulphide/sulphate. Addition of exogenous sulphate can give matched samples of S-deplete and S-replete suspensions. When these are compared in an experimental MFC, the power output of the S-deplete is only 20% that of the S-replete system. Moreover, repeat washing of the anodic chamber to remove suspended cells (leaving only cells attached to the electrode) and addition of buffer substrate gives MFC that produce an output between 10 and 20% that of control. We conclude that anaerobic sludge MFCs are a hybrid incorporating both natural mediator and anodophillic properties. We have also shown that disconnected MFC (open circuit) continue to produce sulphide and when reconnected gives an initial burst of power output demonstrating accumulator-type activity.

  3. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  4. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  5. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  6. Novel application-oriented transient fuel model of a port fuel injection S. I. engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cunlei; Zhang, Jianlong; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-03-01

    Most researches on transient fuel control of port fuel injection S.I. engine are carried out from the perspective of advanced mathematical theories. When it comes to practical control, there exist many limitations although they are more intelligent. In order to overcome the fuel wetting effect of PFI engine, the application-oriented transient fuel control is studied by analyzing the key parameters which are closely related with the engine transient characteristics. Both validity and simplicity are taken into consideration. Based on the fuel wall-wetting theory and popular fuel compensation strategy, short-term transient fuel(STF) and long-term transient fuel(LTF), as well as their individual decay approaches, are introduced. STF is to compensate the drastic fuel film loss caused by sudden throttle change, while the function of LTF is to compensate the fuel film loss by manifold air pressure( p) fluctuation. Each of them has their respective pros and cons. The engine fuel mass and air mass are also calculated for air-fuel ratio(AFR) according to ideal gas state equation and empirical equations. The vehicle acceleration test is designed for model validation. The engine experiences several mild and heavy accelerations corresponding to the gear change during vehicle acceleration. STF and LTF control are triggered reliably. The engine transient fuel control simulation adopts the same inputs as the test to ensure consistency. The logged test data are used to check the model output. The results show that the maximum fuel pulse width(FPW) error reaches 2 ms, and it only occurs under engine heavy acceleration condition. The average FPW error is 0.57 ms. The results of simulation and test are close overall, which indicates the accuracy of steady and transient fuel. The proposed research provides an efficient approach not only suitable for practical engineering application, but also for AFR prediction, fuel consumption calculation, and further studies on emission control.

  7. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  8. Size and accumulation of fuel reserves at stopover predict nocturnal restlessness in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Eikenaar, Cas; Schläfke, Jan Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Early arrival at the breeding site positively affects the breeding success of migratory birds. During migration, birds spend most of their time at stopovers. Therefore, determining which factors shape stopover duration is essential to our understanding of avian migration. Because the main purpose of stopover is to accumulate fat as fuel for the next flight bout, fuel reserves at arrival and the accumulation of fuel are both expected to affect stopover departure decisions. Here, we determined whether fuel reserves and fuel accumulation predict a bird's motivation to depart, as quantified by nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe), using northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) that were captured and temporarily contained at spring stopover. We found that fuel reserves at capture were positively correlated with Zugunruhe, and negatively correlated with fuel accumulation. This indicates that fat birds were motivated to depart, whereas lean birds were set on staying and accumulating fuel. Moreover, the change in fuel reserves was positively correlated with the concurrent change in Zugunruhe, providing the first empirical evidence for a direct link between fuel accumulation and Zugunruhe during stopover. Our study indicates that, together with innate rhythms and weather, the size and accumulation of fuel reserves shape stopover duration, and hence overall migration time. PMID:24132097

  9. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  10. Transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in silicon and germanium conduction bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Abhinav; Rojas-Sanchez, Juan-Carlos; Cubukcu, Murat; Peiro, Julian; Le Breton, Jean-Christophe; Vergnaud, Céline; Augendre, Emmanuel; Vila, Laurent; Attané, Jean-Philippe; Gambarelli, Serge; Jaffrès, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Jamet, Matthieu

    2013-04-01

    Electrical spin injection into semiconductors paves the way for exploring new phenomena in the area of spin physics and new generations of spintronic devices. However the exact role of interface states in the electrical spin injection mechanism from a magnetic tunnel junction into a semiconductor is still under debate. Here we demonstrate a clear transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in the conduction band of n-Si and n-Ge using a CoFeB/MgO tunnel contact. We observe spin signal amplification at low temperature due to spin accumulation into interface states followed by a clear transition towards spin injection in the conduction band from approximately 150 K up to room temperature. In this regime, the spin signal is reduced down to a value compatible with the standard spin diffusion model. More interestingly, in the case of germanium, we demonstrate a significant modulation of the spin signal by applying a back-gate voltage to the conduction channel. We also observe the inverse spin Hall effect in Ge by spin pumping from the CoFeB electrode. Both observations are consistent with spin accumulation in the Ge conduction band.

  11. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOEpatents

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann; DeLancey, James Peter; Primus, Roy James; Pintgen, Florian Peter

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  12. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  13. Long-range spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.

    PubMed

    Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2015-04-24

    We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a long-range spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal signal. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters. PMID:25955071

  14. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  15. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  16. Thermal spin injection and accumulation in CoFe/MgO/n-type Ge contacts

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kun-Rok; Min, Byoung-Chul; Park, Seung-Young; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Song, Hyon-Seok; Park, Youn-Ho; Jo, Young-Hun; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between spin and heat is a fundamental and intriguing subject. Here we report thermal spin injection and accumulation in CoFe/MgO/n-type Ge contacts with an asymmetry of tunnel spin polarization. Using local heating of electrodes by laser beam or electrical current, the thermally-induced spin accumulation is observed for both polarities of the temperature gradient across the tunnel contact. We observe that the magnitude of thermally injected spin signal scales linearly with the power of local heating of electrodes, and its sign is reversed as we invert the temperature gradient. A large Hanle magnetothermopower (HMTP) of about 7.0% and the Seebeck spin tunneling coefficient of larger than 0.74 meV K−1 are obtained at room temperature. PMID:23236584

  17. Measurements of Fuel Distribution Within Sprays for Fuel-Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1937-01-01

    Two methods were used to measure fuel distribution within sprays from several types of fuel-injection nozzles. A small tube inserted through the wall of an air tight chamber into which the sprays were injected could be moved about inside the chamber. When the pressure was raised to obtain air densities of 6 and 14 atmospheres, some air was forced through the tube and the fuel that was carried with it was separated by absorbent cotton and weighed. Cross sections of sprays from plain, pintle, multiple-orifice, impinging-jets, centrifugal, lip, slit, and annular-orifice nozzles were investigated, at distances of 1, 3, 5, and 7 inches from the nozzles.

  18. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John; Klemm, Jim; Abbott, Royce; Overman, Nick; Pack, Spencer; Winebrenner, Audra

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  19. A Compact Flexible Pellet Injection System for Fueling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2000-10-01

    A compact pellet injection system is being designed and built at ORNL to provide a flexible pellet fueling system for studies in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The system known as a ``pellet injector in a suitcase (PIS)'' is a pipe gun device with four barrels that uses a cryocooler for in-situ hydrogenic pellet formation. The system is being built to provide a flexible, low-cost fueling system that can be used on a number of plasma confinement experiments with minimal installation and operation costs. components in the system. It will use both propellant gas and a mechanical punch to accelerate the 1 - 4 mm size pellets to 100-1500 m/s. With the mechanical punch alone a low speed pellet, useful for curved guide tube applications, can be produced with minimal gas load eliminating the need for a large ballast volume. can be independently fired. diagnose the injector. The PIS is a flexible tool for fueling alternative concept devices such as MST and NSTX and for specialized studies in mainline tokamak experiments such as DIII-D and JET. The small size makes installation on such devices more feasible. of the system design and the expected performance will be presented.

  20. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  1. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  2. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made. PMID:24040936

  3. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made.

  4. Effect of Helium Accumulation on the Spent Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, Cecile; Piron, Jean-Paul; Stout, Ray

    2007-07-01

    In a nuclear spent fuel repository, the aqueous rapid release of radio-activity from exposed spent fuel surfaces will depend on the pellet microstructure at the arrival time of water into the disposal container. Research performed on spent fuel evolution in a closed system has shown that the evolution of microstructure under disposal conditions should be governed by the cumulated {alpha}-decay damage and the subsequent helium behavior. The evolution of fission gas bubble characteristics under repository conditions has to be assessed. In UO{sub 2} fuels with a burnup of 47.5 GWd/t, the pressure in fission gas bubbles, including the pressure increase from {alpha}-decay helium atoms, is not expected to reach the critical bubble pressure that will cause failure, thus micro-cracking in UO{sub 2} spent fuel grains is not expected. (authors)

  5. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  6. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  7. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  8. The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson; Gardiner, A W

    1923-01-01

    Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.

  9. Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  10. Zero-Gravity Fuel-Cell Product-Water Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    Assortment of documents describes simple, passive system that removes water formed from reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. Designed for use in zero gravity, system does not require any machinery or external source of power. Works by capillary action and differential pressure.

  11. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  12. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  13. The study on injection parameters of selected alternative fuels used in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Lew, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents selected results concerning fuel charging and spraying process for selected alternative fuels, including regular diesel fuel, rape oil, FAME, blends of these fuels in various proportions, and blends of rape oil with diesel fuel. Examination of the process included the fuel charge measurements. To this end, a set-up for examination of Common Rail-type injection systems was used constructed on the basis of Bosch EPS-815 test bench, from which the high-pressure pump drive system was adopted. For tests concerning the spraying process, a visualisation chamber with constant volume was utilised. The fuel spray development was registered with the use of VisioScope (AVL).

  14. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  15. Magnetic field distribution of injection chicane dipoles in Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang

    2006-01-01

    We have performed 3D computing simulations to study the magnetic field distribution of the injection chicane dipoles in the SNS accumulator ring. The simulations yield the performance characteristics of the magnets and generate the magnetic field data in three dimensional grids for further beam tracking study. Based on the simulation data, a 3D multipole expansion of the chicane dipole field, consisting of the generalized gradients and their derivatives, has been made. The harmonic and pseudo-harmonic components in the expansion give much insight into the magnet physics and can fit directly into theoretical frame work of beam optics. The expansion is quasi-analytical by fitting numeric data into interpolation functions. A 5th-order representation of the magnetic field is generated, and the effects of even higher order terms on the field representation are discussed.

  16. Magnetic field distribution of injection chicane dipoles in Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed 3D computing simulations to study the magnetic field distribution of the injection chicane dipoles in the SNS accumulator ring. The simulations yield the performance characteristics of the magnets and generate the magnetic field data in three dimensional grids for further beam tracking study. Based on the simulation data, a 3D multipole expansion of the chicane dipole field, consisting of the generalized gradients and their derivatives, has been made. The harmonic and pseudoharmonic components in the expansion give much insight into the magnet physics and can fit directly into theoretical frame work of beam optics. The expansion is quasianalytical by fitting numeric data into interpolation functions. A 5th-order representation of the magnetic field is generated, and the effects of even higher-order terms on the field representation are discussed.

  17. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  18. Diesel fuel injection pump with electromagnetic fuel spilling valve having pilot valve providing high responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ito, Y.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-04-01

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described having a plurality of cylinders coupled to a crankshaft, the fuel injection system consisting of: a housing with a cylindrical bore formed therein; an input shaft mounted coaxially with the bore and rotatable in a predetermined phase relation with the crankshaft of the engine; a plunger slidably mounted in the bore, one end of the plunger defining with the bore a high pressure chamber, and another end of the plunger being rotationally engaged with the input shaft but being free to move axially with respect to the input shaft; means for axially reciprocating the plunger in the bore according to the rotational position of the plunger; means for communicating the high pressure chamber selectively with respective cylinders of the engine according to the rotational position of the plunger substantially only when the plunger is moving in a delivery stroke, axially in a direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber; a valve body having an internal chamber communicating with the high pressure chamber, with a vent passage leading from the internal chamber for venting the high pressure chamber; a valve element located in the internal chamber and having an orifice, one side of the orifice communicating with the high pressure chamber; and an electromagnetically operated pilot valve which is selectively electromagnetically driven when electrical energy is supplied thereto so as to close a normally open passage which vents a space on the other side of the orifice remote from the high pressure chamber.

  19. A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Parks, P.B.

    1999-06-14

    Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.

  20. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  1. Controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjusting member of a fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eheim, F.; Hofer, G.; Konrath, K.; Straubel, M.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjustment element of a fuel injection pump including an adjusting lever pivotable around a shaft. The adjusting lever is coupled with a fuel-quantity adjusting element, a drag lever pivotable around the shaft of the adjusting lever. The drag lever communicates with the adjusting lever by way of a coupling element. An adjustable governor spring assembly is arranged to act on the drag lever, a stop for stopping the drag lever, further including a device for generating rpm-dependent force transmittable to the drag lever by means of an actuating element thereof and counter to the governor spring assembly, whereby the drag lever and the adjusting lever are coupled for movement together at least at the end of each relative movement effected by the actuating element. The actuating element acts directly upon the drag lever and the adjusting lever during deflection by way of a predetermined relative adjustment distance between the drag lever and the adjusting lever for adjustment by the actuating element, at least one spring arranged between the adjusting lever and a fixed support. At least one spring acts on the adjusting lever to force the adjusting lever into contact with an adjustable stop which is adjustable in dependence from the operating parameters of the combustion engine.

