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Sample records for accuracy differed significantly

  1. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. PMID:23528675

  2. Stereotype Accuracy: Toward Appreciating Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yueh-Ting, Ed.; And Others

    The preponderance of scholarly theory and research on stereotypes assumes that they are bad and inaccurate, but understanding stereotype accuracy and inaccuracy is more interesting and complicated than simpleminded accusations of racism or sexism would seem to imply. The selections in this collection explore issues of the accuracy of stereotypes…

  3. Individual Differences in Eyewitness Recall Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, James D.; Herringer, Lawrence G.

    1991-01-01

    Presents study results comparing college students' self-evaluation of recall accuracy to actual recall of detail after viewing a crime scenario. Reports that self-reported ability to remember detail correlates with accuracy in memory of specifics. Concludes that people may have a good indication early in the eyewitness situation of whether they…

  4. The Social Accuracy Model of Interpersonal Perception: Assessing Individual Differences in Perceptive and Expressive Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.

    2010-01-01

    The social accuracy model of interpersonal perception (SAM) is a componential model that estimates perceiver and target effects of different components of accuracy across traits simultaneously. For instance, Jane may be generally accurate in her perceptions of others and thus high in "perceptive accuracy"--the extent to which a particular…

  5. Improving the accuracy of central difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli

    1988-01-01

    General difference approximations to the fluid dynamic equations require an artificial viscosity in order to converge to a steady state. This artificial viscosity serves two purposes. One is to suppress high frequency noise which is not damped by the central differences. The second purpose is to introduce an entropy-like condition so that shocks can be captured. These viscosities need a coefficient to measure the amount of viscosity to be added. In the standard scheme, a scalar coefficient is used based on the spectral radius of the Jacobian of the convective flux. However, this can add too much viscosity to the slower waves. Hence, it is suggested that a matrix viscosity be used. This gives an appropriate viscosity for each wave component. With this matrix valued coefficient, the central difference scheme becomes closer to upwind biased methods.

  6. Incorporating tracer-tracee differences into models to improve accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The ideal tracer for metabolic studies is one that behaves exactly like the tracee. Compounds labeled with isotopes come the closest to this ideal because they are chemically identical to the tracee except for the substitution of a stable or radioisotope at one or more positions. Even this substitution, however, can introduce a difference in metabolism that may be quantitatively important with regard to the development of the mathematical model used to interpret the kinetic data. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of carbon dioxide production and hence energy expenditure in free-living subjects is a good example of how differences between the metabolism of the tracers and the tracee can influence the accuracy of the carbon dioxide production rate determined from the kinetic data.

  7. Analyses and comparison of accuracy of different genotype imputation methods.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu-Fang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2008-01-01

    The power of genetic association analyses is often compromised by missing genotypic data which contributes to lack of significant findings, e.g., in in silico replication studies. One solution is to impute untyped SNPs from typed flanking markers, based on known linkage disequilibrium (LD) relationships. Several imputation methods are available and their usefulness in association studies has been demonstrated, but factors affecting their relative performance in accuracy have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, we investigated and compared the performance of five popular genotype imputation methods, MACH, IMPUTE, fastPHASE, PLINK and Beagle, to assess and compare the effects of factors that affect imputation accuracy rates (ARs). Our results showed that a stronger LD and a lower MAF for an untyped marker produced better ARs for all the five methods. We also observed that a greater number of haplotypes in the reference sample resulted in higher ARs for MACH, IMPUTE, PLINK and Beagle, but had little influence on the ARs for fastPHASE. In general, MACH and IMPUTE produced similar results and these two methods consistently outperformed fastPHASE, PLINK and Beagle. Our study is helpful in guiding application of imputation methods in association analyses when genotype data are missing. PMID:18958166

  8. Analyses and Comparison of Accuracy of Different Genotype Imputation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yu-Fang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Papasian, Christopher J.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2008-01-01

    The power of genetic association analyses is often compromised by missing genotypic data which contributes to lack of significant findings, e.g., in in silico replication studies. One solution is to impute untyped SNPs from typed flanking markers, based on known linkage disequilibrium (LD) relationships. Several imputation methods are available and their usefulness in association studies has been demonstrated, but factors affecting their relative performance in accuracy have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, we investigated and compared the performance of five popular genotype imputation methods, MACH, IMPUTE, fastPHASE, PLINK and Beagle, to assess and compare the effects of factors that affect imputation accuracy rates (ARs). Our results showed that a stronger LD and a lower MAF for an untyped marker produced better ARs for all the five methods. We also observed that a greater number of haplotypes in the reference sample resulted in higher ARs for MACH, IMPUTE, PLINK and Beagle, but had little influence on the ARs for fastPHASE. In general, MACH and IMPUTE produced similar results and these two methods consistently outperformed fastPHASE, PLINK and Beagle. Our study is helpful in guiding application of imputation methods in association analyses when genotype data are missing. PMID:18958166

  9. Assessing the accuracy of different simplified frictional rolling contact algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollebregt, E. A. H.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Xie, G.; Shackleton, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing the accuracy of different frictional rolling contact theories. The main characteristic of the approach is that it takes a statistically oriented view. This yields a better insight into the behaviour of the methods in diverse circumstances (varying contact patch ellipticities, mixed longitudinal, lateral and spin creepages) than is obtained when only a small number of (basic) circumstances are used in the comparison. The range of contact parameters that occur for realistic vehicles and tracks are assessed using simulations with the Vampire vehicle system dynamics (VSD) package. This shows that larger values for the spin creepage occur rather frequently. Based on this, our approach is applied to typical cases for which railway VSD packages are used. The results show that particularly the USETAB approach but also FASTSIM give considerably better results than the linear theory, Vermeulen-Johnson, Shen-Hedrick-Elkins and Polach methods, when compared with the 'complete theory' of the CONTACT program.

  10. Difference, significant difference and clinically meaningful difference: The meaning of change in rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Zeevi

    2015-01-01

    The valid confirmation of a positive change (improvement) in a patient’s health status due to intervention has been at the core of medicine and rehabilitation since their very inception as clinicians always aspired to ensure that treating their patients had led to successful outcomes both in acute and chronic conditions. However what is change: either improvement or worsening (aggravation), is a complicated issue which involves clinical as well as statistical considerations. Change invariably relates to a difference in some measurable entity and almost always it relates to a time span. The confirmation of clinical change is important both for varying the treatment course (if necessary) and for the termination of treatment when the latter has reached wither its prescribed objective or a plateau. Since in the context of rehabilitation, the outcome measures (OM) are strongly linked to performance, determination of change in the latter is confounded by many factors, collectively known as the error of measurement, which render a decision regarding clinically meaningful change, highly involved. This is further complicated by the stability of the observed OM, the so-called reproducibility of the OM, and the accuracy of the measurement instrument. The higher the reproducibility the lower is the error. Moreover, in order to proclaim change, in most cases a positive one, it is necessary for the difference in outcome scores (i.e. the change) to surpass the error of measurement, in varying degree of rigor. This paper describes selected methods associated with determination of change and focuses predominantly on the difference between a simple difference in scores (‘simple change’), a significant difference in scores and the so-called clinically meaningful change in scores which is considered today as the benchmark for confirmation of a real change. PMID:25960978

  11. Accuracy assessment of single and double difference models for the single epoch GPS compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wantong; Qin, Honglei; Zhang, Yanzhong; Jin, Tian

    2012-02-01

    The single epoch GPS compass is an important field of study, since it is a valuable technique for the orientation estimation of vehicles and it can guarantee a total independence from carrier phase slips in practical applications. To achieve highly accurate angular estimates, the unknown integer ambiguities of the carrier phase observables need to be resolved. Past researches focus on the ambiguity resolution for single epoch; however, accuracy is another significant problem for many challenging applications. In this contribution, the accuracy is evaluated for the non-common clock scheme of the receivers and the common clock scheme of the receivers, respectively. We focus on three scenarios for either scheme: single difference model vs. double difference model, single frequency model vs. multiple frequency model and optimal linear combinations vs. traditional triple-frequency least squares. We deduce the short baseline precision for a number of different available models and analyze the difference in accuracy for those models. Compared with the single or double difference model of the non-common clock scheme, the single difference model of the common clock scheme can greatly reduce the vertical component error of baseline vector, which results in higher elevation accuracy. The least squares estimator can also reduce the error of fixed baseline vector with the aid of the multi-frequency observation, thereby improving the attitude accuracy. In essence, the "accuracy improvement" is attributed to the difference in accuracy for different models, not a real improvement for any specific model. If all noise levels of GPS triple frequency carrier phase are assumed the same in unit of cycles, it can be proved that the optimal linear combination approach is equivalent to the traditional triple-frequency least squares, no matter which scheme is utilized. Both simulations and actual experiments have been performed to verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  12. [Effect of different distribution of components concentration on the accuracy of quantitative spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-Ju; Wu, Xiao-Rong

    2012-07-01

    In order to discuss the effect of different distribution of components concentration on the accuracy of quantitative spectral analysis, according to the Lambert-Beer law, ideal absorption spectra of samples with three components were established. Gaussian noise was added to the spectra. Correction and prediction models were built by partial least squares regression to reflect the unequal modeling and prediction results between different distributions of components. Results show that, in the case of pure linear absorption, the accuracy of model is related to the distribution of components concentration. Not only to the component we focus on, but also to the non-tested components, the larger covered and more uniform distribution is a significant point of calibration set samples to establish a universal model and provide a satisfactory accuracy. This research supplies a theoretic guidance for reasonable choice of samples with suitable concentration distribution, which enhances the quality of model and reduces the prediction error of the predict set. PMID:23016350

  13. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  14. Accuracy of different impression materials in parallel and nonparallel implants

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Mahroo; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ansarifard, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: A precise impression is mandatory to obtain passive fit in implant-supported prostheses. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three impression materials in both parallel and nonparallel implant positions. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two partial dentate maxillary acrylic models with four implant analogues in canines and lateral incisors areas were used. One model was simulating the parallel condition and the other nonparallel one, in which implants were tilted 30° bucally and 20° in either mesial or distal directions. Thirty stone casts were made from each model using polyether (Impregum), additional silicone (Monopren) and vinyl siloxanether (Identium), with open tray technique. The distortion values in three-dimensions (X, Y and Z-axis) were measured by coordinate measuring machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05). Results: Under parallel condition, all the materials showed comparable, accurate casts (P = 0.74). In the presence of angulated implants, while Monopren showed more accurate results compared to Impregum (P = 0.01), Identium yielded almost similar results to those produced by Impregum (P = 0.27) and Monopren (P = 0.26). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, in parallel conditions, the type of impression material cannot affect the accuracy of the implant impressions; however, in nonparallel conditions, polyvinyl siloxane is shown to be a better choice, followed by vinyl siloxanether and polyether respectively. PMID:26288620

  15. Theoretical prediction of lung nodule measurement accuracy under different acquisition and reconstruction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Jiang; Karau, Kelly

    2004-04-01

    Utilization of computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening has attracted significant research interests in recent years. Images reconstructed from CT studies are used for lung nodule characterization and three-dimensional lung lesion sizing. Methodologies have been developed to automatically identify and characterize lung nodules. In this paper, we analyze the impact of acquisition and reconstruction parameters on the accuracy of quantitative lung nodule characterization. The two major data acquisition parameters that impact the accuracy of the lung nodule measurement are acquisition mode and slice aperture. Acquisition mode includes both axial and helical scans. The investigated reconstruction parameters are the reconstruction filters and field-of-view. We first develop theoretical models that predict the system response under various acquisition and reconstruction conditions. These models allow clinicians to compare results under different conditions and make appropriate acquisition and reconstruction decisions. To validate our model, extensive phantom experiments are conducted. Experiments have demonstrated that our analytical models accurately predict the performance parameters under various conditions. Our study indicates that acquisition and reconstruction parameters can significantly impact the accuracy of the nodule volume measurement. Consequently, when conducting quantitative analysis on lung nodules, especially in sequential growth studies, it is important to make appropriate adjustment and correction to maintain the desired accuracy and to ensure effective patient management.

  16. Attention: Reaction Time and Accuracy Reveal Different Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzmetal, William; McCool, Christin; Park, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    The authors propose that there are 2 different mechanisms whereby spatial cues capture attention. The voluntary mechanism is the strategic allocation of perceptual resources to the location most likely to contain the target. The involuntary mechanism is a reflexive orienting response that occurs even when the spatial cue does not indicate the…

  17. The accuracy of three different electronic root canal measuring devices: an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, Ali Cemal; Maden, Murat; Aydin, Cumhur; Türköz, Emin

    2002-06-01

    The main objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the operator's experience level and pre-flaring on the accuracy of the results of three different brands of a new generation of root canal measuring devices, as well as the comparison among them. Extracted human teeth were prepared and then actual length and electronic length measurements were made by three different operators according to a double-blind technique. Three different operators performed electronic measurements on each specimen separately with three different electronic root canal measuring devices using in vitro models. Measurements were repeated by all operators after the pre-flaring. Taking the clinical tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm into account, there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the instruments (P > 0.01). However, the results obtained from the Bingo electronic apex locator in pre-flared canals by the beginner operator were statistically significant (P < 0.01). All of the instruments had a clinically acceptable result at the tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm. If the instruments are used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, experience with electronic root canal measurement is not essential. However, the operator has to be more careful when working on pre-flared canals. PMID:12227501

  18. Accuracy combining different brands of implants and abutments

    PubMed Central

    Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo; Senent-Vicente, Gisela; González-de-Cossio, Inés; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vertical misfit between different brands of dental implants and prosthetic abutments, with or without mechanical torque, and to study their possible combination. Study design: Five different brands of implant were used in the study: Biofit (Castemaggiore, Italy), Bioner S.A. (Barcelona, Spain), 3i Biomet (Palm Beach, U.S.A.), BTI (Alava, Spain) and Nobel Biocare (Göteborg, Sweden), with standard 4.1 mm heads and external hexagons, and their respective machined prosthetic abutments. The implant-to-abutment fit/misfit was evaluated at four points (vestibular, lingual/palatine, mesial and distal) between implants and abutments of the same brand and different brands, with or without mechanical torque, using SEM micrographs at 5000X. Image analysis was performed using NIS-Elements software (Nikon Instruments Europe B.V.). Results: Before applying torque, vertical misfit (microgaps) of the different combinations tested varied between 1.6 and 5.4 microns and after applying torque, between 0.9 and 5.9 microns, an overall average of 3.46±2.96 microns. For manual assembly without the use of mechanical torque, the best results were obtained with the combination of the 3i implant and the BTI abutment. The Nobel implant and Nobel abutment, 3i-3i and BTI-BTI and the combination of 3i implant with BTI or Nobel abutment provided the best vertical fit when mechanical torque was applied. Conclusions: The vertical fits obtained were within the limits considered clinically acceptable. The application of mechanical torque improved outcomes. There is compatibility between implants and abutments of different brand and so their combination is a clinical possibility. Key words:Vertical fit, implant, prosthetic abutment, combination. PMID:23229250

  19. A Comparison of the Accuracy of Different Functionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The errors in the computed geometries, zero-point energies, and atomization energies of molecules containing only first and second row atoms are compared for several levels of theory, including Hartree-Fock, second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and density functional theory (DFT) using five different functionals, including two hybrid functionals. The 6-31G* and 6-311+G(3df,2p) basis set are used. Overall, the B3LYP hybrid functional yields the best results.

  20. Accuracy issues in the finite difference time domain simulation of photomask scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.

    2001-09-01

    As the use of electromagnetic simulation in lithography increases, accuracy issues are uncovered and must be addressed. A proper understanding of these issues can allow the lithographer to avoid pitfalls in electromagnetic simulation and to know what can and can not be accurately simulated. This paper addresses the important accuracy issues related to the simulation of photomask scattering using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Errors related to discretization and periodic boundary conditions are discussed. Discretization-related issues arise when derivatives are replaced by finite differences and when integrals are replaced by summations. These approximations can lead to mask features that do not have exact dimensions. The effects of discretization error on phase wells and thin films are shown. The reflectivity of certain thin film layers is seen to be very sensitive to the layer thickness. Simulation experiments and theory are used to determine how fine a discretization is necessary and various discretization schemes that help minimize error are presented. Boundary-condition-related errors arise from the use of periodic boundary conditions when simulating isolated mask features. The effects of periodic boundary conditions are assessed through the use of simulation experiments. All errors are associated with an ever-present trade-off between accuracy and computational resources. However, choosing the cell size wisely can, in many cases, minimize error without significantly increasing computation resource requirements.

  1. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  2. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prospective nonrandomized control study. The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED). Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic time, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time. A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture time(s) were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P

  3. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. Aim To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. Materials and Methods To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean

  4. Estimation of significant solvent concentration ranges and its application to the enhancement of the accuracy of gradient predictions.

    PubMed

    Vivó-Truyols, G; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2004-11-19

    The solvent concentration range actually useful for gradient predictions is significantly narrower than the total range scanned in a gradient run. This range, called "solvent informative range" (SIR), if known with the highest accuracy, allows to predict gradient retention times (t(g) with minimal error. The small size of the SIR supports the application of the linear solvent strength theory (LSST). Furthermore, LSST allows a closed-form solution to the integral required to predict gradient retention times, which eliminates numerical integration, needed with other retention models. A methodology that calculates the SIR by applying error analysis, and uses it to improve the accuracy in the prediction of t(g) from isocratic experiments, is proposed. The importance of those mobile-phase compositions that do not contribute significantly to the prediction of t(g) is selectively attenuated within the prediction algorithm, relying the predictions more heavily on the SIR. As a result, t(g) was found to be predicted with similar accuracy using isocratic training data with regard to predictions based on gradient training data. The approach is useful for all situations where the chromatographer is able to provide predictions of retention at constant solvent concentration, and wish to predict the retention in gradient mode. PMID:15584220

  5. Differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition: a meta-analytical investigation.

    PubMed

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J

    2012-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical techniques, the differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition. Overall, exercise demonstrated a small, significant mean effect size (g=0.14, p<0.01) on cognition. Examination of the comparison between speed and accuracy dependent variables showed that speed accounted for most of the effect. For speed, moderate intensity exercise demonstrated a significantly larger mean effect size than those for low and high intensities. For speed of processing during moderate intensity exercise, central executive tasks showed a larger effect size than recall and alertness/attention tasks; and mean effect size for counterbalanced or randomized studies was significantly greater than for studies in which a pre-exercise followed by during or post-exercise protocol was used. There was no significant difference between mean effect sizes when testing took place post-exercise compared to during exercise for speed but accuracy studies demonstrated a significantly larger mean effect size post-exercise. It was concluded that increased arousal during moderate intensity exercise resulted in faster speed of processing. The very limited effect on accuracy may be due to the failure to choose tests which are complex enough to measure exercise-induced changes in accuracy of performance. PMID:23064033

  6. Comprehensive Numerical Analysis of Finite Difference Time Domain Methods for Improving Optical Waveguide Sensor Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Samak, M. Mosleh E. Abu; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Kashif, Muhammad; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkifly

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses numerical analysis methods for different geometrical features that have limited interval values for typically used sensor wavelengths. Compared with existing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods, the alternating direction implicit (ADI)-FDTD method reduces the number of sub-steps by a factor of two to three, which represents a 33% time savings in each single run. The local one-dimensional (LOD)-FDTD method has similar numerical equation properties, which should be calculated as in the previous method. Generally, a small number of arithmetic processes, which result in a shorter simulation time, are desired. The alternating direction implicit technique can be considered a significant step forward for improving the efficiency of unconditionally stable FDTD schemes. This comparative study shows that the local one-dimensional method had minimum relative error ranges of less than 40% for analytical frequencies above 42.85 GHz, and the same accuracy was generated by both methods.

  7. Estimation of accuracy of earth-rotation parameters in different frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrak, J.

    1986-11-01

    The accuracies of earth-rotation parameters as determined by five different observational techniques now available (i.e., optical astrometry /OA/, Doppler tracking of satellites /DTS/, satellite laser ranging /SLR/, very long-base interferometry /VLBI/ and lunar laser ranging /LLR/) are estimated. The differences between the individual techniques in all possible combinations, separated by appropriate filters into three frequency bands, were used to estimate the accuracies of the techniques for periods from 0 to 200 days, from 200 to 1000 days and longer than 1000 days. It is shown that for polar motion the most accurate results are obtained with VLBI anad SLR, especially in the short-period region; OA and DTS are less accurate, but with longer periods the differences in accuracy are less pronounced. The accuracies of UTI-UTC as determined by OA, VLBI and LLR are practically equivalent, the differences being less than 40 percent.

