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Sample records for accuracy allowing quantitative

  1. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  2. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  3. Quantitative code accuracy evaluation of ISP33

    SciTech Connect

    Kalli, H.; Miwrrin, A.; Purhonen, H.

    1995-09-01

    Aiming at quantifying code accuracy, a methodology based on the Fast Fourier Transform has been developed at the University of Pisa, Italy. The paper deals with a short presentation of the methodology and its application to pre-test and post-test calculations submitted to the International Standard Problem ISP33. This was a double-blind natural circulation exercise with a stepwise reduced primary coolant inventory, performed in PACTEL facility in Finland. PACTEL is a 1/305 volumetrically scaled, full-height simulator of the Russian type VVER-440 pressurized water reactor, with horizontal steam generators and loop seals in both cold and hot legs. Fifteen foreign organizations participated in ISP33, with 21 blind calculations and 20 post-test calculations, altogether 10 different thermal hydraulic codes and code versions were used. The results of the application of the methodology to nine selected measured quantities are summarized.

  4. Accuracy of quantitative reconstructions in SPECT/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Celler, A.; Belhocine, T.; van der Werf, R.; Driedger, A.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the quantitative accuracy of our OSEM-APDI reconstruction method based on SPECT/CT imaging for Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, and I-131 isotopes. Phantom studies were performed on a SPECT/low-dose multislice CT system (Infinia-Hawkeye-4 slice, GE Healthcare) using clinical acquisition protocols. Two radioactive sources were centrally and peripherally placed inside an anthropometric Thorax phantom filled with non-radioactive water. Corrections for attenuation, scatter, collimator blurring and collimator septal penetration were applied and their contribution to the overall accuracy of the reconstruction was evaluated. Reconstruction with the most comprehensive set of corrections resulted in activity estimation with error levels of 3-5% for all the isotopes.

  5. Accuracy of digital videodensitometry in quantitating contrast medium concentration.

    PubMed

    Yang, X M; Manninen, H; Ji, H X; Vainio, P; Soimakallio, S

    1994-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of digital videodensitometric technique in directly quantitating concentration of contrast medium, iohexol 300 mg I/ml was injected into a 2-mm-diameter plastic tube, in which clean water was circulated at a 190 ml/min flow, for digital subtraction angiography. Altogether 27 injections were performed with 3, 4 and 5 ml volumes at 3-, 4- and 5-ml/s flows of the contrast medium. A time-density curve was achieved by selecting a "vessel" region of interest (ROI) and a background ROI. Then, a frame corresponding to the maximum opacification of the contrast medium could be calculated. Finally, the average density and the time to peak density of the contrast medium were obtained. The average density was statistically higher (p < 0.01) with 5 ml/s flow than with 4- and 3-ml/s flows. Times to peak density reduced as injection flows or volumes increased. The results support the conclusion that digital videodensitometric technique is an accurate method for quantitation of contrast medium concentration during angiography. The angiographic opacification may be improved by injecting the iodine contrast medium with higher flows or larger volumes. PMID:8011389

  6. Resolution and quantitative accuracy improvements in ultrasound transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevert, T. L.

    The type of ultrasound transmission imaging, referred to as ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT), reconstructs distributions of tissue speed of sound and sound attenuation properties from measurements of acoustic pulse time of flight (TCF) and energy received through tissue. Although clinical studies with experimental UCT scanners have demonstrated UCT is sensitive to certain tissue pathologies not easily detected with conventional ultrasound imaging, they have also shown UCT to suffer from artifacts due to physical differences between the acoustic beam and its ray model implicit in image reconstruction algorithms. Artifacts are expressed as large quantitative errors in attenuation images, and poor spatial resolution and size distortion (exaggerated size of high speed of sound regions) in speed of sound images. Methods are introduced and investigated which alleviate these problems in UCT imaging by providing improved measurements of pulse TCF and energy.

  7. NAIMA: target amplification strategy allowing quantitative on-chip detection of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Morisset, Dany; Dobnik, David; Hamels, Sandrine; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a novel multiplex quantitative DNA-based target amplification method suitable for sensitive, specific and quantitative detection on microarray. This new method named NASBA Implemented Microarray Analysis (NAIMA) was applied to GMO detection in food and feed, but its application can be extended to all fields of biology requiring simultaneous detection of low copy number DNA targets. In a first step, the use of tailed primers allows the multiplex synthesis of template DNAs in a primer extension reaction. A second step of the procedure consists of transcription-based amplification using universal primers. The cRNA product is further on directly ligated to fluorescent dyes labelled 3DNA dendrimers allowing signal amplification and hybridized without further purification on an oligonucleotide probe-based microarray for multiplex detection. Two triplex systems have been applied to test maize samples containing several transgenic lines, and NAIMA has shown to be sensitive down to two target copies and to provide quantitative data on the transgenic contents in a range of 0.1-25%. Performances of NAIMA are comparable to singleplex quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, NAIMA amplification is faster since 20 min are sufficient to achieve full amplification. PMID:18710880

  8. NAIMA: target amplification strategy allowing quantitative on-chip detection of GMOs

    PubMed Central

    Morisset, Dany; Dobnik, David; Hamels, Sandrine; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a novel multiplex quantitative DNA-based target amplification method suitable for sensitive, specific and quantitative detection on microarray. This new method named NASBA Implemented Microarray Analysis (NAIMA) was applied to GMO detection in food and feed, but its application can be extended to all fields of biology requiring simultaneous detection of low copy number DNA targets. In a first step, the use of tailed primers allows the multiplex synthesis of template DNAs in a primer extension reaction. A second step of the procedure consists of transcription-based amplification using universal primers. The cRNA product is further on directly ligated to fluorescent dyes labelled 3DNA dendrimers allowing signal amplification and hybridized without further purification on an oligonucleotide probe-based microarray for multiplex detection. Two triplex systems have been applied to test maize samples containing several transgenic lines, and NAIMA has shown to be sensitive down to two target copies and to provide quantitative data on the transgenic contents in a range of 0.1–25%. Performances of NAIMA are comparable to singleplex quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, NAIMA amplification is faster since 20 min are sufficient to achieve full amplification. PMID:18710880

  9. Internal calibrants allow high accuracy peptide matching between MALDI imaging MS and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Johan O R; Eddes, James S; Meding, Stephan; Koudelka, Tomas; Oehler, Martin K; McColl, Shaun R; Hoffmann, Peter

    2012-08-30

    One of the important challenges for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is the unambiguous identification of measured analytes. One way to do this is to match tryptic peptide MALDI-IMS m/z values with LC-MS/MS identified m/z values. Matching using current MALDI-TOF/TOF MS instruments is difficult due to the variability of in situ time-of-flight (TOF) m/z measurements. This variability is currently addressed using external calibration, which limits achievable mass accuracy for MALDI-IMS and makes it difficult to match these data to downstream LC-MS/MS results. To overcome this challenge, the work presented here details a method for internally calibrating data sets generated from tryptic peptide MALDI-IMS on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of ovarian cancer. By calibrating all spectra to internal peak features the m/z error for matches made between MALDI-IMS m/z values and LC-MS/MS identified peptide m/z values was significantly reduced. This improvement was confirmed by follow up matching of LC-MS/MS spectra to in situ MS/MS spectra from the same m/z peak features. The sum of the data presented here indicates that internal calibrants should be a standard component of tryptic peptide MALDI-IMS experiments. PMID:22634080

  10. Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

  11. Evaluation of quantitative accuracy in CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT for various isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-J.; Yu, A. R.; Kim, Y.-s.; Kang, W.-S.; Jin, S. S.; Kim, J.-S.; Son, T. J.; Kim, H.-J.

    2015-05-01

    In vivo pre-clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a valuable tool for functional small animal imaging, but several physical factors, such as scatter radiation, limit the quantitative accuracy of conventional scintillation crystal-based SPECT. Semiconductor detectors such as CZT overcome these deficiencies through superior energy resolution. To our knowledge, little scientific information exists regarding the accuracy of quantitative analysis in CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT systems for different isotopes. The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative accuracy of CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT for four isotopes: 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I, and 111In. The quantitative accuracy of the CZT-based Triumph X-SPECT (Gamma-Medica Ideas, Northridge, CA, U.S.A.) was compared with that of a conventional SPECT using GATE simulation. Quantitative errors due to the attenuation and scatter effects were evaluated for all four isotopes with energy windows of 5%, 10%, and 20%. A spherical source containing the isotope was placed at the center of the air-or-water-filled mouse-sized cylinder phantom. The CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT was more accurate than the conventional SPECT. For example, in the conventional SPECT with an energy window of 10%, scatter effects degraded quantitative accuracy by up to 11.52%, 5.10%, 2.88%, and 1.84% for 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I, and 111In, respectively. However, with the CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT, the degradations were only 9.67%, 5.45%, 2.36%, and 1.24% for 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I, and 111In, respectively. As the energy window was increased, the quantitative errors increased in both SPECT systems. Additionally, the isotopes with lower energy of photon emissions had greater quantitative error. Our results demonstrated that the CZT-based pre-clinical SPECT had lower overall quantitative errors due to reduced scatter and high detection efficiency. Furthermore, the results of this systematic assessment quantifying the accuracy of these SPECT

  12. Accuracy in Rietveld quantitative phase analysis: a comparative study of strictly monochromatic Mo and Cu radiations

    PubMed Central

    León-Reina, L.; García-Maté, M.; Álvarez-Pinazo, G.; Santacruz, I.; Vallcorba, O.; De la Torre, A. G.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports 78 Rietveld quantitative phase analyses using Cu Kα1, Mo Kα1 and synchrotron radiations. Synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to validate the most challenging analyses. From the results for three series with increasing contents of an analyte (an inorganic crystalline phase, an organic crystalline phase and a glass), it is inferred that Rietveld analyses from high-energy Mo Kα1 radiation have slightly better accuracies than those obtained from Cu Kα1 radiation. This behaviour has been established from the results of the calibration graphics obtained through the spiking method and also from Kullback–Leibler distance statistic studies. This outcome is explained, in spite of the lower diffraction power for Mo radiation when compared to Cu radiation, as arising because of the larger volume tested with Mo and also because higher energy allows one to record patterns with fewer systematic errors. The limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) have also been established for the studied series. For similar recording times, the LoDs in Cu patterns, ∼0.2 wt%, are slightly lower than those derived from Mo patterns, ∼0.3 wt%. The LoQ for a well crystallized inorganic phase using laboratory powder diffraction was established to be close to 0.10 wt% in stable fits with good precision. However, the accuracy of these analyses was poor with relative errors near to 100%. Only contents higher than 1.0 wt% yielded analyses with relative errors lower than 20%. PMID:27275132

  13. Plasma components affect accuracy of circulating cancer-related microRNA quantitation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ja; Linnstaedt, Sarah; Palma, Jaime; Park, Joon Cheol; Ntrivalas, Evangelos; Kwak-Kim, Joanne Y H; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth; Hastings, Michelle L; Martin, Jeffrey N; Duelli, Dominik M

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as candidate biomarkers of various diseases and conditions including malignancy and pregnancy. This approach requires sensitive and accurate quantitation of miRNA concentrations in body fluids. Herein we report that enzyme-based miRNA quantitation, which is currently the mainstream approach for identifying differences in miRNA abundance among samples, is skewed by endogenous serum factors that co-purify with miRNAs and anticoagulant agents used during collection. Of importance, different miRNAs were affected to varying extent among patient samples. By developing measures to overcome these interfering activities, we increased the accuracy, and improved the sensitivity of miRNA detection up to 30-fold. Overall, the present study outlines key factors that prevent accurate miRNA quantitation in body fluids and provides approaches that enable faithful quantitation of miRNA abundance in body fluids. PMID:22154918

  14. Accuracy and Precision of Silicon Based Impression Media for Quantitative Areal Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Robert H.; Darras, Laurent P.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Areal surface texture analysis is becoming widespread across a diverse range of applications, from engineering to ecology. In many studies silicon based impression media are used to replicate surfaces, and the fidelity of replication defines the quality of data collected. However, while different investigators have used different impression media, the fidelity of surface replication has not been subjected to quantitative analysis based on areal texture data. Here we present the results of an analysis of the accuracy and precision with which different silicon based impression media of varying composition and viscosity replicate rough and smooth surfaces. Both accuracy and precision vary greatly between different media. High viscosity media tested show very low accuracy and precision, and most other compounds showed either the same pattern, or low accuracy and high precision, or low precision and high accuracy. Of the media tested, mid viscosity President Jet Regular Body and low viscosity President Jet Light Body (Coltène Whaledent) are the only compounds to show high levels of accuracy and precision on both surface types. Our results show that data acquired from different impression media are not comparable, supporting calls for greater standardisation of methods in areal texture analysis. PMID:25991505

  15. Accounting for filter bandwidth improves the quantitative accuracy of bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie L.; Cobbold, Mark; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is a noninvasive technique whereby surface weighted images of luminescent probes within animals are used to characterize cell count and function. Traditionally, data are collected over the entire emission spectrum of the source using no filters and are used to evaluate cell count/function over the entire spectrum. Alternatively, multispectral data over several wavelengths can be incorporated to perform tomographic reconstruction of source location and intensity. However, bandpass filters used for multispectral data acquisition have a specific bandwidth, which is ignored in the reconstruction. In this work, ignoring the bandwidth is shown to introduce a dependence of the recovered source intensity on the bandwidth of the filters. A method of accounting for the bandwidth of filters used during multispectral data acquisition is presented and its efficacy in increasing the quantitative accuracy of bioluminescence tomography is demonstrated through simulation and experiment. It is demonstrated that while using filters with a large bandwidth can dramatically decrease the data acquisition time, if not accounted for, errors of up to 200% in quantitative accuracy are introduced in two-dimensional planar imaging, even after normalization. For tomographic imaging, the use of this method to account for filter bandwidth dramatically improves the quantitative accuracy.

  16. [Effect of different distribution of components concentration on the accuracy of quantitative spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-Ju; Wu, Xiao-Rong

    2012-07-01

    In order to discuss the effect of different distribution of components concentration on the accuracy of quantitative spectral analysis, according to the Lambert-Beer law, ideal absorption spectra of samples with three components were established. Gaussian noise was added to the spectra. Correction and prediction models were built by partial least squares regression to reflect the unequal modeling and prediction results between different distributions of components. Results show that, in the case of pure linear absorption, the accuracy of model is related to the distribution of components concentration. Not only to the component we focus on, but also to the non-tested components, the larger covered and more uniform distribution is a significant point of calibration set samples to establish a universal model and provide a satisfactory accuracy. This research supplies a theoretic guidance for reasonable choice of samples with suitable concentration distribution, which enhances the quality of model and reduces the prediction error of the predict set. PMID:23016350

  17. Development of fully automated quantitative capillary electrophoresis with high accuracy and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Ling, Bang-Zan; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Yao, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative capillary electrophoresis (qCE) was developed by utilizing a rotary type of nano-volume injector, an autosampler, and a thermostat with cooling capacity. The accuracy and precision were greatly improved compared with conventional capillary electrophoresis. The 10 nL volume accuracy was guaranteed by the carefully designed nano-injector with an accurate internal loop. The system repeatability (precision) in terms of RSD <0.5% for migration time and 1% for peak area were achieved by using DMSO as a test sample. We believe that this fully automated qCE system has the potential to be employed broadly in quality control and quality assurance in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26174138

  18. Measuring the accuracy and precision of quantitative coronary angiography using a digitally simulated test phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Craig A.; Whiting, James S.; LeFree, Michelle T.

    1998-06-01

    Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) diameter measurements have been used as an endpoint measurement in clinical studies involving therapies to reduce coronary atherosclerosis. The accuracy and precision of the QCA measure can affect the sample size and study conclusions of a clinical study. Measurements using x-ray test phantoms can underestimate the precision and accuracy of the actual arteries in clinical digital angiograms because they do not contain complex patient structures. Determining the clinical performance of QCA algorithms under clinical conditions is difficult because: (1) no gold standard test object exists in clinical images, (2) phantom images do not have any structured background noise. We purpose the use of computer simulated arteries as a replacement for traditional angiographic test phantoms to evaluate QCA algorithm performance.

  19. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Andrew B; Franc, Benjamin L; Gullberg, Grant T; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2009-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  20. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  1. Quantitative Proteomics using Nano-LC with High Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-01-29

    Despite significant advances in LC-MS based technologies, challenges remain in implementing a proteomics platform for routine clinical applications. These include the needed robustness as well as the sensitivity and dynamic range of detection to both effectively address extremely small tissue samples, for example microdissected or biopsy tissues, or high dynamic range samples, such as blood plasma. Other key components include providing the needed throughput to enable statistically meaningful number of analyses for clinical setting within a robust platform that utilizes effective quantitative approaches for high accuracy and reproducibility. This chapter describes the key components of a nanoLC- MS based technological approach that is designed to target these challenges by virtue of enhancing sensitivity, dynamic range coverage, and throughput, for the generation of robust quantitative measurements in support of clinical studies.

  2. Accounting for systematic errors in bioluminescence imaging to improve quantitative accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Perry, Tracey A.; Styles, Iain B.; Cobbold, Mark; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a widely used pre-clinical imaging technique, but there are a number of limitations to its quantitative accuracy. This work uses an animal model to demonstrate some significant limitations of BLI and presents processing methods and algorithms which overcome these limitations, increasing the quantitative accuracy of the technique. The position of the imaging subject and source depth are both shown to affect the measured luminescence intensity. Free Space Modelling is used to eliminate the systematic error due to the camera/subject geometry, removing the dependence of luminescence intensity on animal position. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is then used to provide additional information about the depth and intensity of the source. A substantial limitation in the number of sources identified using BLI is also presented. It is shown that when a given source is at a significant depth, it can appear as multiple sources when imaged using BLI, while the use of BLT recovers the true number of sources present.

  3. Accuracy and precision of quantitative 31P-MRS measurements of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Layec, Gwenael; Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Garten, Ryan S; Park, Song Y; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-08-01

    Although theoretically sound, the accuracy and precision of (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) approaches to quantitatively estimate mitochondrial capacity are not well documented. Therefore, employing four differing models of respiratory control [linear, kinetic, and multipoint adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphorylation potential], this study sought to determine the accuracy and precision of (31)P-MRS assessments of peak mitochondrial adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rate utilizing directly measured peak respiration (State 3) in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers. In 23 subjects of different fitness levels, (31)P-MRS during a 24-s maximal isometric knee extension and high-resolution respirometry in muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis was performed. Although significantly correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.72), both the linear (45 ± 13 mM/min) and phosphorylation potential (47 ± 16 mM/min) models grossly overestimated the calculated in vitro peak ATP synthesis rate (P < 0.05). Of the ADP models, the kinetic model was well correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.72, P < 0.05), but moderately overestimated ATP synthesis rate (P < 0.05), while the multipoint model, although being somewhat less well correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.55, P < 0.05), most accurately reflected peak ATP synthesis rate. Of note, the PCr recovery time constant (τ), a qualitative index of mitochondrial capacity, exhibited the strongest correlation with State 3 respiration (r = 0.80, P < 0.05). Therefore, this study reveals that each of the (31)P-MRS data analyses, including PCr τ, exhibit precision in terms of mitochondrial capacity. As only the multipoint ADP model did not overstimate the peak skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis, the multipoint ADP model is the only quantitative approach to exhibit both accuracy and precision. PMID:27302751

  4. Accuracy and application of quantitative X-ray diffraction on the precipitation of struvite product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xingwen; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Guoqiang; Zeng, Eddy Y; Wang, Fei

    2016-03-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) crystallization from wastewater can gain a great advantage for phosphorus recovery and recycling. Although the recovery process and reaction modeling have been investigated, few studies have been conducted to quantify the different phases in recovered phosphorus products. The quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) technique was employed in the present study to quantitatively determine the crystal phases and amorphous content of recovered struvite-containing products. Substantial mixed phase samples (i.e. struvite, newberyite and amorphous phase) were prepared to perform quantitative analysis to calibrate against known phase composition information by Rietveld refinement on powder X-ray diffraction data. The results showed a high level of accuracy (mean error = ∼3%) in our quantification model and validated the use of the Rietveld method to quantify the amorphous and crystal phases in the struvite-containing products. In addition, the influence of N:P molar ratio on struvite crystallization suggested that the weight percentage of struvite increased from 52% to 93%, when the N:P molar ratio was elevated from 0.2:1 to 1.2:1. This finding suggested the effectiveness of QXRD in facilitating the recovery of quality struvite products from waste streams. PMID:26724434

  5. Accuracy of commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers for quantitation of total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Salerno, D M; Granrud, G; Hodges, M

    1987-12-01

    The accuracy of 2 commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers was tested for quantitation of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Scanner 1 was the Cardiodata Systems Mark III and scanner 2 was the Avionics Trendsetter DCG VII. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic recordings from 19 consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed by each device. Results were compared with those from hand counts of complete printouts of each of the 19 recordings. For total VPCs, scanner 1 had an average error of 13% (range 0 to 58%) and scanner 2 had an average error of 24% (range (1 to 80%). Scanner 1 had an error of more than 10% for 9 of the 19 recordings and scanner 2 more than 10% for 11 of the 19 recordings. For paired VPCs, scanner 1 had a mean error of 23% (range 4 to 77%), and scanner 2 of 56% (range 34 to 79%). For nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, scanner 1 had an average error of 20% (range 8 to 41%) and scanner 2 had an error of 56% (range 34 to 78%). Thus, when recordings from consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed, neither device was consistently accurate for quantitation of total VPCs. Both analyzers had an unacceptable error for quantitation of repetitive VPCs. All currently available devices may have comparably large errors. This possibility is confirmed by recalculation of the reported data from a third scanner. PMID:2446488

  6. Application of bias correction methods to improve the accuracy of quantitative radar rainfall in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-K.; Kim, J.-H.; Suk, M.-K.

    2015-11-01

    There are many potential sources of the biases in the radar rainfall estimation process. This study classified the biases from the rainfall estimation process into the reflectivity measurement bias and the rainfall estimation bias by the Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) model and also conducted the bias correction methods to improve the accuracy of the Radar-AWS Rainrate (RAR) calculation system operated by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). In the Z bias correction for the reflectivity biases occurred by measuring the rainfalls, this study utilized the bias correction algorithm. The concept of this algorithm is that the reflectivity of the target single-pol radars is corrected based on the reference dual-pol radar corrected in the hardware and software bias. This study, and then, dealt with two post-process methods, the Mean Field Bias Correction (MFBC) method and the Local Gauge Correction method (LGC), to correct the rainfall estimation bias by the QPE model. The Z bias and rainfall estimation bias correction methods were applied to the RAR system. The accuracy of the RAR system was improved after correcting Z bias. For the rainfall types, although the accuracy of the Changma front and the local torrential cases was slightly improved without the Z bias correction the accuracy of the typhoon cases got worse than the existing results in particular. As a result of the rainfall estimation bias correction, the Z bias_LGC was especially superior to the MFBC method because the different rainfall biases were applied to each grid rainfall amount in the LGC method. For the rainfall types, the results of the Z bias_LGC showed that the rainfall estimates for all types was more accurate than only the Z bias and, especially, the outcomes in the typhoon cases was vastly superior to the others.