  2. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  3. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  4. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  5. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  6. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  7. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Nekofar, K.

    2013-04-01

    The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA). A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  8. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Tracy, D.B.; Griffiths, V.

    1991-09-03

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  9. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  10. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  12. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  13. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  14. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, K.; Noguchi, H.; Baika, T.; Horii, K.; Nagaosa, H.; Tanahashi, T.; Itoh, T.

    1989-04-25

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine body; an intake system connected to the engine body for an introduction of air thereto; an exhaust system connected to the engine body for a removal of a resultant exhaust gas; means for supplying a desired amount of fuel to the engine; means for calculating the desired amount of fuel in accordance with basic engine operating conditions including an map means for storing data of a parameter for a compensation of the amount of air to be blown out, the map means comprising a plurality of values of the parameter, each value being determined by a combination of at least an engine load and engine speed; means for reading a value of the parameter from the map means corresponding to a combination of an engine load and engine Speed; means for correcting the calculated fuel amount by incorporating the calculated parameter, and; means for generating a signal directed to the fuel supply means for introduction of a corrected amount of fuel into the engine.

  15. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-03-24

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes a plurality of tube assemblies, wherein each of the tube assemblies includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. Each tube assembly includes a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream portion to the downstream portion or from the upstream portion through the downstream portion. At least one injection system is coupled to at least one tube assembly of the plurality of tube assemblies. The injection system includes a fluid supply member that extends from a fluid source to the downstream portion of the tube assembly. The fluid supply member includes a first end portion located in the downstream portion of the tube assembly, wherein the first end portion has at least one first opening for channeling fluid through the tube assembly to facilitate reducing a temperature therein.

  16. Engineering-Scale Development of Injection Casting Technology for Metal Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Takanari; Tsukada, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    Engineering-scale injection casting tests were conducted in order to demonstrate the applicability of injection casting technology to the commercialized fast reactor fuel cycle. The uranium-zirconium alloy slugs produced in the tests were examined with reference to the practical slug specifications: average diameter tolerance {+-} 0.05 mm, local diameter tolerance {+-} 0.1 mm, density range 15.3 to 16.1 g/cm{sup 3}, zirconium content range 10 {+-} 1 wt% and total impurity (C, N, O, Si) <2000 ppm, which were provisionally determined. Most of the slugs satisfied these specifications, except for zirconium content. The impurity level was sufficiently low even though the residual and scrapped alloys were repeatedly recycled. The weight ratio of injected metal to charged metal was sufficiently high for a high process throughput. The injection casting technology will be applicable to the commercialized fuel cycle when the issue of zirconium content variation is resolved. (authors)

  17. Effect of fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine nonvolatile particle emission.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Happonen, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Virtanen, Annele; Solla, Anu; Kytö, Matti; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust particle emissions were studied. Nonvolatile particle size distributions and gaseous emissions were measured at steady-state engine conditions while the fuel injection pressure was changed. An increase in the injection pressure resulted in an increase in the nonvolatile nucleation mode (core) emission at medium and at high loads. At low loads, the core was not detected. Simultaneously, a decrease in soot mode number concentration and size and an increase in the soot mode distribution width were detected at all loads. Interestingly, the emission of the core was independent of the soot mode concentration at load conditions below 50%. Depending on engine load conditions, growth of the geometric mean diameter of the core mode was also detected with increasing injection pressure. The core mode emission and also the size of the mode increased with increasing NOx emission while the soot mode size and emission decreased simultaneously.

  18. Review of hydrogen pellet injection technology for plasma fueling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.

    1989-05-01

    In the past several years, steady progress has been made worldwide in the development of high-speed hydrogen pellet injectors for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. Several fueling systems based on the conventional pneumatic and centrifuge acceleration concepts have been put into practice on a wide variety of toroidal plasma confinement devices. Long-pulse fueling has been demonstrated in the parameter range 0.8--1.3 km/s, for pellets up to 6 mm in diameter, and at delivery rates up to 40 Hz. Conventional systems have demonstrated the technology to speeds approaching 2 km/s, and several more exotic accelerator concepts are under development to meet the more demanding requirements of the next generation of reactor-grade plasmas. These include a gas gun that can operate in tritium, the two-stage light gas gun, electrothermal guns, electromagnetic rail guns, and an electron-beam-driven thruster. Although these devices are in various stages of development, velocities of 3.8 km/s have already been achieved with two-stage light gas guns, and the prospects for attaining 5 km/s in the near future appear good.

  19. Effects of Fuel Temperature on Injection Process and Combustion of Dimethyl Ether Engine.

    PubMed

    Guangxin, Gao; Zhulin, Yuan; Apeng, Zhou; Shenghua, Liu; Yanju, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of fuel temperature on the injection process in the fuel-injection pipe and the combustion characteristics of compression ignition (CI) engine, tests on a four stroke, direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine were conducted. Experimental results show that as the fuel temperature increases from 20 to 40 °C, the sound speed is decreased by 12.2%, the peak line pressure at pump and nozzle sides are decreased by 7.2% and 5.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the injection timing is retarded by 2.2 °CA and the injection duration is extended by 0.8 °CA. Accordingly, the ignition delay and the combustion duration are extended by 0.7 °CA and 4.0 °CA, respectively. The cylinder peak pressure is decreased by 5.4%. As a result, the effective thermal efficiency is decreased, especially for temperature above 40 °C. Before beginning an experiment, the fuel properties of DME, including the density, the bulk modulus, and the sound speed were calculated by "ThermoData." The calculated result of sound speed is consistent with the experimental results.

  20. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  1. Visualization of cavitation phenomena in a Diesel engine fuel injection nozzle by neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Kadowaki, T.; Kawabata, Y.; Lim, I. C.; Sim, C. M.

    2005-04-01

    Visualization of cavitation phenomena in a Diesel engine fuel injection nozzle was carried out by using neutron radiography system at KUR in Research Reactor Institute in Kyoto University and at HANARO in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A neutron chopper was synchronized to the engine rotation for high shutter speed exposures. A multi-exposure method was applied to obtain a clear image as an ensemble average of the synchronized images. Some images were successfully obtained and suggested new understanding of the cavitation phenomena in a Diesel engine fuel injection nozzle.

  2. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  3. (Injection of compact toroids for tokamak fueling and current drive)

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, D.Q.; Rogers, J.H.; Thomas, J.C.; Evans, R.; Foley, R.; Hillyer, T.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental goals for the 1990--1991 period were the operation of the Davis Diverted Tokamak(DDT), the beat wave experiment, and the construction of the compact toroid injection experiment(CTIX). The experiment results from these areas are summarized in the posters given in the APS meeting past November. Here we shall describe the technical progress of the development of the diagnostic system for beat wave experiment, and CT injection especially in relation to the up coming injection experiments into DDT tokamak. The tokamak operation of DDT over the past year has been focused in two parameter ranges. The long pulse discharges (over 100 msec), and the low q short pulse discharges (about 10 msec). We found that the long pulse discharges required a position feedback more sophisticated than the simple passive program that we have. We are in the process of assembling this system. We also found an interesting low q(a) operating regime. Here an equilibrium can be established for a toroidal field between .5 and 1 kG. The typical plasma current is > 5kA. The density of the plasma is between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}. The plasma condition in these discharge are sufficiently mild that diagnostic probes can be used to measure various plasma fluctuations. We believe that this will be the regime best suited to study the interaction between the tokamak plasma and the compact toroid. A sophisticated probe system of both electrostatic and electromagnetic types similar to those used in the beat wave experiment has been designed for the up coming experiments.

  4. Injection nozzle materials for a coal-fueled diesel locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, R.L.; Leonard, G.L.; Johnson, R.N.; Lavigne, R.G.

    1990-12-31

    In order to identify materials resistant to coal water mixture (CWM) erosive wear, a number of materials were evaluated using both orifice slurry and dry air erosion tests. Both erosion tests ranked materials in the same order, and the most erosion resistant material identified was sintered diamond compact. Based on operation using CWM in a single-cylinder locomotive test, superhard nozzle materials such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, and perhaps TiB{sub 2} were found to be necessary in order to obtain a reasonable operating life. An injection nozzle using sintered diamond compacts was designed and built, and has operated successfully in a CWM fired locomotive engine.

  5. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  6. Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bin

    Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant

  7. Electrical injection and detection of spin accumulation in silicon at 500 K with magnetic metal/silicon dioxide contacts.

    PubMed

    Li, C H; van 't Erve, O M J; Jonker, B T

    2011-01-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors has identified the electron's spin angular momentum as a new state variable that should be explored as an alternative to the electron's charge for use beyond the size scaling of Moore's Law. A major obstacle has been achieving control of the spin variable at temperatures required for practical applications. Here we demonstrate electrical injection, detection and precession of spin accumulation in silicon, the cornerstone material of device technology, at temperatures that easily exceed these requirements. We observe Hanle precession of electron spin accumulation in silicon for a wide range of bias, show that the magnitude of the Hanle signal agrees well with theory, and that the spin lifetime varies with silicon carrier density. These results confirm spin accumulation in the silicon transport channel to 500 K rather than trapping in localized interface states, and enable utilization of the spin variable in practical device applications.

  8. Mixing enhancement in a scramjet combustor using fuel jet injection swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesberg, Sonja M.

    The scramjet engine has proven to be a viable means of powering a hypersonic vehicle, especially after successful flights of the X-51 WaveRider and various Hy-SHOT test vehicles. The major challenge associated with operating a scramjet engine is the short residence time of the fuel and oxidizer in the combustor. The fuel and oxidizer have only milliseconds to mix, ignite and combust in the combustion chamber. Combustion cannot occur until the fuel and oxidizer are mixed on a molecular level. Therefore the improvement of mixing is of utmost interest since this can increase combustion efficiency. This study investigated mixing enhancement of fuel and oxidizer within the combustion chamber of a scramjet by introducing swirl to the fuel jet. The investigation was accomplished with numerical simulations using STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamic software. The geometry of the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility was used to model the isolator, combustor and nozzle of a scramjet engine for simulation purposes. Experimental data from previous research at the facility was used to verify the simulation model before investigating the effect of fuel jet swirl on mixing. The model used coaxial fuel jet with a swirling annular jet. Single coaxial fuel jet and dual coaxial fuel jet configurations were simulated for the investigation. The coaxial fuel jets were modelled with a swirling annular jet and non-swirling core jet. Numerical analysis showed that fuel jet swirl not only increased mixing and entrainment of the fuel with the oxidizer but the mixing occurred further upstream than without fuel jet swirl. The burning efficiency was calculated for the all the configurations. An increase in burning efficiency indicated an increase in the mixing of H2 with O2. In the case of the single fuel jet models, the maximum burning efficiency increase due to fuel injection jet swirl was 23.3%. The research also investigated the possibility that interaction between two

  9. Alternative fuels for medium-speed diesel engines (AFFMSED) project: slurries, emulsions and blended-fuel extenders; cylinder wear measurements, staged injection. Third research phase final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Q.A. Jr.; Wakenell, J.F.; Ariga, S.

    1983-08-01

    The third year of research activity on an ongoing research, development and demonstration effort to investigate the use of alternative fuels for medium-speed engines is described. Tests were performed using laboratory medium-speed diesel engines to define the ability of these engines to operate on alternative fuels, the fuel property limits that the engines can tolerate, the problems associated with alternative fuels use, and methods to improve fuel tolerance and to overcome the problems identified. The fuels studied during the Phase III program were alcohol-in-diesel fuel emulsions, water-in-diesel fuel emulsions, sunflower oil/diesel fuel blends, No. 6 fuel oil/diesel fuel blends, and a carbon black/diesel fuel slurry. Also studied were methods to measure cylinder liner and piston ring wear rates in a short period of engine operation. Finally, staged injection was investigated as a means to improve engine performance on low cetane number fuels.

  10. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  11. A Comparison of Fuel Sprays from Several Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the tests results of a series of tests made of the sprays from 14 fuel injection nozzles of 9 different types, the sprays being injected into air at atmospheric density and at 6 and 14 times atmospheric density. High-speed spark photographs of the sprays from each nozzle at each air density were taken at the rate of 2,000 per second, and from them were obtained the dimensions of the sprays and the rates of spray-tip penetration. The sprays were also injected against plasticine targets placed at different distances from the nozzles, and the impressions made in the plasticine were used as an indication of the distribution of the fuel within the spray. Cross-sectional sketches of the different types of sprays are given showing the relative sizes of the spray cores and envelopes. The characteristics of the sprays are compared and discussed with respect to their application to various types of engines.