  8. Accuracy Evaluation of Tracking Equipment Based on Star- Station- Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, LiJian; Huang, XiaoJuan; Pan, Liang; Xu, RuXiang

    2016-02-01

    An approach based on the star station difference technology is proposed for accuracy evaluation of tracking and controlling shipboard equipments in this paper. The proposed method has the advantages of simple equipment, convenient measurement, and low requirements on environmental conditions.

  9. Differential Effects of Differing Intensities of Acute Exercise on Speed and Accuracy of Cognition: A Meta-Analytical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical techniques, the differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition. Overall, exercise demonstrated a small, significant mean effect size (g = 0.14, p less than 0.01) on cognition. Examination of the comparison between speed and…

  10. Effect of different impression materials and techniques on the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts

    PubMed Central

    Ebadian, Behnaz; Rismanchian, Mansor; Dastgheib, Badrosadat; Bajoghli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different factors such as impression techniques and materials can affect the passive fit between the superstructure and implant. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different impression materials and techniques on the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts. Materials and Methods: Four internal hex implants (Biohorizons Ø4 mm) were placed on a metal maxillary model perpendicular to the horizontal plane in maxillary lateral incisors, right canine and left first premolar areas. Three impression techniques including open tray, closed tray using ball top screw abutments and closed tray using short impression copings and two impression materials (polyether and polyvinyl siloxane) were evaluated (n = 60). The changes in distances between implant analogues in mediolateral (x) and anteroposterior (y) directions and analogue angles in x/z and y/z directions in the horizontal plane on the definitive casts were measured by coordinate measuring machine. The data were analyzed by multivariate two-way analysis of variance and one sample t-test (α = 0.05). Results: No statistical significant differences were observed between different impression techniques and materials. However, deviation and distortion of definitive casts had a significant difference with the master model when short impression copings and polyvinyl siloxane impression material were used (P < 0.05). In open tray technique, there was a significant difference in the rotation of analogs compared with the master model with both impression materials (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was no difference between open and closed tray impression techniques; however, less distortion and deviation were observed in the open tray technique. In the closed tray impression technique, ball top screw was more accurate than short impression copings. PMID:25878678

  11. Accuracy of linear measurement using cone-beam computed tomography at different reconstruction angles

    PubMed Central

    Nikneshan, Sima; Aval, Shadi Hamidi; Bakhshalian, Neema; Shahab, Shahriyar; Mohammadpour, Mahdis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the effect of changing the orientation of a reconstructed image on the accuracy of linear measurements using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Forty-two titanium pins were inserted in seven dry sheep mandibles. The length of these pins was measured using a digital caliper with readability of 0.01 mm. Mandibles were radiographed using a CBCT device. When the CBCT images were reconstructed, the orientation of slices was adjusted to parallel (i.e., 0°), +10°, +12°, -12°, and -10° with respect to the occlusal plane. The length of the pins was measured by three radiologists, and the accuracy of these measurements was reported using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The differences in radiographic measurements ranged from -0.64 to +0.06 at the orientation of -12°, -0.66 to -0.11 at -10°, -0.51 to +0.19 at 0°, -0.64 to +0.08 at +10°, and -0.64 to +0.1 at +12°. The mean absolute values of the errors were greater at negative orientations than at the parallel position or at positive orientations. The observers underestimated most of the variables by 0.5-0.1 mm (83.6%). In the second set of observations, the reproducibility at all orientations was greater than 0.9. Conclusion Changing the slice orientation in the range of -12° to +12° reduced the accuracy of linear measurements obtained using CBCT. However, the error value was smaller than 0.5 mm and was, therefore, clinically acceptable. PMID:25473632

  12. Impact of Different Data Assimilation Strategies for SMOS Observations on Flood Forecasting Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; Verhoest, N.; Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; van Den Berg, M. J.; Al-Bitar, A.; Merlin, O.; Kumar Tomer, S.; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y. H.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.; Drusch, M.; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Vereecken, H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Dumedah, G.; Walker, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decade, significant efforts have been directed towards establishing and improving flood forecasting systems for large river basins. Examples include the European Flood Alert System, and the Bureau of Meteorology Flood Warning Systems in Australia. A number of attempts have also been made to increase the accuracy of the forecasted flood volumes from these systems. One attractive way in which this can be achieved is to use remotely sensed surface soil moisture contents to constrain the hydrologic model predictions. Satellite missions such as SMOS can provide very useful information on the wetness conditions of these basins, which in many cases is an important initial condition for discharge generation. Assimilation of these satellite data is thus a logical way to proceed. We will present results from two different assimilation strategies for the Murray-Darling basin in Australia using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Firstly, the SMOS soil moisture data are assimilated into the hydrologic model at their original spatial resolution. As the spatial resolution of the remote sensing data (25 km) is coarser than the spatial resolution of the model (10 km), a multiscale data assimilation algorithm needs to be implemented. Secondly, the SMOS data are downscaled to the model resolution, prior to their assimilation. In this presentation, the impact of the assimilation of both products on the accuracy of the forecasted flood volumes is assessed.

  13. Long-term deflections of reinforced concrete elements: accuracy analysis of predictions by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribniak, Viktor; Bacinskas, Darius; Kacianauskas, Rimantas; Kaklauskas, Gintaris; Torres, Lluis

    2013-08-01

    Long-term deflection response of reinforced concrete flexural members is influenced by the interaction of complex physical phenomena, such as concrete creep, shrinkage and cracking, which makes their prediction difficult. A number of approaches are proposed by design codes with different degrees of simplification and accuracy. This paper statistically investigates accuracy of long-term deflection predictions made by some of the most widely used design codes ( Eurocode 2, ACI 318, ACI 435, and the new Russian code SP 52-101) and a numerical technique proposed by the authors. The accuracy is analyzed using test data of 322 reinforced concrete members from 27 test programs reported in the literature. The predictions of each technique are discussed, and a comparative analysis is made showing the influence of different parameters, such as sustained loading duration, compressive strength of concrete, loading intensity and reinforcement ratio, on the prediction accuracy.

  14. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

    PubMed Central

    Nikneshan, Sima; Sharafi, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Materials and Methods Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75° mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8° downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8° upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10° downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Results Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Conclusion Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10° had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8° upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions. PMID:24083213

  15. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults' Story Recall.

    PubMed

    Davis, Danielle K; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  16. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults’ Story Recall

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Danielle K.; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  17. Three-dimensional accuracy of different correction methods for cast implant bars

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Yung; Kim, Chang-Whe; Lim, Young-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of three techniques for correction of cast implant bars. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty cast implant bars were fabricated on a metal master model. All cast implant bars were sectioned at 5 mm from the left gold cylinder using a disk of 0.3 mm thickness, and then each group of ten specimens was corrected by gas-air torch soldering, laser welding, and additional casting technique. Three dimensional evaluation including horizontal, vertical, and twisting measurements was based on measurement and comparison of (1) gap distances of the right abutment replica-gold cylinder interface at buccal, distal, lingual side, (2) changes of bar length, and (3) axis angle changes of the right gold cylinders at the step of the post-correction measurements on the three groups with a contact and non-contact coordinate measuring machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test were performed at the significance level of 5%. RESULTS Gap distances of the cast implant bars after correction procedure showed no statistically significant difference among groups. Changes in bar length between pre-casting and post-correction measurement were statistically significance among groups. Axis angle changes of the right gold cylinders were not statistically significance among groups. CONCLUSION There was no statistical significance among three techniques in horizontal, vertical and axial errors. But, gas-air torch soldering technique showed the most consistent and accurate trend in the correction of implant bar error. However, Laser welding technique, showed a large mean and standard deviation in vertical and twisting measurement and might be technique-sensitive method. PMID:24605205

  18. Nice to meet you--adult age differences in empathic accuracy for strangers.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Elisabeth S; Rauers, Antje; Riediger, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Empathic accuracy is the ability to correctly identify others' thoughts and feelings. Based on evidence from past laboratory experiments, researchers concluded that this ability decreases throughout adulthood. This conclusion, however, was mostly based on evidence regarding isolated components of the ability to read others' thoughts and feelings (e.g., inferring thoughts or feelings from facial expressions presented without context). In contrast, empathic accuracy involves the integration of a multitude of such inferences from diverse sources of information that are available in everyday interactions (e.g., facial and bodily expressions, prosody, communication content, situational context, etc.). To strengthen empirical evidence on age differences in this integrative ability, we assessed empathic accuracy in dyadic interactions between 102 younger (20-31 years) and 106 older (69-80 years) women, paired in same-age or mixed-age dyads. In these interactions, older women were only less empathically accurate than younger women when judging their interaction partner's negative feelings and when judging thoughts that accompanied experiences of negative affect. In contrast, there were no age differences in empathic accuracy for positive feelings and for thoughts accompanying experiences of positive affect. These results were independent of the age of the interaction partner. The current study thus provides further evidence that age differences in empathic accuracy (a) may be qualified by situational properties, such as valence of inferred content, and (b) can be less pronounced when integration of multiple sources of information is possible than research investigating isolated information channels has thus far suggested. PMID:25436599

  19. Accuracy of Implant Position Transfer and Surface Detail Reproduction with Different Impression Materials and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Siadat, Hakimeh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant position transfer and surface detail reproduction using two impression techniques and materials. Materials and Methods: A metal model with two implants and three grooves of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mm in depth on the flat superior surface of a die was fabricated. Ten regular-body polyether (PE) and 10 regular-body polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions with square and conical transfer copings using open tray and closed tray techniques were made for each group. Impressions were poured with type IV stone, and linear and angular displacements of the replica heads were evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Also, accurate reproduction of the grooves was evaluated by a video measuring machine (VMM). These measurements were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference model that served as control, and the data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and t-test at P= 0.05. Results: There was less linear displacement for PVS and less angular displacement for PE in closed-tray technique, and less linear displacement for PE in open tray technique (P<0.001). Also, the open tray technique showed less angular displacement with the use of PVS impression material. Detail reproduction accuracy was the same in all the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The open tray technique was more accurate using PE, and also both closed tray and open tray techniques had acceptable results with the use of PVS. The choice of impression material and technique made no significant difference in surface detail reproduction. PMID:27252761

  20. Height Accuracy Based on Different Rtk GPS Method for Ultralight Aircraft Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2015-08-01

    Height accuracy is one of the important elements in surveying work especially for control point's establishment which requires an accurate measurement. There are many methods can be used to acquire height value such as tacheometry, leveling and Global Positioning System (GPS). This study has investigated the effect on height accuracy based on different observations which are single based and network based GPS methods. The GPS network is acquired from the local network namely Iskandar network. This network has been setup to provide real-time correction data to rover GPS station while the single network is based on the known GPS station. Nine ground control points were established evenly at the study area. Each ground control points were observed about two and ten minutes. It was found that, the height accuracy give the different result for each observation.

  1. [The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2014-02-01

    The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study. PMID:24822441

  2. Differences between experts and novices in kinematics and accuracy of golf putting.

    PubMed

    Sim, Mikyong; Kim, Jin-Uk

    2010-12-01

    In this study, golf-putting movements were examined under three goal distances (short, 1.7m; middle, 3.25m; long, 6m), two different putter weights (500g, 750g), and two levels of expertise (5 experts, 5 novices). The study's aim was to identify differences in kinematics and accuracy between expert and novice golfers. The results demonstrated that experts achieved higher accuracy with lower impact velocity than novices. In addition, while novices showed symmetrical movements, experts exhibited asymmetrical movements, which were achieved by modulating their movement time and amplitude differently from novices. These results demonstrated differences in relative timing, relative amplitude and velocity, but no difference in time-to-contact between novices and experts. The results reaffirmed the role of prior learning and supported the hypothesis of Manoel and Connolly (1995) that motor learning is a hierarchical process organized at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. PMID:20846738

  3. The effect of different Global Navigation Satellite System methods on positioning accuracy in elite alpine skiing.

    PubMed

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Limpach, Philippe; Geiger, Alain; Müller, Erich

    2014-01-01

    In sport science, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are frequently applied to capture athletes' position, velocity and acceleration. Application of GNSS includes a large range of different GNSS technologies and methods. To date no study has comprehensively compared the different GNSS methods applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of differential and non-differential solutions, different satellite systems and different GNSS signal frequencies on position accuracy. Twelve alpine ski racers were equipped with high-end GNSS devices while performing runs on a giant slalom course. The skiers' GNSS antenna positions were calculated in three satellite signal obstruction conditions using five different GNSS methods. The GNSS antenna positions were compared to a video-based photogrammetric reference system over one turn and against the most valid GNSS method over the entire run. Furthermore, the time for acquisitioning differential GNSS solutions was assessed for four differential methods. The only GNSS method that consistently yielded sub-decimetre position accuracy in typical alpine skiing conditions was a differential method using American (GPS) and Russian (GLONASS) satellite systems and the satellite signal frequencies L1 and L2. Under conditions of minimal satellite signal obstruction, valid results were also achieved when either the satellite system GLONASS or the frequency L2 was dropped from the best configuration. All other methods failed to fulfill the accuracy requirements needed to detect relevant differences in the kinematics of alpine skiers, even in conditions favorable for GNSS measurements. The methods with good positioning accuracy had also the shortest times to compute differential solutions. This paper highlights the importance to choose appropriate methods to meet the accuracy requirements for sport applications. PMID:25285461

  4. The Effect of Different Global Navigation Satellite System Methods on Positioning Accuracy in Elite Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Limpach, Philippe; Geiger, Alain; Müller, Erich

    2014-01-01

    In sport science, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are frequently applied to capture athletes' position, velocity and acceleration. Application of GNSS includes a large range of different GNSS technologies and methods. To date no study has comprehensively compared the different GNSS methods applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of differential and non-differential solutions, different satellite systems and different GNSS signal frequencies on position accuracy. Twelve alpine ski racers were equipped with high-end GNSS devices while performing runs on a giant slalom course. The skiers' GNSS antenna positions were calculated in three satellite signal obstruction conditions using five different GNSS methods. The GNSS antenna positions were compared to a video-based photogrammetric reference system over one turn and against the most valid GNSS method over the entire run. Furthermore, the time for acquisitioning differential GNSS solutions was assessed for four differential methods. The only GNSS method that consistently yielded sub-decimetre position accuracy in typical alpine skiing conditions was a differential method using American (GPS) and Russian (GLONASS) satellite systems and the satellite signal frequencies L1 and L2. Under conditions of minimal satellite signal obstruction, valid results were also achieved when either the satellite system GLONASS or the frequency L2 was dropped from the best configuration. All other methods failed to fulfill the accuracy requirements needed to detect relevant differences in the kinematics of alpine skiers, even in conditions favorable for GNSS measurements. The methods with good positioning accuracy had also the shortest times to compute differential solutions. This paper highlights the importance to choose appropriate methods to meet the accuracy requirements for sport applications. PMID:25285461

  5. Sample Size Planning for the Standardized Mean Difference: Accuracy in Parameter Estimation via Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Rausch, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Methods for planning sample size (SS) for the standardized mean difference so that a narrow confidence interval (CI) can be obtained via the accuracy in parameter estimation (AIPE) approach are developed. One method plans SS so that the expected width of the CI is sufficiently narrow. A modification adjusts the SS so that the obtained CI is no…

  6. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089

  7. Comparative evaluation of dimensional accuracy of different polyvinyl siloxane putty-wash impression techniques-in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Dugal, Ramandeep; Railkar, Bhargavi; Musani, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dimensional accuracy when making impressions is crucial to the quality of fixed prosthodontic treatment, and the impression technique is a critical factor affecting this accuracy. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dimensional accuracy of the casts obtained from one step double mix, two step double mix polyvinyl siloxane putty- wash impression techniques using three different spacer thicknesses (0.5mm, 1mm and 1.5mm), in order to determine the impression technique that displays the maximum linear dimensional accuracy. Materials & Methods: A Mild steel model with 2 abutment preparations was fabricated, and impressions were made 15 times with each technique. All impressions were made with an addition-reaction silicone impression material (Express, 3M ESPE) and customarily made perforated metal trays. The 1-step putty/light-body impressions were made with simultaneous use of putty and light-body materials. The 2-step putty/light-body impressions were made with 0.5-mm, 1mm and 1.5mm-thick metal-prefabricated spacer caps. The accuracy of the 4 different impression techniques was assessed by measuring 7 dimensions (intra- and inter abutment) (20-μm accuracy) on stone casts poured from the impressions of the mild steel model. The data were analyzed by one sample‘t’ test. Results: The stone dies obtained with all the techniques had significantly larger or smaller dimensions as compared to those of the mild steel model (P<0.05). The order for highest to lowest deviation from the mild steel model was: single step putty/light body, 2-step putty/light body with 0.5mm spacer thickness, 2-step putty/light body1.5mm spacer thickness, and 2-step putty/light body with 1mm spacer thickness. Significant differences among all of the groups for both absolute dimensions of the stone dies, and their standard deviations from the master model (P<0.05), were noted. Conclusions: The 2-step putty/light-body impression technique with 1mm spacer thickness was

  8. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

  9. Comparison of the Accuracy of Different Transfer Impression Techniques for Osseointegrated Implants.

    PubMed

    Zen, Bruno Massucato; Soares, Eveline Freitas; Rodrigues, Mariana Agustinho; Luthi, Leonardo Flores; Consani, Rafael Leonardo X; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate 3 transfer techniques used to obtain working casts of implant-supported prostheses through the marginal misfit and strain induced to metallic framework. Thirty working casts were obtained from a metallic master cast, each one containing 2 implant analogs simulating a clinical situation of 3-unit implant-supported fixed prostheses according to the following transfer impression techniques: group A, squared transfers splinted with dental floss and acrylic resin, sectioned, and re-splinted; group B, squared transfers splinted with dental floss and bis-acrylic resin; and group N, squared transfers not splinted. A metallic framework was made for marginal misfit and strain measurements from the metallic master cast. The misfit between the metallic framework and working casts was evaluated with an optical microscope following the single-screw test protocol. In the same conditions, the strain was evaluated using strain gauges placed on the metallic framework. The data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (α = 5%). For both marginal misfit and strain, there were statistically significant differences between groups A and N (P < .01) and groups B and N (P < .01), with greater values for group N. According to the Pearson test, there was a positive correlation between the misfit and strain variables (r = 0.5642). The results of this study showed that the impression techniques with splinted transfers promoted better accuracy than the nonsplinted technique, regardless of the splinting material used. PMID:25438007

  10. Pediatricians' and psychologists' implicit personality theory: significance of sibling differences.

    PubMed

    Schachter, F F; Stone, R K

    1985-10-01

    Pediatricians' and psychologists' implicit theories of how personality develops are compared to recent behavioral-genetic analyses based on twin and adoption studies. Results show that both practitioner groups--less so the psychologists--underestimate differences between children in the same family, over-estimate the influence of their shared environmental experiences, and underestimate those not shared. Findings mirror the bias of traditional personality research, pointing out the need to investigate environmental variables with differential impacts on children in the same family, e.g., sibling deidentification; one child extrovert, one introvert; one saint, one sinner. PMID:4066965

  11. Comparison and Significance of Two Different Organic Paleotemperature Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zhang, H.; He, J.; Ruan, Y.; Dong, L.; Wang, H.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a basic parameter in the study of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. In the present study, two organic geochemical proxies, UK'37 and TEX86 were used for the sea surface temperature reconstruction in the site MD123434 (18°49.84'N,116°18.89'E, water depth 2995m) in northern South China Sea. On the whole, the two reconstructed temperature correlated well with each other, reflecting low temperature in the last glacial and high in the Holocene. Nevertheless, detailed comparison illustrated relatively higher reconstructed temperature by the UK'37 method than that in TEX86 proxy, with a range of 23.0℃ to 27.8℃ and 18.9℃to 29.5℃ for UK'37 and TEX86 proxy respectively. The average temperature discrepancy (ΔT) between the two temperature proxies is ~3℃ during the last glacial and ~0℃ during the Holocene, which cannot be fully attributed to calculation errors. The offset between these two proxies may be caused by the different living water depths of the source organisms: haptophyte and Thaumarchaeota for the UK'37 and TEX86 respectively. The terrestrial GDGTs input and the different calibration equations on the TEX86 may possibly also contribute to the discrepancy. Meanwhile, growth seasonalities between the two source organisms cannot be ignored either.