  7. Effects of shortened acquisition time on accuracy and precision of quantitative estimates of organ activity1

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative estimation of in vivo organ uptake is an essential part of treatment planning for targeted radionuclide therapy. This usually involves the use of planar or SPECT scans with acquisition times chosen based more on image quality considerations rather than the minimum needed for precise quantification. In previous simulation studies at clinical count levels (185 MBq 111In), the authors observed larger variations in accuracy of organ activity estimates resulting from anatomical and uptake differences than statistical noise. This suggests that it is possible to reduce the acquisition time without substantially increasing the variation in accuracy. Methods: To test this hypothesis, the authors compared the accuracy and variation in accuracy of organ activity estimates obtained from planar and SPECT scans at various count levels. A simulated phantom population with realistic variations in anatomy and biodistribution was used to model variability in a patient population. Planar and SPECT projections were simulated using previously validated Monte Carlo simulation tools. The authors simulated the projections at count levels approximately corresponding to 1.5–30 min of total acquisition time. The projections were processed using previously described quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) methods. The QSPECT method was based on the OS-EM algorithm with compensations for attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response. The QPlanar method is based on the ML-EM algorithm using the same model-based compensation for all the image degrading effects as the QSPECT method. The volumes of interests (VOIs) were defined based on the true organ configuration in the phantoms. The errors in organ activity estimates from different count levels and processing methods were compared in terms of mean and standard deviation over the simulated phantom population. Results: There was little degradation in quantitative reliability when the acquisition time was

  8. Simulation-based evaluation of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuting; Nouizi, Farouk; Kwong, Tiffany C.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional fluorescence tomography (FT) can recover the distribution of fluorescent agents within a highly scattering medium. However, poor spatial resolution remains its foremost limitation. Previously, we introduced a new fluorescence imaging technique termed “temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography” (TM-FT), which provides high-resolution images of fluorophore distribution. TM-FT is a multimodality technique that combines fluorescence imaging with focused ultrasound to locate thermo-sensitive fluorescence probes using a priori spatial information to drastically improve the resolution of conventional FT. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study to evaluate the performance of the TM-FT technique on complex phantoms with multiple fluorescent targets of various sizes located at different depths. In addition, the performance of the TM-FT is tested in the presence of background fluorescence. The results obtained using our new method are systematically compared with those obtained with the conventional FT. Overall, TM-FT provides higher resolution and superior quantitative accuracy, making it an ideal candidate for in vivo preclinical and clinical imaging. For example, a 4 mm diameter inclusion positioned in the middle of a synthetic slab geometry phantom (D:40 mm × W :100 mm) is recovered as an elongated object in the conventional FT (x = 4.5 mm; y = 10.4 mm), while TM-FT recovers it successfully in both directions (x = 3.8 mm; y = 4.6 mm). As a result, the quantitative accuracy of the TM-FT is superior because it recovers the concentration of the agent with a 22% error, which is in contrast with the 83% error of the conventional FT. PMID:26368884

  9. Clustering and training set selection methods for improving the accuracy of quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bell, James F., III; Wiens, Roger C.; Morris, Richard V.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated five clustering and training set selection methods to improve the accuracy of quantitative chemical analysis of geologic samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The LIBS spectra were previously acquired for 195 rock slabs and 31 pressed powder geostandards under 7 Torr CO2 at a stand-off distance of 7 m at 17 mJ per pulse to simulate the operational conditions of the ChemCam LIBS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The clustering and training set selection methods, which do not require prior knowledge of the chemical composition of the test-set samples, are based on grouping similar spectra and selecting appropriate training spectra for the partial least squares (PLS2) model. These methods were: (1) hierarchical clustering of the full set of training spectra and selection of a subset for use in training; (2) k-means clustering of all spectra and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster; (3) iterative use of PLS2 to predict sample composition and k-means clustering of the predicted compositions to subdivide the groups of spectra; (4) soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification of spectra, and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each class; (5) use of Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to determine an optimal number of clusters and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster. The iterative method and the k-means method using 5 clusters showed the best performance, improving the absolute quadrature root mean squared error (RMSE) by ~ 3 wt.%. The statistical significance of these improvements was ~ 85%. Our results show that although clustering methods can modestly improve results, a large and diverse training set is the most reliable way to improve the accuracy of quantitative LIBS. In particular, additional sulfate standards and specifically fabricated

  10. Quantitative accuracy of MAP reconstruction for dynamic PET imaging in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ju-Chieh (Kevin); Shoghi, Kooresh; Laforest, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction algorithms are becoming more commonly employed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging; however, the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images still requires validation for various levels of contrast and counting statistics. Methods: The authors present an evaluation of the quantitative accuracy of the 3D maximum a posteriori (3D-MAP) image reconstruction algorithm for dynamic PET imaging with comparisons to two of the most widely used reconstruction algorithms: the 2D filtered-backprojection (2D-FBP) and 2D-ordered subsets expectation maximization (2D-OSEM) on the Siemens microPET scanners. The study was performed for various levels of count density encountered in typical dynamic scanning as well as the imaging of cardiac activity concentration in small animal studies on the Focus 120. Specially designed phantoms were used for evaluation of the spatial resolution, image quality, and quantitative accuracy. A normal mouse was employed to evaluate the accuracy of the blood time activity concentration extracted from left ventricle regions of interest (ROIs) within the images as compared to the actual blood activity concentration measured from arterial blood sampling. Results: For MAP reconstructions, the spatial resolution and contrast have been found to reach a stable value after 20 iterations independent of the β values (i.e., hyper parameter which controls the weight of the penalty term) and count density within the frame. The spatial resolution obtained with 3D-MAP reaches values of ∼1.0 mm with a β of 0.01 while the 2D-FBP has value of 1.8 mm and 2D-OSEM has a value of 1.6 mm. It has been observed that the lower the hyper parameter β used in MAP, more iterations are needed to reach the stable noise level (i.e., image roughness). The spatial resolution is improved by using a lower β value at the expense of higher image noise. However, with similar noise level the spatial resolution achieved by 3D-MAP was

  11. Trading accuracy for speed: A quantitative comparison of search algorithms in protein sequence design.

    PubMed

    Voigt, C A; Gordon, D B; Mayo, S L

    2000-06-01

    Finding the minimum energy amino acid side-chain conformation is a fundamental problem in both homology modeling and protein design. To address this issue, numerous computational algorithms have been proposed. However, there have been few quantitative comparisons between methods and there is very little general understanding of the types of problems that are appropriate for each algorithm. Here, we study four common search techniques: Monte Carlo (MC) and Monte Carlo plus quench (MCQ); genetic algorithms (GA); self-consistent mean field (SCMF); and dead-end elimination (DEE). Both SCMF and DEE are deterministic, and if DEE converges, it is guaranteed that its solution is the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC). This provides a means to compare the accuracy of SCMF and the stochastic methods. For the side-chain placement calculations, we find that DEE rapidly converges to the GMEC in all the test cases. The other algorithms converge on significantly incorrect solutions; the average fraction of incorrect rotamers for SCMF is 0.12, GA 0.09, and MCQ 0.05. For the protein design calculations, design positions are progressively added to the side-chain placement calculation until the time required for DEE diverges sharply. As the complexity of the problem increases, the accuracy of each method is determined so that the results can be extrapolated into the region where DEE is no longer tractable. We find that both SCMF and MCQ perform reasonably well on core calculations (fraction amino acids incorrect is SCMF 0.07, MCQ 0.04), but fail considerably on the boundary (SCMF 0.28, MCQ 0.32) and surface calculations (SCMF 0.37, MCQ 0.44). PMID:10835284

  12. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su-Jin; Yu, A. Ram; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m (99mTc) and thallium-201 (201Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for 99mTc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for 201Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For 99mTc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138-145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For 201Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64-85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the establishment of new protocol for CZT

  13. The Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System P-V-T Propellant Quantity Gaging Accuracy and Leak Detection Allowance for Four Instrumentation Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duhon, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) propellant gaging module computes the quantity of usable OMS propellant remaining based on the real gas P-V-T relationship for the propellant tank pressurant, helium. The OMS P-V-T propellant quantity gaging error was determined for four sets of instrumentation configurations and accuracies with the propellant tank operating in the normal constant pressure mode and in the blowdown mode. The instrumentation inaccuracy allowance for propellant leak detection was also computed for these same four sets of instrumentation. These gaging errors and leak detection allowances are presented in tables designed to permit a direct comparison of the effectiveness of the four instrumentation sets. The results show the magnitudes of the improvements in propellant quantity gaging accuracies and propellant leak detection allowances which can be achieved by employing more accurate pressure and temperature instrumentation.

  14. Quantitative analysis of accuracy of seismic wave-propagation codes in 3D random scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, Martin; Imperatori, Walter; Mai, P. Martin

    2013-04-01

    Several recent verification studies (e.g. Day et al., 2001; Bielak et al., 2010, Chaljub et al., 2010) have demonstrated the importance of assessing the accuracy of available numerical tools at low frequency in presence of large-scale features (basins, topography, etc.). The fast progress in high-performance computing, including efficient optimization of numerical codes on petascale supercomputers, has permitted the simulation of 3D seismic wave propagation at frequencies of engineering interest (up to 10Hz) in highly heterogeneous media (e.g. Hartzell et al, 2010; Imperatori and Mai, 2013). However, high frequency numerical simulations involving random scattering media, characterized by small-scale heterogeneities, are much more challenging for most numerical methods, and their verification may therefore be even more crucial than in the low-frequency case. Our goal is to quantitatively compare the accuracy and the behavior of three different numerical codes for seismic wave propagation in 3D random scattering media at high frequency. We deploy a point source with omega-squared spectrum, and focus on the near-source region, being of great interest in strong motion seismology. We use two codes based on finite-difference method (FD1 and FD2) and one code based on support-operator method (SO). Both FD1 and FD2 are 4-th order staggered-grid finite-difference codes (for FD1 see Olsen et al., 2009; for FD2 see Moczo et al., 2007). The FD1 and FD2 codes are characterized by slightly different medium representations, since FD1 uses point values of material parameters in each FD-cell, while FD2 uses the effective material parameters at each grid-point (Moczo et al., 2002). SO is 2-nd order support-operator method (Ely et al., 2008). We considered models with random velocity perturbations described by van Karman correlation function with different correlation lengths and different standard deviations. Our results show significant variability in both phase and amplitude as

  15. Analysis of high accuracy, quantitative proteomics data in the MaxQB database.

    PubMed

    Schaab, Christoph; Geiger, Tamar; Stoehr, Gabriele; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    MS-based proteomics generates rapidly increasing amounts of precise and quantitative information. Analysis of individual proteomic experiments has made great strides, but the crucial ability to compare and store information across different proteome measurements still presents many challenges. For example, it has been difficult to avoid contamination of databases with low quality peptide identifications, to control for the inflation in false positive identifications when combining data sets, and to integrate quantitative data. Although, for example, the contamination with low quality identifications has been addressed by joint analysis of deposited raw data in some public repositories, we reasoned that there should be a role for a database specifically designed for high resolution and quantitative data. Here we describe a novel database termed MaxQB that stores and displays collections of large proteomics projects and allows joint analysis and comparison. We demonstrate the analysis tools of MaxQB using proteome data of 11 different human cell lines and 28 mouse tissues. The database-wide false discovery rate is controlled by adjusting the project specific cutoff scores for the combined data sets. The 11 cell line proteomes together identify proteins expressed from more than half of all human genes. For each protein of interest, expression levels estimated by label-free quantification can be visualized across the cell lines. Similarly, the expression rank order and estimated amount of each protein within each proteome are plotted. We used MaxQB to calculate the signal reproducibility of the detected peptides for the same proteins across different proteomes. Spearman rank correlation between peptide intensity and detection probability of identified proteins was greater than 0.8 for 64% of the proteome, whereas a minority of proteins have negative correlation. This information can be used to pinpoint false protein identifications, independently of peptide database

  16. Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional facial scanners measurement accuracy for facial deformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Sun, Yu-chun; Yang, Hui-fang; Lyu, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) facial scanners for facial deformity patients from oral clinic. Methods: 10 patients in different types of facial deformity from oral clinical were included. Three 3D digital face models for each patient were obtained by three facial scanners separately (line laser scanner from Faro for reference, stereophotography scanner from 3dMD and structured light scanner from FaceScan for test). For each patient, registration based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was executed to align two test models (3dMD data & Facescan data) to the reference models (Faro data in high accuracy) respectively. The same boundaries on each pair models (one test and one reference models) were obtained by projection function in Geomagic Stuido 2012 software for trimming overlapping region, then 3D average measurement errors (3D errors) were calculated for each pair models also by the software. Paired t-test analysis was adopted to compare the 3D errors of two test facial scanners (10 data for each group). 3D profile measurement accuracy (3D accuracy) that is integrated embodied by average value and standard deviation of 10 patients' 3D errors were obtained by surveying analysis for each test scanner finally. Results: 3D accuracies of 2 test facial scanners in this study for facial deformity were 0.44+/-0.08 mm and 0.43+/-0.05 mm. The result of structured light scanner was slightly better than stereophotography scanner. No statistical difference between them. Conclusions: Both test facial scanners could meet the accuracy requirement (0.5mm) of 3D facial data acquisition for oral clinic facial deformity patients in this study. Their practical measurement accuracies were all slightly lower than their nominal accuracies.

  17. Reproducibility and Accuracy of Quantitative Myocardial Blood Flow Using 82Rb-PET: Comparison with 13N-Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Georges El

    2011-01-01

    82Rb cardiac PET allows the assessment of myocardial perfusion using a column generator in clinics that lack a cyclotron. We and others have previously shown that quantitation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) is feasible using dynamic 82Rb PET and factor and compartment analyses. The aim of the present work was to determine the intra- and inter-observer variability of MBF estimation using 82Rb PET as well as the reproducibility of our generalized factor + compartment analyses methodology to estimate MBF and assess its accuracy by comparing, in the same subjects, 82Rb estimates of MBF to those obtained using 13N-ammonia. Methods Twenty-two subjects were included in the reproducibility and twenty subjects in the validation study. Patients were injected with 60±5mCi of 82Rb and imaged dynamically for 6 minutes at rest and during dipyridamole stress Left and right ventricular (LV+RV) time-activity curves were estimated by GFADS and used as input to a 2-compartment kinetic analysis that estimates parametric maps of myocardial tissue extraction (K1) and egress (k2), as well as LV+RV contributions (fv,rv). Results Our results show excellent reproducibility of the quantitative dynamic approach itself with coefficients of repeatability of 1.7% for estimation of MBF at rest, 1.4% for MBF at peak stress and 2.8% for CFR estimation. The inter-observer reproducibility between the four observers that participated in this study was also very good with correlation coefficients greater than 0.87 between any two given observers when estimating coronary flow reserve. The reproducibility of MBF in repeated 82Rb studies was good at rest and excellent at peak stress (r2=0.835). Furthermore, the slope of the correlation line was very close to 1 when estimating stress MBF and CFR in repeated 82Rb studies. The correlation between myocardial flow estimates obtained at rest and during peak stress in 82Rb and 13N-ammonia studies was very good at rest (r2

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Shockwave Lithotripsy Accuracy and the Effect of Respiratory Motion*

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Michael R.; Shah, Anup R.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Paun, Marla; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Effective stone comminution during shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is dependent on precise three-dimensional targeting of the shockwave. Respiratory motion, imprecise targeting or shockwave alignment, and stone movement may compromise treatment efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of shockwave targeting during SWL treatment and the effect of motion from respiration. Patients and Methods Ten patients underwent SWL for the treatment of 13 renal stones. Stones were targeted fluoroscopically using a Healthtronics Lithotron (five cases) or Dornier Compact Delta II (five cases) shockwave lithotripter. Shocks were delivered at a rate of 1 to 2 Hz with ramping shockwave energy settings of 14 to 26 kV or level 1 to 5. After the low energy pretreatment and protective pause, a commercial diagnostic ultrasound (US) imaging system was used to record images of the stone during active SWL treatment. Shockwave accuracy, defined as the proportion of shockwaves that resulted in stone motion with shockwave delivery, and respiratory stone motion were determined by two independent observers who reviewed the ultrasonographic videos. Results Mean age was 51±15 years with 60% men, and mean stone size was 10.5±3.7 mm (range 5–18 mm). A mean of 2675±303 shocks was delivered. Shockwave-induced stone motion was observed with every stone. Accurate targeting of the stone occurred in 60%±15% of shockwaves. Conclusions US imaging during SWL revealed that 40% of shockwaves miss the stone and contribute solely to tissue injury, primarily from movement with respiration. These data support the need for a device to deliver shockwaves only when the stone is in target. US imaging provides real-time assessment of stone targeting and accuracy of shockwave delivery. PMID:22471349

  19. Comparing the accuracy of quantitative versus qualitative analyses of interim PET to prognosticate Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review protocol of diagnostic test accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Procházka, Vít; Klugar, Miloslav; Bachanova, Veronika; Klugarová, Jitka; Tučková, Dagmar; Papajík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hodgkin lymphoma is an effectively treated malignancy, yet 20% of patients relapse or are refractory to front-line treatments with potentially fatal outcomes. Early detection of poor treatment responders is crucial for appropriate application of tailored treatment strategies. Tumour metabolic imaging of Hodgkin lymphoma using visual (qualitative) 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a gold standard for staging and final outcome assessment, but results gathered during the interim period are less accurate. Analysis of continuous metabolic–morphological data (quantitative) FDG-PET may enhance the robustness of interim disease monitoring, and help to improve treatment decision-making processes. The objective of this review is to compare diagnostic test accuracy of quantitative versus qualitative interim FDG-PET in the prognostication of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods The literature on this topic will be reviewed in a 3-step strategy that follows methods described by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). First, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases will be searched. Second, listed databases for published literature (MEDLINE, Tripdatabase, Pedro, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and WoS) and unpublished literature (Open Grey, Current Controlled Trials, MedNar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cos Conference Papers Index and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO) will be queried. Third, 2 independent reviewers will analyse titles, abstracts and full texts, and perform hand search of relevant studies, and then perform critical appraisal and data extraction from selected studies using the DATARI tool (JBI). If possible, a statistical meta-analysis will be performed on pooled sensitivity and specificity data gathered from the selected studies. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed. Funnel plots, Begg's rank correlations and Egger's regression tests will be used to detect and/or correct publication

  20. Prediction of human pharmacokinetics from preclinical information: comparative accuracy of quantitative prediction approaches.

    PubMed

    Hosea, Natilie A; Collard, Wendy T; Cole, Susan; Maurer, Tristan S; Fang, Rick X; Jones, Hannah; Kakar, Shefali M; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Smith, Bill J; Webster, Rob; Beaumont, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Quantitative prediction of human pharmacokinetics is critical in assessing the viability of drug candidates and in determining first-in-human dosing. Numerous prediction methodologies, incorporating both in vitro and preclinical in vivo data, have been developed in recent years, each with advantages and disadvantages. However, the lack of a comprehensive data set, both preclinical and clinical, has limited efforts to evaluate the optimal strategy (or strategies) that results in quantitative predictions of human pharmacokinetics. To address this issue, the authors conducted a retrospective analysis using 50 proprietary compounds for which in vitro, preclinical pharmacokinetic data and oral single-dose human pharmacokinetic data were available. Five predictive strategies, involving either allometry or use of unbound intrinsic clearance from microsomes or hepatocytes, were then compared for their ability to predict human oral clearance, half-life through predictions of systemic clearance, volume of distribution, and bioavailability. Use of a single-species scaling approach with rat, dog, or monkey was as accurate as or more accurate than using multiple-species allometry. For those compounds cleared almost exclusively by P450-mediated pathways, scaling from human liver microsomes was as predictive as single-species scaling of clearance based on data from rat, dog, or monkey. These data suggest that use of predictive methods involving either single-species in vivo data or in vitro human liver microsomes can quantitatively predict human in vivo pharmacokinetics and suggest the possibility of streamlining the predictive methodology through use of a single species or use only of human in vitro microsomal preparations. PMID:19299532

  1. Oufti: an integrated software package for high-accuracy, high-throughput quantitative microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Paintdakhi, Ahmad; Parry, Bradley; Campos, Manuel; Irnov, Irnov; Elf, Johan; Surovtsev, Ivan; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-02-01

    With the realization that bacteria display phenotypic variability among cells and exhibit complex subcellular organization critical for cellular function and behavior, microscopy has re-emerged as a primary tool in bacterial research during the last decade. However, the bottleneck in today's single-cell studies is quantitative image analysis of cells and fluorescent signals. Here, we address current limitations through the development of Oufti, a stand-alone, open-source software package for automated measurements of microbial cells and fluorescence signals from microscopy images. Oufti provides computational solutions for tracking touching cells in confluent samples, handles various cell morphologies, offers algorithms for quantitative analysis of both diffraction and non-diffraction-limited fluorescence signals and is scalable for high-throughput analysis of massive datasets, all with subpixel precision. All functionalities are integrated in a single package. The graphical user interface, which includes interactive modules for segmentation, image analysis and post-processing analysis, makes the software broadly accessible to users irrespective of their computational skills. PMID:26538279

  2. Predicting quantitative traits from genome and phenome with near perfect accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Märtens, Kaspar; Hallin, Johan; Warringer, Jonas; Liti, Gianni; Parts, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of linkage and association studies and its potential impact on human health, reliable prediction of an individual's risk for heritable disease remains difficult. Large numbers of mapped loci do not explain substantial fractions of heritable variation, leaving an open question of whether accurate complex trait predictions can be achieved in practice. Here, we use a genome sequenced population of ∼7,000 yeast strains of high but varying relatedness, and predict growth traits from family information, effects of segregating genetic variants and growth in other environments with an average coefficient of determination R2 of 0.91. This accuracy exceeds narrow-sense heritability, approaches limits imposed by measurement repeatability and is higher than achieved with a single assay in the laboratory. Our results prove that very accurate prediction of complex traits is possible, and suggest that additional data from families rather than reference cohorts may be more useful for this purpose. PMID:27160605

  3. Predicting quantitative traits from genome and phenome with near perfect accuracy.

    PubMed

    Märtens, Kaspar; Hallin, Johan; Warringer, Jonas; Liti, Gianni; Parts, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of linkage and association studies and its potential impact on human health, reliable prediction of an individual's risk for heritable disease remains difficult. Large numbers of mapped loci do not explain substantial fractions of heritable variation, leaving an open question of whether accurate complex trait predictions can be achieved in practice. Here, we use a genome sequenced population of ∼7,000 yeast strains of high but varying relatedness, and predict growth traits from family information, effects of segregating genetic variants and growth in other environments with an average coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.91. This accuracy exceeds narrow-sense heritability, approaches limits imposed by measurement repeatability and is higher than achieved with a single assay in the laboratory. Our results prove that very accurate prediction of complex traits is possible, and suggest that additional data from families rather than reference cohorts may be more useful for this purpose. PMID:27160605

  4. Correlation between average tissue depth data and quantitative accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstructions measured by geometric surface comparison method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Joon; Wilkinson, Caroline M; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Sang-Mi

    2015-05-01

    Accuracy is the most important factor supporting the reliability of forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) comparing to the corresponding actual face. A number of methods have been employed to evaluate objective accuracy of FFR. Recently, it has been attempted that the degree of resemblance between computer-generated FFR and actual face is measured by geometric surface comparison method. In this study, three FFRs were produced employing live adult Korean subjects and three-dimensional computerized modeling software. The deviations of the facial surfaces between the FFR and the head scan CT of the corresponding subject were analyzed in reverse modeling software. The results were compared with those from a previous study which applied the same methodology as this study except average facial soft tissue depth dataset. Three FFRs of this study that applied updated dataset demonstrated lesser deviation errors between the facial surfaces of the FFR and corresponding subject than those from the previous study. The results proposed that appropriate average tissue depth data are important to increase quantitative accuracy of FFR. PMID:25739646

  5. Precision and accuracy of regional radioactivity quantitation using the maximum likelihood EM reconstruction algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.E.; Yan, Y.; Chodkowski, B.; Yap, T.K.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E. )

    1994-09-01

    The imaging characteristics of maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction using the EM algorithm for emission tomography have been extensively evaluated. There has been less study of the precision and accuracy of ML estimates of regional radioactivity concentration. The authors developed a realistic brain slice simulation by segmenting a normal subject's MRI scan into gray matter, white matter, and CSF and produced PET sinogram data with a model that included detector resolution and efficiencies, attenuation, scatter, and randoms. Noisy realizations at different count levels were created, and ML and filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructions were performed. The bias and variability of ROI values were determined. In addition, the effects of ML pixel size, image smoothing and region size reduction were assessed. ML estimates at 1,000 iterations (0.6 sec per iteration on a parallel computer) for 1-cm[sup 2] gray matter ROIs showed negative biases of 6% [+-] 2% which can be reduced to 0% [+-] 3% by removing the outer 1-mm rim of each ROI. FBP applied to the full-size ROIs had 15% [+-] 4% negative bias with 50% less noise than ML. Shrinking the FBP regions provided partial bias compensation with noise increases to levels similar to ML. Smoothing of ML images produced biases comparable to FBP with slightly less noise. Because of its heavy computational requirements, the ML algorithm will be most useful for applications in which achieving minimum bias is important.

  6. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rettmann, Maryam E. Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A.; Kwartowitz, David M.; Gunawan, Mia; Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L.; Dalegrave, Charles; Kolasa, Mark W.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  7. Comparison of reconstruction methods and quantitative accuracy in Siemens Inveon PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su; Kang, Joo Hyun; Moo Lim, Sang

    2015-04-01

    concentrations for radioactivity Our data collectively showed that OSEM 2D reconstruction method provides quantitatively accurate reconstructed PET data results.