  12. [Research on NEDC ultrafine particle emission characters of a port fuel injection gasoline car].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jin; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-12-01

    A Santana gasoline car with multi-port fuel injection (PFI) system was used as the research prototype and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was employed to investigate the exhaust ultrafine particle number and size distribution characters of the tested vehicle in new European driving cycle (NEDC). The tested results showed that the vehicle's nuclear particle number, accumulation particle number, as well as the total particle number emission increased when the car drove in accelerated passage, and the vehicle's particle number emission was high during the first 40 seconds after test started and when the speed was over 90 km x h(-1) in extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) in NEDC. The ultrafine particle distribution of the whole NEDC showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, with diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameter was 24 nm. The ultrafine particle distribution of the urban driving cycle named by the economic commission for Europe (ECE) e. g. ECE I, ECE II - IV, the extra urban driving cycle e. g. EUDC, and the idling, constant speed, acceleration, deceleration operation conditions of NEDC all showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, also with particle diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameters of different driving cycle and different driving mode were from 14 nm to 42 nm. Therefore, the ultrafine particle emissions of the tested PFI gasoline car were mainly consisted of nuclear mode particles with a diameter of less than 50 nm. PMID:23379140

  13. [Research on NEDC ultrafine particle emission characters of a port fuel injection gasoline car].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jin; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-12-01

    A Santana gasoline car with multi-port fuel injection (PFI) system was used as the research prototype and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was employed to investigate the exhaust ultrafine particle number and size distribution characters of the tested vehicle in new European driving cycle (NEDC). The tested results showed that the vehicle's nuclear particle number, accumulation particle number, as well as the total particle number emission increased when the car drove in accelerated passage, and the vehicle's particle number emission was high during the first 40 seconds after test started and when the speed was over 90 km x h(-1) in extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) in NEDC. The ultrafine particle distribution of the whole NEDC showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, with diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameter was 24 nm. The ultrafine particle distribution of the urban driving cycle named by the economic commission for Europe (ECE) e. g. ECE I, ECE II - IV, the extra urban driving cycle e. g. EUDC, and the idling, constant speed, acceleration, deceleration operation conditions of NEDC all showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, also with particle diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameters of different driving cycle and different driving mode were from 14 nm to 42 nm. Therefore, the ultrafine particle emissions of the tested PFI gasoline car were mainly consisted of nuclear mode particles with a diameter of less than 50 nm.

  14. Development of an Impinging-jet Fuel-injection Valve Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hemmeter, G H

    1931-01-01

    During an investigation to determine the possibilities and limitations of a two-stroke-cycle engine and ignition, it was necessary to develop a fuel injection valve nozzle to produce a disk-shaped, well dispersed spray. Preliminary tests showed that two smooth jets impinging upon each other at an angle of 74 degrees gave a spray with the desired characteristics. Nozzles were built on this basis and, when used in fuel-injection valves, produced a spray that fulfilled the original requirements. The spray is so well dispersed that it can be carried along with an air stream of comparatively low velocity or entrained with the fuel jet from a round-hole orifice. The characteristics of the spray from an impinging-jet nozzle limits its application to situations where wide dispersion is required by the conditions in the engine cylinder and the combustion chamber.

  15. Application of IAPAC fuel injection for low emissions small two-stroke engines

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, P.; Dabadie, J.C.; Colliou, T.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of the Institut Francais du Petrole developed Compressed Air Assisted Fuel Injection Process (named IAPAC) in a two-stroke engine allows the introduction of the fuel separately from the scavenging air, which in consequence minimizes fuel short-circuiting. The inherent mechanical principle of the IAPAC process which uses the crankcase compressed air to finely atomize the fuel, provides the advantages of direct injection but in addition uses conventional low pressure automotive type injection technology with commercially available gasoline injectors. In earlier work the authors showed an example of the application of this fuel injection technology to a PIAGGIO single cylinder 125 cc scooter two-stroke engine. In this paper, an update of the results obtained with this new engine is presented and confirms the ultra-low emissions capability for two-wheeler application. This technology is also used with other IAPAC 2-stroke engines of various size and displacement to demonstrate how the application of IAPAC to marine outboard 2-stroke engines, is a good answer face to the new environmental regulations. The EPA 2006 regulation can easily be met over the whole outboard engine power range with associated significant fuel economy benefits. The Bodensee stage 1 regulation can be met without catalyst, while the addition of a catalyst (at least for the medium to the high engine power range) will be necessary to meet the Bodensee stage 2 regulation. It has already been reported in the previous work how careful attention has been paid to ensure that the IAPAC sn,stem remains mechanically simple and keep the additional cost as low as possible. Finally, a brief cost impact analysis of a conversion of conventional 2-stroke engine to IAPAC is here presented. The ways of possible further cost reduction are also discussed.

  16. Redox instability, mechanical deformation, and heterogeneous damage accumulation in solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljawad, F.; Nelson, G. J.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Haataja, M.

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical integrity and damage tolerance represent two key challenges in the design of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In particular, reduction and oxidation (redox) cycles, and the associated large transformation strains have a notable impact on the mechanical stability and failure mode of SOFC anodes. In this study, the deformation behavior under redox cycling is investigated computationally with an approach that provides a detailed, microstructurally based view of heterogeneous damage accumulation behavior within an experimentally obtained nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia SOFC anode microstructure. Simulation results underscore the critical role that the microstructure plays in the mechanical deformation behavior of and failure within such materials.

  17. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  18. Method for building or repairing rotary injection fuel pump piston cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.J. Jr.; Ash, E.G.

    1986-06-17

    A rotary fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine including a housing with inlet and outlet passages, a rotor having a longitudinal axis journaled in the housing having a rotor body with angularly spaced radially extending bores and a fuel passage in communication with the inner ends of the bores having inlet and outlet ports which communicate alternately with the inlet and outlet passages during rotation of the rotor for alternately conducting fuel to and from the bores respectively, a plunger assembly for each bore comprising a pump plunger reciprocally mounted in the bore to sequentially receive charges of fuel from and deliver them to the inlet and outlet passages respectively, and a plunger operating roller and roller shoe at the outer end of the plunger having a radial position relative to the axis of the rotor, a cam ring with an inner cam contour surrounding the rotor in the plane of revolution of the rollers engageable therewith to translate the cam contour into reciprocal movement of the plungers, and a plunger stroke limit mechanism for limiting the outward stroke of the plungers and thereby regulate the quantity of fuel injected during each inward pumping stroke thereof, a timing advance connector connected to the cam ring for changing the radial position of the lobes in the plane of revolution of the rollers relative to the rollers to thereby advance or retard the fuel injection depending upon the position of the cam ring, a timing means controlling the movement of a hydraulic timing piston mounted in a cylinder which moves the connector.

  19. Fuel injection pump having a compact spill-port timing control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, T.; Miyaki, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-03-04

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump. This pump consists of a compression chamber adapted to be coupled to a source of fuel; fuel injection nozzles; a rotary plunger rotatably driven by an internal combustion engine, the plunger including means for defining a common passageway connected at one end to the compression chamber, the plunger further including means for defining angularly spaced apart spill ports branching off the common passageway to an outside surface thereof and a fuel delivery port branching off the common passageway, the fuel delivery port being selectively movable into and out of alignment with each one of the nozzles by rotation of the plunger; a magnetized rotary ring including means for defining a spill groove extending along the inner wall thereof, the ring being mounted on the plunger and rotatable, with respect to the plunger, between at least a first angular position, the ring consists of a cylindrical structure having differently magnetized equally divided arcuate sections, the groove being formed on the inner wall of the cylindrical structure and substantially axially extending from one end of the structure; spring means for biasing the ring toward one of the first and second angular positions; a stationary core surrounding the ring; and a coil wound on the core for generating a rotative thrust on the ring for selectively moving the ring between the first and second angular positions in response to a control signal.

  20. Performance of a Fuel-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Using a Hydrogenated Safety Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.

  1. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  2. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  3. Chemical composition and source of fine and nanoparticles from recent direct injection gasoline passenger cars: Effects of fuel and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Kondo, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Particle number, mass, and chemical compositions (i.e., elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elements, ions, and organic species) of fine particles emitted from four of the recent direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline passenger cars and a port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline passenger car were measured under Japanese official transient mode (JC08 mode). Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) dominated the particulate mass (90% on average). EC dominated the TC for both hot and cold start conditions. The EC/TC ratios were 0.72 for PFI and 0.88-1.0 (average = 0.92) for DISI vehicles. A size-resolved chemical analysis of a DISI car revealed that the major organic components were the C20-C28 hydrocarbons for both the accumulation-mode particles and nanoparticles. Contribution of engine oil was estimated to be 10-30% for organics and the sum of the measured elements. The remaining major fraction likely originated from gasoline fuel. Therefore, it is suggested that soot (EC) also mainly originated from the gasoline. In experiments using four fuels at three ambient temperatures, the emission factors of particulate mass were consistently higher with regular gasoline than with premium gasoline. This result suggest that the high content of less-volatile compounds in fuel increase particulate emissions. These results suggest that focusing on reducing fuel-derived EC in the production process of new cars would effectively reduce particulate emission from DISI cars.

  4. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  5. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  6. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less

  7. Atomization and vaporization characteristics of airblast fuel injection inside a venturi tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, H.; Chue, T.-H.; Lai, M.-C.; Tacina, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical characterization of the capillary fuel injection, atomization, dispersion, and vaporization of liquid fuel in a coflowing air stream inside a single venturi tube. The experimental techniques used are all laser-based. Phase Doppler analyzer was used to characterize the atomization and vaporization process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence visualizations give good qualitative picture of the fuel droplet and vapor distribution. Limited quantitative capabilities of the technique are also demonstrated. A modified version of the KIVA-II was used to simulate the entire spray process, including breakup and vaporization. The advantage of venturi nozzle is demonstrated in terms of better atomization, more uniform F/A distribution, and less pressure drop. Multidimensional spray calculations can be used as a design tool only if care is taken for the proper breakup model, and wall impingement process.

  8. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  9. Fuel injector system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  10. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  11. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  12. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  13. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  14. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  15. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  16. Electric field effects on spin accumulation in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} using tunable spin injection contacts at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerbeek, A. M.; Vries, E. K. de; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.; Dankert, A.; Dash, S. P.

    2014-05-26

    We report on features in charge transport and spin injection in an oxide semiconductor, Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}. This is demonstrated using electrically tunable spin injection contacts which exploit the large electric field at the interface and its interplay with the relative permittivity of the semiconductor. We realize spin accumulation in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} which displays a unique dependence of the spin lifetime with bias polarity. These findings suggest a strong influence of the interface electric field on the charge transport as well as on spin accumulation unlike in conventional semiconductors and opens up promising avenues in oxide spintronics.

  17. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  18. A Study of NO{sub x} Reduction by Fuel Injection Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub X}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub X} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. Numerical simulations of H{sub 2}-air and CH{sub 4}-air counterflow diffusion flames using full kinetics were performed and NO{sub X} emission indices calculated for various conditions. Studies were conducted in which a N{sub 2} diluent was added either on the fuel- or air-side of the flame for conditions of either fixed initial velocities or fixed fuel mass flux. Results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in diluent effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side verses air-side dilution. Simulations in which flow velocities were fixed as diluent was added either to the air or fuel stream showed lower NO{sub X} emissions for air-side dilution; however, if instead, fuel mass fluxes were fixed as diluent was added, which results in an increase in the velocity of the streams, fuel-side dilution was more effective. These results were independent of whether H{sub 2} or Ch

  19. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation.

  20. Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A·m−3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A·m−3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  1. Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

    2014-07-15

    The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures. PMID:24933154

  2. Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

    2014-07-15

    The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures.

  3. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  4. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  5. Some Factors Affecting the Reproducibility of Penetration and the Cut-Off of Oil Sprays for Fuel-injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author)

  6. The effect of initial flow nonuniformity on second-stage fuel injection and combustion in a supersonic duct. [supersonic combustion ramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of flow nonuniformity on second-stage hydrogen fuel injection and combustion in supersonic flow were evaluated. The first case, second-stage fuel injection into a uniform duct flow, produced data indicating that fuel mixing is considerably slower than estimates based on an empirical mixing correlation. The second-case, two-stage fuel injection (or second-stage fuel injection into a nonuniform duct flow), produced a large interaction between stages with extensive flow separation. For this case the measured wall pressure, heat transfer, and amount of reaction at the duct exit were significantly greater than estimates based on the mixing correlation. Substantially more second-stage fuel burned in the second case than in the first case. Overall effects of unmixedness/chemical kinetics were found not to be significant at the exit for stoichiometric fuel injection.

  7. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order to prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.

  8. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A; Pihl, Josh A; Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  9. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    DOE PAGES

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; Johnson, James W.

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated themore » investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in X-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain

  10. Regression rate study of porous axial-injection, endburning hybrid fuel grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.