  12. Male and female guppies differ in speed but not in accuracy in visual discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    In many species, males and females have different reproductive roles and/or differ in their ecological niche. Since in these cases the two sexes often face different cognitive challenges, selection may promote some degree of cognitive differentiation, an issue that has received relatively little attention so far. We investigated the existence of sex differences in visual discrimination learning in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a fish species in which females show complex mate choice based on male colour pattern. We tested males and females for their ability to learn a discrimination between two different shapes (experiment 1) and between two identical figures with a different orientation (experiment 2). In experiment 3, guppies were required to select an object of the odd colour in a group of five objects. Colours changed daily, and therefore, the solution for this task was facilitated by concept learning. We found males' and females' accuracy practically overlapped in the three experiments, suggesting that the two sexes have similar discrimination learning abilities. Yet, males showed faster decision time than females without any evident speed-accuracy trade-off. This result indicates the existence of consistent between-sex differences in decision speed perhaps due to impulsivity rather than speed in information processing. Our results align with previous literature, indicating that sex differences in cognitive abilities are the exception rather than the rule, while sex differences in cognitive style, i.e. the way in which an individual faces a cognitive task, are much more common. PMID:26920920

  13. Accuracy of Noncycloplegic Retinoscopy, Retinomax Autorefractor, and SureSight Vision Screener for Detecting Significant Refractive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Ciner, Elise B.; Cyert, Lynn A.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah A.; Moore, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate, by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the ability of noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR), Retinomax Autorefractor (Retinomax), and SureSight Vision Screener (SureSight) to detect significant refractive errors (RE) among preschoolers. Methods. Refraction results of eye care professionals using NCR, Retinomax, and SureSight (n = 2588) and of nurse and lay screeners using Retinomax and SureSight (n = 1452) were compared with masked cycloplegic retinoscopy results. Significant RE was defined as hyperopia greater than +3.25 diopters (D), myopia greater than 2.00 D, astigmatism greater than 1.50 D, and anisometropia greater than 1.00 D interocular difference in hyperopia, greater than 3.00 D interocular difference in myopia, or greater than 1.50 D interocular difference in astigmatism. The ability of each screening test to identify presence, type, and/or severity of significant RE was summarized by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and calculated from weighted logistic regression models. Results. For detection of each type of significant RE, AUC of each test was high; AUC was better for detecting the most severe levels of RE than for all REs considered important to detect (AUC 0.97–1.00 vs. 0.92–0.93). The area under the curve of each screening test was high for myopia (AUC 0.97–0.99). Noncycloplegic retinoscopy and Retinomax performed better than SureSight for hyperopia (AUC 0.92–0.99 and 0.90–0.98 vs. 0.85–0.94, P ≤ 0.02), Retinomax performed better than NCR for astigmatism greater than 1.50 D (AUC 0.95 vs. 0.90, P = 0.01), and SureSight performed better than Retinomax for anisometropia (AUC 0.85–1.00 vs. 0.76–0.96, P ≤ 0.07). Performance was similar for nurse and lay screeners in detecting any significant RE (AUC 0.92–1.00 vs. 0.92–0.99). Conclusions. Each test had a very high discriminatory power for detecting children with any significant RE. PMID:24481262

  14. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aman; Singh, Vijay Pratap

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most important steps is accurate impression making for fabrication of fixed partial denture. The two different putty-wash techniques that are commonly used are: (1) Putty-wash one-step technique, (2) putty-wash two-step technique. A uniform wash space is needed for an accurate impression. Nissan et al recommended the use of two-step technique for accurate impression making as there is uniform wash space for the light body material to polymerize. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts obtained from different putty-wash impression techniques using various spacer thickness. The critical factor that influences the accuracy of putty-wash impression techniques is the controlled wash bulk which is absent in one-step putty-wash impression technique and with polyethylene spacer was used. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Arora A, Singh VP. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):33-38. PMID:25206132

  15. Comparative adaptation accuracy of acrylic denture bases evaluated by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Jae; Bok, Sung-Bem; Bae, Ji-Young; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the adaptation accuracy of acrylic denture base processed using fluid-resin (PERform), injection-moldings (SR-Ivocap, Success, Mak Press), and two compression-molding techniques. The adaptation accuracy was measured primarily by the posterior border gaps at the mid-palatal area using a microscope and subsequently by weighing of the weight of the impression material between the denture base and master cast using hand-mixed and automixed silicone. The correlation between the data measured using these two test methods was examined. The PERform and Mak Press produced significantly smaller maximum palatal gap dimensions than the other groups (p<0.05). Mak Press also showed a significantly smaller weight of automixed silicone material than the other groups (p<0.05), while SR-Ivocap and Success showed similar adaptation accuracy to the compression-molding denture. The correlationship between the magnitude of the posterior border gap and the weight of the silicone impression materials was affected by either the material or mixing variables. PMID:20675954

  16. Development of Polarizable Models for Molecular Mechanical Calculations II: Induced Dipole Models Significantly Improve Accuracy of Intermolecular Interaction Energies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-01-01

    In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using large set of amino acid analog pairs that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all the polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. Particularly, the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1–2 and 1–3 interactions are turned off and all 1–4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417 and 1.406 kcal/mol for Model AL (Thole Linear), Model AE (Thole exponential) and Model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSE are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUE), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219 and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99 and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of non-charge-charge interactions by 24% (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models over-estimate the relative strengths by 5% (AT), 3% (AL, AE) and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in comparison to

  17. Development of polarizable models for molecular mechanical calculations II: induced dipole models significantly improve accuracy of intermolecular interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-03-31

    In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using a large set of amino acid analog pairs in conformations that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair, we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. In particular, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are turned off and all 1-4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417, and 1.406 kcal/mol for model AL (Thole Linear), model AE (Thole exponential), and model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSEs are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUEs), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219, and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99, and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of noncharge-charge interactions by 24 (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models overestimate the relative strengths by 5 (AT), 3 (AL, AE), and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in

  18. Comparative study of dimensional accuracy of different impression techniques using addition silicone impression material.

    PubMed

    Penaflor, C F; Semacio, R C; De Las Alas, L T; Uy, H G

    1998-01-01

    This study compared dimensional accuracy of the single, double with spacer, double with cut-out and double mix impression technique using addition silicone impression material. A typhodont containing Ivorine teeth model with six (6) full-crown tooth preparations were used as the positive control. Two stone replication models for each impression technique were made as test materials. Accuracy of the techniques were assessed by measuring four dimensions on the stone dies poured from the impression of the Ivorine teeth model. Results indicated that most of the measurements for the height, width and diameter slightly decreased and a few increased compared with the Ivorine teeth model. The double with cut-out and double mix technique presents the least difference from the master model as compared to the two latter impression techniques. PMID:10202524

  19. GPS slant total electron content accuracy using the single layer model under different geomagnetic regions and ionospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2010-05-01

    The use of observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) has significantly impacted the study of the ionosphere. As it is widely known, dual-frequency GPS observations can provide very precise estimation of the slant Total Electron Content (sTEC—the linear integral of the electron density along a ray-path) and that the precision level is bounded by the carrier-phase noise and multi-path effects on both frequencies. Despite its precision, GPS sTEC estimations can be systematically affected by errors in the estimation of the satellites and receivers by Inter-Frequency Biases (IFB) that are simultaneously determined with the sTEC. Thus, the ultimate accuracy of the GPS sTEC estimation is determined by the errors with which the IFBs are estimated. This contribution attempts to assess the accuracy of IFBs estimation techniques based on the single layer model for different ionospheric regions (low, mid and high magnetic latitude); different seasons (summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes); different solar activity levels (high and low); and different geomagnetic conditions (quiet and very disturbed). The followed strategy relies upon the generation of a synthetic data set free of IFB, multi-path, measurement noise and of any other error source. Therefore, when a data set with such properties is used as the input of the IFB estimation algorithms, any deviation from zero on the estimated IFBs should be taken as indications of the errors introduced by the estimation technique. The truthfulness of this assessment work is warranted by the fact that the synthetic data sets resemble, as realistically as possible, the different conditions that may happen in the real ionosphere. The results of this work show that during the high solar activity period the accuracy for the estimated sTEC is approximately of ±10 TECu for the low geomagnetic region and of ±2.2 TECu for the mid-latitude. During low solar activity the accuracy can be assumed to be in

  20. Improving sub-grid scale accuracy of boundary features in regional finite-difference models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to grid refinement, the concept of a ghost node, which was developed for nested grid applications, has been extended towards improving sub-grid scale accuracy of flow to conduits, wells, rivers or other boundary features that interact with a finite-difference groundwater flow model. The formulation is presented for correcting the regular finite-difference groundwater flow equations for confined and unconfined cases, with or without Newton Raphson linearization of the nonlinearities, to include the Ghost Node Correction (GNC) for location displacement. The correction may be applied on the right-hand side vector for a symmetric finite-difference Picard implementation, or on the left-hand side matrix for an implicit but asymmetric implementation. The finite-difference matrix connectivity structure may be maintained for an implicit implementation by only selecting contributing nodes that are a part of the finite-difference connectivity. Proof of concept example problems are provided to demonstrate the improved accuracy that may be achieved through sub-grid scale corrections using the GNC schemes.

  1. Different schemes and structure of the accuracy budget in cesium frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi, A.

    1994-12-31

    Many systematic effects have been identified, which can shift the frequency of Cesium standards from the ideal frequency of the unperturbed hyperfine separation. They limit the accuracy with which the definition of the second is realized to the uncertainty at which they can be evaluated. The list of known systematics is reviewed in this paper in a critical way, by looking at the nonlinear interaction which occurs among the various effects in the design stage. Because of this interplay it is not usually possible for the designer to minimize systematic uncertainties one by one. Instead he has to find his way through a multidimensional space to define a configuration in which the overall uncertainty is minimized. In its design evolution, driven by considerations on obtainable accuracy, each standard seems to be {open_quotes}attracted{close_quote} by one of several configurations, which have been identified over the years as representing each a {open_quotes}local minimum{close_quotes} for the overall type B uncertainty in this multidimensional space of the systematic effects. A pattern which recalls the concept of {open_quotes}strange attractors{close_quotes} in theories of nonlinear systems. Consideration is given to several different configurations from the point of view of accuracy analysis and the kind of interplay that ties the various systematic effects. It is the author`s opinion that all these schemes are valid and should be independently perfected.

  2. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael; Hoppe, Camilla; Holstein, Bjørn; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective To assess the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated as match rates (% identified by DIs and reported correctly) and intrusion rates (% not identified by DIs but reported) were determined. Setting and subjects Three Danish public schools from Copenhagen. A total of 114 Danish 11-year-old children, mean (SE) age=11.1 (0.03), and body mass index=18.2 (0.26). Results The reference (DIs) showed that girls consumed a higher number of food items than boys [mean (SE) 5.4 (0.25) vs. 4.6 (0.29) items (p=0.05)]. The number of food items recalled differed between genders with OE-Q recalls (p=0.005) only. Girls’ interview recalls were more accurate than boys’ with higher match rates (p=0.04) and lower intrusion rates (p=0.05). Match rates ranged from 67–90% and intrusion rates ranged from 13–39% with little differences between girls and boys using the OE-Q and PC-Q methods. Conclusion Dietary recall validation studies should not only consider match rates as an account of accuracy. Intrusions contribute to over-reporting in non-validation studies, and future studies should address recall accuracy and inaccuracies in relation to

  3. Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  4. Estimating orientation using magnetic and inertial sensors and different sensor fusion approaches: accuracy assessment in manual and locomotion tasks.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  5. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering. PMID:21125324

  6. Obtaining identical results with double precision global accuracy on different numbers of processors in parallel particle Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, Mathew A. Brunner, Thomas A.; Gentile, Nicholas A.; Keasler, Jeffrey A.

    2013-10-15

    We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. Parallel Monte Carlo, both domain replicated and decomposed simulations, will run their particles in a different order during different runs of the same simulation because the non-reproducibility of communication between processors. In addition, runs of the same simulation using different domain decompositions will also result in particles being simulated in a different order. In [1], a way of eliminating non-associative accumulations using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended and reduced precision reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. Non-arbitrary precision approaches require a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step.

  7. High-Accuracy Finite Difference Equations for Simulation of Photonic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, G.R.

    1999-04-23

    Progress towards the development of such algorithms as been reported for waveguide analysis'-3and vertical-cavity laser simulation. In all these cases, the higher accuracy order was obtained for a single spatial dimension. More recently, this concept was extended to differencing of the Helmholtz Equation on a 2-D grid, with uniform regions treated to 4th order and dielectric interfaces to 3'd order5. No attempt was made to treat corners properly. In this talk I will describe the extension of this concept to allow differencing of the Helmholtz Equation on a 2-D grid to 6* order in uniform regions and 5* order at dielectric interfaces. In addition, the first known derivation of a finite difference equation for a dielectric comer that allows correct satisfaction of all boundary conditions will be presented. This equation is only accurate to first order, but as will be shown, results in simulations that are third-order-accurate. In contrast to a previous approach3 that utilized a generalized Douglas scheme to increase the accuracy order of the difference second derivative, the present method invokes the Helmholtz Equation itself to convert derivatives of high order in a single direction into mixed

  8. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  9. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gaddikeri, Santhosh; Mitsumori, Lee; Vaidya, Sandeep; Hippe, Daniel S; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2014-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). After institutional review board approval, records of 27 patients with TRAS confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 13 patients had MRA and 14 had CTA before DSA. Two board-certified fellowship-trained radiologists, one each from interventional radiology and body imaging blindly reviewed the DSA and CTA or MRA data, respectively. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRA and CTA were estimated using 50% stenosis as the detection threshold for significant TRAS. These parameters were compared between modalities using the Fisher exact test. Bias between MRA or CTA imaging and DSA was tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two patients were excluded from the MRA group owing to susceptibility artifacts obscuring the TRAS. The correlation between MRA and DSA measurements of stenosis was r = 0.57 (95% CI:-0.02, 0.87; P = 0.052) and between CTA and DSA measurements was r = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; P = 0.015); the difference between the 2 techniques was not significant (P = 0.7). Both imaging modalities tended to underestimate the degree of stenosis when compared with DSA. MRA group (SN and SP: 56% and 100%, respectively) and CTA group (SN and SP: 81% and 67%, respectively). There were no significant differences in detection performance between modalities (P>0.3 for all measures). We did not find that either modality had any advantage over the other in terms of measuring or detecting significant stenosis. Accordingly, MRA may be preferred over CTA after positive color Doppler ultrasound screening when not contraindicated owing to lack of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast. However, susceptibility of

  10. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  11. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  12. Age-Related Differences in the Accuracy of Web Query-Based Predictions of Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI). However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age. Methods Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed. Results Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929). However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0–4 and 25–44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15–24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing. Conclusions The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI. PMID:26011418

  13. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work was performed in two different major areas. The first centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. The second involved a modeling and data analysis effort whereby modeled near-surface temperature profiles were integrated into the retrieval of bulk SST estimates from existing satellite data. Under the first work area, two different seagoing infrared radiometers were designed and fabricated and the first of these was deployed on research ships during two major experiments. Analyses of these data contributed significantly to the Ph.D. thesis of one graduate student and these results are currently being converted into a journal publication. The results of the second portion of work demonstrated that, with presently available models and heat flux estimates, accuracy improvements in SST retrievals associated with better physical treatment of the near-surface layer were partially balanced by uncertainties in the models and extra required input data. While no significant accuracy improvement was observed in this experiment, the results are very encouraging for future applications where improved models and coincident environmental data will be available. These results are included in a manuscript undergoing final review with the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.

  14. Accuracy of Self-Reported College GPA: Gender-Moderated Differences by Achievement Level and Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Sutton, MaryAnn C.; Eckhardt, Amanda G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of college academic achievement tend to rely on self-reported GPA values, yet evidence is limited regarding the accuracy of those values. With a sample of 194 undergraduate college students, the present study examined whether accuracy of self-reported GPA differed based on level of academic performance or level of academic…

  15. The dimensional accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using two different impression techniques: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Nirmala; Nandeeshwar, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study: To evaluate and compare the linear dimensional changes of the three representative polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials and to compare the accuracy of single mix with double mix impression technique. Methodology: A study mold was prepared according to revised American Dental Association specification number 19 for nonaqueous elastic dental impression materials. Three PVS impression materials selected were Elite-HD, Imprint™ II Garant, Aquasil Ultra Heavy. Two impression techniques used were single mix and double mix impression technique. A total of 60 specimens were made and after 24 h the specimens were measured using profile projector. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance analysis and significant differences were separated using Student's Newman–Keul's test. Results: When all the three study group impression materials were compared for double mix technique, the statistically significant difference was found only between Imprint™ II Garantand Elite-HD (P < 0.05). Similarly, using single mix technique, statistically significant difference were found between Elite-HD and Imprint™ II Garant (P < 0.05) and also between Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD (P < 0.05). When the linear dimensional accuracy of all three impression material in double mix impression technique and single mix impression technique were compared with the control group, Imprint™ II Garant showed the values more nearing to the values of master die, followed by Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD respectively. Conclusion: Among the impression materials Imprint™ II Garant showed least dimensional change. Among the impression techniques, double mix impression technique showed the better results. PMID:26929515

  16. The accuracy of the Neosono Ultima EZ apex locator using files of different alloys: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nekoofar, M H; Sadeghi, K; Sadighi Akha, E; Akha, E Sadighi; Namazikhah, M Sadegh

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the precision of one of the new generation of root canal measuring devices, Neosono Ultima EZ, while using files manufactured of different alloys. Fifty-four root canals of extracted teeth were chosen. They were placed in special tubes with roots immersed in 2 percent agar with phosphate buffered saline. The device was used to locate the apex of each canal in wet conditions at the zero digital reading, first using a stainless steel file and then using a nickel-titanium file. These values were compared to the actual lengths obtained by measuring the distance of the coronal reference point to the apical opening with a size 10 file minus 0.5 mm. The accuracy of the device was 94 percent with nickel-titanium files and 91 percent with stainless steel. No significant difference was noted between the results for either file. The accuracy of the Neosono Ultima EZ in wet conditions exceeded 90 percent regardless of the alloy used. PMID:12365847

  17. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    PubMed Central

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (P<0.05). Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the surfaces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths). The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value) among the five techniques were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs. PMID:26622284

  18. Accuracy Assessment of the Precise Point Positioning for Different Troposphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz Selbesoglu, Mahmut; Gurturk, Mert; Soycan, Metin

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the accuracy and repeatability of PPP technique at different latitudes by using different troposphere delay models. Nine IGS stations were selected between 00-800 latitudes at northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. Coordinates were obtained for 7 days at 1 hour intervals in summer and winter. At first, the coordinates were estimated by using Niell troposphere delay model with and without including north and east gradients in order to investigate the contribution of troposphere delay gradients to the positioning . Secondly, Saastamoinen model was used to eliminate troposphere path delays by using standart atmosphere parameters were extrapolated for all station levels. Finally, coordinates were estimated by using RTCA-MOPS empirical troposphere delay model. Results demonstrate that Niell troposphere delay model with horizontal gradients has better mean values of rms errors 0.09 % and 65 % than the Niell troposphere model without horizontal gradients and RTCA-MOPS model, respectively. Saastamoinen model mean values of rms errors were obtained approximately 4 times bigger than the Niell troposphere delay model with horizontal gradients.