  8. Improving the quantitative accuracy of cerebral oxygen saturation in monitoring the injured brain using atlas based Near Infrared Spectroscopy models.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Michael; Belli, Antonio; Davies, David; Lucas, Samuel J E; Su, Zhangjie; Dehghani, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    The application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the monitoring of the cerebral oxygen saturation within the brain is well established, albeit using temporal data that can only measure relative changes of oxygenation state of the brain from a baseline. The focus of this investigation is to demonstrate that hybridisation of existing near infrared probe designs and reconstruction techniques can pave the way to produce a system and methods that can be used to monitor the absolute oxygen saturation in the injured brain. Using registered Atlas models in simulation, a novel method is outlined by which the quantitative accuracy and practicality of NIRS for specific use in monitoring the injured brain, can be improved, with cerebral saturation being recovered to within 10.1 ± 1.8% of the expected values. PMID:27003677

  9. High-Precision Pinpointing of Luminescent Targets in Encoder-Assisted Scanning Microscopy Allowing High-Speed Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xianlin; Lu, Yiqing; Zhao, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yuhai; Ren, Wei; Liu, Deming; Lu, Jie; Piper, James A; Leif, Robert C; Liu, Xiaogang; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-19

    Compared with routine microscopy imaging of a few analytes at a time, rapid scanning through the whole sample area of a microscope slide to locate every single target object offers many advantages in terms of simplicity, speed, throughput, and potential for robust quantitative analysis. Existing techniques that accommodate solid-phase samples incorporating individual micrometer-sized targets generally rely on digital microscopy and image analysis, with intrinsically low throughput and reliability. Here, we report an advanced on-the-fly stage scanning method to achieve high-precision target location across the whole slide. By integrating X- and Y-axis linear encoders to a motorized stage as the virtual "grids" that provide real-time positional references, we demonstrate an orthogonal scanning automated microscopy (OSAM) technique which can search a coverslip area of 50 × 24 mm(2) in just 5.3 min and locate individual 15 μm lanthanide luminescent microspheres with standard deviations of 1.38 and 1.75 μm in X and Y directions. Alongside implementation of an autofocus unit that compensates the tilt of a slide in the Z-axis in real time, we increase the luminescence detection efficiency by 35% with an improved coefficient of variation. We demonstrate the capability of advanced OSAM for robust quantification of luminescence intensities and lifetimes for a variety of micrometer-scale luminescent targets, specifically single down-shifting and upconversion microspheres, crystalline microplates, and color-barcoded microrods, as well as quantitative suspension array assays of biotinylated-DNA functionalized upconversion nanoparticles. PMID:26669618

  10. Single Molecule Hydrodynamic Separation Allows Sensitive and Quantitative Analysis of DNA Conformation and Binding Interactions in Free Solution

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Sarah M.; Liu, Kelvin J.; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Limited tools exist that are capable of monitoring nucleic acid conformations, fluctuations, and distributions in free solution environments. Single molecule free solution hydrodynamic separation enables the unique ability to quantitatively analyze nucleic acid biophysics in free solution. Single molecule fluorescent burst data and separation chromatograms can give layered insight into global DNA conformation, binding interactions, and molecular distributions. First, we show that global conformation of individual DNA molecules can be directly visualized by examining single molecule fluorescent burst shapes and that DNA exists in a dynamic equilibrium of fluctuating conformations as it is driven by Poiseuille flow through micron-sized channels. We then show that this dynamic equilibrium of DNA conformations is reflected as shifts in hydrodynamic mobility that can be perturbed using salt and ionic strength to affect packing density. Next, we demonstrate that these shifts in hydrodynamic mobility can be used to investigate hybridization thermodynamics and binding interactions. We distinguish and classify multiple interactions within a single sample, and demonstrate quantification amidst large concentration differences for the detection of rare species. Finally, we demonstrate that these differences can resolve perfect complement, 2bp mismatched, and 3bp mismatched sequences. Such a system can be used to garner diverse information about DNA conformation and structure, and potentially be extended to other molecules and mixed-species interactions, such as between nucleic acids and proteins or synthetic polymers. PMID:26684193

  11. A quantitative method for evaluating numerical simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb wave propagation with its applications to selecting appropriate element size and time step.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Tse, Peter W; Tan, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    Lamb wave technique has been widely used in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). However, due to the multi-mode characteristics and dispersive nature, Lamb wave propagation behavior is much more complex than that of bulk waves. Numerous numerical simulations on Lamb wave propagation have been conducted to study its physical principles. However, few quantitative studies on evaluating the accuracy of these numerical simulations were reported. In this paper, a method based on cross correlation analysis for quantitatively evaluating the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb waves propagation is proposed. Two kinds of error, affecting the position and shape accuracies are firstly identified. Consequently, two quantitative indices, i.e., the GVE (group velocity error) and MACCC (maximum absolute value of cross correlation coefficient) derived from cross correlation analysis between a simulated signal and a reference waveform, are proposed to assess the position and shape errors of the simulated signal. In this way, the simulation accuracy on the position and shape is quantitatively evaluated. In order to apply this proposed method to select appropriate element size and time step, a specialized 2D-FEM program combined with the proposed method is developed. Then, the proper element size considering different element types and time step considering different time integration schemes are selected. These results proved that the proposed method is feasible and effective, and can be used as an efficient tool for quantitatively evaluating and verifying the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb wave propagation. PMID:26315506

  12. ICan: An Optimized Ion-Current-Based Quantification Procedure with Enhanced Quantitative Accuracy and Sensitivity in Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding availability of high-resolution mass spectrometry has substantially enhanced the ion-current-based relative quantification techniques. Despite the increasing interest in ion-current-based methods, quantitative sensitivity, accuracy, and false discovery rate remain the major concerns; consequently, comprehensive evaluation and development in these regards are urgently needed. Here we describe an integrated, new procedure for data normalization and protein ratio estimation, termed ICan, for improved ion-current-based analysis of data generated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). ICan achieved significantly better accuracy and precision, and lower false-positive rate for discovering altered proteins, over current popular pipelines. A spiked-in experiment was used to evaluate the performance of ICan to detect small changes. In this study E. coli extracts were spiked with moderate-abundance proteins from human plasma (MAP, enriched by IgY14-SuperMix procedure) at two different levels to set a small change of 1.5-fold. Forty-five (92%, with an average ratio of 1.71 ± 0.13) of 49 identified MAP protein (i.e., the true positives) and none of the reference proteins (1.0-fold) were determined as significantly altered proteins, with cutoff thresholds of ≥1.3-fold change and p ≤ 0.05. This is the first study to evaluate and prove competitive performance of the ion-current-based approach for assigning significance to proteins with small changes. By comparison, other methods showed remarkably inferior performance. ICan can be broadly applicable to reliable and sensitive proteomic survey of multiple biological samples with the use of high-resolution MS. Moreover, many key features evaluated and optimized here such as normalization, protein ratio determination, and statistical analyses are also valuable for data analysis by isotope-labeling methods. PMID:25285707

  13. Single particle optical extinction and scattering allows real time quantitative characterization of drug payload and degradation of polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, M. A. C.; Sanvito, T.; Argentiere, S.; Cella, C.; Paroli, B.; Lenardi, C.; Milani, P.

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies. Optical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) are, in principle, well suited for in line characterization of nanoparticle, however their fail in characterizing the evolution of nanoparticle in solution where change in particle dimension and density is present. Here we present an in-line optical technique based on single particle extinction and scattering (SPES) overcoming the limitations typical of DLS and allowing for the efficient characterization of nanoparticle polydispersity, index of refraction and degradation dynamics in solution. Using SPES, we characterized the evolution of PLGA nanoparticles with different structures and drug payloads in solution and we compared the results with DLS. Our results suggest that SPES could be used as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical nanoparticle production. PMID:26667064

  14. Single particle optical extinction and scattering allows real time quantitative characterization of drug payload and degradation of polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenza, M. A. C.; Sanvito, T.; Argentiere, S.; Cella, C.; Paroli, B.; Lenardi, C.; Milani, P.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies. Optical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) are, in principle, well suited for in line characterization of nanoparticle, however their fail in characterizing the evolution of nanoparticle in solution where change in particle dimension and density is present. Here we present an in-line optical technique based on single particle extinction and scattering (SPES) overcoming the limitations typical of DLS and allowing for the efficient characterization of nanoparticle polydispersity, index of refraction and degradation dynamics in solution. Using SPES, we characterized the evolution of PLGA nanoparticles with different structures and drug payloads in solution and we compared the results with DLS. Our results suggest that SPES could be used as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical nanoparticle production.

  15. Living cell dry mass measurement using quantitative phase imaging with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry: an accuracy and sensitivity discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Bon, Pierre; Galland, Frédéric; Abdeladim, Lamiae; Wattellier, Benoit; Monneret, Serge

    2015-12-01

    Single-cell dry mass measurement is used in biology to follow cell cycle, to address effects of drugs, or to investigate cell metabolism. Quantitative phase imaging technique with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) allows measuring cell dry mass. The technique is very simple to set up, as it is integrated in a camera-like instrument. It simply plugs onto a standard microscope and uses a white light illumination source. Its working principle is first explained, from image acquisition to automated segmentation algorithm and dry mass quantification. Metrology of the whole process, including its sensitivity, repeatability, reliability, sources of error, over different kinds of samples and under different experimental conditions, is developed. We show that there is no influence of magnification or spatial light coherence on dry mass measurement; effect of defocus is more critical but can be calibrated. As a consequence, QWLSI is a well-suited technique for fast, simple, and reliable cell dry mass study, especially for live cells.

  16. Pitfalls at the root of facial assessment on photographs: a quantitative study of accuracy in positioning facial landmarks.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Marasciuolo, L; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2013-05-01

    In the last years, facial analysis has gained great interest also for forensic anthropology. The application of facial landmarks may bring about relevant advantages for the analysis of 2D images by measuring distances and extracting quantitative indices. However, this is a complex task which depends upon the variability in positioning facial landmarks. In addition, literature provides only general indications concerning the reliability in positioning facial landmarks on photographic material, and no study is available concerning the specific errors which may be encountered in such an operation. The aim of this study is to analyze the inter- and intra-observer error in defining facial landmarks on photographs by using a software specifically developed for this purpose. Twenty-four operators were requested to define 22 facial landmarks on frontal view photographs and 11 on lateral view images; in addition, three operators repeated the procedure on the same photographs 20 times (at distance of 24 h). In the frontal view, the landmarks with less dispersion were the pupil, cheilion, endocanthion, and stomion (sto), and the landmarks with the highest dispersion were gonion, zygion, frontotemporale, tragion, and selion (se). In the lateral view, the landmarks with the least dispersion were se, pronasale, subnasale, and sto, whereas landmarks with the highest dispersion were gnathion, pogonion, and tragion. Results confirm that few anatomical points can be defined with the highest accuracy and show the importance of the preliminary investigation of reliability in positioning facial landmarks. PMID:23515681

  17. Improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-emission computed tomography by incorporating an attenuation correction: application to HIF1 imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Bowsher, J.; Thomas, A. S.; Sakhalkar, H.; Dewhirst, M.; Oldham, M.

    2008-10-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques for imaging the 3D structure and function (including gene expression) of whole unsectioned tissue samples. This work presents a method of improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-ECT by correcting for the 'self'-attenuation of photons emitted within the sample. The correction is analogous to a method commonly applied in single-photon-emission computed tomography reconstruction. The performance of the correction method was investigated by application to a transparent cylindrical gelatin phantom, containing a known distribution of attenuation (a central ink-doped gelatine core) and a known distribution of fluorescing fibres. Attenuation corrected and uncorrected optical-ECT images were reconstructed on the phantom to enable an evaluation of the effectiveness of the correction. Significant attenuation artefacts were observed in the uncorrected images where the central fibre appeared ~24% less intense due to greater attenuation from the surrounding ink-doped gelatin. This artefact was almost completely removed in the attenuation-corrected image, where the central fibre was within ~4% of the others. The successful phantom test enabled application of attenuation correction to optical-ECT images of an unsectioned human breast xenograft tumour grown subcutaneously on the hind leg of a nude mouse. This tumour cell line had been genetically labelled (pre-implantation) with fluorescent reporter genes such that all viable tumour cells expressed constitutive red fluorescent protein and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcription-produced green fluorescent protein. In addition to the fluorescent reporter labelling of gene expression, the tumour microvasculature was labelled by a light-absorbing vasculature contrast agent delivered in vivo by tail-vein injection. Optical-CT transmission images yielded high-resolution 3D images of the absorbing contrast agent, and

  18. FLIPPER, a combinatorial probe for correlated live imaging and electron microscopy, allows identification and quantitative analysis of various cells and organelles.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Jeroen; van Ham, Tjakko J; Kalicharan, Ruby D; Veenstra-Algra, Anneke; Sjollema, Klaas A; Dijk, Freark; Schnell, Ulrike; Giepmans, Ben N G

    2015-04-01

    Ultrastructural examination of cells and tissues by electron microscopy (EM) yields detailed information on subcellular structures. However, EM is typically restricted to small fields of view at high magnification; this makes quantifying events in multiple large-area sample sections extremely difficult. Even when combining light microscopy (LM) with EM (correlated LM and EM: CLEM) to find areas of interest, the labeling of molecules is still a challenge. We present a new genetically encoded probe for CLEM, named "FLIPPER", which facilitates quantitative analysis of ultrastructural features in cells. FLIPPER consists of a fluorescent protein (cyan, green, orange, or red) for LM visualization, fused to a peroxidase allowing visualization of targets at the EM level. The use of FLIPPER is straightforward and because the module is completely genetically encoded, cells can be optimally prepared for EM examination. We use FLIPPER to quantify cellular morphology at the EM level in cells expressing a normal and disease-causing point-mutant cell-surface protein called EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule). The mutant protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and could therefore alter ER function and morphology. To reveal possible ER alterations, cells were co-transfected with color-coded full-length or mutant EpCAM and a FLIPPER targeted to the ER. CLEM examination of the mixed cell population allowed color-based cell identification, followed by an unbiased quantitative analysis of the ER ultrastructure by EM. Thus, FLIPPER combines bright fluorescent proteins optimized for live imaging with high sensitivity for EM labeling, thereby representing a promising tool for CLEM. PMID:25786736

  19. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron. PMID:27305821

  20. Confocal scanning laser microscopy with complementary 3D image analysis allows quantitative studies of functional state of ionoregulatory cells in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following salinity challenge.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Sophie; Rana, Krishen J; Bron, James E

    2013-04-01

    The development of a novel three-dimensional image analysis technique of stacks generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy is described allowing visualization of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the seawater-adapted Nile tilapia in relation to their spatial location. This method permits the assessment and classification of both active and nonactive MRCs based on the distance of the top of the immunopositive cell from the epithelial surface. In addition, this technique offers the potential for informative and quantitative studies, for example, densitometric and morphometric measurements based on MRC functional state. Confocal scanning laser microscopy used with triple staining whole-mount immunohistochemistry was used to detect integumental MRCs in the yolk-sac larvae tail of the Nile tilapia following transfer from freshwater to elevated salinities, that is, 12.5 and 20 ppt. Mean active MRC volume was always significantly larger and displayed a greater staining intensity (GLM; P<0.05) than nonactive MRCs. Following transfer, the percentage of active MRCs was seen to increase as did MRC volume (GLM; P<0.05). PMID:23390074

  1. Hybrid use of early and quasi-continuous wave photons in time-domain tomographic imaging for improved resolution and quantitative accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Niedre, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of early-photons (EPs) from a pulsed laser source has been shown to improve imaging resolution versus continuous wave (CW) systems in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and fluorescence mediated tomography (FMT). However, EP systems also have reduced noise performance versus CW systems since EP measurements require temporal rejection of large numbers of transmitted photons. In this work, we describe a ‘hybrid data set’ (HDS) image reconstruction approach, the goal of which was to produce a final image that retained the resolution and noise advantages of EP and CW data sets, respectively. Here, CW data was first reconstructed to produce a quantitatively accurate ‘initial guess’ intermediate image, and then this was refined with EP data to yield a higher resolution final image. We performed a series of studies with simulated data to test the resolution, quantitative accuracy and detection sensitivity of the approach. We showed that in principle it was possible to produce final images that retained the bulk of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of EP and CW images, respectively, but the HDS approach did not improve the instrument sensitivity compared to EP data alone. PMID:21412471

  2. Speed-accuracy testing on the Apple iPad provides a quantitative test of upper extremity motor performance in children with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D

    2014-11-01

    The currently available scales for quantitative measurement of the severity of childhood dystonia require human observer ratings and provide poor granularity in the scores for individual limbs. We evaluated the use of new-generation high-quality touchscreens (an iPad) according with the Fitts law, which is a mathematical model that takes into account the relation between movement time and the task accuracy. We compared the abilities of healthy subjects and children with dystonia. The linear relation described by Fitts law held for all the groups. The movement time and the information transmitted were age and severity related. Our results provide evidence for the usability and validity of using Fitts law as a quantitative diagnostic tool in children with dystonia. Furthermore, testing on touchscreen tablets may help to guide the design of user interfaces to maximize the communication rate for children who depend upon assistive communication devices. PMID:23965400

  3. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  4. Accuracy and repeatability of quantitative fluoroscopy for the measurement of sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Breen, Alexander; Breen, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) was developed to measure intervertebral mechanics in vivo and has been found to have high repeatability and accuracy for the measurement of intervertebral rotations. However, sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation (FCR) are potential measures of stability but have not yet been fully validated for current QF. This study investigated the repeatability and accuracy of QF for measuring these variables. Repeatability was assessed from L2-S1 in 20 human volunteers. Accuracy was investigated using 10 consecutive measurements from each of two pairs of linked and instrumented dry human vertebrae as reference; one which tilted without translation and one which translated without tilt. The results found intra- and inter-observer repeatability for translation to be 1.1mm or less (SEM) with fair to substantial reliability (ICC 0.533-0.998). Intra-observer repeatability of FCR location for inter-vertebral rotations of 5° and above ranged from 1.5mm to 1.8mm (SEM) with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.626-0.988). Inter-observer repeatability for FCR ranged from 1.2mm to 5.7mm, also with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.621-0.878). Reliability was substantial (ICC>0.81) for 10/16 measures for translation and 5/8 for FCR location. Accuracy for translation was 0.1mm (fixed centre) and 2.2mm (moveable centre), with an FCR error of 0.3mm(x) and 0.4mm(y) (fixed centre). This technology was found to have a high level of accuracy and with a few exceptions, moderate to substantial repeatability for the measurement of translation and FCR from fluoroscopic motion sequences. PMID:27129784

  5. The accuracy of quantitative parameters in (99m) Tc-MAG3 dynamic renography: a national audit based on virtual image data.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Gustav; Edenbrandt, Lars; Granerus, Göran; Olsson, Anna; Afzelius, David; Gustafsson, Agneta; Jonsson, Cathrine; Hagerman, Jessica; Johansson, Lena; Riklund, Katrine; Ljungberg, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of image analysis methods and computer software used in (99m) Tc-MAG3 dynamic renography is important to ensure reliable study results and ultimately the best possible care for patients. In this work, we present a national multicentre study of the quantification accuracy in (99m) Tc-MAG3 renography, utilizing virtual dynamic scintigraphic data obtained by Monte Carlo-simulated scintillation camera imaging of digital phantoms with time-varying activity distributions. Three digital phantom studies were distributed to the participating departments, and quantitative evaluation was performed with standard clinical software according to local routines. The differential renal function (DRF) and time to maximum renal activity (Tmax ) were reported by 21 of the 28 Swedish departments performing (99m) Tc-MAG3 studies as of 2012. The reported DRF estimates showed a significantly lower precision for the phantom with impaired renal uptake than for the phantom with normal uptake. The Tmax estimates showed a similar trend, but the difference was only significant for the right kidney. There was a significant bias in the measured DRF for all phantoms caused by different positions of the left and right kidney in the anterior-posterior direction. In conclusion, this study shows that virtual scintigraphic studies are applicable for quality assurance and that there is a considerable uncertainty associated with standard quantitative parameters in dynamic (99m) Tc-MAG3 renography, especially for patients with impaired renal function. PMID:25348641

  6. Quantitative assessment of the accuracy of dose calculation using pencil beam and Monte Carlo algorithms and requirements for clinical quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2013-10-01

    To compare the doses calculated using the BrainLAB pencil beam (PB) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms for tumors located in various sites including the lung and evaluate quality assurance procedures required for the verification of the accuracy of dose calculation. The dose-calculation accuracy of PB and MC was also assessed quantitatively with measurement using ionization chamber and Gafchromic films placed in solid water and heterogeneous phantoms. The dose was calculated using PB convolution and MC algorithms in the iPlan treatment planning system from BrainLAB. The dose calculation was performed on the patient's computed tomography images with lesions in various treatment sites including 5 lungs, 5 prostates, 4 brains, 2 head and necks, and 2 paraspinal tissues. A combination of conventional, conformal, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans was used in dose calculation. The leaf sequence from intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans or beam shapes from conformal plans and monitor units and other planning parameters calculated by the PB were identical for calculating dose with MC. Heterogeneity correction was considered in both PB and MC dose calculations. Dose-volume parameters such as V95 (volume covered by 95% of prescription dose), dose distributions, and gamma analysis were used to evaluate the calculated dose by PB and MC. The measured doses by ionization chamber and EBT GAFCHROMIC film in solid water and heterogeneous phantoms were used to quantitatively asses the accuracy of dose calculated by PB and MC. The dose-volume histograms and dose distributions calculated by PB and MC in the brain, prostate, paraspinal, and head and neck were in good agreement with one another (within 5%) and provided acceptable planning target volume coverage. However, dose distributions of the patients with lung cancer had large discrepancies. For a plan optimized with PB, the dose coverage was shown as clinically acceptable, whereas in reality, the MC showed a

  7. Maximizing the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of Förster resonance energy transfer measurement for screening by high throughput widefield microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schaufele, Fred

    2014-03-15

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins (FPs) provides insights into the proximities and orientations of FPs as surrogates of the biochemical interactions and structures of the factors to which the FPs are genetically fused. As powerful as FRET methods are, technical issues have impeded their broad adoption in the biologic sciences. One hurdle to accurate and reproducible FRET microscopy measurement stems from variable fluorescence backgrounds both within a field and between different fields. Those variations introduce errors into the precise quantification of fluorescence levels on which the quantitative accuracy of FRET measurement is highly dependent. This measurement error is particularly problematic for screening campaigns since minimal well-to-well variation is necessary to faithfully identify wells with altered values. High content screening depends also upon maximizing the numbers of cells imaged, which is best achieved by low magnification high throughput microscopy. But, low magnification introduces flat-field correction issues that degrade the accuracy of background correction to cause poor reproducibility in FRET measurement. For live cell imaging, fluorescence of cell culture media in the fluorescence collection channels for the FPs commonly used for FRET analysis is a high source of background error. These signal-to-noise problems are compounded by the desire to express proteins at biologically meaningful levels that may only be marginally above the strong fluorescence background. Here, techniques are presented that correct for background fluctuations. Accurate calculation of FRET is realized even from images in which a non-flat background is 10-fold higher than the signal. PMID:23927839

  8. Maximizing the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of Förster resonance energy transfer measurement for screening by high throughput widefield microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schaufele, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins (FPs) provides insights into the proximities and orientations of FPs as surrogates of the biochemical interactions and structures of the factors to which the FPs are genetically fused. As powerful as FRET methods are, technical issues have impeded their broad adoption in the biologic sciences. One hurdle to accurate and reproducible FRET microscopy measurement stems from variable fluorescence backgrounds both within a field and between different fields. Those variations introduce errors into the precise quantification of fluorescence levels on which the quantitative accuracy of FRET measurement is highly dependent. This measurement error is particularly problematic for screening campaigns since minimal well-to-well variation is necessary to faithfully identify wells with altered values. High content screening depends also upon maximizing the numbers of cells imaged, which is best achieved by low magnification high throughput microscopy. But, low magnification introduces flat-field correction issues that degrade the accuracy of background correction to cause poor reproducibility in FRET measurement. For live cell imaging, fluorescence of cell culture media in the fluorescence collection channels for the FPs commonly used for FRET analysis is a high source of background error. These signal-to-noise problems are compounded by the desire to express proteins at biologically meaningful levels that may only be marginally above the strong fluorescence background. Here, techniques are presented that correct for background fluctuations. Accurate calculation of FRET is realized even from images in which a non-flat background is 10-fold higher than the signal. PMID:23927839

  9. Mineral content of vertebral trabecular bone: accuracy of dual energy quantitative computed tomography evaluated against neutron activation analysis and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Louis, O; Van den Winkel, P; Covens, P; Schoutens, A; Osteaux, M

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of preprocessing dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for assessment of trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) in lumbar vertebrae. The BMC of 49 lumbar vertebrae taken from 16 cadavers was measured using dual energy QCT with advanced software and hardware capabilities, including an automated definition of the trabecular region of interest (ROI). The midvertebral part of each vertebral body was embedded in a polyester resin and, subsequently, an experimental ROI was cut out using a scanjet image transmission procedure and a computer-assisted milling machine in order to mimic the ROI defined on QCT. After low temperature ashing, the experimental ROIs reduced to a bone powder were submitted to either nondestructive neutron activation analysis (n = 49) or to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (n = 45). BMC obtained with neutron activation analysis was closely related (r = 0.896) to that derived from atomic absorption spectrometry, taken as the gold standard, with, however, a slight overestimation. BMC values measured by QCT were highly correlated with those assessed using the two reference methods, all correlation coefficients being > 0.841. The standard errors of the estimate ranged 47.4-58.9 mg calcium hydroxyapatite in the regressions of BMC obtained with reference methods against BMC assessed by single energy QCT, 47.1-51.9 in the regressions involving dual energy QCT. We conclude that the trabecular BMC of lumbar vertebrae can be accurately measured by QCT and that the superiority in accuracy of dual energy is moderate, which is possible a characteristic of the preprocessing method. PMID:8024849

  10. The influence of multivariate analysis methods and target grain size on the accuracy of remote quantitative chemical analysis of rocks using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Morris, Richard V.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Bell, James F.; Wiens, Roger C.; Humphries, Seth D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Graff, Trevor G.; McInroy, Rhonda

    2011-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to quantitatively analyze 195 rock slab samples with known bulk chemical compositions, 90 pressed-powder samples derived from a subset of those rocks, and 31 pressed-powder geostandards under conditions that simulate the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover (MSL), Curiosity. The low-volatile (<2 wt.%) silicate samples (90 rock slabs, corresponding powders, and 22 geostandards) were split into training, validation, and test sets. The LIBS spectra and chemical compositions of the training set were used with three multivariate methods to predict the chemical compositions of the test set. The methods were partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP ANNs) and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs. Both the full LIBS spectrum and the intensity at five pre-selected spectral channels per major element (feature selection) were used as input data for the multivariate calculations. The training spectra were supplied to the algorithms without averaging ( i.e. five spectra per target) and with averaging ( i.e. all spectra from the same target averaged and treated as one spectrum). In most cases neural networks did not perform better than PLS for our samples. PLS2 without spectral averaging outperformed all other procedures on the basis of lowest quadrature root mean squared error (RMSE) for both the full test set and the igneous rocks test set. The RMSE for PLS2 using the igneous rock slab test set is: 3.07 wt.% SiO 2, 0.87 wt.% TiO 2, 2.36 wt.% Al 2O 3, 2.20 wt.% Fe 2O 3, 0.08 wt.% MnO, 1.74 wt.% MgO, 1.14 wt.% CaO, 0.85 wt.% Na 2O, 0.81 wt.% K 2O. PLS1 with feature selection and averaging had a higher quadrature RMSE than PLS2, but merits further investigation as a method of reducing data volume and computation time and potentially improving prediction accuracy, particularly for samples that differ significantly from the training set. Precision and accuracy were influenced

  11. The Impact of 3D Volume-of-Interest Definition on Accuracy and Precision of Activity Estimation in Quantitative SPECT and Planar Processing Methods

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise, and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT), and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important effect impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimations. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in the same transaxial plane in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g., in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from −1 to 1 voxels in increments of 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute

  13. SU-E-J-219: Quantitative Evaluation of Motion Effects On Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiotherapy with Fiducial Markers Using CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, I; Oyewale, S; Ahmad, S; Algan, O; Alsbou, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate quantitatively patient motion effects on the localization accuracy of image-guided radiation with fiducial markers using axial CT (ACT), helical CT (HCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using modeling and experimental phantom studies. Methods: Markers with different lengths (2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm) were inserted in a mobile thorax phantom which was imaged using ACT, HCT and CBCT. The phantom moved with sinusoidal motion with amplitudes ranging 0–20 mm and a frequency of 15 cycles-per-minute. Three parameters that include: apparent marker lengths, center position and distance between the centers of the markers were measured in the different CT images of the mobile phantom. A motion mathematical model was derived to predict the variations in the previous three parameters and their dependence on the motion in the different imaging modalities. Results: In CBCT, the measured marker lengths increased linearly with increase in motion amplitude. For example, the apparent length of the 10 mm marker was about 20 mm when phantom moved with amplitude of 5 mm. Although the markers have elongated, the center position and the distance between markers remained at the same position for different motion amplitudes in CBCT. These parameters were not affected by motion frequency and phase in CBCT. In HCT and ACT, the measured marker length, center and distance between markers varied irregularly with motion parameters. The apparent lengths of the markers varied with inverse of the phantom velocity which depends on motion frequency and phase. Similarly the center position and distance between markers varied inversely with phantom speed. Conclusion: Motion may lead to variations in maker length, center position and distance between markers using CT imaging. These effects should be considered in patient setup using image-guided radiation therapy based on fiducial markers matching using 2D-radiographs or volumetric CT imaging.