    This experimental and theoretical work examines the effects of gaseous oxidizer flow rates and pressure on the regression rates of porous fuels for hybrid rocket applications. Testing was conducted using polyethylene as the porous fuel and both gaseous oxygen and nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Nominal test articles were tested using 200, 100, 50, and 15 micron fuel pore sizes. Pressures tested ranged from atmospheric to 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 207 kPa to 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests, and oxidizer injection velocities ranged from 35 m/s to 80 m/s for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 7.5 m/s to 16.8 m/s for the nitrous oxide tests. Regression rates were determined using pretest and posttest length measurements of the solid fuel. Experimental results demonstrated that the regression rate of the porous axial-injection, end-burning hybrid was a function of the chamber pressure, as opposed to the oxidizer mass flux typical in conventional hybrids. Regression rates ranged from approximately 0.75 mm/s at atmospheric pressure to 8.89 mm/s at 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and 0.21 mm/s at 207 kPa to 1.44 mm/s at 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests. The analytical model was developed based on a standard ablative model modified to include oxidizer flow through the grain. The heat transfer from the flame was primarily modeled using an empirically determined flame coefficient that included all heat transfer mechanisms in one term. An exploratory flame model based on the Granular Diffusion Flame model used for solid rocket motors was also adapted for comparison with the empirical flame coefficient. This model was then evaluated quantitatively using the experimental results of the gaseous oxygen tests as well as qualitatively using the experimental results of the nitrous oxide tests. The model showed agreement with the experimental results indicating it has potential for giving insight into the flame structure in this motor configuration

  11. Controlling Accumulation of Fermentation Inhibitors in Biorefinery Recycle Water Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Leak, David; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Andras, Calin

    2009-01-01

    Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4- hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700mW/m2 (356W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by -Proteobacteria (50%), along with -Proteobacteria (28%), -Proteobacteria (14%), -Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusions Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

  12. Controlling accumulation of fermentation inhibitors in biorefinery recycle water using microbial fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton, Choo Y

    2009-01-01

    Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700 mW/m2 (356 W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by δ-Proteobacteria (50%), along with β-Proteobacteria (28%), α-Proteobacteria (14%), γ-Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20 mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusion Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs. PMID:19338657

  13. Concentration measurement of injected gaseous fuel using quantitative schlieren and optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iffa, E. D.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Malik, A. S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the quantitative schlieren method is extended to measure the concentration field of an injected gaseous fuel along several planes perpendicular to the jet axis. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is used as a quantitative flow field concentration measurement based on the deflection made by features in the background pattern. The flow field which is located between the camera and the background pattern varies the intensity value of the background points in the transfer medium. The Optical flow algorithm, which is used to measure the deflection vectors in the background due to the change in index of refraction, is modified to consider the change in intensity of the background image. Optical tomography served as a tool to extract the index of refraction of the gaseous field. Mole fraction values at differentplanes perpendicular to the jet axis are obtained and displayed.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLED SINGLE-LAYER PZT FOR PIEZO STACK IN FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2010-01-01

    Poled single-layer PZT has been characterized in as-extracted and as-received states. PZT plate specimens in the former were extracted from a stack. Flexure strength of PZT was evaluated by using ball-on-ring and 4-point bend tests. Fractography showed that intergranular fractures dominated the fracture surface and that volume pores were the primary strength-limiting flaws. The electric field effect was investigated by testing the PZT in open circuit and coercive field levels. An asymmetrical response on the biaxial flexure strength with respect to the electric field direction was observed. These experimental results will assist reliability design of the piezo stack that is being considered in fuel injection system.

  15. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  16. Fast batch injection analysis system for on-site determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Polyana F; Marra, Mariana C; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; Richter, Eduardo M

    2012-02-15

    A simple, accurate and fast (180 injections h(-1)) batch injection analysis (BIA) system with multiple-pulse amperometric detection has been developed for selective determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol. A sample aliquot (100 μL) was directly injected onto a gold electrode immersed in 0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH solution (unique reagent). The proposed BIA method requires minimal sample manipulation and can be easily used for on-site analysis. The results obtained with the BIA method were compared to those obtained by gas-chromatography and similar results were obtained (at 95% of confidence level).

  17. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  18. Investigation of ecological parameters of four-stroke SI engine, with pneumatic fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The publication presents the results of tests to determine the impact of using waste fuels, alcohol, to power the engine, on the ecological parameters of the combustion engine. Alternatively fuelled with a mixture of iso- and n-butanol, indicated with "X" and "END, and gasoline and a mixture of fuel and alcohol. The object of the study was a four-stroke engine with spark ignition designed to work with a generator. Motor power was held by the modified system of pneumatic injection using hot exhaust gases developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz, controlled by modern mechatronic systems. Tests were conducted at a constant speed for the intended use of the engine. The subject of the research was to determine the control parameters such as ignition timing, mixture composition and the degree of exhaust gas recirculation on the ecological parameters of the engine. Tests were carried out using partially quality power control. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  19. Effects of salinity on the accumulation of hemocyte aggregates and bacteria in the gills of Callinectes sapidus, the Atlantic blue crab, injected with Vibrio campbellii.

    PubMed

    Ikerd, Jennifer L; Burnett, Karen G; Burnett, Louis E

    2015-05-01

    In addition to respiration and ion regulation, crustacean gills accumulate and eliminate injected particles, along with hemocyte aggregates that form in response to those particles. Here we report that the dose of Vibrio campbellii previously shown to induce a decrease in respiration and hemolymph flow across the gill in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, also triggered the formation of aggregates containing four or more hemocytes in the gills, compared with saline-injected controls. More bacteria were trapped and rendered non-culturable per unit weight by anterior respiratory gills than posterior gills specialized for ion regulation. Further, more bacteria accumulated in the anterior gills of animals held at 30 ppt than those at 10 ppt. Thus, the role of the gills in immune defense comes at an energetic cost to this and likely to other crustaceans; this cost is influenced by acclimation salinity and the position and specialized function of individual gills.

  20. Accumulative charge separation for solar fuels production: coupling light-induced single electron transfer to multielectron catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-17

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into a fuel holds promise to provide a significant part of the future renewable energy demand of our societies. Solar energy technologies today generate heat or electricity, while the large majority of our energy is used in the form of fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel would satisfy our needs for storable energy on a large scale. Solar fuels can be generated by absorbing light and converting its energy to chemical energy by electron transfer leading to separation of electrons and holes. The electrons are used in the catalytic reduction of a cheap substrate with low energy content into a high-energy fuel. The holes are filled by oxidation of water, which is the only electron source available for large scale solar fuel production. Absorption of a single photon typically leads to separation of a single electron-hole pair. In contrast, fuel production and water oxidation are multielectron, multiproton reactions. Therefore, a system for direct solar fuel production must be able to accumulate the electrons and holes provided by the sequential absorption of several photons in order to complete the catalytic reactions. In this Account, the process is termed accumulative charge separation. This is considerably more complicated than charge separation on a single electron level and needs particular attention. Semiconductor materials and molecular dyes have for a long time been optimized for use in photovoltaic devices. Efforts are made to develop new systems for light harvesting and charge separation that are better optimized for solar fuel production than those used in the early devices presented so far. Significant progress has recently been made in the discovery and design of better homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for solar fuels and water oxidation. While the heterogeneous ones perform better today, molecular catalysts based on transition metal complexes offer much greater tunability of electronic and

  1. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel... AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel lines that would allow fuel to spray into the engine... response, any AD made applicable to TCM engines with externally mounted fuel injector lines, would have...

  2. Accumulation and retention of No. 2 fuel-oil compounds in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus' rathbun

    SciTech Connect

    Melzian, B.D.; Lake, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can bioaccumulate and retain complex mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons, adult crabs were exposed for 14 days or 30-35 days in continuous flow-through seawater systems to three sublethal concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm (mg/liter), of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of Number (No.) 2 fuel oil. Crabs exposed for 14 days were subsequently exposed to clean running seawater for a 30 day depuration period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissue samples were collected from control, WAF exposed, and depurated crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography and/or gas chomatography-mass spectrometry. No. 2 fuel-oil compounds were not detected in any of the tissues of the control crabs. Trace amounts of fuel-oil compounds were detected in gill and hepatopancreas tissues collected from crabs exposed to the 0.01 ppm WAF and no fuel-oil compounds were detected in muscle tissues. All tissues of crabs exposed to the 1.0 ppm WAF accumulated No. 2 fuel-oil compounds and considerable amounts remained in hepatopancreas and gill tissues following depuration for 30 days in clean seawater.

  3. Flame structure of wall-impinging diesel fuel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jian; Moon, Seoksu; Nishida, Keiya; Matsumoto, Yuhei; Zhang, Yuyin

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes an investigation of the flame structure of wall-impinging diesel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles in a constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. The particular emphasis was on the effect of the included angle between two orifices (0-15 deg. in current study) on the flame structure and combustion characteristics under various simulated engine load conditions. The laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was applied to analyze the spray and mixture properties. Direct flame imaging and OH chemiluminescence imaging were utilized to quantify the ignition delay, flame geometrical parameters, and OH chemiluminescence intensity. The images show that the asymmetric flame structure emerges in wall-impinging group-hole nozzle sprays as larger included angle and higher engine load conditions are applied, which is consistent with the spray shape observed by LAS. Compared to the base nozzle, group-hole nozzles with large included angles yield higher overall OH chemiluminescence intensity, wider flame area, and greater proportion of high OH intensity, implying the better fuel/air mixing and improved combustion characteristics. The advantages of group-hole nozzle are more pronounced under high load conditions. Based on the results, the feasibility of group-hole nozzle for practical direct injection diesel engines is also discussed. It is concluded that the asymmetric flame structure of a group-hole nozzle spray is favorable to reduce soot formation over wide engine loads. However, the hole configuration of the group-hole nozzle should be carefully considered so as to achieve proper air utilization in the combustion chamber. Stoichiometric diesel combustion is another promising application of group-hole nozzle. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  5. From Photodriven Charge Accumulation to Fueling Enzyme Cascades in Molecular Factories.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasunori; Ward, Thomas R; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-01-01

    In a multi-disciplinary team effort we gather experts on light-to-chemical energy conversion, artificial metalloenzymes, and bio-inspired polymer vesicles in order to construct molecular factories which produce added-value chemicals in an overall process fueled by solar energy. We outline our long-term vision and discuss specific challenges associated with this endeavor. PMID:27363366

  6. Laboratory endurance test of sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engine fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.; Ziejewski, M.

    1983-12-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested using the test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Association. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test.

  7. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  8. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  9. Injection, atomization, ignition and combustion of liquid fuels in high-speed air streams. Annual scientific report 1 December 81-31 December 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schetz, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation approach to studying hot flow subsonic cross-stream fuel injection problems in a less complex and costly cold flow facility was developed. A typical ramjet combustion chamber fuel injection problem was posed where ambient temperature fuel (Kerosene) is injected into a hot airstream. This case was transformed through two new similarity parameters involving injection and freestream properties to a simulated case where a chilled injectant is injected into an ambient temperature airstream. Experiments for the simulated case using chilled Freon-12 injected into the Va. Tech 23 x 23 cm. blow-down wind tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 0.44 were run. The freestream stagnation pressure and temperature were held at 2.5 atm. and 300 degrees K respectively. Results showed a clear picture of the mechanisms of jet decomposition in the presence of rapid vaporization. Immediately after injection a vapor cloud was formed in the jet plume, which dissipated downstream leaving droplets on the order of 8 to 10 microns in diameter for the conditions examined. This represents a substantial reduction compared to baseline tests run at the same conditions with water which had little vaporization. The desirability of using slurry fuels for aerospace application has long been recognized, but the problems of slurry combustion have delayed their use. The present work is an experimental and numerical investigation into the break-up and droplet formation of laminar slurry jets issuing into quiescent air.

  10. Second jet workshop on pellet injection: pellet fueling program in the United States. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    S. Milora described the US programme on pellet injection. It has four parts: (1) a confinement experimental program; (2) pellet injector development; (3) theoretical support; and (4) tritium pellet study for TFTR.

  11. Experimental evaluation of premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evolve and evaluate a premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using Jet A fuel. Three types of air blast injectors, an air assist nozzle and a simplex pressure atomizer were tested. Air swirlers with vane angles up to 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution. The work was done in a 12-cm (4.75-in.) diameter tubular rig. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa (3 and 5 atm), inlet air temperatures up to 800 K (980 F), velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) and fuel-air ratios of 0.01 and 0.025. Uniform spatial fuel distributions that were within plus or minus 10 percent of the mean were obtained. Complete vaporization of the fuel was achieved with air blast configurations at inlet air temperatures of 550 K (530 F) and higher. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent for configurations without air swirlers and less than 1 percent for configurations with a 30 deg vane angle air swirler.

  12. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.; Green, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  13. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, January 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.; Frenklach, M.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments by Carnot (Tustin, CA) have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. One speculation is that introducing the diluent gases on the fuel side of the flame affects the prompt-NO mechanism causing the greater effectiveness. The objective of our research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for fuel (hydrogen or methane) combustion and NO{sub x} formation. These simulations allow the calculation of NO{sub x} emission indices for a wide range of conditions. Parametric studies were conducted in which the diluent was added either on the fuel or air side of the flame for a wide range of flow conditions. Preliminary results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in FIR effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side versus air-side dilution.

  14. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  15. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  16. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  17. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  18. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours.

  19. Subcritical and supercritical fuel injection and mixing in single and binary species systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arnab

    Subcritical and supercritical fluid injection using a single round injector into a quiescent atmosphere comprising single and binary species was investigated using optical diagnostics. Different disintegration and mixing modes are expected for the two cases. In the binary species case, the atmosphere comprised an inert gas of a different composition than that of the injected fluid. In single species case, the atmosphere consisted of the same species as that of the injected fluid. Density values were quantified and density gradient profiles were inferred from the experimental data. A novel method was applied for the detection of detailed structures throughout the entire jet center plane. Various combinations of injectant and chamber conditions were tested and a wide range of density ratios were covered. The subcritical cases demonstrated the importance of surface tension and inertial forces, while the supercritical cases showed no signs of surface tension and, in most situations, resembled the mixing characteristics of a gaseous jet injected into a gaseous environment. A comparison between the single and binary species systems has also been provided. A detailed laser calibration procedure was undertaken to account for the laser absorption through the gas and liquid phases and for fluorescence in the non-linear excitation regime for high laser pulse energy. Core lengths were measured for binary species cases and correlated with visualization results. An eigenvalue approach was taken to determine the location of maximum gradients for determining the core length. Jet divergence angles were also calculated and were found to increase with chamber-to-injectant density ratio for both systems. A model was proposed for the spreading angle dependence on density ratio for both single and binary species systems and was compared to existing theoretical studies and experimental work. Finally, a linear stability analysis was performed for the jet injected into both subcritical and

  20. Ignition and Flame Development in the Case of Diesel Fuel Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holfelder, Otto

    1936-01-01

    To investigate the process of ignition and combustion in the case of spray injection into heated air, a new form of apparatus is developed and the tests carried out with it described. Photographs of the spray before and after ignition are obtained at frequencies of 500 pictures per second. Pressures and temperatures are simultaneously recorded on oscillograms. Information on the initial conditions, ignition time lag, period of complete combustion, place where ignition starts, and general course of the combustion is obtained.