  19. Does Latency in Recording Data Make a Difference? Confirming the Accuracy of Teachers' Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Jasper, Andrea D.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of latency on the accuracy of data recorded by three special education teachers were examined in this study. Teachers recorded data on the target behaviors of three students with varying disabilities. The accuracy of data recorded was assessed during three time periods: immediately after the target behavior occurred, at the end of the…

  20. Does it Make a Difference? Investigating the Assessment Accuracy of Teacher Tutors and Student Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jorg; Nuckles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Tutors often have difficulty with accurately assessing a tutee's understanding. However, little is known about whether the professional expertise of tutors influences their assessment accuracy. In this study, the authors examined the accuracy with which 21 teacher tutors and 25 student tutors assessed a tutee's understanding of the human…

  1. Accuracy of energy expenditure estimation by activity monitors differs with ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, A-S; Suppere, C; Strychar, I; Belisle, V; Demers, S-P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this project is to explore the accuracy of 2 activity monitors (SenseWear Armband & Actical) to estimate energy expenditure during rest and light to moderate intensity exercises in 2 ethnic groups. 18 Caucasian and 20 Black adults (age: 26.8±5.2 years; body mass index: 23.9±3.0 kg/m(2)) wore the 2 devices simultaneously during 3 standardised activities: 30-min rest, 45-min of treadmill at 40% of their V˙O2peak and 45-min of stationary cycling at 50% of their V˙O2peak. Energy estimated with the 2 devices was compared to indirect calorimetry measurements. Both devices overestimated energy expenditure during rest (SenseWear: 36% in Black vs. 16% in Caucasian; Actical: 26% vs. 11%, p<0.01 between groups) and treadmill (SenseWear: 50% vs. 25%; Actical: 67% vs. 32%, p<0.01 between groups). Both devices significantly underestimated energy expenditure during stationary cycling (SenseWear: 24% vs. 26%; Actical: 58% vs. 70%, p=NS between groups). Equations used to estimate energy expenditure from accelerometer data is less precise among Black adults than Caucasian adults. Ethnic-specific formulas are probably required. PMID:24816887

  2. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  3. Spatial distribution of soil heavy metal pollution estimated by different interpolation methods: accuracy and uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunfeng; Chen, Tong-bin; Lei, Mei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing-jun; Song, Bo; Zhou, Xiao-yong

    2011-01-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in soils is the basis of pollution evaluation and risk control. Interpolation methods are extensively applied in the mapping processes to estimate the heavy metal concentrations at unsampled sites. The performances of interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, local polynomial, ordinary kriging and radial basis functions) were assessed and compared using the root mean square error for cross validation. The results indicated that all interpolation methods provided a high prediction accuracy of the mean concentration of soil heavy metals. However, the classic method based on percentages of polluted samples, gave a pollution area 23.54-41.92% larger than that estimated by interpolation methods. The difference in contaminated area estimation among the four methods reached 6.14%. According to the interpolation results, the spatial uncertainty of polluted areas was mainly located in three types of region: (a) the local maxima concentration region surrounded by low concentration (clean) sites, (b) the local minima concentration region surrounded with highly polluted samples; and (c) the boundaries of the contaminated areas. PMID:20970158

  4. Age-related differences in pointing accuracy in familiar and unfamiliar environments.

    PubMed

    Muffato, Veronica; Della Giustina, Martina; Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in spatial mental representations of familiar and unfamiliar places. Nineteen young adults (aged 18-23) and 19 older adults (aged 60-74), all living in the same Italian town, completed a set of visuospatial measures and then pointed in the direction of familiar landmarks in their town and in the direction of landmarks in an unknown environment studied on a map. Results showed that older adults were less accurate in the visuospatial tasks and in pointing at landmarks in an unfamiliar environment, but performed as well as the young adults when pointing to familiar places. Pointing performance correlated with visuospatial tests accuracy in both familiar and unfamiliar environments, while only pointing in an unknown environment correlated with visuospatial working memory (VSWM). The spatial representation of well-known places seems to be well preserved in older adults (just as well as in young adults), while it declines for unfamiliar environments. Spatial abilities sustain the mental representations of both familiar and unfamiliar environments, while the support of VSWM resources is only needed for the latter. PMID:26224272

  5. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P = 0.002). The

  6. Accuracy comparison among different machine learning techniques for detecting malicious codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a machine learning based model for malware detection is proposed. It can detect newly released malware i.e. zero day attack by analyzing operation codes on Android operating system. The accuracy of Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network for detecting malicious code has been compared for the proposed model. In the experiment 400 benign files, 100 system files and 500 malicious files have been used to construct the model. The model yields the best accuracy 88.9% when neural network is used as classifier and achieved 95% and 82.8% accuracy for sensitivity and specificity respectively.

  7. A comparison of dimensional accuracy between three different addition cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Forrester-Baker, L; Seymour, K G; Samarawickrama, D; Zou, L; Cherukara, G; Patel, M

    2005-06-01

    Ten impressions of a metal implant abutment were made with each of three addition-cured silicone impression materials. Using the technique of co-ordinate metrology, the shoulder region of the abutment and corresponding regions of both impressions and dies made from these impressions were scanned and measured. Comparison of these measurements indicated that the mean dimension measured from the shoulder region for each group of impression materials was significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. However, when these impressions were cast in a gypsum based die material, none of the measured dimensions taken from the casts were significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. Thus, any change in measured dimensions occurring during impression making, was compensated for in some way by the casting process. PMID:16011234

  8. Effort required to finish shotgun-generated genome sequences differs significantly among vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The approaches for shotgun-based sequencing of vertebrate genomes are now well-established, and have resulted in the generation of numerous draft whole-genome sequence assemblies. In contrast, the process of refining those assemblies to improve contiguity and increase accuracy (known as 'sequence finishing') remains tedious, labor-intensive, and expensive. As a result, the vast majority of vertebrate genome sequences generated to date remain at a draft stage. Results To date, our genome sequencing efforts have focused on comparative studies of targeted genomic regions, requiring sequence finishing of large blocks of orthologous sequence (average size 0.5-2 Mb) from various subsets of 75 vertebrates. This experience has provided a unique opportunity to compare the relative effort required to finish shotgun-generated genome sequence assemblies from different species, which we report here. Importantly, we found that the sequence assemblies generated for the same orthologous regions from various vertebrates show substantial variation with respect to misassemblies and, in particular, the frequency and characteristics of sequence gaps. As a consequence, the work required to finish different species' sequences varied greatly. Application of the same standardized methods for finishing provided a novel opportunity to "assay" characteristics of genome sequences among many vertebrate species. It is important to note that many of the problems we have encountered during sequence finishing reflect unique architectural features of a particular vertebrate's genome, which in some cases may have important functional and/or evolutionary implications. Finally, based on our analyses, we have been able to improve our procedures to overcome some of these problems and to increase the overall efficiency of the sequence-finishing process, although significant challenges still remain. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for the eventual finishing of the draft whole

  9. Individual differences in response speed and accuracy are associated to specific brain activities of two interacting systems

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Rinaldo Livio; Berchicci, Marika; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the neurocognitive stages involved in the speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT). Contrary to previous approach, we did not manipulate speed and accuracy instructions: participants were required to be fast and accurate in a go/no-go task, and we selected post-hoc the groups based on the subjects’ spontaneous behavioral tendency. Based on the reaction times, we selected the fast and slow groups (Speed-groups), and based on the percentage of false alarms, we selected the accurate and inaccurate groups (Accuracy-groups). The two Speed-groups were accuracy-matched, and the two Accuracy-groups were speed-matched. High density electroencephalographic (EEG) and stimulus-locked analyses allowed us to observe group differences both before and after the stimulus onset. Long before the stimulus appearance, the two Speed-groups showed different amplitude of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP), reflecting the activity of the supplementary motor area (SMA); by contrast, the two Accuracy-groups showed different amplitude of the prefrontal negativity (pN), reflecting the activity of the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC). In addition, the post-stimulus event-related potential (ERP) components showed differences between groups: the P1 component was larger in accurate than inaccurate group; the N1 and N2 components were larger in the fast than slow group; the P3 component started earlier and was larger in the fast than slow group. The go minus no-go subtractive wave enhancing go-related processing revealed a differential prefrontal positivity (dpP) that peaked at about 330 ms; the latency and the amplitude of this peak were associated with the speed of the decision process and the efficiency of the stimulus-response mapping, respectively. Overall, data are consistent with the view that speed and accuracy are processed by two interacting but separate neurocognitive systems, with different features in both the anticipation and the response execution phases. PMID:25100961

  10. A third order of accuracy difference scheme for Dirichlet type overdermined problem with mixed boundary value conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyyev, Charyyar; Dedeturk, Mutlu

    2016-08-01

    Approximation of Dirichlet type overdetermined multidimensional elliptic problem with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions are discussed. A third order of accuracy difference scheme for its approximate solution is proposed. The stability, almost coercive stability and coercive stability inequalities for the solution of constructed difference scheme are established. Test example for a two-dimensional elliptic problem is presented.

  11. Gender Differences in Structured Risk Assessment: Comparing the Accuracy of Five Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coid, Jeremy; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Zhang, Tianqiang; Sizmur, Steve; Roberts, Colin; Farrington, David P.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Structured risk assessment should guide clinical risk management, but it is uncertain which instrument has the highest predictive accuracy among men and women. In the present study, the authors compared the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003); the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20; C. D. Webster, K. S.…

  12. Gender Differences in the Self-Assessment of Accuracy on Cognitive Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallier, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of gender on the self-assessment of accuracy of visual perceptual judgments. College students completed a test of general knowledge and a visual perceptual task. When results were analyzed by sex, men were more confident than women. Next, people age 17-80 completed tests of cognitive ability. The tendency for men to express…

  13. Identification of Statistically Significant Differences between Standard Scores on the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Occasionally, differences in test scores seem to indicate that a student performs much better in one reading area than in another when, in reality, the differences may not be statistically significant. The author presents a table in which statistically significant differences between Woodcock test standard scores are identified. (Author)

  14. Comparing the Accuracy of Three Different Impression Materials in Making Duplicate Dies

    PubMed Central

    Bajoghli, Farshad; Sabouhi, Mahmoud; Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Behnamnia, Zeynab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marginal adaptation is very important in cast restorations. Maladaptation leads to plaque retention, reduction of mechanical and esthetic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of three different impression materials (including: Additional silicone [AS] and condensational silicone [CS] and polyether [PE]) for duplicating master dies. Materials and Methods: Three master dies from an acrylic tooth model-with supragingival and shoulder finishing line was made by using PE: Impergum, CS: Speedex, and AS: Panasil separately. The Ni-Cr copings were prepared from master dies separately. They were placed on the acrylic model and the mean marginal difference was recorded by using a stereomicroscope. Then 30 duplicate test dies were made by using the same impression materials and the marginal gaps were recorded. The comparison was done by one-way ANOVA and SPSS software (Version 13) at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The mean marginal difference of four walls from Impergum (38.56 um) was the lowest than Speedex (38.92 um) and Panasil (38.24 um). The Impergum had the highest capability in making duplicate dies (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The Impergum impression material manifested the highest capability in making a better marginal adaptation of duplicate dies but further studies are needed to make a precise decision. PMID:26229364

  15. Combining double-difference relocation with regional depth-phase modelling to improve hypocentre accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shutian; Eaton, David W.

    2011-05-01

    Precise and accurate earthquake hypocentres are critical for various fields, such as the study of tectonic process and seismic-hazard assessment. Double-difference relocation methods are widely used and can dramatically improve the precision of event relative locations. In areas of sparse seismic network coverage, however, a significant trade-off exists between focal depth, epicentral location and the origin time. Regional depth-phase modelling (RDPM) is suitable for sparse networks and can provide focal-depth information that is relatively insensitive to uncertainties in epicentral location and independent of errors in the origin time. Here, we propose a hybrid method in which focal depth is determined using RDPM and then treated as a fixed parameter in subsequent double-difference calculations, thus reducing the size of the system of equations and increasing the precision of the hypocentral solutions. Based on examples using small earthquakes from eastern Canada and southwestern USA, we show that the application of this technique yields solutions that appear to be more robust and accurate than those obtained by standard double-difference relocation method alone.

  16. Comparison of wheat classification accuracy using different classifiers of the image-100 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Chen, S. C.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Classification results using single-cell and multi-cell signature acquisition options, a point-by-point Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, and K-means clustering of the Image-100 system are presented. Conclusions reached are that: a better indication of correct classification can be provided by using a test area which contains various cover types of the study area; classification accuracy should be evaluated considering both the percentages of correct classification and error of commission; supervised classification approaches are better than K-means clustering; Gaussian distribution maximum likelihood classifier is better than Single-cell and Multi-cell Signature Acquisition Options of the Image-100 system; and in order to obtain a high classification accuracy in a large and heterogeneous crop area, using Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, homogeneous spectral subclasses of the study crop should be created to derive training statistics.

  17. Accuracy of Orthomosaic Generated by Different Methods in Example of UAV Platform MUST Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liba, N.; Berg-Jürgens, J.

    2015-11-01

    Development of photogrammetry has reached a new level due to the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). In Estonia, the main areas of use of UAVs are monitoring overhead power lines for energy companies and fields in agriculture, and estimating the use of stockpile in mining. The project was carried out by the order of the City of Tartu for future road construction. In this research, automation of UAV platform MUST Q aerial image processing and reduction of time spent on the use of ground control points (GCP) is studied. For that two projects were created with software Pix4D. First one was processed automatically without GCP. Second one did use GCP, but all the processing was done automatically. As the result of the project, two orthomosaics with the pixel size of 5 cm were composed. Projects allowed ensuring accuracy limit of three times of the pixel size. The project that turned out to be the most accurate was the one using ground control points to do the levelling, which remained within the error limit allowed and the accuracy of the orthomosaic was 0.132 m. The project that didn't use ground control points had the accuracy of 1.417 m.

  18. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible “interventions,” or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  19. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible "interventions," or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  20. Respiratory rate: measurement of variability over time and accuracy at different counting periods.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E A; Roark, R; Berman, S; Esler, L L; Murphy, J

    1991-01-01

    The respiratory rates/minute of 97 children were monitored every 10-15 minutes over one hour, by an observer and by pneumogram, at which times two 30 second and one 60 second counts were obtained. The children were under 5 years of age with lower respiratory tract infections (n = 20), upper respiratory tract infections (n = 34), or controls without acute respiratory infection (n = 43). The difference between respiratory rate count determined simultaneously by observation and pneumogram in relation to their mean count was analysed for the 60 second counting period, 30 plus 30 second period, and the 30 second period doubled. The mean difference for the 60 second period was 1.79, for the 30 plus 30 second period 1.42, and for the 30 second period doubled 1.72. The variability between respiratory rate counts determined by observation and pneumogram was significantly lower in counts obtained when the subject was sleeping and higher when agitated compared with obtaining a count when the subject was awake and calm or feeding. The variability was also significantly lower in subjects with lower respiratory tract infections compared with those with upper respiratory tract infections and control subjects without respiratory symptoms. In the same patient, over the one hour, 50% of the 60 second counts varied by up to 14 breaths/minute and 75% by up to 21 breaths/minute. The least variability was seen in children with a lower respiratory tract infection, who tended to maintain their rapid breathing in contrast to those with an upper respiratory tract infection and controls without respiratory symptoms. About 10% of initial 30 second counts, 12% of 60 second, and 16% of initial and repeat 30 second attempts to obtain accurate counts failed. Failures occurred more frequently in children <2 months of age and those agitated. The data from this study suggest that one minute's counting either at a stretch or in two blocks of 30 second intervals is better than counting the respiratory

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries

    PubMed Central

    Şenel, B; Kamburoğlu, K; Üçok, Ö; Yüksel, S P; Özen, T; Avsever, H

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard. Methods Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability. Results Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries. PMID:21062944

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Computer-Aided Assessment of Intranodal Vascularity in Distinguishing Different Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Ying, Michael; Cheng, Sammy C H; Ahuja, Anil T

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is useful in assessing cervical lymphadenopathy. Advancement of computer science technology allows accurate and reliable assessment of medical images. The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computer-aided assessment of the intranodal vascularity index (VI) in differentiating the various common causes of cervical lymphadenopathy. Power Doppler sonograms of 347 patients (155 with metastasis, 23 with lymphoma, 44 with tuberculous lymphadenitis, 125 reactive) with palpable cervical lymph nodes were reviewed. Ultrasound images of cervical nodes were evaluated, and the intranodal VI was quantified using a customized computer program. The diagnostic accuracy of using the intranodal VI to distinguish different disease groups was evaluated and compared. Metastatic and lymphomatous lymph nodes tend to be more vascular than tuberculous and reactive lymph nodes. The intranodal VI had the highest diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing metastatic and tuberculous nodes with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value of 91%, negative predictive value of 51% and overall accuracy of 68% when a cutoff VI of 22% was used. Computer-aided assessment provides an objective and quantitative way to evaluate intranodal vascularity. The intranodal VI is a useful parameter in distinguishing certain causes of cervical lymphadenopathy and is particularly useful in differentiating metastatic and tuberculous lymph nodes. However, it has limited value in distinguishing lymphomatous nodes from metastatic and reactive nodes. PMID:27131839

  3. Speed and Accuracy of Accessing Information in Working Memory: An Individual Differences Investigation of Focus Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the nature of individual differences in switching the focus of attention in working memory. Participants performed 3 versions of a continuous counting task that required successive updating and switching between counts. Across all 3 experiments, individual differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence were…

  4. Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Self-Evaluations on Chemistry, English, and Art Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia; Riesselmann, Monica; Warren, Tiffany

    A study assessed gender differences in confidence for three academic areas of varying gender-type. The study used questions about chemistry (masculine), English (feminine), and art (neutral). Participants were general psychology students (n=361: 229 females, 132 males) who received course credit for their participation. Findings revealed that…

  5. On the effective accuracy of spectral-like optimized finite-difference schemes for computational aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, G.; Redonnet, S.

    2014-04-01

    The present article aims at highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the so-called spectral-like optimized (explicit central) finite-difference schemes, when the latter are used for numerically approximating spatial derivatives in aeroacoustics evolution problems. With that view, we first remind how differential operators can be approximated using explicit central finite-difference schemes. The possible spectral-like optimization of the latter is then discussed, the advantages and drawbacks of such an optimization being theoretically studied, before they are numerically quantified. For doing so, two popular spectral-like optimized schemes are assessed via a direct comparison against their standard counterparts, such a comparative exercise being conducted for several academic test cases. At the end, general conclusions are drawn, which allows us discussing the way spectral-like optimized schemes shall be preferred (or not) to standard ones, when it comes to simulate real-life aeroacoustics problems.

  6. Biographical Narratives of Encounter: The Significance of Mobility and Emplacement in Shaping Attitudes towards Difference

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of ‘others’ made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters. Rather, this paper uses a biographical approach focusing on interviewees’ narratives of encounter. Through its attention to processes of mobility and emplacement, it contributes to debates about when contact with difference matters by highlighting the importance of everyday social normativities in the production of moral dispositions. PMID:26300566

  7. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating-courtship methods that are regularly enacted. We explored gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 680), we find that some traditional gender differences persist, but that these are also cross-cut by racial contrasts. Men, overall, place more emphasis on gifting, as well as sexual activity. Gender differences, however, are significantly greater among African Americans1 as compared to Whites in our sample. African American respondents are also significantly more likely than White respondents to associate meeting the family with a more serious dating relationship. Our findings highlight the need for greater efforts to uncover and account for racial differences in dating, relationships, and courtship. PMID:23049154

  8. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    PubMed

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations. PMID:10759247

  9. High-accuracy approximation of high-rank derivatives: isotropic finite differences based on lattice-Boltzmann stencils.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Keijo Kalervo; Hegele Júnior, Luiz Adolfo; Philippi, Paulo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    We propose isotropic finite differences for high-accuracy approximation of high-rank derivatives. These finite differences are based on direct application of lattice-Boltzmann stencils. The presented finite-difference expressions are valid in any dimension, particularly in two and three dimensions, and any lattice-Boltzmann stencil isotropic enough can be utilized. A theoretical basis for the proposed utilization of lattice-Boltzmann stencils in the approximation of high-rank derivatives is established. In particular, the isotropy and accuracy properties of the proposed approximations are derived directly from this basis. Furthermore, in this formal development, we extend the theory of Hermite polynomial tensors in the case of discrete spaces and present expressions for the discrete inner products between monomials and Hermite polynomial tensors. In addition, we prove an equivalency between two approaches for constructing lattice-Boltzmann stencils. For the numerical verification of the presented finite differences, we introduce 5th-, 6th-, and 8th-order two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann stencils. PMID:24688360

  10. High-Accuracy Approximation of High-Rank Derivatives: Isotropic Finite Differences Based on Lattice-Boltzmann Stencils

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Keijo Kalervo; Hegele Júnior, Luiz Adolfo; Philippi, Paulo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    We propose isotropic finite differences for high-accuracy approximation of high-rank derivatives. These finite differences are based on direct application of lattice-Boltzmann stencils. The presented finite-difference expressions are valid in any dimension, particularly in two and three dimensions, and any lattice-Boltzmann stencil isotropic enough can be utilized. A theoretical basis for the proposed utilization of lattice-Boltzmann stencils in the approximation of high-rank derivatives is established. In particular, the isotropy and accuracy properties of the proposed approximations are derived directly from this basis. Furthermore, in this formal development, we extend the theory of Hermite polynomial tensors in the case of discrete spaces and present expressions for the discrete inner products between monomials and Hermite polynomial tensors. In addition, we prove an equivalency between two approaches for constructing lattice-Boltzmann stencils. For the numerical verification of the presented finite differences, we introduce 5th-, 6th-, and 8th-order two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann stencils. PMID:24688360

  11. Accuracy and speed of response to different voice types in a cockpit voice warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, J.; Rumbaugh, W. A.

    1983-09-01

    Voice warning systems (VWS) in aircraft cockpits provide a valuable means of warning identification. Improvements in technology have made the VWS a viable addition to aircraft warning systems. This thesis was an experiment to determine the best voice type (male, female, or neutral machine) for use in a VWS for military aircraft. Different levels of engine background noise, signal to noise ratio of the warning message, and precursor delivery formats were used. The experiment had ten subjects performing a primary tracking task; at random intervals a voice warning was interjected, requiring that the subjects respond by pushing the correct button. The results of this experiment contradict some previous beliefs and findings. The male voice was associated with more accurate responses for voice warning systems in the military aircraft environment. For speed of response the results were more complicated; the male voice was generally more closely associated with faster response times for accurate responses.