  14. Evaluation of the Quantitative Accuracy of 3D Reconstruction of Edentulous Jaw Models with Jaw Relation Based on Reference Point System Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To apply contact measurement and reference point system (RPS) alignment techniques to establish a method for 3D reconstruction of the edentulous jaw models with centric relation and to quantitatively evaluate its accuracy. Methods Upper and lower edentulous jaw models were clinically prepared, 10 pairs of resin cylinders with same size were adhered to axial surfaces of upper and lower models. The occlusal bases and the upper and lower jaw models were installed in the centric relation position. Faro Edge 1.8m was used to directly obtain center points of the base surface of the cylinders (contact method). Activity 880 dental scanner was used to obtain 3D data of the cylinders and the center points were fitted (fitting method). 3 pairs of center points were used to align the virtual model to centric relation. An observation coordinate system was interactively established. The straight-line distances in the X (horizontal left/right), Y (horizontal anterior/posterior), and Z (vertical) between the remaining 7 pairs of center points derived from contact method and fitting method were measured respectively and analyzed using a paired t-test. Results The differences of the straight-line distances of the remaining 7 pairs of center points between the two methods were X: 0.074 ± 0.107 mm, Y: 0.168 ± 0.176 mm, and Z: −0.003± 0.155 mm. The results of paired t-test were X and Z: p >0.05, Y: p <0.05. Conclusion By using contact measurement and the reference point system alignment technique, highly accurate reconstruction of the vertical distance and centric relation of a digital edentulous jaw model can be achieved, which meets the design and manufacturing requirements of the complete dentures. The error of horizontal anterior/posterior jaw relation was relatively large. PMID:25659133

  15. Effect of optical digitizer selection on the application accuracy of a surgical localization system-a quantitative comparison between the OPTOTRAK and flashpoint tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Q.; Zamorano, L.; Jiang, Z.; Gong, J. X.; Pandya, A.; Perez, R.; Diaz, F.

    1999-01-01

    Application accuracy is a crucial factor for stereotactic surgical localization systems, in which space digitization camera systems are one of the most critical components. In this study we compared the effect of the OPTOTRAK 3020 space digitization system and the FlashPoint Model 3000 and 5000 3D digitizer systems on the application accuracy for interactive localization of intracranial lesions. A phantom was mounted with several implantable frameless markers which were randomly distributed on its surface. The target point was digitized and the coordinates were recorded and compared with reference points. The differences from the reference points represented the deviation from the "true point." The root mean square (RMS) was calculated to show the differences, and a paired t-test was used to analyze the results. The results with the phantom showed that, for 1-mm sections of CT scans, the RMS was 0.76 +/- 0. 54 mm for the OPTOTRAK system, 1.23 +/- 0.53 mm for the FlashPoint Model 3000 3D digitizer system, and 1.00 +/- 0.42 mm for the FlashPoint Model 5000 system. These preliminary results showed that there is no significant difference between the three tracking systems, and, from the quality point of view, they can all be used for image-guided surgery procedures. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of myocardial edema using a short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) black-blood technique: Diagnostic accuracy of visual and semi-quantitative assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) black-blood technique has been used to visualize myocardial edema, and thus to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial lesions. However, some cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) groups have reported variable image quality, and hence the diagnostic value of STIR in routine clinical practice has been put into question. The aim of our study was to analyze image quality and diagnostic performance of STIR using a set of pulse sequence parameters dedicated to edema detection, and to discuss possible factors that influence image quality. We hypothesized that STIR imaging is an accurate and robust way of detecting myocardial edema in non-selected patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods Forty-six consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent CMR (day 4.5, +/- 1.6) including STIR for the assessment of myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for quantification of myocardial necrosis. Thirty of these patients underwent a follow-up CMR at approximately six months (195 +/- 39 days). Both STIR and LGE images were evaluated separately on a segmental basis for image quality as well as for presence and extent of myocardial hyper-intensity, with both visual and semi-quantitative (threshold-based) analysis. LGE was used as a reference standard for localization and extent of myocardial necrosis (acute) or scar (chronic). Results Image quality of STIR images was rated as diagnostic in 99.5% of cases. At the acute stage, the sensitivity and specificity of STIR to detect infarcted segments on visual assessment was 95% and 78% respectively, and on semi-quantitative assessment was 99% and 83%, respectively. STIR differentiated acutely from chronically infarcted segments with a sensitivity of 95% by both methods and with a specificity of 99% by visual assessment and 97% by semi-quantitative assessment. The extent of hyper-intense areas on acute STIR images was 85% larger than

  17. Photogrammetric measurement and visualization of blood vessel branching casting: a tool for quantitative accuracy tests of MR, CT, and DS angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2000-12-01

    Currently three different angiographic techniques are used to measure and visualize major blood vessels in the human body: magnetic resonance (MR), computer tomography (CT) and digital subtraction (DS) angiography. Although these imaging systems have been already qualitatively compared, a quantitative assessment is still missing. The goal of this work is to provide a tool enabling a quantitative comparison of the three imaging techniques to an unbiased reference. MR-, CT- and DS-angiographies are first performed on a corpse. Then, a casting of the abdominal aorta and its main branches is prepared, removed from the body and measured with photogrammetric methods. The elongated and thin cast is fixed in a 3D frame with 16 signalized small spheres used for calibration and orientation purposes. Three fixed CCD cameras acquire triplets of images of the casting, which is turned in 8 positions. In order to perform multi-image matching, an artificial random texture is projected onto the object. For each triplet of images, a semi-automated matching process based on least squares matching determines a dense set of corresponding points. Their 3D coordinates are then computed by forward intersection, with a mean standard deviation of about 0.2 mm. The result from the 8 positions are merged together into a 3D point cloud and an adequate filter is applied to remove the noise and the redundancy in the overlapping regions. The paper depicts the basic design of the system and the measurement methods. Furthermore some preliminary results are presented.

  18. Variational formulation and numerical accuracy of a quantitative phase-field model for binary alloy solidification with two-sided diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Munekazu; Takaki, Tomohiro; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We present the variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model for isothermal low-speed solidification in a binary dilute alloy with diffusion in the solid. In the present formulation, cross-coupling terms between the phase field and composition field, including the so-called antitrapping current, naturally arise in the time evolution equations. One of the essential ingredients in the present formulation is the utilization of tensor diffusivity instead of scalar diffusivity. In an asymptotic analysis, it is shown that the correct mapping between the present variational model and a free-boundary problem for alloy solidification with an arbitrary value of solid diffusivity is successfully achieved in the thin-interface limit due to the cross-coupling terms and tensor diffusivity. Furthermore, we investigate the numerical performance of the variational model and also its nonvariational versions by carrying out two-dimensional simulations of free dendritic growth. The nonvariational model with tensor diffusivity shows excellent convergence of results with respect to the interface thickness. PMID:26871136

  19. Variational formulation and numerical accuracy of a quantitative phase-field model for binary alloy solidification with two-sided diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Munekazu; Takaki, Tomohiro; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We present the variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model for isothermal low-speed solidification in a binary dilute alloy with diffusion in the solid. In the present formulation, cross-coupling terms between the phase field and composition field, including the so-called antitrapping current, naturally arise in the time evolution equations. One of the essential ingredients in the present formulation is the utilization of tensor diffusivity instead of scalar diffusivity. In an asymptotic analysis, it is shown that the correct mapping between the present variational model and a free-boundary problem for alloy solidification with an arbitrary value of solid diffusivity is successfully achieved in the thin-interface limit due to the cross-coupling terms and tensor diffusivity. Furthermore, we investigate the numerical performance of the variational model and also its nonvariational versions by carrying out two-dimensional simulations of free dendritic growth. The nonvariational model with tensor diffusivity shows excellent convergence of results with respect to the interface thickness.

  20. Differential impact of multi-focus fan beam collimation with L-mode and conventional systems on the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging: Quantitative evaluation using phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Kangai, Yoshiharu; Saho, Tatsunori; Amijima, Hizuru

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): A novel IQ-SPECT™ method has become widely used in clinical studies. The present study compares the quality of myocardial perfusion images (MPI) acquired using the IQ-SPECT™ (IQ-mode), conventional (180° apart: C-mode) and L-mode (90° apart: L-mode) systems. We assessed spatial resolution, image reproducibility and quantifiability using various physical phantoms. Methods: SPECT images were acquired using a dual-headed gamma camera with C-mode, L-mode, and IQ-mode acquisition systems from line source, pai and cardiac phantoms containing solutions of 99mTc. The line source phantom was placed in the center of the orbit and at ± 4.0, ± 8.0, ± 12.0, ± 16.0 and ± 20.0 cm off center. We examined quantifiability using the pai phantom comprising six chambers containing 0.0, 0.016, 0.03, 0.045, 0.062, and 0.074 MBq/mL of 99m-Tc and cross-calibrating the SPECT counts. Image resolution and reproducibility were quantified as myocardial wall thickness (MWT) and %uptake using polar maps. Results: The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the IQ-mode in the center was increased by 11% as compared with C-mode, and FWHM in the periphery was increased 41% compared with FWHM at the center. Calibrated SPECT counts were essentially the same when quantified using IQ-and C-modes. IQ-SPECT images of MWT were significantly improved (P<0.001) over L-mode, and C-mode SPECT imaging with IQ-mode became increasingly inhomogeneous, both visually and quantitatively (C-mode vs. L-mode, ns; C-mode vs. IQ-mode, P<0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion images acquired by IQ-SPECT were comparable to those acquired by conventional and L-mode SPECT, but with significantly improved resolution and quality. Our results suggest that IQ-SPECT is the optimal technology for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging. PMID:27408847

  1. Accuracy of marker analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification to determine SMN2 copy number in patients with spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Alías, Laura; Bernal, Sara; Barceló, Maria J; Also-Rallo, Eva; Martínez-Hernández, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Francisco J; Hernández-Chico, Concepción; Baiget, Montserrat; Tizzano, Eduardo F

    2011-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by absence of or mutations in the survival motor neuron1 gene (SMN1). All SMA patients have a highly homologous copy of SMN1, the SMN2 gene. Severe (type I) SMA patients present one or two SMN2 copies, whereas milder chronic forms (type II-III) usually have three or four SMN2 copies. SMN2 dosage is important to stratify patients for motor function tests and clinical trials. Our aim was to compare three methods, marker analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the LightCycler instrument, and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), to characterize their accuracy in quantifying SMN2 genes. We studied a group of 62 genetically confirmed SMA patients, 54 with homozygous absence of exons 7 and 8 of SMN1 and 8 with SMN2-SMN1 hybrid genes. A complete correlation using the three methods was observed in 32 patients (51.6%). In the remaining 30 patients, discordances between the three methods were found, including under or overestimation of SMN2 copies by marker analysis with respect to the quantitative methods (LightCycler and MLPA) because of lack of informativeness of markers, 3' deletions of SMN genes, and breakpoints in SMN2-SMN1 hybrid genes. The technical limitations and advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. We conclude that the three methods complement each other in estimating the SMN2 copy number in most cases. However, MLPA offers additional information to characterize SMA cases with particular rearrangements such as partial deletions and hybrid genes. PMID:21548796

  2. Enhanced Reliability and Accuracy for Field Deployable Bioforensic Detection and Discrimination of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, Causal Agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis Using Razor Ex Technology and TaqMan Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Melcher, Ulrich; Ochoa Corona, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, accurate and rapid multigene-based assay combining real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex) was validated for detection of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp, a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]). CVC, which is exotic to the United States, has spread through South and Central America and could significantly impact U.S. citrus if it arrives. A method for early, accurate and sensitive detection of Xfp in plant tissues is needed by plant health officials for inspection of products from quarantined locations, and by extension specialists for detection, identification and management of disease outbreaks and reservoir hosts. Two sets of specific PCR primers and probes, targeting Xfp genes for fimbrillin and the periplasmic iron-binding protein were designed. A third pair of primers targeting the conserved cobalamin synthesis protein gene was designed to detect all possible X. fastidiosa (Xf) strains. All three primer sets detected as little as 1 fg of plasmid DNA carrying X. fastidiosa target sequences and genomic DNA of Xfp at as little as 1 - 10 fg. The use of Razor Ex facilitates a rapid (about 30 min) in-field assay capability for detection of all Xf strains, and for specific detection of Xfp. Combined use of three primer sets targeting different genes increased the assay accuracy and broadened the range of detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a field-deployable rapid and reliable bioforensic detection and discrimination method for a bacterial phytopathogen based on multigene targets. PMID:24312333

  3. Label-Free Nanoplasmonic-Based Short Noncoding RNA Sensing at Attomolar Concentrations Allows for Quantitative and Highly Specific Assay of MicroRNA-10b in Biological Fluids and Circulating Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs consisting of 18–25 nucleotides that target specific mRNA moieties for translational repression or degradation, thereby modulating numerous biological processes. Although microRNAs have the ability to behave like oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a cell-autonomous manner, their exact roles following release into the circulation are only now being unraveled and it is important to establish sensitive assays to measure their levels in different compartments in the circulation. Here, an ultrasensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based microRNA sensor with single nucleotide specificity was developed using chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms attached onto a solid substrate with unprecedented long-term stability and reversibility. The sensor was used to specifically detect microRNA-10b at the attomolar (10–18 M) concentration in pancreatic cancer cell lines, derived tissue culture media, human plasma, and media and plasma exosomes. In addition, for the first time, our label-free and nondestructive sensing technique was used to quantify microRNA-10b in highly purified exosomes isolated from patients with pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis, and from normal controls. We show that microRNA-10b levels were significantly higher in plasma-derived exosomes from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients when compared with patients with chronic pancreatitis or normal controls. Our findings suggest that this unique technique can be used to design novel diagnostic strategies for pancreatic and other cancers based on the direct quantitative measurement of plasma and exosome microRNAs, and can be readily extended to other diseases with identifiable microRNA signatures. PMID:26444644

  4. The Quantitative Relationship Between ISO 15197 Accuracy Criteria and Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) in the Evaluation of Analytical Performance of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Systems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Scott; Simmons, David A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria and mean absolute relative difference (MARD), 2 methods for assessing the accuracy of blood glucose meters, is complex. While lower MARD values are generally better than higher MARD values, it is not possible to define a particular MARD value that ensures a blood glucose meter will satisfy the ISO accuracy criteria. The MARD value that ensures passing the ISO accuracy test can be described only as a probabilistic range. In this work, a Bayesian model is presented to represent the relationship between ISO accuracy criteria and MARD. Under the assumptions made in this work, there is nearly a 100% chance of satisfying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy requirements if the MARD value is between 3.25% and 5.25%. PMID:27118729

  5. TU-A-12A-12: Improved Airway Measurement Accuracy for Low Dose Quantitative CT (qCT) Using Statistical (ASIR), at Reduced DFOV, and High Resolution Kernels in a Phantom and Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yadava, G; Imai, Y; Hsieh, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative accuracy of Iodine Hounsfield Unit (HU) in conventional single-kVp scanning is susceptible to beam-hardening effect. Dual-energy CT has unique capabilities of quantification using monochromatic CT images, but this scanning mode requires the availability of the state-of-the-art CT scanner and, therefore, is limited in routine clinical practice. Purpose of this work was to develop a beam-hardening-correction (BHC) for single-kVp CT that can linearize Iodine projections at any nominal energy, apply this approach to study Iodine response with respect to keV, and compare with dual-energy based monochromatic images obtained from material-decomposition using 80kVp and 140kVp. Methods: Tissue characterization phantoms (Gammex Inc.), containing solid-Iodine inserts of different concentrations, were scanned using GE multi-slice CT scanner at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. A model-based BHC algorithm was developed where Iodine was estimated using re-projection of image volume and corrected through an iterative process. In the correction, the re-projected Iodine was linearized using a polynomial mapping between monochromatic path-lengths at various nominal energies (40 to 140 keV) and physically modeled polychromatic path-lengths. The beam-hardening-corrected 80kVp and 140kVp images (linearized approximately at effective energy of the beam) were used for dual-energy material-decomposition in Water-Iodine basis-pair followed by generation of monochromatic images. Characterization of Iodine HU and noise in the images obtained from singlekVp with BHC at various nominal keV, and corresponding dual-energy monochromatic images, was carried out. Results: Iodine HU vs. keV response from single-kVp with BHC and dual-energy monochromatic images were found to be very similar, indicating that single-kVp data may be used to create material specific monochromatic equivalent using modelbased projection linearization. Conclusion: This approach may enable quantification of

  6. Image analysis and quantitative morphology.

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative studies are increasingly found in the literature, particularly in the fields of development/evolution, pathology, and neurosciences. Image digitalization converts tissue images into a numeric form by dividing them into very small regions termed picture elements or pixels. Image analysis allows automatic morphometry of digitalized images, and stereology aims to understand the structural inner three-dimensional arrangement based on the analysis of slices showing two-dimensional information. To quantify morphological structures in an unbiased and reproducible manner, appropriate isotropic and uniform random sampling of sections, and updated stereological tools are needed. Through the correct use of stereology, a quantitative study can be performed with little effort; efficiency in stereology means as little counting as possible (little work), low cost (section preparation), but still good accuracy. This short text provides a background guide for non-expert morphologists. PMID:19960334

  7. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    PubMed

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually. PMID:21923052

  8. Using multiple calibration sets to improve the quantitative accuracy of partial least squares (PLS) regression on open-path fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectra of ammonia over wide concentration ranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A technique of using multiple calibration sets in partial least squares regression (PLS) was proposed to improve the quantitative determination of ammonia from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectra. The spectra were measured near animal farms, and the path-integrated concentration of ammonia...

  9. Ground Truth Sampling and LANDSAT Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. W.; Gunther, F. J.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that the key factor in any accuracy assessment of remote sensing data is the method used for determining the ground truth, independent of the remote sensing data itself. The sampling and accuracy procedures developed for nuclear power plant siting study are described. The purpose of the sampling procedure was to provide data for developing supervised classifications for two study sites and for assessing the accuracy of that and the other procedures used. The purpose of the accuracy assessment was to allow the comparison of the cost and accuracy of various classification procedures as applied to various data types.

  10. Quantitative Spectroscopy of Deneb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Florian; Przybilla, N.

    We use the visually brightest A-type supergiant Deneb (A2 Ia) as benchmark for testing a spectro- scopic analysis technique developed for quantitative studies of BA-type supergiants. Our NLTE spectrum synthesis technique allows us to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances with unprecedented accuracy. The study is based on a high-resolution and high-S/N spectrum obtained with the Echelle spectrograph FOCES on the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope. Practically all inconsistencies reported in earlier studies are resolved. A self-consistent view of Deneb is thus obtained, allowing us to discuss its evolutionary state in detail by comparison with the most recent generation of evolution models for massive stars. The basic atmospheric parameters Teff = 8525 ± 75 K and log g = 1.10 ± 0.05 dex (cgs) and the distance imply the following fundamental parameters for Deneb: M spec = 17 ± 3 M⊙ , L = 1.77 ± 0.29 · 105 L⊙ and R = 192 ± 16 R⊙ . The derived He and CNO abundances indicate mixing with nuclear processed matter. The high N/C ratio of 4.64 ± 1.39 and a N/O ratio of 0.88 ± 0.07 (mass fractions) could in principle be explained by evolutionary models with initially very rapid rotation. A mass of ˜ 22 M⊙ is implied for the progenitor on the zero-age main se- quence, i.e. it was a late O-type star. Significant mass-loss has occurred, probably enhanced by pronounced centrifugal forces. The observational constraints favour a scenario for the evolu- tion of Deneb where the effects of rotational mixing may be amplified by an interaction with a magnetic field. Analogous analyses of such highly luminous BA-type supergiants will allow for precision studies of different galaxies in the Local Group and beyond.

  11. Quantitative characterisation of sedimentary grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunwal, Mohit; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of sedimentary texture helps in determining the formation, transportation and deposition processes of sedimentary rocks. Grain size analysis is traditionally quantitative, whereas grain shape analysis is largely qualitative. A semi-automated approach to quantitatively analyse shape and size of sand sized sedimentary grains is presented. Grain boundaries are manually traced from thin section microphotographs in the case of lithified samples and are automatically identified in the case of loose sediments. Shape and size paramters can then be estimated using a software package written on the Mathematica platform. While automated methodology already exists for loose sediment analysis, the available techniques for the case of lithified samples are limited to cases of high definition thin section microphotographs showing clear contrast between framework grains and matrix. Along with the size of grain, shape parameters such as roundness, angularity, circularity, irregularity and fractal dimension are measured. A new grain shape parameter developed using Fourier descriptors has also been developed. To test this new approach theoretical examples were analysed and produce high quality results supporting the accuracy of the algorithm. Furthermore sandstone samples from known aeolian and fluvial environments from the Dingle Basin, County Kerry, Ireland were collected and analysed. Modern loose sediments from glacial till from County Cork, Ireland and aeolian sediments from Rajasthan, India have also been collected and analysed. A graphical summary of the data is presented and allows for quantitative distinction between samples extracted from different sedimentary environments.

  12. Enhancement of the spectral selectivity of complex samples by measuring them in a frozen state at low temperatures in order to improve accuracy for quantitative analysis. Part II. Determination of viscosity for lube base oils using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mooeung; Chung, Hoeil

    2013-03-01

    The use of selectivity-enhanced Raman spectra of lube base oil (LBO) samples achieved by the spectral collection under frozen conditions at low temperatures was effective for improving accuracy for the determination of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (KV@40). A collection of Raman spectra from samples cooled around -160 °C provided the most accurate measurement of KV@40. Components of the LBO samples were mainly long-chain hydrocarbons with molecular structures that were deformable when these were frozen, and the different structural deformabilities of the components enhanced spectral selectivity among the samples. To study the structural variation of components according to the change of sample temperature from cryogenic to ambient condition, n-heptadecane and pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) were selected as representative components of LBO samples, and their temperature-induced spectral features as well as the corresponding spectral loadings were investigated. A two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was also employed to explain the origin for the improved accuracy. The asynchronous 2D correlation pattern was simplest at the optimal temperature, indicating the occurrence of distinct and selective spectral variations, which enabled the variation of KV@40 of LBO samples to be more accurately assessed. PMID:23342358

  13. Key technologies for high-accuracy large mesh antenna reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Akira; Harada, Satoshi; Watanabe, Mitsunobu

    2003-12-01

    Nippon Telephone and Telegram Corporation (NTT) continues to develop the modular mesh-type deployable antenna. Antenna diameter can be changed from 5 m to about 20 m by changing the number of modules used with surface accuracy better than 2.4 mm RMS (including all error factors) with sufficient deployment reliability. Key technologies are the antenna's structural design, the deployment mechanism, the design tool, the analysis tool, and modularized testing/evaluation methods. This paper describes our beam steering mechanism. Tests show that it yields a beam pointing accuracy of better than 0.1°. Based on the S-band modular mesh antenna reflector, the surface accuracy degradation factors that must be considered in designing the new antenna are partially identified. The influence of modular connection errors on surface accuracy is quantitatively estimated. Our analysis tool SPADE is extended to include the addition of joint gaps. The addition of gaps allows non-linear vibration characteristics due to gapping in deployment hinges to be calculated. We intend to design a new type of mesh antenna reflector. Our new goal is an antenna for Ku or Ka band satellite communication. For this mission, the surface shape must be 5 times more accurate than is required for an S-band antenna.

  14. Accuracy of digital surface models generated from UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltner, Anette; Zenker, Albrecht

    2014-05-01

    The interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as a common survey and monitoring technology in geosciences is growing. Progress in digital photogrammetry and computer vision enables fast and precise creation of digital surface models (DSM). Measuring soil erosion with DSM derived from overlapping images is one potential application of UAV data. Therefor, the calculation of DSM with high resolution and accuracy is necessary. However, due to the chaotic characteristic of natural surfaces measuring the accuracy of a UAV-DSM is a difficult task. A first comparison of a field plot captured by UAV and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) allows for qualitative conclusions, but probable errors within the TLS-DSM (e.g. due to low incidence angles) impede comprised quantitative accuracy information. Thus, a millimetre accurate reference field with the size of 35 m² is designed and measured with a total station. DSM of the test area are generated with different cameras - single-lens reflex camera, compact system camera and compact camera - to account for different camera geometries and their performance at automatic image matching and orientation. Furthermore, different software is tested which on the one hand uses structure from motion and on the other hand a combination of methods from photogrammetry and computer vision. Results show accuracies within few millimetres for a simulated flying height of four metres.