  1. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  2. Beneficial effect of diosgenin as a stimulator of NGF on the brain with neuronal damage induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and neurotoxicant injection.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eun-Ji; Jee, Seung-Wan; Bae, Chang-Joon; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the beneficial effects of diosgenin (DG) on the multiple types of brain damage induced by Aβ-42 peptides and neurotoxicants, alterations in the specific aspects of brain functions were measured in trimethyltin (TMT)-injected transgenic 2576 (TG) mice that had been pretreated with DG for 21 days. Multiple types of damage were successfully induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and TMT injection into the brains of TG mice. However, DG treatment significantly reduced the number of Aβ-stained plaques and dead cells in the granule cells layer of the dentate gyrus. Significant suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Bax/Bcl-2 expression was also observed in the DG treated TG mice (TG+DG group) when compared with those of the vehicle (VC) treated TG mice (TG+VC group). Additionally, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) was dramatically enhanced in TG+DG group, although it was lower in the TG+VC group than the non-transgenic (nTG) group. Furthermore, the decreased phosphorylation of downstream members in the TrkA high affinity receptor signaling pathway in the TG+VC group was significantly recovered in the TG+DG group. A similar pattern was observed in p75(NTR) expression and JNK phosphorylation in the NGF low affinity receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced in the TG+DG group, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was lower in the TG+DG group than the TG+VC group. These results suggest that DG could exert a wide range of beneficial activities for multiple types of brain damage through stimulation of NGF biosynthesis. PMID:27382379

  3. Beneficial effect of diosgenin as a stimulator of NGF on the brain with neuronal damage induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and neurotoxicant injection

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sung-Hwa; Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eun-Ji; Jee, Seung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the beneficial effects of diosgenin (DG) on the multiple types of brain damage induced by Aβ-42 peptides and neurotoxicants, alterations in the specific aspects of brain functions were measured in trimethyltin (TMT)-injected transgenic 2576 (TG) mice that had been pretreated with DG for 21 days. Multiple types of damage were successfully induced by Aβ-42 accumulation and TMT injection into the brains of TG mice. However, DG treatment significantly reduced the number of Aβ-stained plaques and dead cells in the granule cells layer of the dentate gyrus. Significant suppression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Bax/Bcl-2 expression was also observed in the DG treated TG mice (TG+DG group) when compared with those of the vehicle (VC) treated TG mice (TG+VC group). Additionally, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) was dramatically enhanced in TG+DG group, although it was lower in the TG+VC group than the non-transgenic (nTG) group. Furthermore, the decreased phosphorylation of downstream members in the TrkA high affinity receptor signaling pathway in the TG+VC group was significantly recovered in the TG+DG group. A similar pattern was observed in p75NTR expression and JNK phosphorylation in the NGF low affinity receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was enhanced in the TG+DG group, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was lower in the TG+DG group than the TG+VC group. These results suggest that DG could exert a wide range of beneficial activities for multiple types of brain damage through stimulation of NGF biosynthesis. PMID:27382379

  4. [Injection of compact toroids for tokamak fueling and current drive]. Progress report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, D.Q.; Rogers, J.H.; Thomas, J.C.; Evans, R.; Foley, R.; Hillyer, T.

    1991-12-31

    The experimental goals for the 1990--1991 period were the operation of the Davis Diverted Tokamak(DDT), the beat wave experiment, and the construction of the compact toroid injection experiment(CTIX). The experiment results from these areas are summarized in the posters given in the APS meeting past November. Here we shall describe the technical progress of the development of the diagnostic system for beat wave experiment, and CT injection especially in relation to the up coming injection experiments into DDT tokamak. The tokamak operation of DDT over the past year has been focused in two parameter ranges. The long pulse discharges (over 100 msec), and the low q short pulse discharges (about 10 msec). We found that the long pulse discharges required a position feedback more sophisticated than the simple passive program that we have. We are in the process of assembling this system. We also found an interesting low q(a) operating regime. Here an equilibrium can be established for a toroidal field between .5 and 1 kG. The typical plasma current is > 5kA. The density of the plasma is between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}. The plasma condition in these discharge are sufficiently mild that diagnostic probes can be used to measure various plasma fluctuations. We believe that this will be the regime best suited to study the interaction between the tokamak plasma and the compact toroid. A sophisticated probe system of both electrostatic and electromagnetic types similar to those used in the beat wave experiment has been designed for the up coming experiments.

  5. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of this research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses, first, computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for methane combustion and NO{sub x} formation, and, second, experimental studies of laminar, CH{sub 4}-air, jet flames.

  6. Early direct-injection, low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel in an optical engine utilizing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle.

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Christopher R.; Radovanovic, Michael S.; Milam, David M.; Martin, Glen C.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2008-04-01

    Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes x 70/mD and 5 holes x 35/mD) with 103-/gmm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70/mD before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load. High-speed movies of natural luminosity were acquired by viewing through a window in the cylinder wall and through a window in the piston to provide quasi-3D information about the combustion process. These movies revealed that advanced combustion phasing resulted in intense pool fires within the piston bowl, after the end of significant heat release. These pool fires are a result of fuel-films created when the injected fuel impinged on the piston surface. The emissions results showed a strong correlation with pool-fire activity. Smoke and NO/dx emissions rose steadily as pool-fire intensity increased, whereas HC and CO showed a dramatic increase with near-zero pool-fire activity.

  7. Large eddy simulation of fuel injection and mixing process in a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Xie, Mao-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Shi, Jun-Rui

    2011-08-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) approach implemented in the KIVA-3V code and based on one-equation sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy model are employed for numerical computation of diesel sprays in a constant volume vessel and in a Caterpillar 3400 series diesel engine. Computational results are compared with those obtained by an RANS (RNG k- ɛ) model as well as with experimental data. The sensitivity of the LES results to mesh resolution is also discussed. The results show that LES generally provides flow and spray characteristics in better agreement with experimental data than RANS; and that small-scale random vortical structures of the in-cylinder turbulent spray field can be captured by LES. Furthermore, the penetrations of fuel droplets and vapors calculated by LES are larger than the RANS result, and the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and sub-grid turbulent viscosity provided by the LES model are evidently less than those calculated by the RANS model. Finally, it is found that the initial swirl significantly affects the spray penetration and the distribution of fuel vapor within the combustion chamber.

  8. Effect of hydrogen injection on hydrogen uptake by BWR fuel cladding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1983-06-01

    The hydrogen uptake rates reported for zirconium alloys in BWRs, PWRs, HWRs and various experimental in-reactor loops have been surveyed. The scatter in the data is large and arises from a variety of sources: variability in material properties; variations in temperature, irradiation flux, and water chemistry at different points in the reactor; and a lack of accurate knowledge of the sources of hydrogen which ends up in the zirconium-alloy cladding. An attempt has been made to assess the significance of these sources of variability in order to estimate the baseline for hydrogen uptake from the outside of good-quality cladding under normal BWR operating conditions. The probable effect of continuous hydrogen injection on this baseline has been estimated. It is concluded that severe localized hydrogen uptake, which might lead to hydride blisters is very improbable, but that an increase in the uniform rate of hydrogen absorption at the outside of the cladding may be expected.

  9. Fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F. V.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6 percent at higher loads and 2 percent at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.

  10. Effect of Viscosity on Fuel Leakage Between Lapped Plungers and Sleeves and on the Discharge from a Pump-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1935-01-01

    Test data and analysis show that the rate of fuel leakage between a lapped plunger and sleeve varies directly with the density of the fuel, the diameter of the plunger, the pressure producing the leakage, and the cube of the mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve. The rate varies inversely as the length of the lapped fit and the viscosity of the fuel. With a mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve of 0.0001 inch the leakage amounts to approximately 0.2 percent of the fuel injected with gasoline and as low as 0.01 percent with diesel fuel oils. With this mean clearance an effective seal is obtained when the length of the lap is three times the diameter of the lap. The deformation of the sleeve and plunger under pressure is sufficient to change the rate of leakage appreciably from that which would be obtained if the clearance was constant under pressure.

  11. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  12. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; Johnson, James W.

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in

  13. The time-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in nodular basal cell carcinoma following application of methyl aminolevulinate with an oxygen pressure injection device.

    PubMed

    Blake, E; Campbell, S; Allen, J; Mathew, J; Helliwell, P; Curnow, A

    2012-12-01

    Topical protoporphyrin (PpIX)-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the penetration of the prodrug into the skin lesion and subsequent accumulation of the photosensitizer. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT is an established treatment for thinner and superficial non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) but for the treatment of the thicker nodular basal cell carcinoma (nBCC) enhanced penetration of the prodrug is required. This study employed a new higher pressure, oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device, at the time of Metvix® application with a view to enhancing the penetration of MAL into the tumors. Each patient had Metvix® applied to a single nBCC followed by application of a higher pressure OPI device. Following different time intervals (0, 30, 60, 120 or 180 min) the tumors were excised. The maximum depth and area of MAL penetration achieved in each lesion was measured using PpIX fluorescence microscopy. As expected, an increase in the depth of MAL-induced PpIX accumulation and area of tumor sensitized was observed over time; when the Metvix® cream was applied for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min the median depth of PpIX fluorescence was 0%, 21%, 26.5%, 75.5% and 90%, respectively and the median area of tumor sensitized was 0%, 4%, 6%, 19% and 60%, respectively. As the investigation presented here did not include a control arm, the relative depths of fluorescence observed in this study were statistically compared (using the non-parametric Mann Whitney U test) with the results of our previous study where patients had Metvix® cream applied either with or without the standard pressure OPI device. When the higher pressure OPI device was employed compared to without OPI this increase was observed to be greater following 30, 120, and 180 min although overall not significantly (p=0.835). In addition, no significant difference between the higher pressure OPI device employed here and the previously investigated standard pressure OPI device was observed (p=0.403). However

  14. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  15. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Final report, January 1995--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. The results of both the numerical simulations and the experiments suggest that, although molecular transport and chemical kinetic phenomena are affected by the location of diluent addition depending on flow conditions, the greater effectiveness of FIR over FGR in practical applications may result from differences in turbulent mixing and heat transfer. Further research is required to understand how differences in diluent-addition location affect NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames. The present study, however, provides an underlying basis for understanding how flow conditions can affect flame chemistry. 51 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. The N.A.C.A. Photographic Apparatus for Studying Fuel Sprays from Oil Engine Injection Valves and Test Results from Several Researches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    Apparatus for recording photographically the start, growth, and cut-off of oil sprays from injection valves has been developed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The apparatus consists of a high-tension transformer by means of which a bank of condensers is charged to a high voltage. The controlled discharge of these condensers in sequence, at a rate of several thousand per second, produces electric sparks of sufficient intensity to illuminate the moving spray for photographing. The sprays are injected from various types of valves into a chamber containing gases at pressures up to 600 pounds per square inch. Several series of pictures are shown. The results give the effects of injection pressure, chamber pressure, specific gravity of the fuel oil used, and injection-valve design, upon spray characteristics.

  17. A study of diesel combustion process under the condition of EGR and high-pressure fuel injection with gas sampling method

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, Naoki; Hatanaka, Hirokazu; Yokota, Katsuhiko; Nakahira, Toshio

    1996-09-01

    It is well known that a high-pressure fuel injection is effective for the reduction in particulates and smoke emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective for the reduction in NO{sub x} emission. In this study an experiment aiming to understand more comprehensive combustion under the condition of EGR and high-pressure fuel injection was carried out by using gas sampling method for the purpose of understanding what occurred inside the spray before and after combustion. The number of combustion cycles in this engine can be controlled in order to change EGR conditions by adjusting the residual gas concentration in the cylinder. Main results were: (1) close to the nozzle tip, the sampling gas data showed little reaction which implies that combustion never occurs in this area during the injection period; (2) in the case of high-pressure fuel injection O{sub 2} concentration decreased faster and air dilution was more active and earlier, this may cause the decrease of smoke emissions due to accelerated soot oxidation; (3) in the case of EGR, combustion was poor since oxygen concentration was insufficient, thus, inactivity of oxidation reaction caused reduction in NO{sub x} emission; (4) in the case of increasing the amounts of N{sub 2} gas while keeping the O{sub 2} content constant (same amount as without EGR), NO{sub x} emission decreased without deterioration of smoke emission and Pmi.

  18. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  19. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  20. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  1. Non-Intrusive, Laser-Based Imaging of Jet-A Fuel Injection and Combustion Species in High Pressure, Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; deGroot, Wilhelmus A.