  12. Statistical significance of trends and trend differences in layer-average atmospheric temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, B. D.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Boyle, J. S.; Gaffen, D. J.; Hnilo, J. J.; Nychka, D.; Parker, D. E.; Taylor, K. E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper examines trend uncertainties in layer-average free atmosphere temperatures arising from the use of different trend estimation methods. It also considers statistical issues that arise in assessing the significance of individual trends and of trend differences between data sets. Possible causes of these trends are not addressed. We use data from satellite and radiosonde measurements and from two reanalysis projects. To facilitate intercomparison, we compute from reanalyses and radiosonde data temperatures equivalent to those from the satellite-based Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU). We compare linear trends based on minimization of absolute deviations (LA) and minimization of squared deviations (LS). Differences are generally less than 0.05°C/decade over 1959-1996. Over 1979-1993, they exceed 0.10°C/decade for lower tropospheric time series and 0.15°C/decade for the lower stratosphere. Trend fitting by the LA method can degrade the lower-tropospheric trend agreement of 0.03°C/decade (over 1979-1996) previously reported for the MSU and radiosonde data. In assessing trend significance we employ two methods to account for temporal autocorrelation effects. With our preferred method, virtually none of the individual 1979-1993 trends in deep-layer temperatures are significantly different from zero. To examine trend differences between data sets we compute 95% confidence intervals for individual trends and show that these overlap for almost all data sets considered. Confidence intervals for lower-tropospheric trends encompass both zero and the model-projected trends due to anthropogenic effects. We also test the significance of a trend in d(t), the time series of differences between a pair of data sets. Use of d(t) removes variability common to both time series and facilitates identification of small trend differences. This more discerning test reveals that roughly 30% of the data set comparisons have significant differences in lower-tropospheric trends

  13. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  14. Patient-Specific Simulations Reveal Significant Differences in Mechanical Stimuli in Venous and Arterial Coronary Grafts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Abhay B; Kahn, Andrew M; Marsden, Alison L

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical stimuli are key to understanding disease progression and clinically observed differences in failure rates between arterial and venous grafts following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We quantify biologically relevant mechanical stimuli, not available from standard imaging, in patient-specific simulations incorporating non-invasive clinical data. We couple CFD with closed-loop circulatory physiology models to quantify biologically relevant indices, including wall shear, oscillatory shear, and wall strain. We account for vessel-specific material properties in simulating vessel wall deformation. Wall shear was significantly lower (p = 0.014*) and atheroprone area significantly higher (p = 0.040*) in venous compared to arterial grafts. Wall strain in venous grafts was significantly lower (p = 0.003*) than in arterial grafts while no significant difference was observed in oscillatory shear index. Simulations demonstrate significant differences in mechanical stimuli acting on venous vs. arterial grafts, in line with clinically observed graft failure rates, offering a promising avenue for stratifying patients at risk for graft failure. PMID:27447176

  15. Different Degrees of Plant Invasion Significantly Affect the Richness of the Soil Fungal Community

    PubMed Central

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process. PMID:24392015

  16. Significant differences in pediatric psychotropic side effects: Implications for school performance.

    PubMed

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-03-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication monitoring, data-based decision-making, and inform mitigation efforts. SE data from Full Prescribing Information (PI) on the FDA website for ADHD drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants with pediatric indications were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) are reported for each drug within a category compared with placebo. RR tables and graphs inform the reader about SE incidence differences for each drug and provide clear evidence of the wide variability in SE incidence in the FDA data. Breslow-Day and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to test for drug-placebo SE differences and to test for significance across drugs within each category based on odds ratios (ORs). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for each drug compared with placebo, when odds were pooled across all drugs in a category compared with placebo, and between some drugs within categories. Unexpectedly, many large RR differences did not reach significance. Potential explanations are offered, including limitations of the FDA data sets and statistical and methodological issues. Future research directions are offered. The potential impact of certain SEs on school performance, mitigation strategies, and the potential role of the school psychologist is discussed, with consideration for ethical and legal limitations. PMID:22582933

  17. Measurement of electronegativity at different laser wavelengths: accuracy of Langmuir probe assisted laser photo-detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirse, N.; Oudini, N.; Bendib, A.; Ellingboe, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Langmuir probe (LP) assisted pulsed laser photo-detachment (LPD) of negative ions is one of the frequently used diagnostic techniques in electronegative plasmas. The technique is based on measuring the rise in electron saturation current following photo-detachment. During the photo-detachment process it is assumed that the background electron parameters (temperature and density) remain unchanged in the laser channel and the photo-detached electrons thermalize instantaneously with the background electrons (same temperature). Therefore, the measured electronegativity should be independent of laser wavelengths. However, our recent simulation results (2015 Phys. Plasmas 22 073509) demonstrates a failure of these assumptions and suggests that the measured rise in electron saturation current has a dependence on the laser wavelength. This letter presents experimental evidence in support of these simulation results. In this work, photo-detachment is performed at two different laser wavelengths in an oxygen inductively coupled plasma discharge. Electronegativity measured by LP assisted LPD is compared with those obtained by the hairpin probe (HPP) assisted LPD which is based on quasi-neutrality assumption. The experimental results reveal that the electronegativities measured by LP assisted LPD are affected by the laser wavelength, whereas, electronegativities measured by HPP assisted LPD are almost independent. The discrepancy between the measurements is higher at high electronegativities. In conclusion, the experimental results validate the weakness of assumptions to estimate electronegativity from LPD combined with LP and therefore emphasizes the need of a more realistic model to analyze raw data or an alternate solution is to utilize HPP.

  18. Emotional Faces in Context: Age Differences in Recognition Accuracy and Scanning Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    While age-related declines in facial expression recognition are well documented, previous research relied mostly on isolated faces devoid of context. We investigated the effects of context on age differences in recognition of facial emotions and in visual scanning patterns of emotional faces. While their eye movements were monitored, younger and older participants viewed facial expressions (i.e., anger, disgust) in contexts that were emotionally congruent, incongruent, or neutral to the facial expression to be identified. Both age groups had highest recognition rates of facial expressions in the congruent context, followed by the neutral context, and recognition rates in the incongruent context were worst. These context effects were more pronounced for older adults. Compared to younger adults, older adults exhibited a greater benefit from congruent contextual information, regardless of facial expression. Context also influenced the pattern of visual scanning characteristics of emotional faces in a similar manner across age groups. In addition, older adults initially attended more to context overall. Our data highlight the importance of considering the role of context in understanding emotion recognition in adulthood. PMID:23163713

  19. Global accuracy estimates of point and mean undulation differences obtained from gravity disturbances, gravity anomalies and potential coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jekeli, C.

    1979-01-01

    Through the method of truncation functions, the oceanic geoid undulation is divided into two constituents: an inner zone contribution expressed as an integral of surface gravity disturbances over a spherical cap; and an outer zone contribution derived from a finite set of potential harmonic coefficients. Global, average error estimates are formulated for undulation differences, thereby providing accuracies for a relative geoid. The error analysis focuses on the outer zone contribution for which the potential coefficient errors are modeled. The method of computing undulations based on gravity disturbance data for the inner zone is compared to the similar, conventional method which presupposes gravity anomaly data within this zone.

  20. Paraoxonase-1 activity determination via paraoxon substrate yields no significant difference in mild hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Türkeli, Hatice; Caycı, Tuncer; Akgül, Emin Özgür; Macit, Enis; Yaman, Halil; Aydın, Ibrahim; Demirin, Hilmi; Alacam, Hasan; Ozkan, Esin; Cakır, Erdinç; Deren, Ozgür; Erbil, Mehmet Kemal; Kunak, Z Ilker; Burat, Kutlay; Akman, Serif

    2010-11-01

    Elevated plasma homocystein (Hcy) level has been recognized as an important risk factor for a number of cardiovascular diseases, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. A part of Hcy in the organism is turned to homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT) via a ring closure reaction, which gains rate in hyperhomocysteinemia, and in turn undergoes a hydrolytic reaction back to Hcy by paraoxonase enzyme (PON). Since this is a protective reflex action enzyme against hyperhomocysteinemia, we investigated how a mild hyperhomocysteinemic nutritional habit affected serum PON activity in a population-based study. The difference detected via enzymatic activity using the paraoxon substrate was statistically non-significant (p=0.19), suggesting a defective performance to reflect the expected significance. Determination of serum PON activity via substrate paraoxon yielded no significant difference in an acute mild hyperhomocysteinemic diet model in humans. PMID:19419786

  1. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27065589

  2. Accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessing carcass composition from different pig populations.

    PubMed

    Soladoye, O P; López Campos, Ó; Aalhus, J L; Gariépy, C; Shand, P; Juárez, M

    2016-11-01

    The accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessing carcass composition from pigs with diverse characteristics was examined in the present study. A total of 648 pigs from three different sire breeds, two sexes, two slaughter weights and three different diets were employed. DXA estimations were used to predict the dissected/chemical yield for lean and fat of carcass sides and primal cuts. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed based on coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual standard deviation (RSD). The linear relationships for dissected fat and lean for all the primal cuts and carcass sides were high (R(2)>0.94, P<0.01), with low RSD (<1.9%). Relationships between DXA and chemical fat and lean of pork bellies were also high (R(2)>0.94, P<0.01), with RSD <2.9%. These linear relationships remained high over the full range of variation in the pig population, except for sire breed, where the coefficient of determination decreased when carcasses were classified based on this variable. PMID:27395824

  3. Is there significant variation in the material properties of four different allografts implanted for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Penn, David; Willet, Thomas L; Glazebrook, Mark; Snow, Martyn; Stanish, William D

    2009-03-01

    The aims of our study were to: (1) determine if there are differences in the material properties of tendon obtained from implanted tibialis anterior, achilles, bone-patella- bone and tibialis posterior allografts; (2) determine the variability in material properties between the implanted specimens. A total of 60 specimens were collected from fresh frozen allografts implanted at ACL reconstruction. Specimens collected included 15 tibialis anterior, 15 tibialis posterior, 15 achilles and 15 bone-patella-bone tendons. Each specimen was mounted in a custom made cryogrip. The mounted specimens were loaded onto a MTS Testline servo-hydraulic testing machine in a uni-axial tensile test configuration. Specimens were subjected to a strain rate of 5% per second until the ultimate tensile stress (UTS), failure strain and high strain modulus was calculated for each specimen after being normalized for specimen dimensions. Individual material properties were tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's B test with a P value of <0.05 considered significant. Homogeneity of variance was assessed using the Levene's test. As a result, no significant difference was found between all four grafts with regards to UTS, failure strain or high strain linear modulus. The UTS was plotted against the modulus demonstrating a linear relationship which is typical of soft tissues. Significant variability in the results were observed. In conclusion, there was no significant statistical difference between the material properties of the four tendon allografts tested. But significant variability in results was observed within groups and between groups, which may provide one explanation for the range of results in allograft ACL reconstruction reported in the literature. PMID:19039574

  4. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  5. Evaluation of different criteria for significant threshold shift in occupational hearing conservation programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Royster, J.D.

    1992-12-09

    A comparison was undertaken of six different criteria for determinig significant hearing threshold shift. Each criterion was applied to the first eight audiograms for males participating in 15 different industrial hearing conservation programs. Of the different criteria used, the OSHA STS criterion produced the lowest overall percentage of employees tagged as having suffered a threshold shift. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria produced the highest percentages. The mean percentages of employees tagged on an annual basis generally were small, less than 10 percent in referent data bases and 20 percent or less in the noncontrol data bases. The 15-dB SHIFT and NIOSH SHIFT criteria tagged 37 percent and 51 percent of employees in noncontrol data bases on the first test comparison and averaged 14 percent and 24 percent of employees even in referent data bases. The purpose of the significant threshold shift criterion was to tag employees with temporary threshold shifts (TTS) before they develop hearing loss. Therefore, the purpose of the threshold shift criterion selected was not to act as a recordable occupational illness but rather to reflect a significant amount of persistent hearing change.

  6. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  7. Accuracy Assessment of Lidar-Derived Digital Terrain Model (dtm) with Different Slope and Canopy Cover in Tropical Forest Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, M. R. M.; Ismail, Z.; Rahman, M. Z. A.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM). High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover) and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN) algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs) used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870) with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924) obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.

  8. Interethnic differences in the accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity in screening for high risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, VM; Casas, JP; Miranda, JJ; Perel, P; Pichardo, R; González, A; Sanchez, JR; Ferreccio, C; Aguilera, X; Silva, E; Oróstegui, M; Gómez, LF; Chirinos, JA; Medina-Lezama, J; Pérez, CM; Suárez, E; Ortiz, AP; Rosero, L; Schapochnik, N; Ortiz, Z; Ferrante, D; Diaz, M; Bautista, LE

    2009-01-01

    Background Cut points for defining obesity have been derived from mortality data among Whites from Europe and the United States and their accuracy to screen for high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in other ethnic groups has been questioned. Objective To compare the accuracy and to define ethnic and gender-specific optimal cut points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) when they are used in screening for high risk of CHD in the Latin-American and the US populations. Methods We estimated the accuracy and optimal cut points for BMI, WC and WHR to screen for CHD risk in Latin Americans (n=18 976), non-Hispanic Whites (Whites; n=8956), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks; n=5205) and Hispanics (n=5803). High risk of CHD was defined as a 10-year risk ≥20% (Framingham equation). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the misclassification-cost term were used to assess accuracy and to identify optimal cut points. Results WHR had the highest AUC in all ethnic groups (from 0.75 to 0.82) and BMI had the lowest (from 0.50 to 0.59). Optimal cut point for BMI was similar across ethnic/gender groups (27 kg/m2). In women, cut points for WC (94 cm) and WHR (0.91) were consistent by ethnicity. In men, cut points for WC and WHR varied significantly with ethnicity: from 91 cm in Latin Americans to 102 cm in Whites, and from 0.94 in Latin Americans to 0.99 in Hispanics, respectively. Conclusion WHR is the most accurate anthropometric indicator to screen for high risk of CHD, whereas BMI is almost uninformative. The same BMI cut point should be used in all men and women. Unique cut points for WC and WHR should be used in all women, but ethnic-specific cut points seem warranted among men. PMID:19238159

  9. Asymmetric signal amplification for simultaneous SERS detection of multiple cancer markers with significantly different levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sujuan; Wu, Yanying; Zhai, Xiaomo; Tang, Bo

    2015-08-18

    Simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers holds great promise for the early diagnosis of different cancers. However, in the presence of high-concentration biomarkers, the signals of lower-expression biomarkers are overlapped. Existing techniques are not suitable for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers at concentrations with significantly different orders of magnitude. Here, we propose an asymmetric signal amplification method for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers with significantly different levels. Using the bifunctional probe, a linear amplification mode responds to high-concentration markers, and quadratic amplification mode responds to low-concentration markers. With the combined biobarcode probe and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification method, the detection limits of microRNA (miRNA) and ATP via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection are 0.15 fM and 20 nM, respectively, with a breakthrough of detection concentration difference over 11 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, successful determination of miRNA and ATP in cancer cells supports the practicability of the assay. This methodology promises to open an exciting new avenue for the detection of various types of biomolecules. PMID:26218034

  10. Points Clouds Generation Using Tls and Dense-Matching Techniques. a Test on Approachable Accuracies of Different Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Spanò, A.

    2013-07-01

    3D detailed models derived from digital survey techniques has increasingly developed and focused in many field of application, ranging from the land and urban areas survey, using remote sensed data, to landscape assets and finally to Cultural Heritage items. The high detailed content and accuracy of such models makes them so attractive and usable for large sets of purposes. The present paper is focused on a test aimed to point clouds generation fulfilled by archaeological data; active and passive sensors techniques and related image matching systems have been used in order to evaluate and compare the accuracy of results, achievable using proper TLS and low cost image-matching software and techniques. After a short review of approachable methods some attained results will be discussed; the test area consists of a set of mosaic floorings in a late roman domus located in Aquileia (UD-Italy) requesting a very high level of details and high scale and precision. The experimental section provides the descriptions of the applied tests in order to compare the different software and the employed methods.

  11. Quantifying Vegetation Change in Semiarid Environments: Precision and Accuracy of Spectral Mixture Analysis and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Andrew J.; Mustard, John F.; Manning, Sara J.; Elome, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Because in situ techniques for determining vegetation abundance in semiarid regions are labor intensive, they usually are not feasible for regional analyses. Remotely sensed data provide the large spatial scale necessary, but their precision and accuracy in determining vegetation abundance and its change through time have not been quantitatively determined. In this paper, the precision and accuracy of two techniques, Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) applied to Landsat TM data, are assessed quantitatively using high-precision in situ data. In Owens Valley, California we have 6 years of continuous field data (1991-1996) for 33 sites acquired concurrently with six cloudless Landsat TM images. The multitemporal remotely sensed data were coregistered to within 1 pixel, radiometrically intercalibrated using temporally invariante surface features and geolocated to within 30 m. These procedures facilitated the accurate location of field-monitoring sites within the remotely sensed data. Formal uncertainties in the registration, radiometric alignment, and modeling were determined. Results show that SMA absolute percent live cover (%LC) estimates are accurate to within ?4.0%LC and estimates of change in live cover have a precision of +/-3.8%LC. Furthermore, even when applied to areas of low vegetation cover, the SMA approach correctly determined the sense of clump, (i.e., positive or negative) in 87% of the samples. SMA results are superior to NDVI, which, although correlated with live cover, is not a quantitative measure and showed the correct sense of change in only 67%, of the samples.

  12. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  13. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rashin, Alexander A; Domagalski, Marcin J; Zimmermann, Michael T; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific `unusual' ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty thresholds. The binding of unusual ligands by myoglobin, leading to crystal-induced distortions, suggests that some of the conformational differences between the apo and holo structures might not be `functionally important' but rather artifacts caused by the binding of `unusual' substrate analogs. The causes of P6 symmetry in myoglobin crystals and the relationship between crystal and

  14. Evaluation of accuracy of casts of multiple internal connection implant prosthesis obtained from different impression materials and techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Malesh; Garg, Pooja; Prithviraj, D R

    2014-04-01

    Movement of impression copings inside the impression material using a direct (open tray) impression technique during clinical and laboratory phases may cause inaccuracy in transferring the 3-dimensional spatial orientation of implants intraorally to the cast. Consequently, the prosthesis may require corrective procedures. This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of 3 different impression techniques using polyether and vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material to obtain a precise cast for multiple internal connection implants. A reference acrylic resin model with 4 internal connection implants was fabricated. Impressions of the reference model were made using 3 different techniques and 2 different impression materials. The study consisted of 24 specimens divided into 6 groups of 4 each. Impressions were poured with ADA type IV stone (Kalrock, Kalabhai Karson Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, India). All casts were evaluated for the positional accuracy (mm) of the implant replica heads using a profile projector. These measurements were compared to the measurements calculated on the reference resin model, which served as a control. Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures to evaluate group means. The results revealed significant difference for anterior implant distance between the 2 impression materials (P < .01) and also among the 3 different techniques (P < .05). The lowest mean variation was found with the polyether impression material and the splinted technique. For posterior implants, the results suggested no significant difference between the 2 impression materials (P ≥ .05). Although results were not statistically significant, the polyether impression material showed the lowest mean variation as compared to the VPS impression material. However, there was a significant difference among the 3 different techniques (P < .05). Among the 3 different techniques, the lowest mean variation between 2 posterior

  15. Significant differences in biogeochemical processes between a glaciated and a permafrost dominated catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindshaw, Ruth; Heaton, Tim; Boyd, Eric; Lang, Susan; Tipper, Ed

    2014-05-01

    It is increasingly recognised that microbially mediated processes have a significant impact on chemical fluxes from glaciated catchments. One important reaction is the oxidation of pyrite since the production of sulphuric acid facilitates the dissolution of minerals without the need for acidity generated by dissolved atmospheric CO2. Thus weathering processes can still continue even when isolated from the atmosphere, as is thought to occur under large ice masses. However, as a glacier melts, it is expected that the microbial community will change with knock-on effects on the stream water chemistry. Understanding the difference in solute generation processes between glaciated and un-glaciated terrain is key to understanding how glacial-interglacial cycles affect atmospheric CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. In order to investigate whether biogeochemical processes differ between glaciated and un-glaciated terrain we collected stream water samples from two small catchments (each approximately 3 km2) in Svalbard. One catchment is glaciated and the other catchment is un-glaciated but is affected by permafrost and a seasonal snow-pack. The two catchments are situated next to each other with identical bedrock (shale with minor siltstone and sandstone). The proximity of the catchments to each other ensures that meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very similar. Sampling was conducted early in the melt-season when there was still significant snow-cover and in mid-summer when most of the seasonal snow-pack had melted. The water samples were analysed for δ34S-SO4, δ18O-SO4, δ18O-H2O, δ13C-DIC and δ13C-DOC, together with major anions and cations. Despite the nominally identical lithology, there were significant differences in the stream water chemistry between the two catchments. For example, sulphate was the dominant anion in the un-glaciated catchment whereas bicarbonate was the dominant anion in the glaciated catchment. Pyrite