  15. Relative accuracy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  16. Relative Accuracy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  17. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.

    1982-05-24

    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms.

  18. Improved accuracies for satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammeyer, P. C.; Fiala, A. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    A charge coupled device (CCD) camera on an optical telescope which follows the stars can be used to provide high accuracy comparisons between the line of sight to a satellite, over a large range of satellite altitudes, and lines of sight to nearby stars. The CCD camera can be rotated so the motion of the satellite is down columns of the CCD chip, and charge can be moved from row to row of the chip at a rate which matches the motion of the optical image of the satellite across the chip. Measurement of satellite and star images, together with accurate timing of charge motion, provides accurate comparisons of lines of sight. Given lines of sight to stars near the satellite, the satellite line of sight may be determined. Initial experiments with this technique, using an 18 cm telescope, have produced TDRS-4 observations which have an rms error of 0.5 arc second, 100 m at synchronous altitude. Use of a mosaic of CCD chips, each having its own rate of charge motion, in the focal place of a telescope would allow point images of a geosynchronous satellite and of stars to be formed simultaneously in the same telescope. The line of sight of such a satellite could be measured relative to nearby star lines of sight with an accuracy of approximately 0.03 arc second. Development of a star catalog with 0.04 arc second rms accuracy and perhaps ten stars per square degree would allow determination of satellite lines of sight with 0.05 arc second rms absolute accuracy, corresponding to 10 m at synchronous altitude. Multiple station time transfers through a communications satellite can provide accurate distances from the satellite to the ground stations. Such observations can, if calibrated for delays, determine satellite orbits to an accuracy approaching 10 m rms.

  19. Potential of accuracy profile for method validation in inductively coupled plasma spectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermet, J. M.; Granier, G.

    2012-10-01

    Method validation is usually performed over a range of concentrations for which analytical criteria must be verified. One important criterion in quantitative analysis is accuracy, i.e. the contribution of both trueness and precision. The study of accuracy over this range is called an accuracy profile and provides experimental tolerance intervals. Comparison with acceptability limits fixed by the end user defines a validity domain. This work describes the computation involved in the building of the tolerance intervals, particularly for the intermediate precision with within-laboratory experiments and for the reproducibility with interlaboratory studies. Computation is based on ISO 5725-4 and on previously published work. Moreover, the bias uncertainty is also computed to verify the bias contribution to accuracy. The various types of accuracy profile behavior are exemplified with results obtained by using ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This procedure allows the analyst to define unambiguously a validity domain for a given accuracy. However, because the experiments are time-consuming, the accuracy profile method is mainly dedicated to method validation.

  20. Meteor orbit determination with improved accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovla, Valery; Gritsevich, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Modern observational techniques make it possible to retrive meteor trajectory and its velocity with high accuracy. There has been a rapid rise in high quality observational data accumulating yearly. This fact creates new challenges for solving the problem of meteor orbit determination. Currently, traditional technique based on including corrections to zenith distance and apparent velocity using well-known Schiaparelli formula is widely used. Alternative approach relies on meteoroid trajectory correction using numerical integration of equation of motion (Clark & Wiegert, 2011; Zuluaga et al., 2013). In our work we suggest technique of meteor orbit determination based on strict coordinate transformation and integration of differential equation of motion. We demonstrate advantage of this method in comparison with traditional technique. We provide results of calculations by different methods for real, recently occurred fireballs, as well as for simulated cases with a priori known retrieval parameters. Simulated data were used to demonstrate the condition, when application of more complex technique is necessary. It was found, that for several low velocity meteoroids application of traditional technique may lead to dramatically delusion of orbit precision (first of all, due to errors in Ω, because this parameter has a highest potential accuracy). Our results are complemented by analysis of sources of perturbations allowing to quantitatively indicate which factors have to be considered in orbit determination. In addition, the developed method includes analysis of observational error propagation based on strict covariance transition, which is also presented.Acknowledgements. This work was carried out at MIIGAiK and supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 14-22-00197.References:Clark, D. L., & Wiegert, P. A. (2011). A numerical comparison with the Ceplecha analytical meteoroid orbit determination method. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46(8), pp. 1217

  1. Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra; Zhang, Jun; Genc, Suzanne; Kim, Myung K.; Berns, Michael W.; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy allows determination of dynamic changes in the optical thickness profile of a transparent object with subwavelength accuracy. Here, we report a quantitative phase laser microsurgery system for evaluation of cellular/ sub-cellular dynamic changes during laser micro-dissection. The proposed method takes advantage of the precise optical manipulation by the laser microbeam and quantitative phase imaging by digital holographic microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution. This system will permit quantitative evaluation of the damage and/or the repair of the cell or cell organelles in real time. PMID:19582118

  2. Structured illumination quantitative phase microscopy for enhanced resolution amplitude and phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Shwetadwip; Izatt, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is an established microscopy technique typically used to image samples at resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. Until now, however, achieving sub-diffraction resolution has predominantly been limited to intensity-based imaging modalities. Here, we introduce an analogue to conventional SIM that allows sub-diffraction resolution, quantitative phase-contrast imaging of optically transparent objects. We demonstrate sub-diffraction resolution amplitude and quantitative-phase imaging of phantom targets and enhanced resolution quantitative-phase imaging of cells. We report a phase accuracy to within 5% and phase noise of 0.06 rad. PMID:24156044

  3. GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the developmen...

  4. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  5. Theoretical prediction of lung nodule measurement accuracy under different acquisition and reconstruction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Jiang; Karau, Kelly

    2004-04-01

    Utilization of computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening has attracted significant research interests in recent years. Images reconstructed from CT studies are used for lung nodule characterization and three-dimensional lung lesion sizing. Methodologies have been developed to automatically identify and characterize lung nodules. In this paper, we analyze the impact of acquisition and reconstruction parameters on the accuracy of quantitative lung nodule characterization. The two major data acquisition parameters that impact the accuracy of the lung nodule measurement are acquisition mode and slice aperture. Acquisition mode includes both axial and helical scans. The investigated reconstruction parameters are the reconstruction filters and field-of-view. We first develop theoretical models that predict the system response under various acquisition and reconstruction conditions. These models allow clinicians to compare results under different conditions and make appropriate acquisition and reconstruction decisions. To validate our model, extensive phantom experiments are conducted. Experiments have demonstrated that our analytical models accurately predict the performance parameters under various conditions. Our study indicates that acquisition and reconstruction parameters can significantly impact the accuracy of the nodule volume measurement. Consequently, when conducting quantitative analysis on lung nodules, especially in sequential growth studies, it is important to make appropriate adjustment and correction to maintain the desired accuracy and to ensure effective patient management.

  6. Alaska national hydrography dataset positional accuracy assessment study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha; Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Constance, Eric; Mantey, Kim; Vinyard-Houx, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Initial visual assessments Wide range in the quality of fit between features in NHD and these new image sources. No statistical analysis has been performed to actually quantify accuracy Determining absolute accuracy is cost prohibitive (must collect independent, well defined test points) Quantitative analysis of relative positional error is feasible.

  7. Assessing the Accuracy of Quantitative Molecular Microbial Profiling

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Denise M.; Laver, Thomas; Temisak, Sasithon; Redshaw, Nicholas; Harris, Kathryn A.; Foy, Carole A.; Studholme, David J.; Huggett, Jim F.

    2014-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing in profiling microbial communities is providing an unprecedented ability to investigate microbiomes. Such studies typically apply one of two methods: amplicon sequencing using PCR to target a conserved orthologous sequence (typically the 16S ribosomal RNA gene) or whole (meta)genome sequencing (WGS). Both methods have been used to catalog the microbial taxa present in a sample and quantify their respective abundances. However, a comparison of the inherent precision or bias of the different sequencing approaches has not been performed. We previously developed a metagenomic control material (MCM) to investigate error when performing different sequencing strategies. Amplicon sequencing using four different primer strategies and two 16S rRNA regions was examined (Roche 454 Junior) and compared to WGS (Illumina HiSeq). All sequencing methods generally performed comparably and in good agreement with organism specific digital PCR (dPCR); WGS notably demonstrated very high precision. Where discrepancies between relative abundances occurred they tended to differ by less than twofold. Our findings suggest that when alternative sequencing approaches are used for microbial molecular profiling they can perform with good reproducibility, but care should be taken when comparing small differences between distinct methods. This work provides a foundation for future work comparing relative differences between samples and the impact of extraction methods. We also highlight the value of control materials when conducting microbial profiling studies to benchmark methods and set appropriate thresholds. PMID:25421243

  8. Interoceptive accuracy and panic.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, L A; Craske, M G

    1999-12-01

    Psychophysiological models of panic hypothesize that panickers focus attention on and become anxious about the physical sensations associated with panic. Attention on internal somatic cues has been labeled interoception. The present study examined the role of physiological arousal and subjective anxiety on interoceptive accuracy. Infrequent panickers and nonanxious participants participated in an initial baseline to examine overall interoceptive accuracy. Next, participants ingested caffeine, about which they received either safety or no safety information. Using a mental heartbeat tracking paradigm, participants' count of their heartbeats during specific time intervals were coded based on polygraph measures. Infrequent panickers were more accurate in the perception of their heartbeats than nonanxious participants. Changes in physiological arousal were not associated with increased accuracy on the heartbeat perception task. However, higher levels of self-reported anxiety were associated with superior performance. PMID:10596462

  9. Precision and sensitivity optimization of quantitative measurements in solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziarelli, Fabio; Viel, Stéphane; Sanchez, Stéphanie; Cross, David; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    This work presents a methodology for optimizing the precision, accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative solid state NMR measurements based on the external reference method. It is shown that the sample must be exclusively located within and completely span the coil region where the NMR response is directly proportional to the sample amount. We describe two methods to determine this "quantitative" coil volume, based on whether the probe is equipped or not with a gradient coil. In addition, to improve the sensitivity and the accuracy, an optimum rotor packing design is described, which allows the sample volume of the rotor to be matched to the quantitative coil volume. Experiments conducted on adamantane and NaCl, which are representative of a soft and hard material, respectively, show that one order of magnitude increase in experimental precision can be achieved with this methodology. Interestingly, the precision can be further improved by using the ERETIC™ method in order to compensate for most instrumental instabilities.

  10. Accuracy of deception judgments.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; DePaulo, Bella M

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lies as deceptive and 61% of truths as nondeceptive. Relative to cross-judge differences in accuracy, mean lie-truth discrimination abilities are nontrivial, with a mean accuracy d of roughly .40. This produces an effect that is at roughly the 60th percentile in size, relative to others that have been meta-analyzed by social psychologists. Alternative indexes of lie-truth discrimination accuracy correlate highly with percentage correct, and rates of lie detection vary little from study to study. Our meta-analyses reveal that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed, and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest. We propose that people judge others' deceptions more harshly than their own and that this double standard in evaluating deceit can explain much of the accumulated literature. PMID:16859438

  11. Marginal accuracy of temporary composite crowns.

    PubMed

    Tjan, A H; Tjan, A H; Grant, B E

    1987-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to quantitatively compare the marginal adaptation of temporary crowns made from Protemp material with those made from Scutan, Provisional, and Trim materials. A direct technique was used to make temporary restorations on prepared teeth with an impression as a matrix. Protem, Trim, and Provisional materials produced temporary crowns of comparable accuracy. Crowns made from Scutan material had open margins. PMID:2959770

  12. A logical way through the limits of quantitation in inductively coupled plasma spectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermet, J. M.; Granier, G.; Fichet, P.

    2012-10-01

    The limit of quantitation (LOQ) is a crucial parameter in quantitative analysis. Besides the classical "10 sB approach", other concepts have been previously described based on the limitation resulting from the calibration procedure, namely from the prediction bands and the uncertainty calibration. Because of the difficulty of obtaining a reliable value of the blank standard deviation, this approach was replaced by the study of the %RSD of the net signal as a function of the concentration. Recently described, the so-called accuracy profile method, accuracy being the contribution of both the trueness and the precision, allows the analyst to define a validity domain, the lowest point acting as a limit of quantitation. The aim of this work was to determine these various limits of quantitation, including that from the accuracy profile, to compare them, and to study the parameters that can influence their values. It was concluded that the LOQ deduced from the accuracy profile is a realistic one. Its value is mainly influenced by the calibration procedure, particularly when a weighting procedure is used. A 1/y weighting factor, y being the analyte line intensity, seems to be an efficient compromise for calibration.

  13. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  14. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of As-Se glasses and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordovskiĭ, G. A.; Marchenko, A. V.; Seregin, P. P.; Smirnova, N. N.; Terukov, E. I.

    2009-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic and selenium in As100 - x Se x glassy alloys and related films have been determined by the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using the external standard technique. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach allows the compositions of As100 - x Se x glasses and films to be quantitatively determined with an accuracy of Δ x = ±0.02.

  15. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  16. Imaging Performance of Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lenox, Mark W.; Wiskin, James; Lewis, Matthew A.; Darrouzet, Stephen; Borup, David; Hsieh, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QTUS) is a tomographic transmission ultrasound modality that is capable of generating 3D speed-of-sound maps of objects in the field of view. It performs this measurement by propagating a plane wave through the medium from a transmitter on one side of a water tank to a high resolution receiver on the opposite side. This information is then used via inverse scattering to compute a speed map. In addition, the presence of reflection transducers allows the creation of a high resolution, spatially compounded reflection map that is natively coregistered to the speed map. A prototype QTUS system was evaluated for measurement and geometric accuracy as well as for the ability to correctly determine speed of sound. PMID:26604918

  17. Quantitative biomedical mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leenheer, Andrép; Thienpont, Linda M.

    1992-09-01

    The scope of this contribution is an illustration of the capabilities of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for quantification of target substances in the biomedical field. After a brief discussion of the general principles of quantitative MS in biological samples, special attention will be paid to new technological developments or trends in IDMS from selected examples from the literature. The final section will deal with the use of IDMS for accuracy assessment in clinical chemistry. Methodological aspects considered crucial for avoiding sources of error will be discussed.

  18. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, several algorithms that allow for quantitative photoacoustic reconstruction of tissue optical, acoustic and physiological properties are described in a finite-element method based framework. These quantitative reconstruction algorithms are compared, and the merits and limitations associated with these methods are discussed. In addition, a multispectral approach is presented for concurrent reconstructions of multiple parameters including deoxyhaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin and water concentrations as well as acoustic speed. Simulation and in vivo experiments are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the reconstruction algorithms presented. PMID:19581254

  19. Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.

  20. Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.

    1994-01-01

    Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.

  1. High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbier, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.

  2. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  3. On Quantitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George

    2009-01-01

    "Quantitizing", commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance…

  4. QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In toxicology, the role of quantitative assessment of brain morphology can be understood in the context of two types of treatment-related alterations. One type of alteration is specifically associated with treatment and is not observed in control animals. Measurement ...

  5. Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Takwoingi, Yemisi; Riley, Richard D; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain methods for data synthesis of evidence from diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies, and to illustrate different types of analyses that may be performed in a DTA systematic review. Methods We described properties of meta-analytic methods for quantitative synthesis of evidence. We used a DTA review comparing the accuracy of three screening questionnaires for bipolar disorder to illustrate application of the methods for each type of analysis. Results The discriminatory ability of a test is commonly expressed in terms of sensitivity (proportion of those with the condition who test positive) and specificity (proportion of those without the condition who test negative). There is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, as an increasing threshold for defining test positivity will decrease sensitivity and increase specificity. Methods recommended for meta-analysis of DTA studies --such as the bivariate or hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model --jointly summarise sensitivity and specificity while taking into account this threshold effect, as well as allowing for between study differences in test performance beyond what would be expected by chance. The bivariate model focuses on estimation of a summary sensitivity and specificity at a common threshold while the HSROC model focuses on the estimation of a summary curve from studies that have used different thresholds. Conclusions Meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies can provide answers to important clinical questions. We hope this article will provide clinicians with sufficient understanding of the terminology and methods to aid interpretation of systematic reviews and facilitate better patient care. PMID:26446042

  6. Accuracy of schemes with nonuniform meshes for compressible fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of the space discretization for time-dependent problems when a nonuniform mesh is used is considered. Many schemes reduce to first-order accuracy while a popular finite volume scheme is even inconsistent for general grids. This accuracy is based on physical variables. However, when accuracy is measured in computational variables then second-order accuracy can be obtained. This is meaningful only if the mesh accurately reflects the properties of the solution. In addition, the stability properties of some improved accurate schemes are analyzed and it can be shown that they also allow for larger time steps when Runge-Kutta type methods are used to advance in time.

  7. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  8. Analysis of deformable image registration accuracy using computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Chetty, Indrin J

    2010-03-01

    Computer aided modeling of anatomic deformation, allowing various techniques and protocols in radiation therapy to be systematically verified and studied, has become increasingly attractive. In this study the potential issues in deformable image registration (DIR) were analyzed based on two numerical phantoms: One, a synthesized, low intensity gradient prostate image, and the other a lung patient's CT image data set. Each phantom was modeled with region-specific material parameters with its deformation solved using a finite element method. The resultant displacements were used to construct a benchmark to quantify the displacement errors of the Demons and B-Spline-based registrations. The results show that the accuracy of these registration algorithms depends on the chosen parameters, the selection of which is closely associated with the intensity gradients of the underlying images. For the Demons algorithm, both single resolution (SR) and multiresolution (MR) registrations required approximately 300 iterations to reach an accuracy of 1.4 mm mean error in the lung patient's CT image (and 0.7 mm mean error averaged in the lung only). For the low gradient prostate phantom, these algorithms (both SR and MR) required at least 1600 iterations to reduce their mean errors to 2 mm. For the B-Spline algorithms, best performance (mean errors of 1.9 mm for SR and 1.6 mm for MR, respectively) on the low gradient prostate was achieved using five grid nodes in each direction. Adding more grid nodes resulted in larger errors. For the lung patient's CT data set, the B-Spline registrations required ten grid nodes in each direction for highest accuracy (1.4 mm for SR and 1.5 mm for MR). The numbers of iterations or grid nodes required for optimal registrations depended on the intensity gradients of the underlying images. In summary, the performance of the Demons and B-Spline registrations have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical phantoms. The results show that parameter

  9. Analysis of deformable image registration accuracy using computational modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2010-03-15

    Computer aided modeling of anatomic deformation, allowing various techniques and protocols in radiation therapy to be systematically verified and studied, has become increasingly attractive. In this study the potential issues in deformable image registration (DIR) were analyzed based on two numerical phantoms: One, a synthesized, low intensity gradient prostate image, and the other a lung patient's CT image data set. Each phantom was modeled with region-specific material parameters with its deformation solved using a finite element method. The resultant displacements were used to construct a benchmark to quantify the displacement errors of the Demons and B-Spline-based registrations. The results show that the accuracy of these registration algorithms depends on the chosen parameters, the selection of which is closely associated with the intensity gradients of the underlying images. For the Demons algorithm, both single resolution (SR) and multiresolution (MR) registrations required approximately 300 iterations to reach an accuracy of 1.4 mm mean error in the lung patient's CT image (and 0.7 mm mean error averaged in the lung only). For the low gradient prostate phantom, these algorithms (both SR and MR) required at least 1600 iterations to reduce their mean errors to 2 mm. For the B-Spline algorithms, best performance (mean errors of 1.9 mm for SR and 1.6 mm for MR, respectively) on the low gradient prostate was achieved using five grid nodes in each direction. Adding more grid nodes resulted in larger errors. For the lung patient's CT data set, the B-Spline registrations required ten grid nodes in each direction for highest accuracy (1.4 mm for SR and 1.5 mm for MR). The numbers of iterations or grid nodes required for optimal registrations depended on the intensity gradients of the underlying images. In summary, the performance of the Demons and B-Spline registrations have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical phantoms. The results show that parameter

  10. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant. PMID:9469693

  11. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  12. Prediction of Rate Constants for Catalytic Reactions with Chemical Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ex machina: A computational method for predicting rate constants for reactions within microporous zeolite catalysts with chemical accuracy has recently been reported. A key feature of this method is a stepwise QM/MM approach that allows accuracy to be achieved while using realistic models with accessible computer resources. PMID:27329206

  13. Advancing the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of biomolecular detection using multi-length-scale engineering.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Shana O; Mirkin, Chad A; Walt, David R; Ismagilov, Rustem F; Toner, Mehmet; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in identifying disease biomarkers has increased the importance of creating high-performance detection technologies. Over the last decade, the design of many detection platforms has focused on either the nano or micro length scale. Here, we review recent strategies that combine nano- and microscale materials and devices to produce large improvements in detection sensitivity, speed and accuracy, allowing previously undetectable biomarkers to be identified in clinical samples. Microsensors that incorporate nanoscale features can now rapidly detect disease-related nucleic acids expressed in patient samples. New microdevices that separate large clinical samples into nanocompartments allow precise quantitation of analytes, and microfluidic systems that utilize nanoscale binding events can detect rare cancer cells in the bloodstream more accurately than before. These advances will lead to faster and more reliable clinical diagnostic devices. PMID:25466541

  14. Advancing the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of biomolecular detection using multi-length-scale engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Shana O.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Walt, David R.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; Toner, Mehmet; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in identifying disease biomarkers has increased the importance of creating high-performance detection technologies. Over the last decade, the design of many detection platforms has focused on either the nano or micro length scale. Here, we review recent strategies that combine nano- and microscale materials and devices to produce large improvements in detection sensitivity, speed and accuracy, allowing previously undetectable biomarkers to be identified in clinical samples. Microsensors that incorporate nanoscale features can now rapidly detect disease-related nucleic acids expressed in patient samples. New microdevices that separate large clinical samples into nanocompartments allow precise quantitation of analytes, and microfluidic systems that utilize nanoscale binding events can detect rare cancer cells in the bloodstream more accurately than before. These advances will lead to faster and more reliable clinical diagnostic devices. PMID:25466541

  15. Advancing the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of biomolecular detection using multi-length-scale engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Shana O.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Walt, David R.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; Toner, Mehmet; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in identifying disease biomarkers has increased the importance of creating high-performance detection technologies. Over the last decade, the design of many detection platforms has focused on either the nano or micro length scale. Here, we review recent strategies that combine nano- and microscale materials and devices to produce large improvements in detection sensitivity, speed and accuracy, allowing previously undetectable biomarkers to be identified in clinical samples. Microsensors that incorporate nanoscale features can now rapidly detect disease-related nucleic acids expressed in patient samples. New microdevices that separate large clinical samples into nanocompartments allow precise quantitation of analytes, and microfluidic systems that utilize nanoscale binding events can detect rare cancer cells in the bloodstream more accurately than before. These advances will lead to faster and more reliable clinical diagnostic devices.

  16. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowance rates. 591.305 Section 591.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may not exceed $10 a day....

  17. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  18. Air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Morrison, D. D.; Zipper, I.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study are presented. The objective of the study was to establish quantitative relationships between the surveillance accuracies, update rates, and the communication load associated with the tactical control of aircraft for conflict resolution. The relationships are established for typical types of aircraft, phases of flight, and types of airspace. Specific cases are analyzed to determine the surveillance accuracies and update rates required to prevent two aircraft from approaching each other too closely.

  19. [Quantitative ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Barkmann, R; Glüer, C-C

    2006-10-01

    Methods of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can be used to obtain knowledge about bone fragility. Comprehensive study results exist showing the power of QUS for the estimation of osteoporotic fracture risk. Nevertheless, the variety of technologies, devices, and variables as well as different degrees of validation of the single devices have to be taken into account. Using methods to simulate ultrasound propagation, the complex interaction between ultrasound and bone could be understood and the propagation could be visualized. Preceding widespread clinical use, it has to be clarified if patients with low QUS values will profit from therapy, as it has been shown for DXA. Moreover, the introduction of quality assurance measures is essential. The user should know the limitations of the methods and be able to interpret the results correctly. Applied in an adequate manner QUS methods could then, due to lower costs and absence of ionizing radiation, become important players in osteoporosis management. PMID:16896637

  20. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  1. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  2. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  3. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  4. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  5. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  6. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  7. Landsat classification accuracy assessment procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, R. R.; Szajgin, John

    1982-01-01

    A working conference was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 12-14 November, 1980 dealing with Landsat classification Accuracy Assessment Procedures. Thirteen formal presentations were made on three general topics: (1) sampling procedures, (2) statistical analysis techniques, and (3) examples of projects which included accuracy assessment and the associated costs, logistical problems, and value of the accuracy data to the remote sensing specialist and the resource manager. Nearly twenty conference attendees participated in two discussion sessions addressing various issues associated with accuracy assessment. This paper presents an account of the accomplishments of the conference.

  8. Assessing genomic selection prediction accuracy in a dynamic barley breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection is a method to improve quantitative traits in crops and livestock by estimating breeding values of selection candidates using phenotype and genome-wide marker data sets. Prediction accuracy has been evaluated through simulation and cross-validation, however validation based on prog...