    2001-01-01

    The emphasis of combustion research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is on collaborating with industry to design and test gas-turbine combustors and subcomponents for both sub- and supersonic applications. These next-generation aircraft combustors are required to meet strict international environmental restrictions limiting emissions. To meet these goals, innovative combustor concepts require operation at temperatures and pressures far exceeding those of cur-rent designs. New and innovative diagnostic tools are necessary to characterize these flow streams since existing methods are inadequate. The combustion diagnostics team at GRC has implemented a suite of highly sensitive, nonintrusive optical imaging methods to diagnose the flowfields of these new engine concepts. By using optically accessible combustors and flametubes, imaging of fuel and intermediate combustion species via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) at realistic pressures are now possible. Direct imaging of the fuel injection process through both planar Mie scattering and PLIF methods is also performed. Additionally, a novel combination of planar fuel fluorescence imaging and computational analysis allows a 3-D examination of the flowfield, resulting in spatially and temporally resolved fuel/air volume distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and other combustion phenomena. Stable species such as CO2, O2, N2O. and hydrocarbons are also investigated by a newly demonstrated 1-D, spontaneous Raman spectroscopic method. This visible wavelength Raman technique allows the acquisition of quantitative. stable species concentration measurements from the flow.

  2. Non-Intrusive, Laser-Based Imaging of Jet-A Fuel Injection and Combustion Species in High Pressure, Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; deGroot, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The emphasis of combustion research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is on collaborating with industry to design and test gas-turbine combustors and subcomponents for both sub- and supersonic applications. These next-generation aircraft combustors are required to meet strict international environmental restrictions limiting emissions. To meet these goals, innovative combustor concepts require operation at temperatures and pressures far exceeding those of current designs. New and innovative diagnostic tools are necessary to characterize these flow streams since existing methods are inadequate. The combustion diagnostics team at GRC has implemented a suite of highly sensitive, nonintrusive optical imaging methods to diagnose the flowfields of these new engine concepts. By using optically accessible combustors and flame-tubes, imaging of fuel and intermediate combustion species via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) at realistic pressures are now possible. Direct imaging of the fuel injection process through both planar Mie scattering and PLIF methods is also performed. Additionally, a novel combination of planar fuel fluorescence imaging and computational analysis allows a 3-D examination of the flowfield, resulting in spatially and temporally resolved fuel/air volume distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and other combustion phenomena. Stable species such as CO2, O2, N2, H2O, and hydrocarbons are also investigated by a newly demonstrated 1-D, spontaneous Raman spectroscopic method. This visible wavelength Raman technique allows the acquisition of quantitative, stable species concentration measurements from the flow.

  3. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  4. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  5. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  6. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  7. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  8. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

  9. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  10. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  11. Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, Z.K.

    2006-05-15

    Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

  12. Investigation of the mechanism in RIJKE pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Progress report, August 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract No. DE-AS04-85AL31881. This three year investigation started in August 1989 and its objective was to elucidate the mechanisms that control the driving of pulsations in the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustor developed under a preceding DOE contracts. It was demonstrated in that contract that the developed Rijke type pulse combustor can burn a variety of light and heavy liquid fuel oils with high combustion efficiencies while using low excess air, which produces high thermal efficiencies. Since the elucidation of the driving mechanism in the Rijke pulse combustor required the use of optical diagnostics (e.g., radiation measurements), it was decided to perform these investigations in a Rijke pulse combustor that burned propane instead of a liquid fuel in order to avoid difficulties that are often encountered due to the presence of liquid droplets in the combustion region. Consequently, an effort was made to develop a Rijke pulse combustor that is similar to the one developed in the preceding program and demonstrated similar performance characteristics. Such a pulse combustor was developed in the early phases of this program. The developed experimental setup was provided with capabilities for measuring steady combustor temperature distributions, the characteristics of the excited pressure oscillations, the exhaust flow composition, the characteristics of the flow field and the reaction rates. This pulse combustor consists of a cylindrical tube that is attached to a decoupling chamber at each end. Fuel and air are supplied via a tangential air/fuel injection system that is located at a distance of L/4 from the combustor entrance, where L is the combustor length. Part of the combustor tube, where combustion occurs, is water cooled. This section is also equipped with flat quartz windows to permit optical diagnostics.

  13. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  14. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table. PMID:21030134

  15. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  16. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  17. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  18. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  19. Molecular Cluster Injection for Fueling and Particle Transport Studies on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Majeski, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-11-01

    LTX is designed to reduce global recycling with a liquid lithium wall. Gas-based fueling systems, such as wall-mounted gas puffers or supersonic gas injectors, are perturbative to low-recycling plasmas, as they source a significant amount of gas into the edge. Following experiments on the HL-2A tokomak by Yao, et al. (Nucl. Fusion 47(2007) 1399), a molecular cluster injector was designed to supply an increased fraction of core fueling on LTX. A fast solenoid valve is cooled with liquid nitrogen, lowering the temperature of the gas in the valve body. As the gas expands into vacuum, additional cooling yields the formation of molecular clusters. This concentrates the hydrogen into a directed, high-density jet, improving penetration into the plasma. This system can be used for fueling and particle transport studies. Details of the design, construction, and initial operation of this system will be presented, and its application to LTX discussed. *Supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344

  20. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  1. High brightness extreme ultraviolet (at 13.5 nm) emission from time-of-flight controlled discharges with coaxial fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Yokoyama, Takuma; Zhidkov, Alexei; Sato, Hiroto; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Eiki

    2008-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from discharge produced plasma with the coaxial injection of fuel vapor (tin and lithium) produced by laser ablation is experimentally studied. Multiple plasma pinches preceding a strong and long recombination radiation of EUV are observed in the first half cycle of a sinusoidal discharge current. Due to the time-of-flight control type of the discharge, the shape of pinch radiation pulses is almost identical. With the coaxial injection of time-of-flight controlled discharges, the highest brightness of EUV emission (maximum extracted energy of 244.3 mJ/2π sr per pulse with the emitter size of ˜1×0.3 mm2 in full width at half maximum) is provided with efficiency exceeding 2% of deposited energy into the plasma (or 1% of dissipated energy in the discharge) due to a much better matching with the optimal plasma parameters in the recombination regime and a decrease in the off-duty factor. Stability of emitting plasma of the repetitive pinches is essentially improved with use of a second laser pulse.

  2. Developing an accelerated test of coking tendencies of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, M.D.; Bagby, M.O.; Schwab, A.W.; Goering, C.E.; Savage, L.D.

    1988-07-01

    Burning vegetable oils in direct-injected diesel engines leads to nozzle and combustion chamber coking and eventually to engine damage. Because typical durability tests to detect coking tendencies of fuels are expensive, a one-cylinder diesel engine was instrumented and automated to enable external detection of engine coking in only 5 h. The heat release pattern revealed shifts to later burning as coke accumulated in the engine, but exhaust emissions showed little correlation with coke accumulation.

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  4. Nonlinear control and online optimization of the burn condition in ITER via heating, isotopic fueling and impurity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    The ITER tokamak, the next experimental step toward the development of nuclear fusion reactors, will explore the burning plasma regime in which the plasma temperature is sustained mostly by fusion heating. Regulation of the fusion power through modulation of fueling and external heating sources, referred to as burn control, is one of the fundamental problems in burning plasma research. Active control will be essential for achieving and maintaining desired operating points, responding to changing power demands, and ensuring stable operation. Most existing burn control efforts use either non-model-based control techniques or designs based on linearized models. These approaches must be designed for particular operating points and break down for large perturbations. In this work, we utilize a spatially averaged (zero-dimensional) nonlinear model to synthesize a multi-variable nonlinear burn control strategy that can reject large perturbations and move between operating points. The controller uses all of the available actuation techniques in tandem to ensure good performance, even if one or more of the actuators saturate. Adaptive parameter estimation is used to improve the model parameter estimates used by the feedback controller in real-time and ensure asymptotic tracking of the desired operating point. In addition, we propose the use of a model-based online optimization algorithm to drive the system to a state that minimizes a given cost function, while respecting input and state constraints. A zero-dimensional simulation study is presented to show the performance of the adaptive control scheme and the optimization scheme with a cost function weighting the fusion power and temperature tracking errors.

  5. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  6. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  7. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  8. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  9. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  11. Fuel Injector With Shear Atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, George W.; Mills, Virgil L.; Smith, Durward B., II; Beacom, William F.

    1995-01-01

    Atomizer for injecting liquid fuel into combustion chamber uses impact and swirl to break incoming stream of fuel into small, more combustible droplets. Slanted holes direct flow of liquid fuel to stepped cylindrical wall. Impact on wall atomizes liquid. Air flowing past vanes entrains droplets of liquid in swirling flow. Fuel injected at pressure lower than customarily needed.

  12. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  13. The effects of fuel volatility, structure, speed and load on hydrocarbon emissions from piston wetting in direct injection spark ignition engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqun

    Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. In the present study, a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbons are used to examine the influence of fuel volatility, structure, speed and load. The exhaust hydrocarbons were speciated to differentiate between the emissions resulting from the gaseous fuel and those resulting from the liquid fuel. It was shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs. To examine the fuel volatility and structure effects, tests of a matrix of nine pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels, including normal-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cyclo-alkanes and aromatics, were performed at a single operating condition: the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (WWMP). The effects of engine speed and load were also examined. For these tests, four different normal alkanes were used, including one that appears to be near the Leidenfrost point for operation at the WWMP, one that is near the Nukiyama point, and one that appears to be in the transition region. It is shown that the "Piston Wetting Emissions Index" for engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions increases with both decreasing speed and decreasing load, and that this is primarily an effect of oxidation kinetics. Speed and load have opposite effects on unburned fuel emissions, and this appears to be a pressure effect. For all speeds and loads the Leidenfrost effect appears to be important: the most volatile fuel has the highest total hydrocarbon and unburned fuel emissions whereas the two least volatile fuels have lower emissions and the fuel that is within the transition regime yields intermediate emissions.

  14. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  15. Main tank injection pressurization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program predicts performance of fluorine-hydrogen main tank injection pressurization system for full range of liquid-hydrogen-fueled space vehicles. Analytical model includes provisions for heat transfer, injectant jet penetration, and ullage gas mixing. Analysis predicts GF2 usage, ullage gas and tank wall temperatures, and LH2 evaporation.

  16. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  17. IN-SITU AIR INJECTION, SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION AND ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION: A CASE STUDY IN A JP-4 JET FUEL CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) conducted a joint demonstration of in situ remediation of a JP-4 jet fuel spill at the USCG Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The jet fuel was trapped beneath a clay layer that ext...

  18. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  19. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  20. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  1. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  2. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  3. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  4. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  5. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  6. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  7. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  8. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  9. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  10. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  11. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  12. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  13. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  14. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  15. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  16. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  18. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  19. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  20. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  1. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  2. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  3. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  4. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  5. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator, and (ii) an additive selected from the group consisting of alkenyl substituted succinimide, alkenyl substituted succinamide and mixtures thereof. The alkenyl substituent contains about 12-36 carbon atoms, the additive being made by the process comprising (a) isomerizing the double bond of an ..cap alpha..-olefin containing about 12-36 carbon atoms to obtain a mixture of internal olefins, (b) reacting the mixture of internal olefins with maleic acid, anhydride or ester to obtain an intermediate alkenyl substituted succinic acid, anhydride or ester, and (c) reacting the intermediate with ammonia to form a succinimide, succinamide or mixture thereof. The combination is present in an amount sufficient to minimize the coking characteristics of such fuel, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel.

  6. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  7. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  8. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  9. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before you plan to inject it to allow the medication to ... supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  10. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  11. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... including other medications or surgery to remove the spleen. Romiplostim injection should not be used to treat ... tell your doctor if you have had your spleen removed.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  12. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin). ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... you are using golimumab injection to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ...

  13. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  14. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  15. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  16. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusions ( ... how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  17. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  18. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  19. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  20. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  1. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  2. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  3. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron ... should not be used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. ...

  4. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  5. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  6. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  7. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  8. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... drowsiness uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body problems with coordination, balance, or walking weakness itching redness, irritation, pain, or discomfort at the injection spot Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  9. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  10. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  11. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  12. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  13. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  14. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  15. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  16. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  17. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  18. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  19. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  20. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  1. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  2. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  3. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  4. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  5. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ciprofloxacin injection is also sometimes used to treat cat scratch disease (an infection that may develop after a person is bitten or scratched by a cat), Legionnaires' disease (type of lung infection), and infections of the ...

  6. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people whose immune system is not working normally, including those people who have ...

  7. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  8. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  9. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... docetaxel (Taxotere) to treat a certain type of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Pertuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ...

  11. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial ...

  12. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  13. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  14. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  15. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  16. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  17. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  18. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  19. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  20. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  1. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  2. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  3. Variable volume combustor with aerodynamic fuel flanges for nozzle mounting

    DOEpatents

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-20

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a number of support struts supporting the fuel nozzles and for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The fuel injection system also may include a number of aerodynamic fuel flanges connecting the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the support struts.

  4. Elongation of extreme ultraviolet (at 13.5 nm) emission with time-of-flight controlled discharges and lateral fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Yokoyama, Takuma; Zhidkov, Alexei; Sato, Hiroto; Hotta, Eiki; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    A way toward a quasicontinuous extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation source is proposed and explored. Tin and lithium vapor discharges with the lateral laser-ablation injection are experimentally studied as possible efficient sources of quasicontinuous emission of EUV radiation at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. It is shown that the time-of-flight control of optimal plasma parameters by means of varying ablating laser pulse parameters provides a considerable elongation of maximal-power EUV emission with an overall efficiency of 0.1% and with an energy output exceeding 1% of the energy deposited in the discharge plasma. Along with a high average power and a stable position, such an emitter may have its size small enough to be used in the projection lithography.