  16. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  17. An accuracy assessment of different rigid body image registration methods and robotic couch positional corrections using a novel phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing Aitang; Jameson, Michael G.; Holloway, Lois

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images greatly reduces interfractional patient positional uncertainties. An understanding of uncertainties in the IGRT process itself is essential to ensure appropriate use of this technology. The purpose of this study was to develop a phantom capable of assessing the accuracy of IGRT hardware and software including a 6 degrees of freedom patient positioning system and to investigate the accuracy of the Elekta XVI system in combination with the HexaPOD robotic treatment couch top. Methods: The constructed phantom enabled verification of the three automatic rigid body registrations (gray value, bone, seed) available in the Elekta XVI software and includes an adjustable mount that introduces known rotational offsets to the phantom from its reference position. Repeated positioning of the phantom was undertaken to assess phantom rotational accuracy. Using this phantom the accuracy of the XVI registration algorithms was assessed considering CBCT hardware factors and image resolution together with the residual error in the overall image guidance process when positional corrections were performed through the HexaPOD couch system. Results: The phantom positioning was found to be within 0.04 ({sigma}= 0.12) Degree-Sign , 0.02 ({sigma}= 0.13) Degree-Sign , and -0.03 ({sigma}= 0.06) Degree-Sign in X, Y, and Z directions, respectively, enabling assessment of IGRT with a 6 degrees of freedom patient positioning system. The gray value registration algorithm showed the least error in calculated offsets with maximum mean difference of -0.2({sigma}= 0.4) mm in translational and -0.1({sigma}= 0.1) Degree-Sign in rotational directions for all image resolutions. Bone and seed registration were found to be sensitive to CBCT image resolution. Seed registration was found to be most sensitive demonstrating a maximum mean error of -0.3({sigma}= 0.9) mm and -1.4({sigma}= 1.7) Degree-Sign in translational

  18. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kutszegi, Nóra; Semsei, Ágnes F; Gézsi, András; Sági, Judit C; Nagy, Viktória; Csordás, Katalin; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Lautner-Csorba, Orsolya; Gábor, Krisztina Míta; Kovács, Gábor T; Erdélyi, Dániel J; Szalai, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    L-asparaginase (ASP) is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26); p = 4.70E-04), while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176) were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53); p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73); p = 6.76E-03, respectively). Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect. PMID:26457809

  19. Comparison of improved operating parameters of five different wavelength LEDs for significantly brighter illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Eduard K.; Lee, Susanne M.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Although light-emitting diodes exhibit much higher efficiencies and greatly reduced power consumption compared to incandescent light sources, the use of LEDs in lighting applications is limited by their smaller size and subsequently lower light output. However, it has been found that these parameters can be increased significantly by cooling the diodes to cryogenic temperatures. This may make their use feasible for several applications requiring more efficient and brighter illumination for much less cost. In this paper, we compare the temperature-dependent behavior of five commercially available LEDs of different wavelengths down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was found that three AlInGaP diodes (red, yellow, and green) demonstrated significant operating improvements. The performance of InGaN-based blue LEDs declined at low temperatures, and because most white LEDs are simply blue LEDs coated with YAG, these exhibited similar behavior. However, the three AlInGaP LEDs demonstrated at least an order of magnitude improvement in illuminance, absolute intensity, and maximum operating current. The green LEDs showed the largest improvement factors, while the yellow LEDs produced the brightest illumination at low temperatures. The emissions of all five LEDs shifted to shorter wavelengths at low temperatures. This is significant in terms of lighting applications since the low-temperature AlInGaP diodes emitted more visible spectra.

  20. Antioxidants significantly affect the formation of different classes of isoprostanes and neuroprostanes in rat cerebral synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Montine, Thomas J; Montine, Kathleen S; Reich, Erin E; Terry, Erin S; Porter, Ned A; Morrow, Jason D

    2003-02-15

    Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence that antioxidants can affect the clinical course of neurodegenerative diseases is limited. In the present study, we examined the ability of five common antioxidants or antioxidant combinations, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, GSH ethyl ester, and a combination of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, to modulate lipid peroxidation in peroxidizing rat cerebral synaptosomes, a well-characterized model of oxidant injury. In these studies, we quantified isoprostanes (IsoPs) derived from arachidonic acid as an index of whole tissue oxidation and neuroprostanes (NeuroPs) formed from docosahexaenoic acid as a marker of selective neuronal peroxidation. We report that these various antioxidants displayed markedly different capacities to inhibit IsoP and NeuroP formation with the most potent effects on IsoPs observed for ascorbate, GSH ethyl ester, and the alpha-tocopherol-ascorbate combination. alpha-Tocopherol was slightly less potent and gamma-tocopherol significantly less effective. The concentration-response relationships were significantly different for NeuroP formation with the antioxidants being significantly less potent than for IsoP generation. In particular, alpha-tocopherol did not inhibit NeuroP formation at concentrations up to 100 microM. We also determined that tocopherols, in particular alpha-tocopherol, act in vitro as reducing agents to convert IsoP and NeuroP endoperoxides to reduced F-ring compounds, a finding we have observed previously in vivo in brain. These studies are of importance because they have further defined the role of antioxidants to modulate the formation of lipid peroxidation products in peroxidizing brain tissue. In addition, they suggest that alpha-tocopherol may not be a particularly effective agent to inhibit oxidant stress in the terminal compartment of neurons in the central nervous system

  1. Is There Any Significant Difference in Stent Thrombosis Between Sirolimus and Paclitaxel Eluting Stents?

    PubMed Central

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Wu, Zi Jia; Chen, Meng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several meta-analyses have shown no significant difference in stent thrombosis (ST) between sirolimus eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel eluting stents (PES). However, other meta-analyses have found SES to be superior to PES. Therefore, to solve this issue, we aim to compare the clinical outcomes between SES and PES during a follow-up period of about 1 or more years. We have searched Medline and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SES with PES. These RCTs have been carefully analyzed and then different types of ST including ST defined by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC), acute ST, late and very late ST have all been considered as the clinical endpoints in this study. A follow-up period of about 1 year, between 1 and 2 years as well as a longer follow-up period between 1 and 5 years have been considered. Data were retrieved and combined by means of a fixed-effect model because of a lower heterogeneity observed among the results. Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and the pooled analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Twenty-nine studies from 19 RCTs comprising of 16,724 patients (8115 patients in the SES group and 8609 patients in the PES group) satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant differences in ST have been observed between SES and PES. Results were as follow: definite ST with OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.64–1.18, P = 0.36; probable ST with OR:0.72; 95% CI: 0.42–1.21, P = 0.21; definite, probable and/or possible ST with OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.75–1.17, P = 0.57; acute ST with OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.38–2.56, P = 0.98; subacute ST with OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.41–1.25, P = 0.25; early ST with OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.53–1.25, P = 0.34; late ST with OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.39–1.34, P = 0.30; very late ST with OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.72–1.44, P = 0.92; and any ST with OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.69–1.07, P = 0.18. Long-term ST

  2. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  3. [The significance of sex-linked differences for the assessment of somatosensory evoked potentials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Hedderich, J; Tackmann, W

    1981-09-01

    In 45 healthy volunteers (22 males and 23 females with the same age structure) the peak latencies and inter-peak differences of the cervical and early cortical components of the somatosensory evoked potential were measured. The distribution of the values of the variables and their relationship with arm length were investigated both for the sample as a whole and for each sex separately. Significantly higher average values of the latencies and arm lengths were found in men. The correlations between arm length and latency had consistently higher values for the female sample. On the basis of these results it is concluded that a sufficient assessment of the latencies is only possible with the help of sex-specific normal values. PMID:6795015

  4. A graph of dark energy significance on different spatial and mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Chernin, A. D.; Einasto, M.; Valtonen, M.; Byrd, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The current cosmological paradigm sees the formation and evolution of the cosmic large-scale structure as governed by the gravitational attraction of dark matter (DM) and the repulsion of dark energy (DE). Aims: We characterize the relative importance of uniform and constant dark energy, as given by the Λ term in the standard ΛCDM cosmology, in galaxy systems of different scales from groups to superclusters. Methods: An instructive "Λ significance graph" is introduced where the matter-DE density ratio ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ for different galaxy systems is plotted against the radius R. This presents gravitation- and DE-dominated regions and directly shows the zero velocity radius, the zero-gravity radius, and the Einstein-Straus radius for any fixed value of mass. Results: Example galaxy groups and clusters from the local universe illustrate the use of the Λ significance graph. These are generally located deep in the gravity-dominated region ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ> 2, and are virialized. Extended clusters and the main bodies of superclusters can reach down near the borderline between gravity-dominated and DE-dominated regions ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ = 2. The scale-mass relation from the standard two-point correlation function intersects this balance line near the correlation length. Conclusions: The log ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ vs. log R diagram is a useful and versatile way to characterize the dynamical state of systems of galaxies within the Λ-dominated expanding universe.

  5. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  6. The effect of different solar wind parameters upon significant relativistic electron flux dropouts in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinliang; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Lu, Quanming; Ma, Qianli; Tao, Xin; Wang, Shui

    2015-06-01

    Superposed epoch analyses were performed on 193 significant relativistic electron flux dropout events, in order to study the roles of different solar wind parameters in driving the depletion of relativistic electrons, using ~16 years of data from the POES and GOES missions, and the OMNIWEB solar wind database. We find that the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz play key roles in causing the relativistic electron flux dropouts, but also that either large solar wind dynamic pressure or strong southward IMF Bz by itself is capable of producing the significant depletion of relativistic electrons. The relativistic electron flux dropouts occur not only when the magnetopause is compressed closer to the Earth but also when the magnetopause is located very far (> ~10 RE). Importantly, our results show that in addition to the large solar wind dynamic pressure, which pushes the magnetopause inward strongly and causes the electrons to escape from the magnetosphere, relativistic electrons can also be scattered into the loss cone and precipitate into the Earth's atmosphere during periods of strong southward IMF Bz, which preferentially provides a source of free energy for electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation. This is supported by the fact that the strongest electron precipitation into the atmosphere is found in the dusk sector, where EMIC waves are typically observed in the high-density plasmasphere or plume and cause efficient electron precipitation down to ~1 MeV.

  7. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. PMID:24942044

  8. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  9. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kutszegi, Nóra; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Gézsi, András; Sági, Judit C.; Nagy, Viktória; Csordás, Katalin; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Lautner-Csorba, Orsolya; Gábor, Krisztina Míta; Kovács, Gábor T.; Erdélyi, Dániel J.; Szalai, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    L-asparaginase (ASP) is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin—Frankfurt—Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01–0.26); p = 4.70E-04), while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176) were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09–0.53); p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36–6.73); p = 6.76E-03, respectively). Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect. PMID:26457809

  10. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  11. Visualization of significant differences in somatotopic maps: a distributed t-test.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R

    1997-11-01

    In order to test for differences in the properties of two populations of cells within a somatotopic map we need to be able to compare data sets in which sampled cells are randomly scattered throughout the map, and the variable being compared varies with location in the map. We can describe cell properties as exponentially smoothed surfaces fitted to data in the plane of the map, where all data contribute to the computation of the value of each grid point on the surface, with weights which decline exponentially with distance from the grid point. Means, variances and Student's t values can be computed at all grid points, keeping in mind the fact that grid points' t values are not independent of each other. We used Monte Carlo methods to demonstrate that two random samples of 500 values from two populations of 100,000 values at 4000 grid can provide a very useful picture of regions with significant differences. We recommended this procedure, or analogous approaches using other statistical tests, for any analysis where it is necessary to compare values of dependent variables when matched locations on the independent axis or plane cannot be sampled in the two populations. PMID:9402552

  12. Significant Difference in Hydrogen Isotope Composition Between Xylem and Tissue Water in Populus Euphratica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangju; Wang, Lixin; Cernusak, Lucas A; Liu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Honglang; Zhou, Maoxian; Zhang, Shiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium depletions between stem water and source water have been observed in coastal halophyte plants and in multiple species under greenhouse conditions. However, the location(s) of the isotope fractionation is not clear yet and it is uncertain whether deuterium fractionation appears in other natural environments. In this study, through two extensive field campaigns utilizing a common dryland riparian tree species Populus euphratica Oliv., we showed that no significant δ(18) O differences were found between water source and various plant components, in accord with previous studies. We also found that no deuterium fractionation occurred during P. euphratica water uptake by comparing the deuterium composition (δD) of groundwater and xylem sap. However, remarkable δD differences (up to 26.4‰) between xylem sap and twig water, root water and core water provided direct evidence that deuterium fractionation occurred between xylem sap and root or stem tissue water. This study indicates that deuterium fractionation could be a common phenomenon in drylands, which has important implications in plant water source identification, palaeoclimate reconstruction based on wood cellulose and evapotranspiration partitioning using δD of stem water. PMID:27061571

  13. A comparative analysis of the accuracy of implant master casts fabricated from two different transfer impression techniques

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rupali; Kadam, Pankaj; Oswal, Chetan; Patil, Seema; Jajoo, Shweta; Gachake, Arati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated and compared two impression techniques in terms of their dimensional accuracies to reproduce implant positions on working casts. Materials and Methods: A master model was designed to simulate a clinical situation. Impressions were made using four techniques: (1) Stock open tray (SOT) technique; (2) stock closed tray (SCT) technique; (3) custom open tray (COT) technique; and (3) custom closed tray (CCT) technique. Reference points on the hexagonal silhouette of the implant on master model and onto the analogs of the obtained master casts were compared after using the four impression techniques. Measurements were made using an optical microscope, capable of recording under 50x magnifications. The means and standard deviations of all the groups and subgroups were calculated and statically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Results: The open tray impressions showed significantly less variation from the master model and all the techniques studied were comparable. Conclusion: All the techniques studied shown some distortion. COT showed the most accurate results of all the techniques. PMID:27114954

  14. Evaluation of minimum coverage size and orbital accuracy at different orbital regimes for one order of magnitude reduction of the catastrophic collision risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Domínguez-González, Raúl; Krag, Holger

    2015-03-01

    One of the main objectives of Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) systems is to support space collision avoidance activities. This collision avoidance capability aims to significantly reduce the catastrophic collision risk of space objects. In particular, for the case of the future European SST, the objective is translated into a risk reduction of one order of magnitude whilst keeping a low number of false alarm events. In order to translate this aim into system requirements, an evaluation of the current catastrophic collision risk for different orbital regimes is addressed. The reduction of such risk depends on the amount of catalogued objects (coverage) and the knowledge of the associated orbits in the catalogue (accuracy). This paper presents an analysis of the impact of those two aspects in the capability to reduce the catastrophic collision risk at some orbital regimes. A reliable collision avoidance support depends on the accuracy of the predicted miss-events. The assessment of possible conjunctions is normally done by computing the estimated miss-distances between objects (which is compared with a defined distance threshold) or by computing the associated collision risk (which is compared with the corresponding accepted collision probability level). This second method is normally recommended because it takes into account the reliability of the orbits and allows reducing false alarm events. The collision risk depends on the estimated miss-distance, the object sizes and the accuracy of the two orbits at the time of event. This accuracy depends on the error of the orbits at the orbit determination epoch and the error derived from the propagation from that epoch up to the time of event. The modified DRAMA ARES (Domínguez-González et al., 2012, 2013a,b; Gelhaus et al., 2014) provides information on the expected number of encounters for a given mission and year. It also provides information on the capacity to reduce the risk of collision by means of avoidance

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Five Different Fecal Markers for the Detection of Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions of the Colorectum

    PubMed Central

    Rutka, Mariann; Bor, Renáta; Milassin, Ágnes; Nagy, Ferenc; Szepes, Zoltán; Szűcs, Mónika; Tiszlavicz, László; Molnár, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second deadliest malignancy worldwide. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different fecal markers in the detection of colorectal adenomas and cancer. Methods. Stool samples of patients referred to colonoscopy were collected for the analysis of tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (M2PK), human hemoglobin (Hb), hemoglobin/haptoglobin (Hb/Hp) complex, fecal calprotectin (FC), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Results. Sensitivity and specificity of M2PK for adenomas sized > 1 cm were 60% and 67.5% and for CRC were 94.7% and 67.5%. Sensitivity and specificity of iFOBT for adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm were 80% and 72.5% and for CRC were 94.7% and 72.5%. Sensitivity and specificity of Hb/Hp complex for adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm were 80% and 52.9% and for CRC were 100% and 52.9%. Sensitivity of FC and MMP-9 for CRC was 77.8% and 72.2%. Combined use of M2PK, iFOBT, and FC resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 47.5% for the detection of adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm. Discussion. In CRC, sensitivity of M2PK, iFOBT, and Hb/Hp complex proved to be high. Combined use of M2PK, iFOBT, and FC may be valuable in the detection of large adenomas.

  16. Laplacian drop shapes and effect of random perturbations on accuracy of surface tension measurement for different drop constellations.

    PubMed

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2015-08-01

    Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured. PMID:25466689

  17. Significant pharmacokinetic differences of berberine are attributable to variations in gut microbiota between Africans and Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Alolga, Raphael N.; Fan, Yong; Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Lai, Mao-De; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of gut microbiotal metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of berberine in healthy male Africans and Chinese. The Cmax and AUC in the Africans were 2.67-fold and 2.0-fold higher than the Chinese, respectively. Microbiotal compositions by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing showed higher abundance of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Megamonas (34.22, 13.88, and 10.68%, respectively) in the Chinese than the Africans (30.08, 9.43, and 0.48%, respectively). Scatter plot showed a strong negative correlation between the microbiotal abundance and the berberine AUC, especially for the genus Prevotella (r = −0.813) and its species. A more extensive metabolism was observed in Chinese with 1.83-fold higher metabolites, possibly contributing to the lower AUC than the Africans. In conclusion, significant PK differences of berberine were observed between Africans and Chinese, which is partly attributable to variations in gut microbiota and its corresponding metabolic capacity. PMID:27283523

  18. Significant pharmacokinetic differences of berberine are attributable to variations in gut microbiota between Africans and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Alolga, Raphael N; Fan, Yong; Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Lai, Mao-De; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of gut microbiotal metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of berberine in healthy male Africans and Chinese. The Cmax and AUC in the Africans were 2.67-fold and 2.0-fold higher than the Chinese, respectively. Microbiotal compositions by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing showed higher abundance of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Megamonas (34.22, 13.88, and 10.68%, respectively) in the Chinese than the Africans (30.08, 9.43, and 0.48%, respectively). Scatter plot showed a strong negative correlation between the microbiotal abundance and the berberine AUC, especially for the genus Prevotella (r = -0.813) and its species. A more extensive metabolism was observed in Chinese with 1.83-fold higher metabolites, possibly contributing to the lower AUC than the Africans. In conclusion, significant PK differences of berberine were observed between Africans and Chinese, which is partly attributable to variations in gut microbiota and its corresponding metabolic capacity. PMID:27283523

  19. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  20. Comparison of Far-Field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2) These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  1. Comparison of Far-field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2). These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  2. In Vitro Effect of Porcelain Firing Cycle and Different Thicknesses of IPS E.max CAD Core on Marginal Accuracy of All-Ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Jalalian, Ezatollah; Zarbakhsh, Arash; Mohtashamrad, Zahra; Nourbakhsh, Nazanin; Jafarpour, Esmat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Marginal adaptation is important for long-term success of full-coverage restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of porcelain firing cycle and different thicknesses of IPS e.max core on marginal accuracy of all-ceramic restorations. Materials and Methods: A standard stainless steel die with 0.8 mm classic chamfer finish line and 10° taper was used in this in vitro study. An impression was taken from the stainless steel die to fabricate 20 epoxy resin dies, which were then scanned and IPS e.max CAD cores were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique in two groups of 10 with 0.7 mm (group A) and 0.4mm (group B) core thickness. Copings were then placed on their respective dies and randomly numbered. The amount of marginal gap was measured in 10 points under a stereomicroscope (×90 magnification) before and after porcelain veneering. Results: The mean gap in 0.7mm and 0.4mm core thicknesses was 15.62±2.55μm and 19.68±3.09μm before porcelain firing and 32.01±3.19μm and 35.24±3.8μm after porcelain firing. The difference in marginal gap between the two thicknesses was significant before porcelain firing but not significant after veneering. Significant differences were also found in the marginal gap before and after porcelain veneering in each group. Conclusion: The porcelain firing cycle increases marginal gap in IPS e.max CAD restorations; 0.3 mm decrease in core thickness slightly increased marginal discrepancy, however it was not significant. PMID:27507992

  3. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  4. Residential Differences in Family Formation: The Significance of Co-Habitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; Brown, Susan L.; Condo, Erin P.