  9. Regulation of Memory Accuracy with Multiple Answers: The Plurality Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Karlos; Higham, Philip A.; Martin-Luengo, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated the regulation of memory accuracy with a new regulatory mechanism: the plurality option. This mechanism is closely related to the grain-size option but involves control over the number of alternatives contained in an answer rather than the quantitative boundaries of a single answer. Participants were…

  10. Accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work provides a quantitative assessment of the positional tracking accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System. Method: Three experiments were completed: (a) static rigid-body tracking across different locations in the electromagnetic field volume, (b) dynamic rigid-body tracking across different locations within the…

  11. On the Accuracy of Genomic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Rabier, Charles-Elie; Barre, Philippe; Asp, Torben; Charmet, Gilles; Mangin, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection is focused on prediction of breeding values of selection candidates by means of high density of markers. It relies on the assumption that all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) tend to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with at least one marker. In this context, we present theoretical results regarding the accuracy of genomic selection, i.e., the correlation between predicted and true breeding values. Typically, for individuals (so-called test individuals), breeding values are predicted by means of markers, using marker effects estimated by fitting a ridge regression model to a set of training individuals. We present a theoretical expression for the accuracy; this expression is suitable for any configurations of LD between QTLs and markers. We also introduce a new accuracy proxy that is free of the QTL parameters and easily computable; it outperforms the proxies suggested in the literature, in particular, those based on an estimated effective number of independent loci (Me). The theoretical formula, the new proxy, and existing proxies were compared for simulated data, and the results point to the validity of our approach. The calculations were also illustrated on a new perennial ryegrass set (367 individuals) genotyped for 24,957 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this case, most of the proxies studied yielded similar results because of the lack of markers for coverage of the entire genome (2.7 Gb). PMID:27322178

  12. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  13. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  14. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  15. Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) accuracy assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szajgin, John; Pettinger, L.R.; Linden, D.S.; Ohlen, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative accuracy assessment was performed for the vegetation classification map produced as part of the Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) project. This project was a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. The objective of the accuracy assessment was to estimate (with a precision of ?10 percent at the 90 percent confidence level) the comission error in each of the eight level II hierarchical vegetation cover types. A stratified two-phase (double) cluster sample was used. Phase I consisted of 160 photointerpreted plots representing clusters of Landsat pixels, and phase II consisted of ground data collection at 80 of the phase I cluster sites. Ground data were used to refine the phase I error estimates by means of a linear regression model. The classified image was stratified by assigning each 15-pixel cluster to the stratum corresponding to the dominant cover type within each cluster. This method is known as stratified plurality sampling. Overall error was estimated to be 36 percent with a standard error of 2 percent. Estimated error for individual vegetation classes ranged from a low of 10 percent ?6 percent for evergreen woodland to 81 percent ?7 percent for cropland and pasture. Total cost of the accuracy assessment was $106,950 for the one-million-hectare study area. The combination of the stratified plurality sampling (SPS) method of sample allocation with double sampling provided the desired estimates within the required precision levels. The overall accuracy results confirmed that highly accurate digital classification of vegetation is difficult to perform in semiarid environments, due largely to the sparse vegetation cover. Nevertheless, these techniques show promise for providing more accurate information than is presently available for many BLM-administered lands.

  16. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  17. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  18. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  19. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  20. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  1. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  2. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  3. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  4. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  5. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  6. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  7. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  8. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  9. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  10. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  11. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  12. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are...

  13. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  15. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  16. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  17. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  18. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  19. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  20. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  1. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  4. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  5. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  6. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  7. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  8. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  9. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  10. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  11. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  12. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  13. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs....

  14. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  15. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  16. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  17. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  18. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  19. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  20. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  1. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  4. Edge technique lidar for high accuracy, high spatial resolution wind measurement in the Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Gentry, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Army Research Office (ARO) Geosciences Program is to measure the three dimensional wind field in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over a measurement volume with a 50 meter spatial resolution and with measurement accuracies of the order of 20 cm/sec. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a high vertical resolution lidar experiment using the edge technique for high accuracy measurement of the atmospheric wind field to meet the ARO requirements. This experiment allows the powerful capabilities of the edge technique to be quantitatively evaluated. In the edge technique, a laser is located on the steep slope of a high resolution spectral filter. This produces large changes in measured signal for small Doppler shifts. A differential frequency technique renders the Doppler shift measurement insensitive to both laser and filter frequency jitter and drift. The measurement is also relatively insensitive to the laser spectral width for widths less than the width of the edge filter. Thus, the goal is to develop a system which will yield a substantial improvement in the state of the art of wind profile measurement in terms of both vertical resolution and accuracy and which will provide a unique capability for atmospheric wind studies.

  5. Will it Blend? Visualization and Accuracy Evaluation of High-Resolution Fuzzy Vegetation Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, A.; Kania, A.

    2016-06-01

    Instead of assigning every map pixel to a single class, fuzzy classification includes information on the class assigned to each pixel but also the certainty of this class and the alternative possible classes based on fuzzy set theory. The advantages of fuzzy classification for vegetation mapping are well recognized, but the accuracy and uncertainty of fuzzy maps cannot be directly quantified with indices developed for hard-boundary categorizations. The rich information in such a map is impossible to convey with a single map product or accuracy figure. Here we introduce a suite of evaluation indices and visualization products for fuzzy maps generated with ensemble classifiers. We also propose a way of evaluating classwise prediction certainty with "dominance profiles" visualizing the number of pixels in bins according to the probability of the dominant class, also showing the probability of all the other classes. Together, these data products allow a quantitative understanding of the rich information in a fuzzy raster map both for individual classes and in terms of variability in space, and also establish the connection between spatially explicit class certainty and traditional accuracy metrics. These map products are directly comparable to widely used hard boundary evaluation procedures, support active learning-based iterative classification and can be applied for operational use.

  6. Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Zakarauskas, Pierre; Dixon, Matt; Ellamil, Melissa; Thompson, Evan; Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1–15,000 hrs experience). Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a ‘body-scanning’ meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold) as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices. PMID:23049790

  7. Semantic Focusing Allows Fully Automated Single-Layer Slide Scanning of Cervical Cytology Slides

    PubMed Central

    Lahrmann, Bernd; Valous, Nektarios A.; Eisenmann, Urs; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Grabe, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) in conjunction with Whole-Slide Imaging (WSI) enables the objective and sensitive and quantitative evaluation of biomarkers in cytology. However, the complex three-dimensional distribution of cells on LBC slides requires manual focusing, long scanning-times, and multi-layer scanning. Here, we present a solution that overcomes these limitations in two steps: first, we make sure that focus points are only set on cells. Secondly, we check the total slide focus quality. From a first analysis we detected that superficial dust can be separated from the cell layer (thin layer of cells on the glass slide) itself. Then we analyzed 2,295 individual focus points from 51 LBC slides stained for p16 and Ki67. Using the number of edges in a focus point image, specific color values and size-inclusion filters, focus points detecting cells could be distinguished from focus points on artifacts (accuracy 98.6%). Sharpness as total focus quality of a virtual LBC slide is computed from 5 sharpness features. We trained a multi-parameter SVM classifier on 1,600 images. On an independent validation set of 3,232 cell images we achieved an accuracy of 94.8% for classifying images as focused. Our results show that single-layer scanning of LBC slides is possible and how it can be achieved. We assembled focus point analysis and sharpness classification into a fully automatic, iterative workflow, free of user intervention, which performs repetitive slide scanning as necessary. On 400 LBC slides we achieved a scanning-time of 13.9±10.1 min with 29.1±15.5 focus points. In summary, the integration of semantic focus information into whole-slide imaging allows automatic high-quality imaging of LBC slides and subsequent biomarker analysis. PMID:23585899

  8. Display considerations for quantitative radiology.

    PubMed

    Badano, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    The early prediction of the response to treatment using quantitative imaging holds great promise for streamlining the development, assessment, approval and personalization of new therapies. However, to realize this potential, quantitative radiology needs to develop an understanding of several limitations that might hinder the application of quantitation tools and techniques. Among these limitations, the fidelity of the display device used to interpret the image data is a significant factor that affects the accuracy and precision of quantitative visual tasks, particularly those involving large, volumetric, multi-dimensional and multi-modality image sets. This paper reviews several aspects of display performance and display image quality that are likely to contribute negatively to the robustness of quantitative imaging methods. Display characteristics that will be addressed include the grayscale and color performance of different classes of display devices, the angular distribution of the emissions of liquid crystal technologies, and the temporal response for stack mode viewing. The paper will also summarize current efforts for the metrology, standardization and image quality assessment methods for display devices.: PMID:24980719

  9. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  10. Concluding Report: Quantitative Tomography Simulations and Reconstruction Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B; Martz, H E; Slone, D M; Jackson, J A; Schach von Wittenau, A E; Goodman, D M; Logan, C M; Hall, J M

    2002-02-01

    In this report we describe the original goals and final achievements of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The Quantitative was Tomography Simulations and Reconstruction Algorithms project (99-ERD-015) funded as a multi-directorate, three-year effort to advance the state of the art in radiographic simulation and tomographic reconstruction by improving simulation and including this simulation in the tomographic reconstruction process. Goals were to improve the accuracy of radiographic simulation, and to couple advanced radiographic simulation tools with a robust, many-variable optimization algorithm. In this project, we were able to demonstrate accuracy in X-Ray simulation at the 2% level, which is an improvement of roughly a factor of 5 in accuracy, and we have successfully coupled our simulation tools with the CCG (Constrained Conjugate Gradient) optimization algorithm, allowing reconstructions that include spectral effects and blurring in the reconstructions. Another result of the project was the assembly of a low-scatter X-Ray imaging facility for use in nondestructive evaluation applications. We conclude with a discussion of future work.

  11. Accuracy assessment system and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Houston, A. G.; Badhwar, G.; Bender, M. J.; Rader, M. L.; Eppler, W. G.; Ahlers, C. W.; White, W. P.; Vela, R. R.; Hsu, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy and reliability of LACIE estimates of wheat production, area, and yield is determined at regular intervals throughout the year by the accuracy assessment subsystem which also investigates the various LACIE error sources, quantifies the errors, and relates then to their causes. Timely feedback of these error evaluations to the LACIE project was the only mechanism by which improvements in the crop estimation system could be made during the short 3 year experiment.

  12. Evaluating LANDSAT wildland classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures to evaluate the accuracy of LANDSAT derived wildland cover classifications are described. The evaluation procedures include: (1) implementing a stratified random sample for obtaining unbiased verification data; (2) performing area by area comparisons between verification and LANDSAT data for both heterogeneous and homogeneous fields; (3) providing overall and individual classification accuracies with confidence limits; (4) displaying results within contingency tables for analysis of confusion between classes; and (5) quantifying the amount of information (bits/square kilometer) conveyed in the LANDSAT classification.

  13. The accuracy of automatic tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastrov, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that tracking accuracy changes similarly to the rate of change of the curve of the measurement conversion. The problem that internal noise increases along with the signals processed by the tracking device and that tracking accuracy thus drops were considered. The main prerequisite for solution is consideration of the dependences of the output signal of the tracking device sensor not only on the measured parameter but on the signal itself.

  14. Accuracy of lineaments mapping from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nicholas M.

    1989-01-01

    The use of Landsat and other space imaging systems for lineaments detection is analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in recognizing and mapping fractures and faults, and the results of several studies providing a quantitative assessment of lineaments mapping accuracies are discussed. The cases under investigation include a Landsat image of the surface overlying a part of the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, the Landsat images and selected radar imagery of major lineaments systems distributed over much of Canadian Shield, and space imagery covering a part of the East African Rift in Kenya. It is demonstrated that space imagery can detect a significant portion of a region's fracture pattern, however, significant fractions of faults and fractures recorded on a field-produced geological map are missing from the imagery as it is evident in the Kenya case.

  15. Binary Imaging Analysis for Comprehensive Quantitative Assessment of Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Daniel A.; Moradzadeh, Arash; Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Brenner, Michael J.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Wei, Cindy H.; Tung, Thomas H.H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry is the current gold standard for objective measurement of nerve architecture and its components. Many methods still in use rely heavily upon manual techniques that are prohibitively time consuming, predisposing to operator fatigue, sampling error, and overall limited reproducibility. More recently, investigators have attempted to combine the speed of automated morphometry with the accuracy of manual and semi-automated methods. Systematic refinements in binary imaging analysis techniques combined with an algorithmic approach allow for more exhaustive characterization of nerve parameters in the surgically relevant injury paradigms of regeneration following crush, transection, and nerve gap injuries. The binary imaging method introduced here uses multiple bitplanes to achieve reproducible, high throughput quantitative assessment of peripheral nerve. Number of myelinated axons, myelinated fiber diameter, myelin thickness, fiber distributions, myelinated fiber density, and neural debris can be quantitatively evaluated with stratification of raw data by nerve component. Results of this semi-automated method are validated by comparing values against those obtained with manual techniques. The use of this approach results in more rapid, accurate, and complete assessment of myelinated axons than manual techniques. PMID:17675163

  16. Noise limitations on monopulse accuracy in a multibeam antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loraine, J.; Wallington, J. R.

    A multibeam system allowing target tracking using monopulse processing switched from beamset to beamset is considered. Attention is given to the accuracy of target angular position estimation. An analytical method is used to establish performance limits under low SNR conditions for a multibeam system. It is shown that, in order to achieve accuracies comparable to those of conventional monopulse systems, much higher SNRs are needed.

  17. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  18. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  19. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  20. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  1. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  2. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  3. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  4. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  5. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  7. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  8. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  9. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  10. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  11. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  12. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  13. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  14. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  15. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  16. 19 CFR 191.141 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback allowance. 191.141 Section 191.141 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.141 Drawback allowance. Section 313(h) of the...

  17. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  18. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  19. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  20. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  1. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  2. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  3. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  4. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  5. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  6. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  7. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  11. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  12. 4 CFR 5.6 - Allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances. 5.6 Section 5.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.6 Allowances. The provisions of chapter 59 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the Executive Branch apply to Government...

  13. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  14. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  15. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  16. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  17. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  18. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  19. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  20. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  1. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 33.22 Section 33.22 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  2. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  3. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 31.22 Section 31.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  4. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  5. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-87....

  6. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  7. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  8. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  9. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified... and other Part B supplier services furnished under arrangements is an allowable cost to the extent it... reasonable if they— (A) Do not exceed those that a prudent and cost-conscious buyer would incur to...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  11. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  12. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  13. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  14. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  15. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  16. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  17. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  18. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  19. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  20. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  1. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants.

    PubMed

    Appel, Alyssa A; Larson, Jeffery C; Jiang, Bin; Zhong, Zhong; Anastasio, Mark A; Brey, Eric M

    2016-03-01

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript, we investigate the use of XPC for imaging a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted in a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. There were no differences between invading tissue measurements from XPC and the gold-standard histology. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response. PMID:26487123

  2. Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes: Deletion quantitation with bivariate flow karyotyping allows mapping of patient breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.A. ); Engh, G. van den; Trask, B.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Bivariate flow karyotyping was used to estimate the deletion sizes for a series of patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes. The deletion estimates were used to develop an approximate scale for the genomic map in Xp21. The bivariate flow karyotype results were compared with clinical and molecular genetic information on the extent of the patients' deletions, and these various types of data were consistent. The resulting map spans >15 Mb, from the telomeric interval between DXS41 (99-6) and DXS68 (1-4) to a position centromeric to the ornithine transcarbamylase locus. The deletion sizing was considered to be accurate to [plus minus]1 Mb. The map provides information on the relative localization of genes and markers within this region. For example, the map suggests that the adrenal hypoplasia congenita and glycerol kinase genes are physically close to each other, are within 1-2 Mb of the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, and are nearer to the DMD locus than to the more distal marker DXS28 (C7). Information of this type is useful in developing genomic strategies for positional cloning in Xp21. These investigations demonstrate that the DNA from patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes can be valuable reagents, not only for ordering loci and markers but also for providing an approximate scale to the map of the Xp21 region surrounding DMD. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  4. Quantitative assessment of computed radiography quality control parameters.

    PubMed

    Rampado, O; Isoardi, P; Ropolo, R

    2006-03-21

    Quality controls for testing the performance of computed radiography (CR) systems have been recommended by manufacturers and medical physicists' organizations. The purpose of this work was to develop a set of image processing tools for quantitative assessment of computed radiography quality control parameters. Automatic image analysis consisted in detecting phantom details, defining regions of interest and acquiring measurements. The tested performance characteristics included dark noise, uniformity, exposure calibration, linearity, low-contrast and spatial resolution, spatial accuracy, laser beam function and erasure thoroughness. CR devices from two major manufacturers were evaluated. We investigated several approaches to quantify the detector response uniformity. We developed methods to characterize the spatial accuracy and resolution properties across the entire image area, based on the Fourier analysis of the image of a fine wire mesh. The implemented methods were sensitive to local blurring and allowed us to detect a local distortion of 4% or greater in any part of an imaging plate. The obtained results showed that the developed image processing tools allow us to implement a quality control program for CR with short processing time and with absence of subjectivity in the evaluation of the parameters. PMID:16510964

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Computer-Aided Assessment of Intranodal Vascularity in Distinguishing Different Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Ying, Michael; Cheng, Sammy C H; Ahuja, Anil T

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is useful in assessing cervical lymphadenopathy. Advancement of computer science technology allows accurate and reliable assessment of medical images. The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computer-aided assessment of the intranodal vascularity index (VI) in differentiating the various common causes of cervical lymphadenopathy. Power Doppler sonograms of 347 patients (155 with metastasis, 23 with lymphoma, 44 with tuberculous lymphadenitis, 125 reactive) with palpable cervical lymph nodes were reviewed. Ultrasound images of cervical nodes were evaluated, and the intranodal VI was quantified using a customized computer program. The diagnostic accuracy of using the intranodal VI to distinguish different disease groups was evaluated and compared. Metastatic and lymphomatous lymph nodes tend to be more vascular than tuberculous and reactive lymph nodes. The intranodal VI had the highest diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing metastatic and tuberculous nodes with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value of 91%, negative predictive value of 51% and overall accuracy of 68% when a cutoff VI of 22% was used. Computer-aided assessment provides an objective and quantitative way to evaluate intranodal vascularity. The intranodal VI is a useful parameter in distinguishing certain causes of cervical lymphadenopathy and is particularly useful in differentiating metastatic and tuberculous lymph nodes. However, it has limited value in distinguishing lymphomatous nodes from metastatic and reactive nodes. PMID:27131839

  6. An evaluation of information retrieval accuracy with simulated OCR output

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, W.B.; Harding, S.M.; Taghva, K.; Borsack, J.

    1994-12-31

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a critical part of many text-based applications. Although some commercial systems use the output from OCR devices to index documents without editing, there is very little quantitative data on the impact of OCR errors on the accuracy of a text retrieval system. Because of the difficulty of constructing test collections to obtain this data, we have carried out evaluation using simulated OCR output on a variety of databases. The results show that high quality OCR devices have little effect on the accuracy of retrieval, but low quality devices used with databases of short documents can result in significant degradation.

  7. Accuracy Assessment of Coastal Topography Derived from Uav Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, N.; Millescamps, B.; Pouget, F.; Dumon, A.; Lachaussée, N.; Bertin, X.

    2016-06-01

    To monitor coastal environments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a low-cost and easy to use solution to enable data acquisition with high temporal frequency and spatial resolution. Compared to Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) or Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), this solution produces Digital Surface Model (DSM) with a similar accuracy. To evaluate the DSM accuracy on a coastal environment, a campaign was carried out with a flying wing (eBee) combined with a digital camera. Using the Photoscan software and the photogrammetry process (Structure From Motion algorithm), a DSM and an orthomosaic were produced. Compared to GNSS surveys, the DSM accuracy is estimated. Two parameters are tested: the influence of the methodology (number and distribution of Ground Control Points, GCPs) and the influence of spatial image resolution (4.6 cm vs 2 cm). The results show that this solution is able to reproduce the topography of a coastal area with a high vertical accuracy (< 10 cm). The georeferencing of the DSM require a homogeneous distribution and a large number of GCPs. The accuracy is correlated with the number of GCPs (use 19 GCPs instead of 10 allows to reduce the difference of 4 cm); the required accuracy should be dependant of the research problematic. Last, in this particular environment, the presence of very small water surfaces on the sand bank does not allow to improve the accuracy when the spatial resolution of images is decreased.

  8. Accuracy in optical overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Marciano, Tal; Yaziv, Tal; DeLeeuw, Yaron; Klein, Dana; Feler, Yoel; Adam, Ido; Gurevich, Evgeni; Sella, Noga; Lindenfeld, Ze'ev; Leviant, Tom; Saltoun, Lilach; Ashwal, Eltsafon; Alumot, Dror; Lamhot, Yuval; Gao, Xindong; Manka, James; Chen, Bryan; Wagner, Mark

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the mechanism by which process variations determine the overlay accuracy of optical metrology. We start by focusing on scatterometry, and showing that the underlying physics of this mechanism involves interference effects between cavity modes that travel between the upper and lower gratings in the scatterometry target. A direct result is the behavior of accuracy as a function of wavelength, and the existence of relatively well defined spectral regimes in which the overlay accuracy and process robustness degrades (`resonant regimes'). These resonances are separated by wavelength regions in which the overlay accuracy is better and independent of wavelength (we term these `flat regions'). The combination of flat and resonant regions forms a spectral signature which is unique to each overlay alignment and carries certain universal features with respect to different types of process variations. We term this signature the `landscape', and discuss its universality. Next, we show how to characterize overlay performance with a finite set of metrics that are available on the fly, and that are derived from the angular behavior of the signal and the way it flags resonances. These metrics are used to guarantee the selection of accurate recipes and targets for the metrology tool, and for process control with the overlay tool. We end with comments on the similarity of imaging overlay to scatterometry overlay, and on the way that pupil overlay scatterometry and field overlay scatterometry differ from an accuracy perspective.

  9. Applications and challenges in using LC-MS/MS assays for quantitative doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanliang; Lu, Jianghai; Zhang, Yinong; Tian, Ye; Yuan, Hong; Xu, Youxuan

    2016-06-01

    LC-MS/MS is useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 'doped' biological samples from athletes. LC-MS/MS-based assays at low-mass resolution allow fast and sensitive screening and quantification of targeted analytes that are based on preselected diagnostic precursor-product ion pairs. Whereas LC coupled with high-resolution/high-accuracy MS can be used for identification and quantification, both have advantages and challenges for routine analysis. Here, we review the literature regarding various quantification methods for measuring prohibited substances in athletes as they pertain to World Anti-Doping Agency regulations. PMID:27241820

  10. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  11. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  12. Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görög, Augustín; Görögová, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutteŕs geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners). During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the field of geometric tolerance. It is necessary to bring an overview of the basic concepts and definitions in the field. It will prevent the use of outdated and invalidated terms and definitions in the field. The knowledge presented in the contribution will provide the new perspective of the measurement that will be evaluated according to the current standards.

  13. Accuracy Assessment of Altimeter Derived Geostrophic Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leben, R. R.; Powell, B. S.; Born, G. H.; Guinasso, N. L.

    2002-12-01

    Along track sea surface height anomaly gradients are proportional to cross track geostrophic velocity anomalies allowing satellite altimetry to provide much needed satellite observations of changes in the geostrophic component of surface ocean currents. Often, surface height gradients are computed from altimeter data archives that have been corrected to give the most accurate absolute sea level, a practice that may unnecessarily increase the error in the cross track velocity anomalies and thereby require excessive smoothing to mitigate noise. Because differentiation along track acts as a high-pass filter, many of the path length corrections applied to altimeter data for absolute height accuracy are unnecessary for the corresponding gradient calculations. We report on a study to investigate appropriate altimetric corrections and processing techniques for improving geostrophic velocity accuracy. Accuracy is assessed by comparing cross track current measurements from two moorings placed along the descending TOPEX/POSEIDON ground track number 52 in the Gulf of Mexico to the corresponding altimeter velocity estimates. The buoys are deployed and maintained by the Texas Automated Buoy System (TABS) under Interagency Contracts with Texas A&M University. The buoys telemeter observations in near real-time via satellite to the TABS station located at the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) at Texas A&M. Buoy M is located in shelf waters of 57 m depth with a second, Buoy N, 38 km away on the shelf break at 105 m depth. Buoy N has been operational since the beginning of 2002 and has a current meter at 2m depth providing in situ measurements of surface velocities coincident with Jason and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter over flights. This allows one of the first detailed comparisons of shallow water near surface current meter time series to coincident altimetry.