  5. Fuel system bubble dissipation device

    SciTech Connect

    Iseman, W.J.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a bubble dissipation device for a fuel system wherein fuel is delivered through a fuel line from a fuel tank to a fuel control with the pressure of the fuel being progressively increased by components including at least one pump stage and an ejector in advance of the pump state. The ejector an ejector casing with a wall defining an elongate tubular flow passage which forms a portion of the fuel line to have all of the fuel flow through the tubular flow passage in flowing from the fuel tank to the fuel control, a nozzle positioned entirely within the tubular flow passage and spaced from the wall to permit fuel flow. The nozzle has an inlet and an outlet with the inlet connected to the pump stage to receive fuel under pressure continuously from the pump stage, a bubble accumulation chamber adjoining and at a level above the ejector casing and operatively connected to the fuel line in advance of the ejector casing. The bubble accumulation chamber is of a size to function as a fuel reservoir and hold an air bubble containing vapor above the level of fuel therein and having an outlet adjacent the bottom thereof operatively connected to the tubular flow passage in the ejector casing at an inlet end, a bubble accumulation chamber inlet above the level of the bubble accumulation chamber outlet whereby fuel can flow through the bubble accumulation chamber from the inlet to the outlet thereof with a bubble in the fuel rising above the fuel level in the bubble accumulation chamber.

  6. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  7. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding.if you ... Hydromorphone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... vomiting constipation dry mouth lightheadedness dizziness drowsiness ...

  8. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... which too many red blood cells are broken down in the body, so there are not enough healthy cells to bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; an inherited condition in which small blood ...

  9. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), abdomen (area between the chest and waist), lungs, blood, and ... to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  10. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved or that had improved after treatment with other medications, but later returned. Tositumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer cells and releasing radiation to damage the cancer ...

  11. Lanreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  12. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  13. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  14. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  15. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... fuel injection pump (a pump that supplies the proper flow and pressure for fuel injection when the injection is not accomplished in a carburetor) approved as part of the engine. (b) Emergency pumps....

  16. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... fuel injection pump (a pump that supplies the proper flow and pressure for fuel injection when the injection is not accomplished in a carburetor) approved as part of the engine. (b) Emergency pumps....

  17. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... fuel injection pump (a pump that supplies the proper flow and pressure for fuel injection when the injection is not accomplished in a carburetor) approved as part of the engine. (b) Emergency pumps....

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. Atomization of liquid fuels. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, R

    1925-01-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a nozzle to inject fuel into an engine. The design of the nozzle is open, without any compulsory or automatic stop-valve. The fuel injection is regulated simply by the pressure and the adjustment of the fuel pump.

  20. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  1. Analyzing fuel systems technology for fuel economy and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The papers in this volume describe the following fuel technologies: injection rate shaping, automated patternator, injection nozzle design, plain-jet airblast atomizer, volatile liquid flashing, demand delivery system, compound port fuel injector nozzle, disk-type gasoline injector, and IR-laser initiated combustion. Other papers discuss fuel atomization, power control of IC engines, diagnosis of working unevenness of each cylinder, air-fuel ratio excursions during load and fueling transients, and models of droplet thermodynamic and dynamic behavior. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Radial flow fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Means, Gregory Scott; Boardman, Gregory Allen; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-07-05

    A combustor for a gas turbine generally includes a radial flow fuel nozzle having a fuel distribution manifold, and a fuel injection manifold axially separated from the fuel distribution manifold. The fuel injection manifold generally includes an inner side portion, an outer side portion, and a plurality of circumferentially spaced fuel ports that extend through the outer side portion. A plurality of tubes provides axial separation between the fuel distribution manifold and the fuel injection manifold. Each tube defines a fluid communication path between the fuel distribution manifold and the fuel injection manifold.

  3. Apparatus and method for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2014-08-12

    A nozzle includes a fuel plenum and an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. A primary fuel channel includes an inlet in fluid communication with the fuel plenum and a primary air port in fluid communication with the air plenum. Secondary fuel channels radially outward of the primary fuel channel include a secondary fuel port in fluid communication with the fuel plenum. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the secondary fuel channels. A method for mixing fuel and air in a nozzle prior to combustion includes flowing fuel to a fuel plenum and flowing air to an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. The method further includes injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through a primary fuel passage, injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through secondary fuel passages, and injecting air from the air plenum through the primary fuel passage.

  4. Injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1989-06-01

    The most effective, convenient, reversible method of birth control is considered to be long-acting progestogen injections. Used by over 90 countries, Depot medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera, Upjohn) has yet to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The reluctance of the FDA to approve DMPA and much of the controversy surrounding this method revolve around the results of testing done on animals who were given large doses of the progestogen over a long period of time and developed tumors. However, the large body of research and records on this method that have been compiled over the past 30 years is positive. The injectable method works like oral contraceptives, inhibiting ovulation. Changes in menstruation have been the chief complaint of women who use this method; however, the duration and frequency of spotting and bleeding diminish over time. Other side effects of DMPA and Norethindrone enanthate (NET EN, Noristerat, Schering) are discussed. Also discussed is the history of development and testing for the 2 methods and subdermal implants, specifically Norplant.

  5. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  6. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  7. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  8. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  9. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  10. Experiments on the Distribution of Fuel in Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1932-01-01

    The distribution of the fuel in sprays for compression-ignition engines was investigated by taking high-speed spark photographs of fuel sprays produced under a wide variety of conditions, and also by injecting them against pieces of Plasticine. A photographic study was made of sprays injected into evacuated chambers, into the atmosphere, into compressed air, and into transparent liquids. Pairs of identical sprays were injected counter to each other and their behavior analyzed. Small high-velocity air jets were directed normally to the axes of fuel sprays, with the result that the envelope of spray which usually obscures the core was blown aside, leaving the core exposed on one side.

  11. Fuel nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  12. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  13. Fuel injection type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Kayanuma, N.; Kawai, T.; Nakagawa, N.; Nomura, H.

    1987-05-26

    An internal combustion engine is described having a combustion chamber, comprising: a first intake valve opening at a crank angle near to top dead center of an intake stroke and closing at a beginning of a compression stroke; a second intake valve opening at a crank angle near to the top dead center of the intake stroke and closing at the beginning of the compression stroke; a third intake valve opening approximately at the center of the intake stroke and closing at the beginning of the compression stroke; a first intake passage connected to the combustion chamber via the first intake valve and creating a swirl motion in the combustion chamber; a second intake passage connected to the combustion chamber via the second intake valve; and a third intake passage connected to the combustion chamber via the third intake valve.

  14. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  15. Preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1990-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance with CO contamination of the H.sub.2 fuel stream is substantially improved by injecting O.sub.2 into the fuel stream ahead of the fuel cell. It is found that a surface reaction occurs even at PEM operating temperatures below about 100.degree. C. to oxidatively remove the CO and restore electrode surface area for the H.sub.2 reaction to generate current. Using an O.sub.2 injection, a suitable fuel stream for a PEM fuel cell can be formed from a methanol source using conventional reforming processes for producing H.sub.2.

  16. 40 CFR 610.51 - Mileage accumulation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mileage accumulation procedure. 610.51 Section 610.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... procedure will be that provided in 40 CFR part 86. This mileage accumulation schedule, or a...

  17. 40 CFR 610.51 - Mileage accumulation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mileage accumulation procedure. 610.51 Section 610.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... procedure will be that provided in 40 CFR part 86. This mileage accumulation schedule, or a...

  18. 40 CFR 610.51 - Mileage accumulation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mileage accumulation procedure. 610.51 Section 610.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... procedure will be that provided in 40 CFR part 86. This mileage accumulation schedule, or a...

  19. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected so the provider can see where to place the medicine. The steroid medicine is slowly injected into the joint. After the injection, you will remain on the table for another 5 to 10 minutes or so. ...

  20. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  1. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  2. Variable volume combustor with center hub fuel staging

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present application and the resultant patent provide a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a center hub for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The center hub may include a first supply circuit for a first micro-mixer fuel nozzle and a second supply circuit for a second micro-mixer fuel nozzle.

  3. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  4. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  5. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed.

  6. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianova, E. A. Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2015-12-15

    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed.

  7. Fuel-Neutral Studies of PM Transportation Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Mark L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Howden, Ken

    2012-11-15

    New gasoline engine technologies such as Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI), Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI), and Reaction Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) offer the possibility of dramatically increasing the fuel efficiency of future vehicles. One drawback to these advanced engines is that they have the potential to produce higher levels of exhaust particulates than current Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. Regulation of engine particulate emissions in Europe is moving from mass-based standards toward number-based standards. Due to growing health concerns surrounding nano-aerosols, it is likely that similar standards will eventually be applied in the United States. This would place more emphasis on the reliable removal of smaller particles, which make up the vast majority of the particulates generated on a number basis. While Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have become standard, different filter systems would likely be required for advanced gasoline vehicles, due to factors such as differing particulate properties and higher exhaust temperatures. High exhaust temperatures can limit the accumulation of a soot cake, which performs most of the actual filtration in a typical DPF system.

  8. Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1939-01-01

    The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.

  9. Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William

    This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

  10. Experiments on the Distribution of Fuel in Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1933-01-01

    The distribution of fuel in sprays for compression-ignition engines was investigated by taking high-speed spark photographs of fuel sprays reproduced under a wide variety of conditions, and also by injecting them against pieces of plasticine. A photographic study was made of sprays injected into evacuated chambers, into the atmosphere, into compressed air, and into transparent liquids. Pairs of identical sprays were injected counter to each other and their behavior analyzed. Small high velocity air jets were directed normally to the axes of fuel sprays, with the result that the envelope of spray which usually obscures the core was blown aside, leaving the core exposed on one side. The results showed that the distribution of the fuel within the sprays was very uneven.

  11. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  12. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  13. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-10-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations.

  14. Liquid Fuels from Microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D. A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-08-01

    The goal of the DOE/SERI Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae. Microalgae can accumulate large quantities of lipids and can thrive in high salinity water, which currently has no other use.

  15. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the...

  17. Impact de l'utilisation des strategies d'injection multiple et de biodiesel sur un moteur diesel a rampe commune d'injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamondon, Etienne

    Using biodiesel/diesel fuel blends and multiple injection strategies in diesel engines have shown promising results in improving the trade-off relationship between nitrous oxides and particulate matters, but their effects are still not completely understood. In this context, this thesis focuses on the characterization of the multiple injection strategies and biodiesel impacts on pollutant emissions, performances and injection system behavior. To reach this goal, an experimental campaign on a diesel engine was performed and a model simulating the injection process was developed. The engine tests at low load with pilot injection allowed the reduction of NOx emissions up to 27% and those of PM up to 22.3% compared to single injection, provided that a precise tuning of the injection parameters was previously realized. This simultaneous reduction is explained by the reduction of the premixed combustion phase and injected fuel quantity during principal injection when a pilot injection is used. With triple injection for the tested engine load, the post-injection did not result in PM reduction since it contributes by itself to the PM production while the preinjection occurred too soon to burn conveniently and caused perturbations in the injection system as well. Using B20 blend in single injection caused a PM increase and a NOx reduction which might be explained by the poorer fuel atomization. However, pilot injection with B20 allowed to get a simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM, as observed with diesel. An injection simulation model was also developed and experimentally validated for different injection pressures as well as different energizing times and dwell times. When comparing the use of biodiesel with diesel, simulation showed that there was a critical energizing time for which both fuels yielded the same injection duration. For shorter energizing times, the biodiesel injection duration was shorter than for diesel, while longer energizing times presented the

  18. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  19. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  20. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  1. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  2. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  3. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  4. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  6. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  7. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  8. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  10. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  11. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  12. Engineering plastics can cut fuel system cost

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    Examines the use of small nylon, acetal, and polyester resin parts in carbureted and continuous (throttle body) fuel injection (CFI) systems as well as port fuel injected (PFI) systems. Points out that conversions of larger castings offer car manufacturers more substantial cost savings. Reveals that heat-stabilized glass- and mineral-reinforced nylons can replace sand-cast and die-cast aluminium in injection systems. Concludes that 40% of the cost of a fuel system may be saved via maximum use of the capabilities of engineering plastic materials.

  13. Using a double-frequency RF system to facilitate on-axis beam accumulation in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B. C.; Zhao, Z. T.; Tian, S. Q.; Zhang, M. Z.; Zhang, Q. L.

    2016-04-01

    An on-axis injection scheme using a double-frequency RF system in a storage ring with small dynamic aperture is proposed. By altering RF voltages, empty RF buckets can be created which will be used for on-axis injection. After bunches are injected, a reverse RF voltage altering process is performed and the injected bunches can be longitudinally dumped to the main RF buckets. The scheme allows reaping the advantages of the on-axis injection while still performing accumulation.

  14. Effects of fuel nozzle design on performance of an experimental annular combustor using natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Schultz, D. F.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of various fuel nozzles were conducted with natural gas fuel in a full-annulus combustor. The nozzles were designed to provide either axial, angled, or radial fuel injection. Each fuel nozzle was evaluated by measuring combustion efficiency at relatively severe combustor operating conditions. Combustor blowout and altitude ignition tests were also used to evaluate nozzle designs. Results indicate that angled injection gave higher combustion efficiency, less tendency toward combustion instability, and altitude relight characteristics equal to or superior to those of the other fuel nozzles that were tested.