    2004-01-01

    We update and extend prior research on residential differences in women's family formation experiences using data from the 1995 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth. Residential differences in the timing of family formation behaviors are examined, including first birth, first cohabitation, and first marriage. Our study emphasizes the…

  5. Lean meat prediction with HGP, CGM and CSB-Image-Meater, with prediction accuracy evaluated for different proportions of gilts, boars and castrated boars in the pig population.

    PubMed

    Engel, B; Lambooij, E; Buist, W G; Vereijken, P

    2012-02-01

    Prediction equations for the percentage lean meat in pig carcasses in The Netherlands were derived for the Hennessy Grading Probe 7, Capteur Gras/Maigre--Sydel and CSB-Image-Meater. Because castrated males are expected to vanish from the Dutch pig population in the near future, accuracy of prediction was evaluated for different scenarios representing a wide range of different proportions for entire males, castrated males and females in the Dutch pig population. The prediction equations for the instruments are in compliance with the EC regulations for prediction accuracy for the different scenarios. So, these equations will remain valid when castrated males are (gradually) removed from the Dutch slaughter population. Results of this study are of interest for researchers from countries or areas contemplating the use of one of the aforementioned instruments. The statistical approach for evaluation of prediction accuracy is of particular interest when changes in proportions of important subpopulations in the target population are foreseen. PMID:21871739

  6. Multiple Comparisons of Observation Means--Are the Means Significantly Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Several currently popular methods of ascertaining which treatment (population) means are different, via random samples obtained under each treatment, are briefly described and illustrated by evaluating catalyst performance in a chemical reactor.

  7. Actual and Perceived Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Surrogate Decisions about Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment among Older Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettel-Watson, Laura; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of surrogate gender on the accuracy of substituted judgments about the use of life-sustaining treatment in a sample of 249 older adults and their self-selected surrogate decision-makers. Overall, wives were more accurate than husbands at predicting their spouses' treatment wishes. Surrogates' perceptions of their…

  8. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  9. Disciplinary Difference in Academic Leadership and Management and Its Development: A Significant Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The influence of disciplinary identity remains significant in understanding academic practice, although its nature and extent has been debated. A framework of organisational, cognitive and social perspectives is commonly used as a means of structuring investigation. A limited amount of empirical research on academic roles, attitudes, beliefs and…

  10. Weighing the costs of different errors when determining statistical significant during monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selecting appropriate significance levels when constructing confidence intervals and performing statistical analyses with rangeland monitoring data is not a straightforward process. This process is burdened by the conventional selection of “95% confidence” (i.e., Type I error rate, a =0.05) as the d...

  11. Women who know their place : sex-based differences in spatial abilities and their evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ariane; Kandler, Anne; Good, David

    2012-06-01

    Differences between men and women in the performance of tests designed to measure spatial abilities are explained by evolutionary psychologists in terms of adaptive design. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Ability suggests that the adoption of a hunter-gatherer lifestyle (assuming a sexual division of labor) created differential selective pressure on the development of spatial skills in men and women and, therefore, cognitive differences between the sexes. Here, we examine a basic spatial skill-wayfinding (the ability to plan routes and navigate a landscape)-in men and women in a natural, real-world setting as a means of testing the proposition that sex-based differences in spatial ability exist outside of the laboratory. Our results indicate that when physical differences are accounted for, men and women with equivalent experience perform equally well at complex navigation tasks in a real-world setting. We conclude that experience, gendered patterns of activity, and self-assessment are contributing factors in producing previously reported differences in spatial ability. PMID:22648664

  12. Methylamphetamine synthesized from cold medication as precursor source via two different routes show significantly different stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, S.; Daeid, N. Nic; Kerr, W. J.; Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.

    2012-04-01

    This work exposes the variation in light element stable isotopic abundance values of 13C, 2H and 15N) derived from the analysis of methylamphetamine synthesized via 2 different synthetic routes popular with clandestine laboraties, the Hypophosphorous and the Moscow route. We repeatedly prepared the final product using known clandestine synthetic methods where the precursors, catalysts and reducing agents have themselves been derived from house hold products and commonly available cold medications. Methylamphetamine was prepared from both lab grade pseudoephedrine and pseudoephedrine extracted (using three different solvent systems) from Sudafed®, an over-the-counter cold medication widely available in the United Kingdom. Six repetitive batches of the final product were produced in each case to provide within and between batch variations thus yielding a total of 48 samples (24 for each route). We have demonstrated that stable isotope analysis by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is potentially useful in the comparison and discrimination of batches of methylamphetamine produced for each route and for each precursor depending on the solvent used for extracting the pseudoephedrine starting material. To our knowledge this is the first time multivariate stable isotope analysis has been applied to methylamphetamine samples synthesized from pseudoephedrine extracted from over-the-counter cold medications.

  13. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating--courtship methods that are regularly enacted. This study explores gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N…

  14. Brief Report: Significant Differences in Perceived Odor Pleasantness Found in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Vodicka, Jan; Havlovicova, Marketa; Urbanek, Tomas; Blatny, Marek; Dudova, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in estimation of odor pleasantness in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to controls. Thirty-five patients with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism (mean age 10.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years; 31 boys) were compared with 35 healthy control subjects (mean age 10.4…

  15. Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Zakarauskas, Pierre; Dixon, Matt; Ellamil, Melissa; Thompson, Evan; Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1–15,000 hrs experience). Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a ‘body-scanning’ meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold) as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices. PMID:23049790

  16. Accuracy of free-hand placement of thoracic pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: how much of a difference does surgeon experience make?

    PubMed

    Samdani, Amer F; Ranade, Ashish; Sciubba, Daniel M; Cahill, Patrick J; Antonacci, M Darryl; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R

    2010-01-01

    The use of thoracic pedicle screws for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has gained widespread popularity. However, the placement of pedicle screws in the deformed spine poses unique challenges, and surgeons experience a learning curve. The in vivo accuracy as determined by computed tomography (CT) of placement of thoracic pedicle screws in the deformed spine as a function of surgeon experience is unknown. We undertook a retrospective review to determine the effect of surgeon experience on the accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement in AIS. In 2005, we started to obtain routine postoperative CT scans on patients undergoing a spinal fusion. From a database of these patients, we selected AIS patients, who underwent a posterior spinal fusion. Fifteen consecutive patients for each of the following three groups stratified by attending surgeon experience were selected (N = 45): A) less than 20 cases of all pedicle screw constructs for AIS (surgeons <2 years of practice), B) 20-50 cases (surgeons 2-5 years of practice), and C) greater than 50 cases (surgeons greater than 5 years of practice). Intraoperative evaluation of all screws included probing of the pedicle screw tract, neurophysiologic monitoring, and fluoroscopic confirmation. A total of 856 thoracic pedicle screws were studied. Postoperative CT scans were evaluated by two spine surgeons and a consensus read established as follows: (1) In: intraosseous placement or 2-mm breach, either medial or lateral. Of the 856 screws, 104 demonstrated a >2-mm breach, for an overall rate of 12.1% (medial = 55, lateral = 49, P = 0.67). When the breach rates were stratified by surgeon experience, there was a trend toward decreased rate of breach for the most experienced surgeons, although this did not attain statistical significance (Group A: 12.7%, Group B: 12.9%, Group C: 10.8%, P = 0.58). However, the most experienced group (C) had a markedly decreased rate of medial

  17. The Significance of Different Diacylgycerol Synthesis Pathways on Plant Oil Composition and Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Browse, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of triacylglycerol (TAG). Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: (1) De novo DAG synthesis, and (2) conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g., desaturation, hydroxylation, etc.), such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions. PMID:22783267

  18. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Oggioni, Marco R; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared. PMID:25760337

  19. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  20. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Oggioni, Marco R; Rosado Coelho, Joana; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared. PMID:25760337

  1. Dichotomy in perceptual learning of interval timing: calibration of mean accuracy and precision differ in specificity and time course.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Our brain is inexorably confronted with a dynamic environment in which it has to fine-tune spatiotemporal representations of incoming sensory stimuli and commit to a decision accordingly. Among those representations needing constant calibration is interval timing, which plays a pivotal role in various cognitive and motor tasks. To investigate how perceived time interval is adjusted by experience, we conducted a human psychophysical experiment using an implicit interval-timing task in which observers responded to an invisible bar drifting at a constant speed. We tracked daily changes in distributions of response times for a range of physical time intervals over multiple days of training with two major types of timing performance, mean accuracy and precision. We found a decoupled dynamics of mean accuracy and precision in terms of their time course and specificity of perceptual learning. Mean accuracy showed feedback-driven instantaneous calibration evidenced by a partial transfer around the time interval trained with feedback, while timing precision exhibited a long-term slow improvement with no evident specificity. We found that a Bayesian observer model, in which a subjective time interval is determined jointly by a prior and likelihood function for timing, captures the dissociative temporal dynamics of the two types of timing measures simultaneously. Finally, the model suggested that the width of the prior, not the likelihoods, gradually shrinks over sessions, substantiating the important role of prior knowledge in perceptual learning of interval timing. PMID:23076112

  2. The formation of the polyploid hybrids from different subfamily fish crossings and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-06-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp x blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (female symbol) x blunt snout bream (BSB) (male symbol) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding. PMID:17507678

  3. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items. PMID:25811308

  4. The significance of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethritis and prostatitis - differences in therapeutic approach - Croatian experience.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Markovinovic, L; Zekan, S; Jaksic, J; Zidovec Lepej, S; Markotic, A; Skerk, Vedrana; Radosevic, V; Cvitkovic, L; Begovac, J

    2009-02-01

    We examined a total of 1014 patients over 18 years of age; 252 with urethritis and 762 with chronic prostatitis syndrome. the mean age of patients with urethritis was 32.7 and with prostatitis syndrome 37.6 years. Clinical symptoms of urethritis were present from a few days to several months. in patients with chronic prostatitis syndrome, symptoms were present for at least 3 months. Chlamydia trachomatis alone was confirmed in 26 (10%) and in combination with Ureaplasma urealyticum in 6 (2%) patients with urethritis. in 171 (68%) patients with urethritis neither C. trachomatis nor U. urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis were found. C. trachomatis alone was confirmed in 70 (9%), and in combination with other microorganisms in 7 (1%) patients with chronic prostatitis syndrome. in Croatia, the frequency of chronic chlamydial prostatitis has not significantly changed in the last 10 years, while the frequency of infections among adolescents decreased. the recommended regimen for acute chlamydial urethritis in Croatia is azithromycin 1.0 g as a single dose, and a total dose of 4-4.5 g azithromycin for chronic chlamydial prostatitis. PMID:19297275

  5. The significance of different health institutions and their respective contributions of active pharmaceutical ingredients to wastewater.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Manuel; Olsson, Oliver; Fiehn, Rainer; Herrel, Markus; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been frequently found in the environment. It is, however, still not quite clear who is mainly responsible for API emissions. Hospitals have been considered to be the main contributing point sources for wastewater (WW) discharge of APIs. However, recent studies have shown that the contribution of hospitals to the input of APIs into the aquatic environment is quite low. Due to demographic change and the increase of psychiatric diseases, health institutions (HIs) such as psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes are likely to be important sources as well, but no data is available in this respect. This study aims to assess the impact of HIs and to provide a methodology to measure their respective contributions. Drawing on pharmaceutical consumption data for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, this study identified API usage patterns for a psychiatric hospital (146 beds), a nursing home (286 inhabitants), and a general hospital (741 beds), the latter of which comprises three separate locations. All the HIs are located in two sub-regions of a county district with about 400,000 citizens in southwestern Germany. A selection of neurological drugs was quantified in the sewer of these facilities to evaluate the correlation between consumption and emission. The API contribution of HIs was assessed by comparing the specific consumption in the facilities with the consumption in households, expressed as the emission potential (IEP). The study shows that the usage patterns of APIs in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home were different from the general hospital. Neurological drugs such as anticonvulsants, psycholeptics, and psychoanaleptics were mainly consumed in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home (74% and 65%, respectively). Predicted and average measured concentrations in the effluent of the investigated HIs differed mostly by less than one order of magnitude. Therefore, the consumption-based approach is a useful method

  6. Percutaneous Valve Replacement: Significance of Different Delivery Systems In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Attmann, Tim; Lutter, Georg Quaden, Rene; Jahnke, Thomas; Rumberg, Kristin; Cremer, Jochen; Muller-Hulsbeck, Stefan

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose. Percutaneous heart valve replacement is an exciting growing field in cardiovascular medicine yet still with some major problems. Only sophisticated improvement of the instruments could make it a real alternative to conventional surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate different delivery devices for percutaneous heart valve replacement in vitro and in vivo. Methods. A catheter prototype designed by our group, and two commercially available devices for the delivery of esophageal stents and aortic endoprostheses, were tested. After in vitro experiments, an ovine animal model of transfemoral pulmonary valve implantation was established using biological valved self-expanding stents. Only the delivery device for aortic endografts (Medtronic, Talent, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) allowed fast in vitro procedures without material fatigue. This device was chosen for the in vivo tests. Results. Technical success was achieved in 9 of 10 animals (90%). One animal died after perforation of the ventricular wall. Orthotopic pulmonary placement was performed in 6 animals and intentional supravalvular valved stent placement in 3 animals. Conclusions. An adequate in vitro model for this evolving field of interventional heart valve replacement is presented. Furthermore, the present study pinpoints the key characteristics that are mandatory for a delivery system in percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation. With regard to the delivery device's ductility observed during this 'venous' study, an approach to transfemoral aortic valve implantation seems feasible.

  7. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand) or limited (case study Svalbard). The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track) were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM), we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  8. Predictive Accuracy of Amyloid Imaging for Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer Disease With Different Lengths of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Jing; Zheng, Dong-Ming; Guo, Yang; Feng, Juan; Ren, Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the past decade, amyloid deposition has been shown to begin many years before the clinical symptoms of dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). Longitudinal studies with different follow-up durations have suggested that 11C-Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (11C-PIB-PET) may play a role in stratifying patients with MCI into risk levels for developing AD. However, the predictive accuracy of amyloid imaging for the progression from MCI to AD with different follow-up durations has not yet been systematically evaluated. A formal systematic evaluation of the sensitivity, specificity, and other properties of 11C-PIB-PET was performed. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze published data on the diagnostic performance of 11C-PIB-PET for predicting conversion to AD in patients with MCI and to determine whether long-term follow-up has a positive effect on predictive accuracy. Relevant studies were systematically identified through electronic searches, which were performed in MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), BIOSIS Previews (ISI Web of Knowledge), Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Knowledge), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), and LILACS (Bireme). The methodological quality of each study was assessed by QUADAS-2. Sensitivities and specificities of 11C-PIB-PET in individual studies were calculated, and the studies underwent meta-analysis with a random-effects model. A summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (SROC) was constructed with the Moses-Shapiro-Littenberg method. Pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR−), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and the SROC curve of each subgroup were determined. Heterogeneity was tested, and potential sources for heterogeneity were explored by assessing whether certain covariates significantly influenced the relative DOR. Eleven eligible studies consisting of a total of 352 patients with MCI at

  9. An efficient finite-difference method with high-order accuracy in both time and space domains for modelling scalar-wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sirui; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-05-01

    For modelling large-scale 3-D scalar-wave propagation, the finite-difference (FD) method with high-order accuracy in space but second-order accuracy in time is widely used because of its relatively low requirements of computer memory. We develop a novel staggered-grid (SG) FD method with high-order accuracy not only in space, but also in time, for solving 2- and 3-D scalar-wave equations. We determine the coefficients of the FD operator in the joint time-space domain to achieve high-order accuracy in time while preserving high-order accuracy in space. Our new FD scheme is based on a stencil that contains a few more grid points than the standard stencil. It is 2M-th-order accurate in space and fourth-order accurate in time when using 2M grid points along each axis and wavefields at one time step as the standard SGFD method. We validate the accuracy and efficiency of our new FD scheme using dispersion analysis and numerical modelling of scalar-wave propagation in 2- and 3-D complex models with a wide range of velocity contrasts. For media with a velocity contrast up to five, our new FD scheme is approximately two times more computationally efficient than the standard SGFD scheme with almost the same computer-memory requirement as the latter. Further numerical experiments demonstrate that our new FD scheme loses its advantages over the standard SGFD scheme if the velocity contrast is 10. However, for most large-scale geophysical applications, the velocity contrasts often range approximately from 1 to 3. Our new method is thus particularly useful for large-scale 3-D scalar-wave modelling and full-waveform inversion.

  10. The accuracy of linear measurements of maxillary and mandibular edentulous sites in cone-beam computed tomography images with different fields of view and voxel sizes under simulated clinical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna; Pagni, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of varying resolutions of cone-beam computed tomography images on the accuracy of linear measurements of edentulous areas in human cadaver heads. Intact cadaver heads were used to simulate a clinical situation. Materials and Methods Fiduciary markers were placed in the edentulous areas of 4 intact embalmed cadaver heads. The heads were scanned with two different CBCT units using a large field of view (13 cm×16 cm) and small field of view (5 cm×8 cm) at varying voxel sizes (0.3 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.16 mm). The ground truth was established with digital caliper measurements. The imaging measurements were then compared with caliper measurements to determine accuracy. Results The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no statistically significant difference between the medians of the physical measurements obtained with calipers and the medians of the CBCT measurements. A comparison of accuracy among the different imaging protocols revealed no significant differences as determined by the Friedman test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961, indicating excellent reproducibility. Inter-observer variability was determined graphically with a Bland-Altman plot and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot indicated very good reproducibility for smaller measurements but larger discrepancies with larger measurements. Conclusion The CBCT-based linear measurements in the edentulous sites using different voxel sizes and FOVs are accurate compared with the direct caliper measurements of these sites. Higher resolution CBCT images with smaller voxel size did not result in greater accuracy of the linear measurements. PMID:27358816

  11. Impact of mitral E/A ratio on the accuracy of different echocardiographic indices to estimate left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.