  14. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  15. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos; Arisaka, Fumio; Attali, Ilan; Bain, David L.; Bakhtina, Marina M.; Becker, Donald F.; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Besong, Tabot M. D.; Birck, Catherine; Brautigam, Chad A.; Brennerman, William; Byron, Olwyn; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Chaton, Catherine T.; Cölfen, Helmut; Connaghan, Keith D.; Crowley, Kimberly A.; Curth, Ute; Daviter, Tina; Dean, William L.; Díez, Ana I.; Ebel, Christine; Eckert, Debra M.; Eisele, Leslie E.; Eisenstein, Edward; England, Patrick; Escalante, Carlos; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Fairman, Robert; Finn, Ron M.; Fischle, Wolfgang; de la Torre, José García; Gor, Jayesh; Gustafsson, Henning; Hall, Damien; Harding, Stephen E.; Cifre, José G. Hernández; Herr, Andrew B.; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Isaac, Richard S.; Jao, Shu-Chuan; Jose, Davis; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kokona, Bashkim; Kornblatt, Jack A.; Kosek, Dalibor; Krayukhina, Elena; Krzizike, Daniel; Kusznir, Eric A.; Kwon, Hyewon; Larson, Adam; Laue, Thomas M.; Le Roy, Aline; Leech, Andrew P.; Lilie, Hauke; Luger, Karolin; Luque-Ortega, Juan R.; Ma, Jia; May, Carrie A.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Modrak-Wojcik, Anna; Mok, Yee-Foong; Mücke, Norbert; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Noda, Masanori; Nourse, Amanda; Obsil, Tomas; Park, Chad K.; Park, Jin-Ku; Pawelek, Peter D.; Perdue, Erby E.; Perkins, Stephen J.; Perugini, Matthew A.; Peterson, Craig L.; Peverelli, Martin G.; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Prag, Gali; Prevelige, Peter E.; Raynal, Bertrand D. E.; Rezabkova, Lenka; Richter, Klaus; Ringel, Alison E.; Rosenberg, Rose; Rowe, Arthur J.; Rufer, Arne C.; Scott, David J.; Seravalli, Javier G.; Solovyova, Alexandra S.; Song, Renjie; Staunton, David; Stoddard, Caitlin; Stott, Katherine; Strauss, Holger M.; Streicher, Werner W.; Sumida, John P.; Swygert, Sarah G.; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Tessmer, Ingrid; Toth, Ronald T.; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uebel, Stephan F. W.; Unzai, Satoru; Gruber, Anna Vitlin; von Hippel, Peter H.; Wandrey, Christine; Wang, Szu-Huan; Weitzel, Steven E.; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Wolberger, Cynthia; Wolff, Martin; Wright, Edward; Wu, Yu-Sung; Wubben, Jacinta M.; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies. PMID:25997164

  16. A multilaboratory comparison of calibration accuracy and the performance of external references in analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos; Arisaka, Fumio; Attali, Ilan; Bain, David L; Bakhtina, Marina M; Becker, Donald F; Bedwell, Gregory J; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Besong, Tabot M D; Birck, Catherine; Brautigam, Chad A; Brennerman, William; Byron, Olwyn; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Chaires, Jonathan B; Chaton, Catherine T; Cölfen, Helmut; Connaghan, Keith D; Crowley, Kimberly A; Curth, Ute; Daviter, Tina; Dean, William L; Díez, Ana I; Ebel, Christine; Eckert, Debra M; Eisele, Leslie E; Eisenstein, Edward; England, Patrick; Escalante, Carlos; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Fairman, Robert; Finn, Ron M; Fischle, Wolfgang; de la Torre, José García; Gor, Jayesh; Gustafsson, Henning; Hall, Damien; Harding, Stephen E; Cifre, José G Hernández; Herr, Andrew B; Howell, Elizabeth E; Isaac, Richard S; Jao, Shu-Chuan; Jose, Davis; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kokona, Bashkim; Kornblatt, Jack A; Kosek, Dalibor; Krayukhina, Elena; Krzizike, Daniel; Kusznir, Eric A; Kwon, Hyewon; Larson, Adam; Laue, Thomas M; Le Roy, Aline; Leech, Andrew P; Lilie, Hauke; Luger, Karolin; Luque-Ortega, Juan R; Ma, Jia; May, Carrie A; Maynard, Ernest L; Modrak-Wojcik, Anna; Mok, Yee-Foong; Mücke, Norbert; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Narlikar, Geeta J; Noda, Masanori; Nourse, Amanda; Obsil, Tomas; Park, Chad K; Park, Jin-Ku; Pawelek, Peter D; Perdue, Erby E; Perkins, Stephen J; Perugini, Matthew A; Peterson, Craig L; Peverelli, Martin G; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Prag, Gali; Prevelige, Peter E; Raynal, Bertrand D E; Rezabkova, Lenka; Richter, Klaus; Ringel, Alison E; Rosenberg, Rose; Rowe, Arthur J; Rufer, Arne C; Scott, David J; Seravalli, Javier G; Solovyova, Alexandra S; Song, Renjie; Staunton, David; Stoddard, Caitlin; Stott, Katherine; Strauss, Holger M; Streicher, Werner W; Sumida, John P; Swygert, Sarah G; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Tessmer, Ingrid; Toth, Ronald T; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uebel, Stephan F W; Unzai, Satoru; Gruber, Anna Vitlin; von Hippel, Peter H; Wandrey, Christine; Wang, Szu-Huan; Weitzel, Steven E; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Wolberger, Cynthia; Wolff, Martin; Wright, Edward; Wu, Yu-Sung; Wubben, Jacinta M; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies. PMID:25997164

  17. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James N; McCall, Benjamin J

    2016-05-14

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined. PMID:27179476

  18. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  19. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.012 Overhead allowance. (a) During the capital recovery period the overhead... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  20. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  1. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  4. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  5. Robust quantitative scratch assay

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Andrea; Angeli, Marc; Pastrello, Chiara; McQuaid, Rosanne; Li, Han; Jurisicova, Andrea; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing assay (or scratch assay) is a technique frequently used to quantify the dependence of cell motility—a central process in tissue repair and evolution of disease—subject to various treatments conditions. However processing the resulting data is a laborious task due its high throughput and variability across images. This Robust Quantitative Scratch Assay algorithm introduced statistical outputs where migration rates are estimated, cellular behaviour is distinguished and outliers are identified among groups of unique experimental conditions. Furthermore, the RQSA decreased measurement errors and increased accuracy in the wound boundary at comparable processing times compared to previously developed method (TScratch). Availability and implementation: The RQSA is freely available at: http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RQSA_Scripts.zip. The image sets used for training and validation and results are available at: (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/trainingSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/validationSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSetResults.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975Results.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip). Supplementary Material is provided for detailed description of the development of the RQSA. Contact: juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26722119

  6. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  7. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  8. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  9. ACCURACY AND TRACE ORGANIC ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy in trace organic analysis presents a formidable problem to the residue chemist. He is confronted with the analysis of a large number and variety of compounds present in a multiplicity of substrates at levels as low as parts-per-trillion. At these levels, collection, isol...

  10. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  11. Psychology Textbooks: Examining Their Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steuer, Faye B.; Ham, K. Whitfield, II

    2008-01-01

    Sales figures and recollections of psychologists indicate textbooks play a central role in psychology students' education, yet instructors typically must select texts under time pressure and with incomplete information. Although selection aids are available, none adequately address the accuracy of texts. We describe a technique for sampling…

  12. Accuracy of Aerodynamic Model Parameters Estimated from Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1997-01-01

    An important put of building mathematical models based on measured date is calculating the accuracy associated with statistical estimates of the model parameters. Indeed, without some idea of this accuracy, the parameter estimates themselves have limited value. An expression is developed for computing quantitatively correct parameter accuracy measures for maximum likelihood parameter estimates when the output residuals are colored. This result is important because experience in analyzing flight test data reveals that the output residuals from maximum likelihood estimation are almost always colored. The calculations involved can be appended to conventional maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Monte Carlo simulation runs were used to show that parameter accuracy measures from the new technique accurately reflect the quality of the parameter estimates from maximum likelihood estimation without the need for correction factors or frequency domain analysis of the output residuals. The technique was applied to flight test data from repeated maneuvers flown on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. As in the simulated cases, parameter accuracy measures from the new technique were in agreement with the scatter in the parameter estimates from repeated maneuvers, whereas conventional parameter accuracy measures were optimistic.

  13. Super-SILAC Allows Classification of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Subtypes by Their Protein Expression Profiles*

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Sally J.; D'Souza, Rochelle C. J.; Cox, Jürgen; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Correct classification of cancer patients into subtypes is a prerequisite for acute diagnosis and effective treatment. Currently this classification relies mainly on histological assessment, but gene expression analysis by microarrays has shown great promise. Here we show that high accuracy, quantitative proteomics can robustly segregate cancer subtypes directly at the level of expressed proteins. We investigated two histologically indistinguishable subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): activated B-cell-like (ABC) and germinal-center B-cell-like (GCB) subtypes, by first developing a general lymphoma stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) mix from heavy stable isotope-labeled cell lines. This super-SILAC mix was combined with cell lysates from five ABC-DLBCL and five GCB-DLBCL cell lines. Shotgun proteomic analysis on a linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometer with high mass accuracy at the MS and MS/MS levels yielded a proteome of more than 7,500 identified proteins. High accuracy of quantification allowed robust separation of subtypes by principal component analysis. The main contributors to the classification included proteins known to be differentially expressed between the subtypes such as the transcription factors IRF4 and SPI1/PU.1, cell surface markers CD44 and CD27, as well as novel candidates. We extracted a signature of 55 proteins that segregated subtypes and contained proteins connected to functional differences between the ABC and GCB-DLBCL subtypes, including many NF-κB-regulated genes. Shortening the analysis time to single-shot analysis combined with use of the new linear quadrupole Orbitrap analyzer (Q Exactive) also clearly differentiated between the subtypes. These results show that high resolution shotgun proteomics combined with super-SILAC-based quantification is a promising new technology for tumor characterization and classification. PMID:22442255

  14. MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

  15. Investigation of Practical and Theoretical Accuracy of Wireless Indoor Positioning System Ubisense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar; Nagórski, Kamil

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the accuracy investigation results and functionality of Ubisense RTLS positioning system. Three kinds of studies were conducted: test of calibration accuracy, analysis of theoretical accuracy of the coordinates determination as well as accuracy measurements in field conditions. Test of calibration accuracy was made with several different geometric constellation of reference points (tag positions). We determined changes of orientation parameters of receivers and disturbance of positioning points coordinates against chosen reference points constellations. Analysis of theoretical accuracy was made for several receivers spatial positions and their orientations. It allowed to indicate favourable and unfavourable measurement area considering accuracy and reliability. Real positioning accuracy of the Ubisense system was determined by comparison with coordinates measured using precise tacheometer TCRP1201+. Results of conducted experiments and accuracy analysis of test measurement were presented in figures and diagrams.

  16. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Sonja; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR), play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by allowing noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. However, conventional imaging modalities are limited as biomarkers of NAFLD for various reasons. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI techniques overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional imaging and allow comprehensive and objective evaluation of NAFLD. MRI can provide unconfounded biomarkers of hepatic fat, iron, and fibrosis in a single examination—a virtual biopsy has become a clinical reality. In this article, we will review the utility and limitation of conventional US, CT, and MR imaging for the diagnosis NAFLD. Recent advances in imaging biomarkers of NAFLD are also discussed with an emphasis in multi-parametric quantitative MRI. PMID:26848588

  17. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Sonja; Reeder, Scott B; Yokoo, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    Conventional imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR), play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by allowing noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. However, conventional imaging modalities are limited as biomarkers of NAFLD for various reasons. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI techniques overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional imaging and allow comprehensive and objective evaluation of NAFLD. MRI can provide unconfounded biomarkers of hepatic fat, iron, and fibrosis in a single examination-a virtual biopsy has become a clinical reality. In this article, we will review the utility and limitation of conventional US, CT, and MR imaging for the diagnosis NAFLD. Recent advances in imaging biomarkers of NAFLD are also discussed with an emphasis in multi-parametric quantitative MRI. PMID:26848588

  18. PHAT: PHoto-z Accuracy Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Arnouts, S.; Capak, P.; Moustakas, L. A.; Wolf, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Assef, R. J.; Banerji, M.; Benítez, N.; Brammer, G. B.; Budavári, T.; Carliles, S.; Coe, D.; Dahlen, T.; Feldmann, R.; Gerdes, D.; Gillis, B.; Ilbert, O.; Kotulla, R.; Lahav, O.; Li, I. H.; Miralles, J.-M.; Purger, N.; Schmidt, S.; Singal, J.

    2010-11-01

    smaller biases than template-based codes. Conclusions: The systematic, quantitative comparison of different photo-z codes presented here is a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art of photo-z estimation and sets a standard for the assessment of photo-z accuracy in the future. The rather large outlier rates reported here for PHAT1 on real data should be investigated further since they are most probably also present (and possibly hidden) in many other studies. The test data sets are publicly available and can be used to compare new, upcoming methods to established ones and help in guiding future photo-z method development. Based on observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Keck Observatory, the Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Subaru Telescope, the Palomar Observatory, and the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope.

  19. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  20. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  1. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  2. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  3. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  4. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  5. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL...

  6. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27...

  8. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  9. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  10. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  11. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  12. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  13. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  14. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  15. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  16. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  17. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  18. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  19. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Payment for Rural...

  20. 78 FR 32629 - Post Allowance and Refiling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Post Allowance and Refiling ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  1. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  2. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  3. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE...

  4. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  5. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  7. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  8. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  12. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Educational institution OMB Circular A-21. Hospital Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74. Commercial for-profit organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of...

  13. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  14. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  16. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  17. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  20. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  1. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  2. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  3. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  4. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. In addition... costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable...

  5. 49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 19.27 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... transportation services provided leasing is more cost effective than acquisition or construction. ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 18.22 Section...

  7. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  8. 19 CFR 191.101 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.101 Drawback allowance. (a... perfumery) manufactured or produced in the United States in part from the domestic tax-paid alcohol. (b... tax on flavoring extracts or medicinal or toilet preparations (including perfumery) manufactured...

  9. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible to Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert...

  10. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible to Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert...

  11. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible to Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert...

  12. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... current period. However, if the recipient's established practice is to treat these costs by some other... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and...

  13. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... current period. However, if the recipient's established practice is to treat these costs by some other... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and...

  14. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...

  15. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... allowance of the tax where the cigarette papers and tubes, after removal from the factory upon determination... perjury and shall show the date the cigarette papers and tubes were removed from the factory. A claim... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  16. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... allowance of the tax where the cigarette papers and tubes, after removal from the factory upon determination... perjury and shall show the date the cigarette papers and tubes were removed from the factory. A claim... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  17. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... allowance of the tax where the cigarette papers and tubes, after removal from the factory upon determination... perjury and shall show the date the cigarette papers and tubes were removed from the factory. A claim... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  2. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of the... billed as a single unit charge do not have to be allocated or prorated among the several cost...

  3. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  4. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... charged to the program shall be consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances and,...

  5. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... charged to the program shall be consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances and,...

  6. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... charged to the program shall be consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances and,...

  7. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND...

  13. Manpower Training Allowances: Financial Assistance or Investment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, Georges

    1975-01-01

    The author compares the differing approaches of Germany, Sweden, France, and Australia for providing financial support to adults enrolled in vocational training programs, focusing on training allowances for recurrent education. He concludes that without some governmental maintenance program, it is unlikely that adults can utilize even tuition-free…

  14. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment...

  15. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  16. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  17. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  18. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  19. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  20. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  1. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  2. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  4. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  6. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  8. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  9. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  10. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  11. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  12. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred...

  13. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  14. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  15. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  16. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred...

  17. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  18. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  20. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  1. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  3. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  5. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  6. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  8. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  9. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowance. 40.472 Section 40.472 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette...

  10. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance. 40.472 Section 40.472 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette...

  11. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the government. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property used for the benefit of the...

  12. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  13. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  14. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  15. Optical micro-tomography "OPenT" allows the study of large toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Felix, Pedro M; Gonçalves, Ania; Vicente, Joana R; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, M Clara P; Costa, José L; Martins, Gabriel G

    2016-05-01

    Batrachoidids, which include midshipman and toadfish are less known among embryologists, but are common in other fields. They are characteristic for their acoustic communication, and develop hearing and sound production while young juveniles. They lay large benthic eggs (>5mm) with a thick chorion and adhesive disk and slow development, which are particularly challenging for studying embryology. Here we took advantage of a classical tissue clearing technique and the OPenT open-source platform for optical tomography imaging, to image a series of embryos and larvae from 3 to 30mm in length, which allowed detailed 3D anatomical reconstructions non-destructively. We documented some of the developmental stages (early and late in development) and the anatomy of the delicate stato-acoustic organs, swimming bladder and associated sonic muscles. Compared to other techniques accessible to developmental biology labs, OPenT provided advantages in terms of image quality, cost of operation and data throughput, allowing identification and quantitative morphometrics of organs in larvae, earlier and with higher accuracy than is possible with other imaging techniques. PMID:27000637

  16. The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, Christina M.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Due to its limited angular scan range, breast tomosynthesis has lower resolution in the depth direction, which may limit its accuracy in quantifying tissue density. This study assesses the quantitative potential of breast tomosynthesis using relatively simple reconstruction and image processing algorithms. This quantitation could allow improved characterization of lesions as well as image processing to present tomosynthesis images with the familiar appearance of mammography by preserving more low-frequency information. Methods: All studies were based on a Siemens prototype MAMMOMAT Novation TOMO breast tomo system with a 45 deg. total angular span. This investigation was performed using both simulations and empirical measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using the breast tomosynthesis geometry and tissue-equivalent, uniform, voxelized phantoms with cuboid lesions of varying density embedded within. Empirical studies were then performed using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms which were imaged on the actual prototype system. The material surrounding the lesions was set to either fat-equivalent or glandular-equivalent plastic. From the simulation experiments, the effects of scatter, lesion depth, and background material density were studied. The empirical experiments studied the effects of lesion depth, background material density, x-ray tube energy, and exposure level. Additionally, the proposed analysis methods were independently evaluated using a commercially available QA breast phantom (CIRS Model 11A). All image reconstruction was performed with a filtered backprojection algorithm. Reconstructed voxel values within each slice were corrected to reduce background nonuniformities. Results: The resulting lesion voxel values varied linearly with known glandular fraction (correlation coefficient R{sup 2}>0.90) under all simulated and empirical conditions, including for the independent tests with the QA phantom. Analysis of variance performed

  17. Lessons learned from quantitative dynamical modeling in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Raue, Andreas; Schilling, Marcel; Bachmann, Julie; Matteson, Andrew; Schelker, Max; Schelke, Max; Kaschek, Daniel; Hug, Sabine; Kreutz, Clemens; Harms, Brian D; Theis, Fabian J; Klingmüller, Ursula; Timmer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of biological data it is difficult to disentangle cellular processes relying only on intuitive interpretation of measurements. A Systems Biology approach that combines quantitative experimental data with dynamic mathematical modeling promises to yield deeper insights into these processes. Nevertheless, with growing complexity and increasing amount of quantitative experimental data, building realistic and reliable mathematical models can become a challenging task: the quality of experimental data has to be assessed objectively, unknown model parameters need to be estimated from the experimental data, and numerical calculations need to be precise and efficient. Here, we discuss, compare and characterize the performance of computational methods throughout the process of quantitative dynamic modeling using two previously established examples, for which quantitative, dose- and time-resolved experimental data are available. In particular, we present an approach that allows to determine the quality of experimental data in an efficient, objective and automated manner. Using this approach data generated by different measurement techniques and even in single replicates can be reliably used for mathematical modeling. For the estimation of unknown model parameters, the performance of different optimization algorithms was compared systematically. Our results show that deterministic derivative-based optimization employing the sensitivity equations in combination with a multi-start strategy based on latin hypercube sampling outperforms the other methods by orders of magnitude in accuracy and speed. Finally, we investigated transformations that yield a more efficient parameterization of the model and therefore lead to a further enhancement in optimization performance. We provide a freely available open source software package that implements the algorithms and examples compared here. PMID:24098642

  18. Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Protein Interaction with Methyl-Lysine Analogues by Hybrid Computational and Experimental Approaches

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In cases where binding ligands of proteins are not easily available, structural analogues are often used. For example, in the analysis of proteins recognizing different methyl-lysine residues in histones, methyl-lysine analogues based on methyl-amino-alkylated cysteine residues have been introduced. Whether these are close enough to justify quantitative interpretation of binding experiments is however questionable. To systematically address this issue, we developed, applied, and assessed a hybrid computational/experimental approach that extracts the binding free energy difference between the native ligand (methyl-lysine) and the analogue (methyl-amino-alkylated cysteine) from a thermodynamic cycle. Our results indicate that measured and calculated binding differences are in very good agreement and therefore allow the correction of measured affinities of the analogues. We suggest that quantitative binding parameters for defined ligands in general can be derived by this method with remarkable accuracy. PMID:21991995

  20. A high accuracy sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, H.

    The High Accuracy Sun Sensor (HASS) is described, concentrating on measurement principle, the CCD detector used, the construction of the sensorhead and the operation of the sensor electronics. Tests on a development model show that the main aim of a 0.01-arcsec rms stability over a 10-minute period is closely approached. Remaining problem areas are associated with the sensor sensitivity to illumination level variations, the shielding of the detector, and the test and calibration equipment.

  1. Quantitative optical metrology with CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Cosme; Kolenovic, Ervin; Ferguson, Curtis F.

    2004-08-01

    Recent advances in laser technology, optical sensing, and computer processing of data, have lead to the development of advanced quantitative optical metrology techniques for high accuracy measurements of absolute shapes and deformations of objects. These techniques provide noninvasive, remote, and full field of view information about the objects of interest. The information obtained relates to changes in shape and/or size of the objects, characterizes anomalies, and provides tools to enhance fabrication processes. Factors that influence selection and applicability of an optical technique include the required sensitivity, accuracy, and precision that are necessary for a particular application. In this paper, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision characteristics in quantitative optical metrology techniques, and specifically in optoelectronic holography (OEH) based on CMOS cameras, are discussed. Sensitivity, accuracy, and precision are investigated with the aid of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable gauges, demonstrating the applicability of CMOS cameras in quantitative optical metrology techniques. It is shown that the advanced nature of CMOS technology can be applied to challenging engineering applications, including the study of rapidly evolving phenomena occurring in MEMS and micromechatronics.

  2. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  3. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  4. Evaluation of in vivo quantification accuracy of the Ingenuity-TF PET/MR

    SciTech Connect

    Maus, Jens Schramm, Georg; Hofheinz, Frank; Lougovski, Alexandr; Petr, Jan; Steinbach, Jörg; Oehme, Liane; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Kotzerke, Jörg; Platzek, Ivan; Hoff, Jörg van den

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The quantitative accuracy of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and tracer kinetic uptake parameters in patient investigations strongly depends on accurate determination of regional activity concentrations in positron emission tomography (PET) data. This determination rests on the assumption that the given scanner calibration is valid in vivo. In a previous study, we introduced a method to test this assumption. This method allows to identify discrepancies in quantitative accuracy in vivo by comparison of activity concentrations of urine samples measured in a well-counter with activity concentrations extracted from PET images of the bladder. In the present study, we have applied this method to the Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR since at the present stage, absolute quantitative accuracy of combined PET/MR systems is still under investigation. Methods: Twenty one clinical whole-body F18-FDG scans were included in this study. The bladder region was imaged as the last bed position and urine samples were collected afterward. PET images were reconstructed including MR-based attenuation correction with and without truncation compensation and 3D regions-of-interest (ROIs) of the bladder were delineated by three observers. To exclude partial volume effects, ROIs were concentrically shrunk by 8–10 mm. Then, activity concentrations were determined in the PET images for the bladder and for the urine by measuring the samples in a calibrated well-counter. In addition, linearity measurements of SUV vs singles rate and measurements of the stability of the coincidence rate of “true” events of the PET/MR system were performed over a period of 4 months. Results: The measured in vivo activity concentrations were significantly lower in PET/MR than in the well-counter with a ratio of the former to the latter of 0.756 ± 0.060 (mean ± std. dev.), a range of 0.604–0.858, and a P value of 3.9 ⋅ 10{sup −14}. While the stability measurements of the coincidence rate of

  5. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  6. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular. 48 CFR 931.2 Hospitals 45 CFR part 74... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy...

  7. Laser focus positioning method with submicrometer accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alexeev, Ilya; Strauss, Johannes; Gröschl, Andreas; Cvecek, Kristian; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-01-20

    Accurate positioning of a sample is one of the primary challenges in laser micromanufacturing. There are a number of methods that allow detection of the surface position; however, only a few of them use the beam of the processing laser as a basis for the measurement. Those methods have an advantage that any changes in the processing laser beam can be inherently accommodated. This work describes a direct, contact-free method to accurately determine workpiece position with respect to the structuring laser beam focal plane based on nonlinear harmonic generation. The method makes workpiece alignment precise and time efficient due to ease of automation and provides the repeatability and accuracy of the surface detection of less than 1 μm. PMID:23338188

  8. ACCURACY LIMITATIONS IN LONG TRACE PROFILOMETRY.

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS,P.Z.; QIAN,S.

    2003-08-25

    As requirements for surface slope error quality of grazing incidence optics approach the 100 nanoradian level, it is necessary to improve the performance of the measuring instruments to achieve accurate and repeatable results at this level. We have identified a number of internal error sources in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) that affect measurement quality at this level. The LTP is sensitive to phase shifts produced within the millimeter diameter of the pencil beam probe by optical path irregularities with scale lengths of a fraction of a millimeter. We examine the effects of mirror surface ''macroroughness'' and internal glass homogeneity on the accuracy of the LTP through experiment and theoretical modeling. We will place limits on the allowable surface ''macroroughness'' and glass homogeneity required to achieve accurate measurements in the nanoradian range.

  9. Accuracy Limitations in Long-Trace Profilometry

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, Peter Z.; Qian Shinan

    2004-05-12

    As requirements for surface slope error quality of grazing incidence optics approach the 100 nanoradian level, it is necessary to improve the performance of the measuring instruments to achieve accurate and repeatable results at this level. We have identified a number of internal error sources in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) that affect measurement quality at this level. The LTP is sensitive to phase shifts produced within the millimeter diameter of the pencil beam probe by optical path irregularities with scale lengths of a fraction of a millimeter. We examine the effects of mirror surface 'macroroughness' and internal glass homogeneity on the accuracy of the LTP through experiment and theoretical modeling. We will place limits on the allowable surface 'macroroughness' and glass homogeneity required to achieve accurate measurements in the nanoradian range.