  15. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  16. Study of Forebody Injection and Mixing with Application to Hypervelocity Airbreathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The use of premixed, shock-induced combustion in the context of a hypervelocity, airbreathing vehicle requires effective injection and mixing of hydrogen fuel and air on the vehicle forebody. Three dimensional computational simulations of fuel injection and mixing from flush-wall and modified ramp and strut injectors are reported in this study. A well-established code, VULCAN, is used to conduct nonreacting, viscous, turbulent simulations on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 flight vehicle forebody. In comparing results of various fuel injection strategies, it is found that strut injection provides the greatest balance of performance between mixing efficiency and stream thrust potential.

  17. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continential Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    A turbocharged fuel injected aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions that included that EPA five-mode emissions cycle and fuel air ratio variations for individual modes while injecting air into the exhaust gas. Air injection resulted in a decrease of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. Leanout tests indicated that the EPA standards could be met through the combined use of fuel management and air injection.

  18. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  19. Discharge characteristics of a simulated unit injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Edred T

    1938-01-01

    Rate-of-discharge curves that show the discharge characteristics of an injection system having a very short fuel passage are presented. The rate of discharge closely follows the rate of displacement of the injection-pump plunger for open nozzles in which the maximum calculated pressures at the orifice do not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the particular injection pump. With small orifices and high pump speeds, the rate of discharge does not follow the rate of plunger displacement because the higher discharge pressure results in increased leakage with corresponding decrease in discharge rate. The rate of discharge is not directly related to the rate of plunger displacement with automatic injection valves having closed nozzles. The types of pump check valve tested did not control the rate of cut-off or the discharge rate but they did affect the injection lag. Use of the short fuel passage eliminated the formation of secondary discharges.

  20. Fuel governor for controlled autoignition engines

    DOEpatents

    Jade, Shyam; Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li

    2016-06-28

    Methods and systems for controlling combustion performance of an engine are provided. A desired fuel quantity for a first combustion cycle is determined. One or more engine actuator settings are identified that would be required during a subsequent combustion cycle to cause the engine to approach a target combustion phasing. If the identified actuator settings are within a defined acceptable operating range, the desired fuel quantity is injected during the first combustion cycle. If not, an attenuated fuel quantity is determined and the attenuated fuel quantity is injected during the first combustion cycle.

  1. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  2. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  3. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  4. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  5. Effect of sunflower oil on a diesel fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Schunk, S.; Pratt, G.

    1982-05-01

    A typical farm tractor diesel fuel system (injection pump, fuel lines, filters and injectors) was tested on a test stand at various temperatures using sunflower oil, diesel fuel, and mixtures of the two as fuels. Measurements taken included fuel volume delivered by the injector line pressure at the injector, pressure drop across the filter, transfer pump pressure, and fuel injection timing. Results indicate that low percentages of sunflower oil may be used successfully in the system under summer conditions. Design changes to the system may be necessary for higher percentages of sunflower oil and cold conditions.

  6. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  7. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  8. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  9. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  10. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  11. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  12. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  13. Fuel distributions from pressure-swirl atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, A. H.; Ortman, J.

    1985-02-01

    Measurements are made of the radial fuel distributions obtained with various types of pressure-swirl (simplex) atomizers, using a 'patternator' which comprises 29 sampling tubes placed 4.5 deg apart on an arc of 10 cm. The patternator is mounted in a pressure vessel 10 cm below the fuel nozzle with the nozzle axis located at the center of curvature. The volume of fuel collected in each tube is proportional to the fuel flow at the sampling point. The results of tests performed over wide ranges of fuel injection pressure and ambient pressure show that spray angles diminish with increases in ambient gas pressure up to around 0.69 MPa (100 psia), above which they remain sensibly constant. Changes in the fuel injection pressure have differing effects on spray-cone angle depending on the ambient pressure. At normal atmospheric pressure an increase in fuel injection pressure causes the spray angle to first widen and then contract. At ambient pressures above around 2 atm the spray contracts continuously with increase in fuel injection pressure. Measurements of circumferential fuel distribution show that some nozzle designs possess a high degree of uniformity, while others exhibit significant deviations from the mean value.

  14. Numerical analysis of combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengen; Cai, Guobiao; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to analyse the combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection by simulating the combustion flow field. Numerical combustion flow field and combustion performance parameters are obtained through three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a steady numerical model proposed in this paper. The hybrid rocket motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene as the propellants. Multiple injection sections are set along the axis of the solid fuel grain, and the oxidizer enters the combustion chamber by means of tangential injection via the injector ports in the injection sections. Simulation results indicate that the combustion flow field structure of the hybrid rocket motor could be improved by multi-section swirl injection method. The transformation of the combustion flow field can greatly increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency. The average fuel regression rate of the motor with multi-section swirl injection is improved by 8.37 times compared with that of the motor with conventional head-end irrotational injection. The combustion efficiency is increased to 95.73%. Besides, the simulation results also indicate that (1) the additional injection sections can increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency; (2) the upstream offset of the injection sections reduces the combustion efficiency; and (3) the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency decrease with the reduction of the number of injector ports in each injection section.

  15. Development of carbon slurry fuels for transportation (hybrid fuels, phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Dodge, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel are developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations are formulated using eight different materials. A variety of properties are examined including ash content, sulfur content, particle size distribution, and rheological properties. Attempts are made to determine the effects of these variations on these fuel properties on injection, atomization, and combustion processes. The slurries are also tested in a single cylinder CLR engine in both direct injection and prechamber configurations. The data includes the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. The slurries perform very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicate that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids are burning in the engine. It appears that the prechamber engine configuration is more tolerant of the slurries than the direct injection configuration.

  16. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  17. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  18. INJECTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE BSNS/RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; TANG, J.Y.; CHEN, Y.; CHI, Y.L.; JIANG, Y.L.; KANG, W.; PANG, J.B.; QIN, Q.; QIU, J.; SHEN, L.; WANG, W.

    2006-06-23

    The BSNS injection system is designed to take one uninterrupted long drift in one of the four dispersion-free straight sections to host all the injection devices. Painting bumper magnets are used for both horizontal and vertical phase space painting. Closed-orbit bumper magnets are used for facilitating the installation of the injection septa and decreasing proton traversal in the stripping foil. Even with large beam emittance of about 300 {pi}mm.mrad used, BSNS/RCS still approaches the space charge limit during the injection/trapping phase for the accumulated particles of 1.9*10{sup 13} and at the low injection energy of 80 MeV. Uniform-like beam distribution by well-designed painting scheme is then obtained to decrease the tune shift/spread. ORBIT code is used for the 3D simulations. Upgrading to higher injection energy has also been considered.

  19. Effects of pilot injection timing and EGR on a modern V6 common rail direct injection diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli Abdullah, Nik; Mamat, Rizalman; Wyszynski, Miroslaw L.; Tsolakis, Anthanasios; Xu, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide and smoke emissions in diesel engine can be controlled by optimising the air/fuel mixture. Early injection produces premixed charge resulted in simultaneous NOx and smoke emissions reduction. However, there could be an increase in hydrocarbons and CO emissions due to fuel impinged to the cylinder wall. The focus of the present work is to investigate the effects of a variation of pilot injection timing with EGR to NOx and smoke level on a modern V6 common rail direct injection. This study is carried out at two different engine load conditions of 30 Nm and 55 Nm, at constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The results show that the early pilot injection timing contributed to the lower smoke level and higher NOx emissions. The higher level of NOx is due to higher combustion temperatures resulting from the complete combustion. Meanwhile, the lower smoke level is due to complete fuel combustion and soot oxidation. The early pilot injection timing produces an intermediate main ignition delay which also contributed to complete combustion. The formation of smoke is higher at a high engine load compared with low engine load due to the higher amount of fuel being injected.

  20. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  1. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  2. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  3. [Intra-articular injections].

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  4. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  5. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  8. Plasma-gun fueling for tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1980-11-01

    In light of the uncertain extrapolation of gas puffing for reactor fueling and certain limitations to pellet injection, the snowplow plasma gun has been studied as a fueling device. Based on current understanding of gun and plasma behavior a design is proposed, and its performance is predicted in a tokamak reactor environment.

  9. A LARGE APERTURE NARROW QUADROUPOLE FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; BRODOWSKI,J.; MENG,W.; WEI,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; TUOZZOLO,J.

    2002-06-03

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to accept high-intensity H{sup -} beam of 1 GeV kinetic energy from the injecting LINAC, and to accumulate, in a time interval of 1 msec, 2 x 10{sup 14} protons in a single bunch of 700 nsec. In order to optimize the effective straight-section spaces for beam-injection, extraction and collimation, we have minimized the width of the large aperture quadrupoles which are located in the same straight sections of the accumulator ring with the injection and extraction systems. By minimizing the width of the quadrupoles to {+-}40.4 cm, the beam-injection and extraction angles are lowered to 8.75{sup o} and 16.8{sup o} respectively. Further optimization of the narrow quadrupole, minimizes the strength of the dodecapole multipole component of the quadrupole, thus reducing the width of the 12pole structure resonance and allowing a larger tune space for stability of the circulating beam. In this paper we present results derived from magnetic field calculations of 2D and 3D modeling, and discuss the method of optimizing the size of the quadrupole and minimizing its dodecapole multipole component.

  10. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  11. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  12. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  13. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2...) Test fuels—service accumulation and aging. Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation and aging for...

  14. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  15. [Intravitreal injections of corticoids].

    PubMed

    Demols, P

    2007-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide are today widely performed as a therapeutic tool for a large variety of ocular diseases. The risk of toxicity of the product and its vehicle is quite real and is still at the center of investigations. Complications related to the substance and the technique of injections are already well-known (intraocular pressure rise, cataract, endophthalmitis, pseudo-endophthalmitis, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment). Carefulness and rigor in the indication, realization and follow-up of these injections are therefore mandatory.

  16. Status of hydrogen fuel cell electric buses worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Eudy, Leslie; Singer, Gregg; Jermer, Boris; Asselin-Miller, Nick; Wessel, Silvia; Patterson, Timothy; Marcinkoski, Jason

    2014-12-01

    This review summarizes the background and recent status of the fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration projects in North America and Europe. Key performance metrics include accumulated miles, availability, fuel economy, fuel cost, roadcalls, and hydrogen fueling. The state-of-the-art technology used in today's fuel cell bus is highlighted. Existing hydrogen infrastructure for refueling is described. The article also presents the challenges encountered in these projects, the experiences learned, as well as current and future performance targets.

  17. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Macrophage-targeted photosensitizer conjugate delivered by intratumoral injection

    PubMed Central

    Anatelli, Florencia; Mroz, Pawel; Liu, Qingde; Yang, Changming; Castano, Ana P; Swietlik, Emilia; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    A conjugate between malelyated albumin and a photosensitizer (PS) shows cell-type specific targeting to macrophages via the scavenger receptor. Administration of this conjugate to a tumor-bearing mouse followed by illumination may allow selective destruction of macrophages within tumors. There is accumulating evidence that tumor-associated macrophages contribute to tumor growth, invasiveness, metastasis and immune suppression. We tested the intravenous injection of a conjugate between maleylated albumin and chlorin(e6) to Balb/c mice bearing three tumor-types with differing proportions of tumor-associated macrophages. The accumulation of PS within the tumors after intravenous (IV) injection and twenty-four hours incubation time was disappointing and we therefore investigated intratumoral (IT) injection. This gave 20−50 times greater concentrations of PS within the tumor compared to IV injection as determined by tissue extraction. Furthermore the amounts of PS in each tumor type correlated well with the numbers of macrophages both as determined by extraction from bulk tumor and fluorescence quantification, and by tissue dissociation to a single cell suspension and two-color flow cytometry with macrophage-specific antibodies. IT injection of non-conjugated PS gave lower tumor accumulation that did not correlate with macrophage content. IT injection of targeted macromolecular delivery systems is an underexplored area and worthy of further study. PMID:17140253

  19. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  20. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  1. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  2. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  3. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... onabotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  4. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body; blurred vision; or drooping eyelids. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  5. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... incobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  6. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rimabotulinumtoxinB injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  7. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  8. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  9. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  10. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  11. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... carboxymaltose injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... medication is also used to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to ...

  12. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  13. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... position or distract the child with a noisy toy while you are injecting the medication. You can ... recognizing reality vision problems excessive tiredness increased thirst ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  14. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  15. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... often you receive iron sucrose injection and your total number of doses based on your condition and ... hands or feet; swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. ...

  16. Charge stripping accumulation of light heavy ions in HIRFL-CSR main ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Li, Peng; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2008-09-01

    The charge stripping injection method has been adopted for the accumulation of light heavy ions in HIRFL-CSR. This method has some special requirements for the accelerating particles, and at the same time the structure of the injection orbit has to be changed. In this paper, the design of the orbit has been presented, as well as the calculation of the beam line matching. According to the result of commissioning, stripping injection can accumulate the beam to a higher current. Supported by National Scientific Project HIRFL-CSR

  17. Internal baffling for fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

    2014-08-05

    A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

  18. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  19. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  20. NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2004-03-02

    NOx formation in the combustion of solid hydrocarbonaceous fuel such as coal is reduced by obtaining, from the incoming feed stream of fuel solids and air, a stream having a ratio of fuel solids to air that is higher than that of the feed steam, and injecting the thus obtained stream and a small amount of oxygen to a burner where the fuel solids are combusted.