  10. Quantitative computed tomography of bone.

    PubMed

    Rüegsegger, P; Stebler, B; Dambacher, M

    1982-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is well accepted as an imaging procedure, but comparatively little effort has been made to utilize the potential capability of CT to quantify tissue densities and composition. There are two reasons for this. First, precision and accuracy of quantification are limited by nonlinear effects. These effects are nonlocal and are object and scanner dependent. Second, intraindividual and interindividual variations of tissue compositions are considerable. Single energy measurements require restrictive assumptions on tissue compositions. The diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteopenic bone diseases with low-dose CT is given as an example of a successful application of quantitative CT. With a special-purpose CT system and an analytic procedure for the quantification of bone at peripheral measuring sites, longitudinal examinations were performed. Low-dose quantitative CT permitted quantification, on an individual basis, of the bone loss of immobilization osteoporosis on a week-by-week basis. Changes due to postmenopausal osteoporosis are less drastic, and so measurement at intervals of months is adequate. In women after menopause, 3-month intervals were used in evaluating the natural course of osteoporosis and in quantifying the effects of sodium fluoride treatment on trabecular bone. Low-dose quantitative CT has proved to be a sensitive and highly reproducible procedure for the noninvasive evaluation of bone loss or bone accretion. During a disease or therapy, each patient can be evaluated individually. PMID:7121079

  11. Classification Accuracy Increase Using Multisensor Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarau, A.; Palubinskas, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-09-01

    The practical use of very high resolution visible and near-infrared (VNIR) data is still growing (IKONOS, Quickbird, GeoEye-1, etc.) but for classification purposes the number of bands is limited in comparison to full spectral imaging. These limitations may lead to the confusion of materials such as different roofs, pavements, roads, etc. and therefore may provide wrong interpretation and use of classification products. Employment of hyperspectral data is another solution, but their low spatial resolution (comparing to multispectral data) restrict their usage for many applications. Another improvement can be achieved by fusion approaches of multisensory data since this may increase the quality of scene classification. Integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical data is widely performed for automatic classification, interpretation, and change detection. In this paper we present an approach for very high resolution SAR and multispectral data fusion for automatic classification in urban areas. Single polarization TerraSAR-X (SpotLight mode) and multispectral data are integrated using the INFOFUSE framework, consisting of feature extraction (information fission), unsupervised clustering (data representation on a finite domain and dimensionality reduction), and data aggregation (Bayesian or neural network). This framework allows a relevant way of multisource data combination following consensus theory. The classification is not influenced by the limitations of dimensionality, and the calculation complexity primarily depends on the step of dimensionality reduction. Fusion of single polarization TerraSAR-X, WorldView-2 (VNIR or full set), and Digital Surface Model (DSM) data allow for different types of urban objects to be classified into predefined classes of interest with increased accuracy. The comparison to classification results of WorldView-2 multispectral data (8 spectral bands) is provided and the numerical evaluation of the method in comparison to

  12. The SILAC Fly Allows for Accurate Protein Quantification in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Sury, Matthias D.; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is widely used to quantify protein abundance in tissue culture cells. Until now, the only multicellular organism completely labeled at the amino acid level was the laboratory mouse. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used small animal models in biology. Here, we show that feeding flies with SILAC-labeled yeast leads to almost complete labeling in the first filial generation. We used these “SILAC flies” to investigate sexual dimorphism of protein abundance in D. melanogaster. Quantitative proteome comparison of adult male and female flies revealed distinct biological processes specific for each sex. Using a tudor mutant that is defective for germ cell generation allowed us to differentiate between sex-specific protein expression in the germ line and somatic tissue. We identified many proteins with known sex-specific expression bias. In addition, several new proteins with a potential role in sexual dimorphism were identified. Collectively, our data show that the SILAC fly can be used to accurately quantify protein abundance in vivo. The approach is simple, fast, and cost-effective, making SILAC flies an attractive model system for the emerging field of in vivo quantitative proteomics. PMID:20525996

  13. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  14. Temporal Data Set Reduction Based on D-Optimality for Quantitative FLIM-FRET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Travis; Intes, Xavier; Hahn, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) when paired with Förster resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) enables the monitoring of nanoscale interactions in living biological samples. FLIM-FRET model-based estimation methods allow the quantitative retrieval of parameters such as the quenched (interacting) and unquenched (non-interacting) fractional populations of the donor fluorophore and/or the distance of the interactions. The quantitative accuracy of such model-based approaches is dependent on multiple factors such as signal-to-noise ratio and number of temporal points acquired when sampling the fluorescence decays. For high-throughput or in vivo applications of FLIM-FRET, it is desirable to acquire a limited number of temporal points for fast acquisition times. Yet, it is critical to acquire temporal data sets with sufficient information content to allow for accurate FLIM-FRET parameter estimation. Herein, an optimal experimental design approach based upon sensitivity analysis is presented in order to identify the time points that provide the best quantitative estimates of the parameters for a determined number of temporal sampling points. More specifically, the D-optimality criterion is employed to identify, within a sparse temporal data set, the set of time points leading to optimal estimations of the quenched fractional population of the donor fluorophore. Overall, a reduced set of 10 time points (compared to a typical complete set of 90 time points) was identified to have minimal impact on parameter estimation accuracy (≈5%), with in silico and in vivo experiment validations. This reduction of the number of needed time points by almost an order of magnitude allows the use of FLIM-FRET for certain high-throughput applications which would be infeasible if the entire number of time sampling points were used. PMID:26658308

  15. Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

  16. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  17. Global, quantitative and dynamic mapping of protein subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Itzhak, Daniel N; Tyanova, Stefka; Cox, Jürgen; Borner, Georg HH

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular localization critically influences protein function, and cells control protein localization to regulate biological processes. We have developed and applied Dynamic Organellar Maps, a proteomic method that allows global mapping of protein translocation events. We initially used maps statically to generate a database with localization and absolute copy number information for over 8700 proteins from HeLa cells, approaching comprehensive coverage. All major organelles were resolved, with exceptional prediction accuracy (estimated at >92%). Combining spatial and abundance information yielded an unprecedented quantitative view of HeLa cell anatomy and organellar composition, at the protein level. We subsequently demonstrated the dynamic capabilities of the approach by capturing translocation events following EGF stimulation, which we integrated into a quantitative model. Dynamic Organellar Maps enable the proteome-wide analysis of physiological protein movements, without requiring any reagents specific to the investigated process, and will thus be widely applicable in cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16950.001 PMID:27278775

  18. High accuracy time transfer synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Paul J.; Koppang, Paul A.; Chalmers, David; Davis, Angela; Kubik, Anthony; Powell, William M.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchronization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance cesium frequency standards were transported from the USNO in Washington, DC to Los Angeles, California in the USNO's mobile earth station. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer links between the mobile earth station and the USNO were conducted each day of the trip, using the Naval Research Laboratory(NRL) designed spread spectrum modem, built by Allen Osborne Associates(AOA). A Motorola six channel GPS receiver was used to track the location and altitude of the mobile earth station and to provide coordinates for calculating Sagnac corrections for the two-way measurements, and relativistic corrections for the cesium clocks. This paper will discuss the trip, the measurement systems used and the results from the data collected. We will show the accuracy of using two-way satellite time transfer for synchronization and the performance of the three HP 5071 cesium clocks in an operational environment.

  19. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

  20. Assessment of accuracy of PET utilizing a 3-D phantom to simulate the activity distribution of ( sup 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Cutler, P.D.; Guerrero, T.M.; Digby, W.M.; Mazziotta, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    A three-dimensional brain phantom has been developed to simulate the activity distributions found in human brain studies currently employed in positron emission tomography (PET). The phantom has a single contiguous chamber and utilizes thin layers of lucite to provide apparent relative concentrations of 5, 1, and 0 for gray matter, white matter, and CSF structures, respectively. The phantom and an ideal image set were created from the same set of data. Thus, the user has a basis for comparing measured images with an ideal set that allows a quantitative evaluation of errors in PET studies with an activity distribution similar to that found in patients. The phantom was employed in a study of the effect of deadtime and scatter on accuracy in quantitation on a current PET system. Deadtime correction factors were found to be significant (1.1-2.5) at count rates found in clinical studies. Deadtime correction techniques were found to be accurate to within 5%. Scatter in emission and attenuation correction data consistently caused 5-15% errors in quantitation, whereas correction for scatter in both types of data reduced errors in accuracy to less than 5%.

  1. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  2. Targeted quantitation of proteins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liebler, Daniel C; Zimmerman, Lisa J

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative measurement of proteins is one of the most fundamental analytical tasks in a biochemistry laboratory, but widely used immunochemical methods often have limited specificity and high measurement variation. In this review, we discuss applications of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, which allows sensitive, precise quantitative analyses of peptides and the proteins from which they are derived. Systematic development of MRM assays is permitted by databases of peptide mass spectra and sequences, software tools for analysis design and data analysis, and rapid evolution of tandem mass spectrometer technology. Key advantages of MRM assays are the ability to target specific peptide sequences, including variants and modified forms, and the capacity for multiplexing that allows analysis of dozens to hundreds of peptides. Different quantitative standardization methods provide options that balance precision, sensitivity, and assay cost. Targeted protein quantitation by MRM and related mass spectrometry methods can advance biochemistry by transforming approaches to protein measurement. PMID:23517332

  3. Towards quantitative assessment of calciphylaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Sárándi, István.; Jose, Abin; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan; Specht, Paula; Brandenburg, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare disease that has devastating conditions associated with high morbidity and mortality. Calciphylaxis is characterized by systemic medial calcification of the arteries yielding necrotic skin ulcerations. In this paper, we aim at supporting the installation of multi-center registries for calciphylaxis, which includes a photographic documentation of skin necrosis. However, photographs acquired in different centers under different conditions using different equipment and photographers cannot be compared quantitatively. For normalization, we use a simple color pad that is placed into the field of view, segmented from the image, and its color fields are analyzed. In total, 24 colors are printed on that scale. A least-squares approach is used to determine the affine color transform. Furthermore, the card allows scale normalization. We provide a case study for qualitative assessment. In addition, the method is evaluated quantitatively using 10 images of two sets of different captures of the same necrosis. The variability of quantitative measurements based on free hand photography is assessed regarding geometric and color distortions before and after our simple calibration procedure. Using automated image processing, the standard deviation of measurements is significantly reduced. The coefficients of variations yield 5-20% and 2-10% for geometry and color, respectively. Hence, quantitative assessment of calciphylaxis becomes practicable and will impact a better understanding of this rare but fatal disease.

  4. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  5. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  6. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  7. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  8. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  9. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  10. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  11. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  12. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  13. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  14. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.8 Grant of essential use...

  15. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT)...

  16. Tracking accuracy for Leosat-Geosat laser links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshamani, Ramani; Rao, D. V. B.; Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.

    1989-06-01

    A tracking accuracy of 1 microrad is required for the achievement of Leosat-Geosat laser communications links, entailing exceptionally accurate alignment between transmitter and receiver as well as point-ahead capability. The pointing and acquisition procedure would involve the two optical system/telescope units to be pointed toward each other with an attitude accuracy smaller than the position uncertainty; a spatial-scam operation by the Leosat's narrow beam, and subsequently by the Geosat's would have to be conducted before acquisition is completed, allowing switching from acquisition to tracking mode.

  17. Development of Mass Spectrometry Selected Reaction Monitoring Method for Quantitation and Pharmacokinetic Study of Stepharine in Rabbit Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Arthur T.; Kuznetsova, Ksenia G.; Mikhailova, Olga M.; Moshkin, Andrey G.; Turkin, Vladimir V.; Alimov, Andrei A.

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method on triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometer was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic study of stepharine in rabbit plasma. Specific ion transitions of stepharine protonated precursor ion were selected and recorded in the certain retention time employing dynamic selected reaction monitoring mode. The developed method facilitated quantitative measurements of stepharine in plasma samples in linear range of five orders of magnitude with high accuracy and low standard deviation coefficient and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated. The apparent volume of stepharine distribution (estimated as ratio of clearance to elimination rate constant, data not shown) allows us to assume that stepharine was extensively distributed throughout the body. PMID:24696679

  18. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  19. Accuracy of numerically produced compensators.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H; Evans, M D; Fallone, B G

    1999-01-01

    A feasibility study is performed to assess the utility of a computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill to produce compensating filters for conventional clinical use and for the delivery of intensity-modulated beams. A computer aided machining (CAM) software is used to assist in the design and construction of such filters. Geometric measurements of stepped and wedged surfaces are made to examine the accuracy of surface milling. Molds are milled and filled with molten alloy to produce filters, and both the molds and filters are examined for consistency and accuracy. Results show that the deviation of the filter surfaces from design does not exceed 1.5%. The effective attenuation coefficient is measured for CadFree, a cadmium-free alloy, in a 6 MV photon beam. The effective attenuation coefficients at the depth of maximum dose (1.5 cm) and at 10 cm in solid water phantom are found to be 0.546 cm-1 and 0.522 cm-1, respectively. Further attenuation measurements are made with Cerrobend to assess the variations of the effective attenuation coefficient with field size and source-surface distance. The ability of the CNC mill to accurately produce surfaces is verified with dose profile measurements in a 6 MV photon beam. The test phantom is composed of a 10 degrees polystyrene wedge and a 30 degrees polystyrene wedge, presenting both a sharp discontinuity and sloped surfaces. Dose profiles, measured at the depth of compensation (10 cm) beneath the test phantom and beneath a flat phantom, are compared to those produced by a commercial treatment planning system. Agreement between measured and predicted profiles is within 2%, indicating the viability of the system for filter production. PMID:10100166

  20. Mass Spectrometry Provides Accurate and Sensitive Quantitation of A2E

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Danielle B.; Blakeley, Lorie; Goletz, Patrice W.; Schey, Kevin L.; Hanneken, Anne; Koutalos, Yiannis; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ablonczy, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    Summary Orange autofluorescence from lipofuscin in the lysosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a hallmark of aging in the eye. One of the major components of lipofuscin is A2E, the levels of which increase with age and in pathologic conditions, such as Stargardt disease or age-related macular degeneration. In vitro studies have suggested that A2E is highly phototoxic and, more specifically, that A2E and its oxidized derivatives contribute to RPE damage and subsequent photoreceptor cell death. To date, absorption spectroscopy has been the primary method to identify and quantitate A2E. Here, a new mass spectrometric method was developed for the specific detection of low levels of A2E and compared to a traditional method of analysis. The new mass spectrometry method allows the detection and quantitation of approximately 10,000-fold less A2E than absorption spectroscopy and the detection and quantitation of low levels of oxidized A2E, with localization of the oxidation sites. This study suggests that identification and quantitation of A2E from tissue extracts by chromatographic absorption spectroscopyoverestimates the amount of A2E. This mass spectrometry approach makes it possible to detect low levels of A2E and its oxidized metabolites with greater accuracy than traditional methods, thereby facilitating a more exact analysis of bis-retinoids in animal models of inherited retinal degeneration as well as in normal and diseased human eyes. PMID:20931136

  1. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need. PMID:10310693

  2. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  3. Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Karen L.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

  4. Development and evaluation of an improved quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT method

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Ljungberg, Michael; Rault, Erwann; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Frey, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    forward projection model was incorporated into an iterative ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction code to allow for quantitative SPECT reconstruction. The resulting code was validated using both a physical phantom experiment with spherical objects in a warm background and a realistic anatomical phantom simulation. In the physical phantom study, the authors evaluated the method in terms of quantitative accuracy of activity estimates in the spheres; in the simulation study, the authors evaluated the accuracy and precision of activity estimates from various organs and compared them to results from a previously proposed method. Results: The authors demonstrated excellent agreement between the experimental measurement and Monte Carlo simulation. In the XCAT phantom simulation, the proposed method achieved much better accuracy in the modeling (error in photon counts was −1.1 %) compared to a previously proposed method (errors were more than 20  %); the quantitative accuracy of activity estimates was excellent for all organs (errors were from −1.6 % to 11.9 %) and comparable to previously published results for 131I using the same collimator. Conclusions: The proposed 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT reconstruction method provided very accurate estimates of organ activities, with accuracies approaching those previously observed for 131I. The method may be useful in verifying organ doses for targeted radionuclide therapy using 90Y. PMID:22559605

  5. Liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry for quantitative steroid hormone analysis in plasma, urine, saliva and hair.

    PubMed

    Gaudl, Alexander; Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta

    2016-09-16

    Steroid analysis is being conquered by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) benefiting from higher standardization, selectivity and diversity. Regarding high throughput in routine diagnostics rapid chromatography is mandatory. Introducing MS(3) (MS/MS/MS), specificity of mass spectrometric detection can be enhanced without sacrificing analysis time. 100mL of human plasma/serum, saliva, urine and 10-20mg of hair are used for the simultaneous quantification of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone using online solid phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS or LC-MS(3). Steroids can be analyzed in 4min after a single manual dilution and protein precipitation step. In complex sample matrices like hair MS(3) detection was found to be appropriate for quantitation. Lower limits of quantitation ranged from 37pmol/L (estradiol) up to 3.1nmol/L (DHEAS). General accuracy was 89-107% with between-run imprecision ≤10%. Comparison to immunoassays revealed significant differences in quantitation for urinary cortisol (-71% mean), aldosterone (-40% mean) and plasma aldosterone (-45% mean). The comparison of MS(2) and MS(3) quantitation of hair cortisol also revealed significant differences. In general, quantitation via MS(3) was not applicable for a long time. But with the current generation of mass spectrometers quantitation via MS(3) can be superior to MS(2) regarding specificity and accuracy when dealing with matrix issues. However, drawbacks regarding flexibility and precision have to be taken into account. Concludingly, simple protein precipitation combined with rapid online SPE LC-MS/MS/MS allows us to quantify over broad, essential concentration ranges in human serum, saliva, urine and hair. PMID:27554022

  6. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  7. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  8. High Accuracy Wavelength Calibration For A Scanning Visible Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo Scotti and Ronald Bell

    2010-07-29

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies ≤ 0.2Â. An automated calibration for a scanning spectrometer has been developed to achieve a high wavelength accuracy overr the visible spectrum, stable over time and environmental conditions, without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement. The method fits all relevant spectrometer paraameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a steping-motor controlled sine-drive, accuracies of ~0.025 Â have been demonstrated. With the addition of high resolution (0.075 aresec) optical encoder on the grading stage, greater precision (~0.005 Â) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements with ~0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  9. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Filippo; Bell, Ronald E

    2010-10-01

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies ≤0.2 Å. An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a stepping-motor controlled sine drive, an accuracy of ∼0.25 Å has been demonstrated. With the addition of a high resolution (0.075 arc  sec) optical encoder on the grating stage, greater precision (∼0.005 Å) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements within ∼0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively. PMID:21033925

  10. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  11. Preschoolers Monitor the Relative Accuracy of Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquini, Elisabeth S.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Koenig, Melissa; Harris, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 studies, the sensitivity of 3- and 4-year-olds to the previous accuracy of informants was assessed. Children viewed films in which 2 informants labeled familiar objects with differential accuracy (across the 2 experiments, children were exposed to the following rates of accuracy by the more and less accurate informants, respectively: 100% vs.…

  12. Intact Protein Quantitation Using Pseudoisobaric Dimethyl Labeling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Houqin; Xiao, Kaijie; Li, Yunhui; Yu, Fan; Liu, Yan; Xue, Bingbing; Tian, Zhixin

    2016-07-19

    Protein structural and functional studies rely on complete qualitative and quantitative information on protein species (proteoforms); thus, it is important to quantify differentially expressed proteins at their molecular level. Here we report our development of universal pseudoisobaric dimethyl labeling (pIDL) of amino groups at both the N-terminal and lysine residues for relative quantitation of intact proteins. Initial proof-of-principle study was conducted on standard protein myoglobin and hepatocellular proteomes (HepG2 vs LO2). The amino groups from both the N-terminal and lysine were dimethylated with HXHO (X = (13)C or C) and NaBY3CN (Y = H or D). At the standard protein level, labeling efficiency, effect of product ion size, and mass resolution on quantitation accuracy were explored; and a good linear quantitation dynamic range up to 50-fold was obtained. For the hepatocellular proteome samples, 33 proteins were quantified with RSD ≤ 10% from one-dimensional reversed phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the 1:1 mixed samples. The method in this study can be extended to quantitation of other intact proteome systems. The universal "one-pot" dimethyl labeling of all the amino groups in a protein without the need of preblocking of those on the lysine residues is made possible by protein identification and quantitation analysis using ProteinGoggle 2.0 with customized databases of both precursor and product ions containing heavy isotopes. PMID:27359340

  13. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  14. Validation techniques for quantitative brain tumors measurements.

    PubMed

    Salman, Y; Assal, M; Badawi, A; Alian, S; -M El-Bayome, M

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of tumor volume becomes more realistic with the use of imaging- particularly specially when the tumor have non-ellipsoidal morphology, which remains subtle, irregular and difficult to assess by visual metric and clinical examination. The quantitative measurements depend strongly on the accuracy of the segmentation technique. The validity of brain tumor segmentation methods is an important issue in medical imaging because it has a direct impact on many applications such as surgical planning and quantitative measurements of tumor volume. Our goal was to examine two popular segmentation techniques seeded region growing and active contour "snakes" to be compared against experts' manual segmentations as the gold standard. We illustrated these methods on brain tumor volume cases using MR imaging modality. PMID:17281898

  15. Cued Speech Transliteration: Effects of Speaking Rate and Lag Time on Production Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jean C; Tessler, Morgan P

    2016-10-01

    Many deaf and hard-of-hearing children rely on interpreters to access classroom communication. Although the exact level of access provided by interpreters in these settings is unknown, it is likely to depend heavily on interpreter accuracy (portion of message correctly produced by the interpreter) and the factors that govern interpreter accuracy. In this study, the accuracy of 12 Cued Speech (CS) transliterators with varying degrees of experience was examined at three different speaking rates (slow, normal, fast). Accuracy was measured with a high-resolution, objective metric in order to facilitate quantitative analyses of the effect of each factor on accuracy. Results showed that speaking rate had a large negative effect on accuracy, caused primarily by an increase in omitted cues, whereas the effect of lag time on accuracy, also negative, was quite small and explained just 3% of the variance. Increased experience level was generally associated with increased accuracy; however, high levels of experience did not guarantee high levels of accuracy. Finally, the overall accuracy of the 12 transliterators, 54% on average across all three factors, was low enough to raise serious concerns about the quality of CS transliteration services that (at least some) children receive in educational settings. PMID:27221370

  16. Precision and Accuracy Parameters in Structured Light 3-D Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiríksson, E. R.; Wilm, J.; Pedersen, D. B.; Aanæs, H.

    2016-04-01

    Structured light systems are popular in part because they can be constructed from off-the-shelf low cost components. In this paper we quantitatively show how common design parameters affect precision and accuracy in such systems, supplying a much needed guide for practitioners. Our quantitative measure is the established VDI/VDE 2634 (Part 2) guideline using precision made calibration artifacts. Experiments are performed on our own structured light setup, consisting of two cameras and a projector. We place our focus on the influence of calibration design parameters, the calibration procedure and encoding strategy and present our findings. Finally, we compare our setup to a state of the art metrology grade commercial scanner. Our results show that comparable, and in some cases better, results can be obtained using the parameter settings determined in this study.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, S.; Frisoni, G. B.

    2009-02-01

    We propose a single, quantitative metric called the disease evaluation factor (DEF) and assess its efficiency at estimating disease burden in normal, control subjects (CTRL) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study group consisted in 75 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and 75 age-matched normal CTRL without neurological or neuropsychological deficit. We calculated a reference eigenspace of MRI appearance from reference data, in which our CTRL and probable AD subjects were projected. We then calculated the multi-dimensional hyperplane separating the CTRL and probable AD groups. The DEF was estimated via a multidimensional weighted distance of eigencoordinates for a given subject and the CTRL group mean, along salient principal components forming the separating hyperplane. We used quantile plots, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 tests to compare the DEF values and test that their distribution was normal. We used a linear discriminant test to separate CTRL from probable AD based on the DEF factor, and reached an accuracy of 87%. A quantitative biomarker in AD would act as an important surrogate marker of disease status and progression.

  18. The influence of biological and technical factors on quantitative analysis of amyloid PET: Points to consider and recommendations for controlling variability in longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mark E; Chiao, Ping; Klein, Gregory; Matthews, Dawn; Thurfjell, Lennart; Cole, Patricia E; Margolin, Richard; Landau, Susan; Foster, Norman L; Mason, N Scott; De Santi, Susan; Suhy, Joyce; Koeppe, Robert A; Jagust, William

    2015-09-01

    In vivo imaging of amyloid burden with positron emission tomography (PET) provides a means for studying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and related diseases. Measurement of subtle changes in amyloid burden requires quantitative analysis of image data. Reliable quantitative analysis of amyloid PET scans acquired at multiple sites and over time requires rigorous standardization of acquisition protocols, subject management, tracer administration, image quality control, and image processing and analysis methods. We review critical points in the acquisition and analysis of amyloid PET, identify ways in which technical factors can contribute to measurement variability, and suggest methods for mitigating these sources of noise. Improved quantitative accuracy could reduce the sample size necessary to detect intervention effects when amyloid PET is used as a treatment end point and allow more reliable interpretation of change in amyloid burden and its relationship to clinical course. PMID:25457431

  19. Supramolecular metal displacement allows on-fluorescence analysis of manganese(II) in living cells.

    PubMed

    Gruppi, Francesca; Liang, Jian; Bartelle, Benjamin B; Royzen, Maksim; Turnbull, Daniel H; Canary, James W

    2012-11-11

    Due to the importance of Mn(2+) ions in biological processes, it is of growing interest to develop protocols for analysis of Mn(2+) uptake and distribution in cells. A supramolecular metal displacement assay can provide ratiometric fluorescence detection of Mn(2+), allowing for quantitative and longitudinal analysis of Mn(2+) uptake in living cells. PMID:23023093

  20. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.