    PubMed

    Poerner, Tudor C; Goebel, Björn; Kralev, Stefan; Kaden, Jens J; Süselbeck, Tim; Haase, Karl K; Borggrefe, Martin; Haghi, Dariusch

    2007-05-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of left ventricular (LV) inflow pattern on the accuracy of different echocardiographic indices for estimation of LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Echocardiography with color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and LVEDP measurements using fluid-filled catheters were performed in 176 consecutive patients on the same day. Mitral peak diastolic velocities (E, A) and the difference in duration between pulmonary venous retrograde velocity and mitral A-velocity (PV(R)-A) were recorded by pulsed Doppler. Propagation velocity of the early mitral inflow (V(P)) was assessed using color M-mode. Early diastolic longitudinal (E'(lat)) and radial (E'(radial)) velocities of mitral annulus were measured by TDI. Area under ROC curve (AUC) for prediction of elevated LVEDP (> or =15 mm Hg) was computed for each parameter. For E/A > or =1 (98 patients, 46 with elevated LVEDP), the AUC values were: PV(R)-A: 0.914; E/E'(lat): 0.780; E/E'(radial): 0.729; E/V(P): 0.712 (p < 0.001). When E/A <1 (78 patients, 26 with elevated LVEDP), only PV(R)-A reached statistical significance (AUC = 0.893, p < 0.001). The conclusions were: PV(R)-A enabled the most accurate noninvasive estimation of LVEDP irrespective of LV filling profile and combined indices E/V(P), E/E'(lat) and E/E'(radial) represent more feasible alternatives for patients with mitral E/A-1. PMID:17383798

  12. Evaluation of the geomorphometric results and residual values of a robust plane fitting method applied to different DTMs of various scales and accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs; Dorninger, Peter; Kovács, Gábor

    2013-04-01

    Due to the need for quantitative analysis of various geomorphological landforms, the importance of fast and effective automatic processing of the different kind of digital terrain models (DTMs) is increasing. The robust plane fitting (segmentation) method, developed at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at Vienna University of Technology, allows the processing of large 3D point clouds (containing millions of points), performs automatic detection of the planar elements of the surface via parameter estimation, and provides a considerable data reduction for the modeled area. Its geoscientific application allows the modeling of different landforms with the fitted planes as planar facets. In our study we aim to analyze the accuracy of the resulting set of fitted planes in terms of accuracy, model reliability and dependence on the input parameters. To this end we used DTMs of different scales and accuracy: (1) artificially generated 3D point cloud model with different magnitudes of error; (2) LiDAR data with 0.1 m error; (3) SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DTM database with 5 m accuracy; (4) DTM data from HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera) of the planet Mars with 10 m error. The analysis of the simulated 3D point cloud with normally distributed errors comprised different kinds of statistical tests (for example Chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) applied on the residual values and evaluation of dependence of the residual values on the input parameters. These tests have been repeated on the real data supplemented with the categorization of the segmentation result depending on the input parameters, model reliability and the geomorphological meaning of the fitted planes. The simulation results show that for the artificially generated data with normally distributed errors the null hypothesis can be accepted based on the residual value distribution being also normal, but in case of the test on the real data the residual value distribution is

  13. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with (99m)Tc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with (99m)Tc-marked diphosphonates ((99m)Tc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of (99m)Tc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  14. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  15. Comparative accuracy of different risk scores in assessing cardiovascular risk in Indians: A study in patients with first myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Manish; Kasliwal, Ravi R.; Trehan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a number of risk assessment models are available for estimating 10-year risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients requiring primary prevention of CV disease, the predictive accuracy of the contemporary risk models has not been adequately evaluated in Indians. Methods 149 patients [mean age 59.4 ± 10.6 years; 123 (82.6%) males] without prior CV disease and presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) were included. The four clinically most relevant risk assessment models [Framingham Risk score (RiskFRS), World Health Organization risk prediction charts (RiskWHO), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (RiskACC/AHA) and the 3rd Joint British Societies' risk calculator (RiskJBS)] were applied to estimate what would have been their predicted 10-year risk of CV events if they had presented just prior to suffering the acute MI. Results RiskWHO provided the lowest risk estimates with 86.6% patients estimated to be having <20% 10-year risk. In comparison, RiskFRS and RiskACC/AHA returned higher risk estimates (61.7% and 69.8% with risk <20%, respectively; p values <0.001 for comparison with RiskWHO). However, the RiskJBS identified the highest proportion of the patients as being at high-risk (only 44.1% at <20% risk, p values 0 < 0.01 for comparison with all the other 3 risk scores). Conclusions This is the first study to show that in Indian patients presenting with acute MI, RiskJBS is likely to identify the largest proportion of the patients as at ‘high-risk’ as compared to RiskWHO, RiskFRS and RiskACC/AHA. However, large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25634388

  16. Numerical study of the butterfly effect on the solutions of the logistic difference equation using arbitrary significant digits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, Jesus; Castillo, Jesus; Molinar-Tabares, Martin

    The solutions of the logistic difference equation when they are under the influence of the chaotic regime are very sensitive to initial conditions due to the butterfly effect. In this study we used arbitrary significant digits to generate solutions of the logistic difference equation under the influence of chaos, and a follow of its effects along each digit of the solutions was made. A large amount of significant digits to generate the solutions is necessary since it is the only way of naturally appreciating the implications of chaos on these solutions. We compared digit by digit the numerical solutions that were generated by several different initial conditions that contain modifications in a very far significant digit, with respect to the solution of another initial condition that was selected for a control solution. The results shown that it is possible to track the butterfly effect and easily predict the moment on which its effects will be noticeable.

  17. Accuracy of genomic prediction for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout using different genotyping platforms and genomic selection models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we aimed to (1) predict genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance by genotyping training (n=583) and validation samples (n=53) with two genotyping platforms (24K RAD-SNP and 49K SNP) and using different genomic selection (GS) models (Ba...

  18. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, A; Torres-García, E A; Kong, A; Estrada-Torres, A; Caballero, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of 200 individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X(2) analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano (with mixed cultures) and the other including communities on the western slope (ethnic Nahua towns). San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study. PMID:22466796

  19. Accuracy of different oxygenation indices in estimating intrapulmonary shunting at increasing infusion rates of dobutamine in horses under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Briganti, A; Portela, D A; Grasso, S; Sgorbini, M; Tayari, H; Bassini, J R Fusar; Vitale, V; Romano, M S; Crovace, A; Breghi, G; Staffieri, F

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of commonly used oxygenation indices with venous admixture (Qs/Qt) in anaesthetised horses under different infusion rates of dobutamine. Six female horses were anaesthetised with acepromazine, xylazine, diazepam, ketamine, and isoflurane, and then intubated and mechanically ventilated with 100% O2. A Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced into the left jugular vein and its tip advanced into the pulmonary artery. Horses received different standardised rates of dobutamine. For each horse, eight samples of arterial and mixed venous blood were simultaneously obtained at fixed times. Arterial and venous haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and O2 saturation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), venous oxygen partial pressure (PvO2), and barometric pressure were measured. Arterial (CaO2), mixed venous (CvO2), and capillary (Cc'O2) oxygen contents were calculated using standard formulae. The correlations between F-shunt, arterial oxygen tension to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2), arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio (PaO2/PAO2), alveolar to arterial oxygen tension difference (P[A - a]O2), and respiratory index (P[A - a]O2/PaO2) were tested with linear regression analysis. The goodness-of-fit for each calculated formula was evaluated by means of the coefficient of determination (r(2)). The agreement between Qs/Qt and F-shunt was analysed with the Bland-Altman test. All tested oxygen tension-based indices were weakly correlated (r(2) < 0.2) with the Qs/Qt, whereas F-shunt showed a stronger correlation (r(2) = 0.73). F-shunt also showed substantial agreement with Qs/Qt independent of the dobutamine infusion rate. F-shunt better correlated with Qs/Qt than other oxygen indices in isoflurane-anaesthetised horses under different infusion rates of dobutamine. PMID:25920771

  20. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version) were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived as completely disabled. We

  1. Impact of Different Topographic Corrections on Prediction Accuracy of Foliage Projective Cover (fpc) in a Topographically Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediriweera, S.; Pathirana, S.; Danaher, T.; Nichols, D.; Moffiet, T.

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index) is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR)] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  2. The Case for Use of Simple Difference Scores to Test the Significance of Differences in Mean Rates of Change in Controlled Repeated Measurements Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Tonidandel, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A previous Monte Carlo study examined the relative powers of several simple and more complex procedures for testing the significance of difference in mean rates of change in a controlled, longitudinal, treatment evaluation study. Results revealed that the relative powers depended on the correlation structure of the simulated repeated measurements.…

  3. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  4. No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Kelly, Mark P; Coldren, Rodney L; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2015-08-15

    Seventy-one deployed U.S. Army soldiers who presented for concussion care due to either blast or blunt mechanisms within 72 h of injury were assessed using the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), traditional neuropsychological tests, and health status questionnaires. Follow-up ANAM testing was performed 10 d after initial testing (±5 d). Twenty-one soldiers were excluded: two for poor effort and 19 who had combined blast/blunt injuries. Of the remaining 50 male participants, 34 had blast injuries and 16 had blunt injuries. There were no statistically significant differences between blast injury and blunt injury participants in demographic, physical, or psychological health factors, concussive symptoms, or automated and traditional neurocognitive testing scores within 72 h post-injury. In addition, follow-up ANAM scores up to 15 d post-injury were not significantly different (available on 21 blast-injured and 13 blunt-injured subjects). Pre-injury baseline ANAM scores were compared where available, and revealed no statistically significant differences between 22 blast injury and eight blunt injury participants. These findings suggest there are no significant differences between mechanisms of injury during both the acute and subacute periods in neurobehavioral concussion sequelae while deployed in a combat environment. The current study supports the use of sports/mechanical concussion models for early concussion management in the deployed setting and exploration of variability in potential long-term outcomes. PMID:25367048

  5. Disease progression in systemic sclerosis-overlap syndrome is significantly different from limited and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moinzadeh, Pia; Aberer, Elisabeth; Ahmadi-Simab, Keihan; Blank, Norbert; Distler, Joerg H W; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Genth, Ekkehard; Guenther, Claudia; Hein, Ruediger; Henes, Joerg; Herich, Lena; Herrgott, Ilka; Koetter, Ina; Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Kuhr, Kathrin; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Meier, Florian; Melchers, Inga; Mensing, Hartwig; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Pfeiffer, Christiane; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Sárdy, Miklós; Schmalzing, Marc; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Susok, Laura; Tarner, Ingo H; Vaith, Peter; Worm, Margitta; Wozel, Gottfried; Zeidler, Gabriele; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Ahrazoglu, Nil Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-overlap syndromes are a very heterogeneous and remarkable subgroup of SSc-patients, who present at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD) at the same time, usually with a specific autoantibody status. Objectives To determine whether patients, classified as overlap syndromes, show a disease course different from patients with limited SSc (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Methods The data of 3240 prospectively included patients, registered in the database of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma and followed between 2003 and 2013, were analysed. Results Among 3240 registered patients, 10% were diagnosed as SSc-overlap syndrome. Of these, 82.5% were female. SSc-overlap patients had a mean age of 48±1.2 years and carried significantly more often ‘other antibodies’ (68.0%; p<0.0001), including anti-U1RNP, -PmScl, -Ro, -La, as well as anti-Jo-1 and -Ku antibodies. These patients developed musculoskeletal involvement earlier and more frequently (62.5%) than patients diagnosed as lcSSc (32.2%) or dcSSc (43.3%) (p<0.0001). The onset of lung fibrosis and heart involvement in SSc-overlap patients was significantly earlier than in patients with lcSSc and occurred later than in patients with dcSSc. Oesophagus, kidney and PH progression was similar to lcSSc patients, whereas dcSSc patients had a significantly earlier onset. Conclusions These data support the concept that SSc-overlap syndromes should be regarded as a separate SSc subset, distinct from lcSSc and dcSSc, due to a different progression of the disease, different proportional distribution of specific autoantibodies, and of different organ involvement. PMID:24389298

  6. Pomaglumetad methionil: no significant difference as an adjunctive treatment for patients with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared to placebo.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Virginia L; Millen, Brian A; Andersen, Scott; Kinon, Bruce J; Lagrandeur, Lisa; Lindenmayer, J P; Gomez, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-01

    This study tested whether treatment with pomaglumetad methionil (LY2140023 monohydrate), a metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist compared with placebo (PBO), when added to a fixed-dose second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) demonstrated significantly greater reduction of negative symptoms, as assessed by the 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16), in patients with schizophrenia. This parallel-group, 16-week study enrolled adults with schizophrenia who were receiving standard of care (SOC) therapy, which included ≥3months treatment with one of four SGAs: aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine. Patients received either 20mg of twice daily LY2140023 monohydrate (LY2140023) or concurrent PBO SGA. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to final visit in NSA-16 total score. Secondary measures included additional measures of efficacy, cognition, and assessments of safety. Of 352 patients screened, 167 were randomly assigned to treatment, and 110 patients completed the study. Patients treated with LY2140023 and SOC failed to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement over patients treated with PBO and SOC on NSA-16 total score at endpoint or at any point during the study (all p>0.131). Changes in secondary efficacy measures were not significantly different between groups at endpoint. With the exception of vomiting which was greater in the LY2140023 group, there were no statistically significant differences in safety and tolerability measures. This study found no benefit of adjunctive LY2140023 versus PBO for negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia receiving treatment with SOC. LY2140023 was generally well-tolerated in these patients. PMID:24035403

  7. Global Genomic Analysis of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Reveals Significant Molecular Differences Compared to Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Iafrate, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Summary Background Data The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. Methods 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. Results While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. Conclusions This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis. PMID:19247032

  8. High accuracy calibration of the fiber spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhifeng; Dai, Caihong; Wang, Yanfei; Chen, Binhua

    2014-11-01

    Comparing to the big-size scanning spectroradiometer, the compact and convenient fiber spectroradiometer is widely used in various kinds of fields, such as the remote sensing, aerospace monitoring, and solar irradiance measurement. High accuracy calibration should be made before the use, which involves the wavelength accuracy, the background environment noise, the nonlinear effect, the bandwidth, the stray light and et al. The wavelength lamp and tungsten lamp are frequently used to calibration the fiber spectroradiometer. The wavelength difference can be easily reduced through the software or calculation. However, the nonlinear effect and the bandwidth always can affect the measurement accuracy significantly.

  9. Heat-Treatment-Responsive Proteins in Different Developmental Stages of Tomato Pollen Detected by Targeted Mass Accuracy Precursor Alignment (tMAPA).

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Palak; Doerfler, Hannes; Jegadeesan, Sridharan; Ghatak, Arindam; Pressman, Etan; Castillejo, Maria Angeles; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Egelhofer, Volker; Firon, Nurit; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2015-11-01

    Recently, we have developed a quantitative shotgun proteomics strategy called mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). The MAPA algorithm uses high mass accuracy to bin mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of precursor ions from LC-MS analyses, determines their intensities, and extracts a quantitative sample versus m/z ratio data alignment matrix from a multitude of samples. Here, we introduce a novel feature of this algorithm that allows the extraction and alignment of proteotypic peptide precursor ions or any other target peptide from complex shotgun proteomics data for accurate quantification of unique proteins. This strategy circumvents the problem of confusing the quantification of proteins due to indistinguishable protein isoforms by a typical shotgun proteomics approach. We applied this strategy to a comparison of control and heat-treated tomato pollen grains at two developmental stages, post-meiotic and mature. Pollen is a temperature-sensitive tissue involved in the reproductive cycle of plants and plays a major role in fruit setting and yield. By LC-MS-based shotgun proteomics, we identified more than 2000 proteins in total for all different tissues. By applying the targeted MAPA data-processing strategy, 51 unique proteins were identified as heat-treatment-responsive protein candidates. The potential function of the identified candidates in a specific developmental stage is discussed. PMID:26419256

  10. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  11. Analyzing Relationship Between Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) with Different Types of Neuropathy: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Shahzaib; Kahlon, Pushpinderdeep; Bozorgnia, Farshid; Arshad, Adeel; Saleem, Akmam; Kuriakose, Philip

    2016-06-01

    To analyze multiple variables, including immunoglobulin subtypes in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and different types of neuropathy. This was a retrospective, single center study done in a tertiary care hospital in the United States. The data was collected for years 2001-2011. Inclusion criteria were the presence of MGUS and neuropathy. Exclusion criteria were the presence of other factors such as diabetes, vitamin B12 deficiency, alcoholism etc. which can cause neuropathy. Patients with IgM MGUS were compared with patients having Non-IgM MGUS. A total of 281 patients were analyzed in this study. The average age at the time of diagnosis of MGUS and neuropathy was 68 years. The most common type of neuropathy was sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (46 %). The most common location of neuropathy was the lower extremities (68 %). Among our patients, 52 % had their neuropathy symptoms for 1-5 years before presenting to the clinic. When IgM MGUS was compared with Non-IgM MGUS, a statistically significant difference was found in terms of race (White vs. Others, OR 4.43, 95 % CI 2.13, 9.19, p < 0.001) and survival status (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.01, 3.90, p = 0.046). Patients with MGUS are prone to develop different types of neuropathies. Caucasians are more likely to have IgM MGUS as compared to other races. IgM MGUS is generally related to worse outcomes as compared to Non-IgM MGUS. Medical therapies, including gabapentin and pregabalin are effective treatments and the response rate can be as high as 80-90 % with these medications. PMID:27065581

  12. ama1 Genes of Sympatric Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from Venezuela Differ Significantly in Genetic Diversity and Recombination Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Rosalynn L.; Tami, Adriana; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We present the first population genetic analysis of homologous loci from two sympatric human malaria parasite populations sharing the same human hosts, using full-length sequences of ama1 genes from Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum collected in the Venezuelan Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings Significant differences between the two species were found in genetic diversity at the ama1 locus, with 18 distinct haplotypes identified among the 73 Pvama1 sequences obtained, compared to 6 unique haplotypes from 30 Pfama1 sequences, giving overall diversity estimates of h = 0.9091, and h = 0.538 respectively. Levels of recombination were also found to differ between the species, with P. falciparum exhibiting very little recombination across the 1.77kb sequence. In contrast, analysis of patterns of nucleotide substitutions provided evidence that polymorphisms in the ama1 gene of both species are maintained by balancing selection, particularly in domain I. The two distinct population structures observed are unlikely to result from different selective forces acting upon the two species, which share both human and mosquito hosts in this setting. Rather, the highly structured P. falciparum population appears to be the result of a population bottleneck, while the much less structured P. vivax population is likely to be derived from an ancient pool of diversity, as reflected in a larger estimate of effective population size for this species. Greatly reduced mosquito transmission in 1997, due to low rainfall prior to the second survey, was associated with far fewer P. falciparum infections, but an increase in P. vivax infections, probably due to hypnozoite activation. Conclusions/Significance The relevance of these findings to putative competitive interactions between these two important human pathogen species is discussed. These results highlight the need for future control interventions to employ strategies targeting each of the parasite species present

  13. The Quantitative Relationship Between ISO 15197 Accuracy Criteria and Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) in the Evaluation of Analytical Performance of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Systems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Scott; Simmons, David A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria and mean absolute relative difference (MARD), 2 methods for assessing the accuracy of blood glucose meters, is complex. While lower MARD values are generally better than higher MARD values, it is not possible to define a particular MARD value that ensures a blood glucose meter will satisfy the ISO accuracy criteria. The MARD value that ensures passing the ISO accuracy test can be described only as a probabilistic range. In this work, a Bayesian model is presented to represent the relationship between ISO accuracy criteria and MARD. Under the assumptions made in this work, there is nearly a 100% chance of satisfying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy requirements if the MARD value is between 3.25% and 5.25%. PMID:27118729

  14. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles

    2014-05-01

    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjøahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjøahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  15. Differences in Water Vapor Radiative Transfer among 1D Models Can Significantly Affect the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Leconte, Jérémy; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Wang, Yuwei; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Forget, François; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4_Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μm) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μm. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m‑2 differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m‑2, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m‑2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  16. The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: accuracy x knowledge accessibility effects.

    PubMed

    Stapel, D A; Koomen, W; Zeelenberg, M

    1998-04-01

    Four studies provide evidence for the notion that there may be boundaries to the extent to which accuracy motivation may help perceivers to escape the influence of fortuitously activated information. Specifically, although accuracy motivations may eliminate assimilative accessibility effects, they are less likely to eliminate contrastive accessibility effects. It was found that the occurrence of different types of contrast effects (comparison and correction) was not significantly affected by participants' accuracy motivations. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanisms instigated by accuracy motivations differ from those ignited by correction instructions: Accuracy motivations attenuate assimilation effects because perceivers add target interpretations to the one suggested by primed information. Conversely, it was found that correction instructions yield contrast and prompt respondents to remove the priming event's influence from their reaction to the target. PMID:9569650

  17. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  18. A single residue substitution accounts for the significant difference in thermostability between two isoforms of human cytosolic creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huihui; Gao, Yan-Song; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Gong, Haipeng

    2016-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) helps maintain homeostasis of intracellular ATP level by catalyzing the reversible phosphotransfer between ATP and phosphocreatine. In humans, there are two cytosolic CK isoforms, the muscle-type (M) and the brain-type (B), which frequently function as homodimers (hMMCK and hBBCK). Interestingly, these isoenzymes exhibit significantly different thermostabilities, despite high similarity in amino acid sequences and tertiary structures. In order to investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon, in this work, we first used domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis to search for the key residues responsible for the isoenzyme-specific thermostability. Strikingly, the difference in thermostability was found to principally arise from one single residue substitution at position 36 (Pro in hBBCK vs. Leu in hMMCK). We then engaged the molecular dynamics simulations to study the molecular mechanism. The calculations imply that the P36L substitution introduces additional local interactions around residue 36 and thus further stabilizes the dimer interface through a complex interaction network, which rationalizes the observation that hMMCK is more resistant to thermal inactivation than hBBCK. We finally confirmed this molecular explanation through thermal inactivation assays on Asp36 mutants that were proposed to devastate the local interactions and thus the dimer associations in both isoenzymes. PMID:26879258

  19. Evaluation of Positioning Accuracy of Four Different Immobilizations Using Cone-Beam CT in Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jin; Zhong Renming; Bai Sen; Lu You; Xu Qingfeng; Zhou Xiaojuan; Xu Feng

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the positioning accuracy of four different immobilizations by use of cone-beam computed tomography guidance for radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixty-seven patients with NSCLC received conventional or stereotactic body radiotherapy. Of these, 30 were immobilized with a thermoplastic frame (TF), 16 with a thermoplastic frame and active breathing control (TF-ABC), 7 with a stereotactic body frame (SBF), and 14 with a stereotactic body frame and active breathing control (SBF-ABC). Cone-beam computed tomography scans at initial setup and after correction were registered to planning computed tomography. The positional errors in the left-to-right, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions were analyzed. The planning target volume margins were calculated. Results: The precorrection systematic and random errors ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 mm for TF, 1.9 to 4.3 mm for SBF, 1.2 to 5.8 mm for TF-ABC, and 2.3 to 3.9 mm for SBF-ABC. The postcorrection systematic and random errors ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 mm for the four immobilizations. The planning target volume margins (conventional vs. stereotactic body radiotherapy) were 15.6 vs. 13.9 mm (TF), 14.9 vs. 14.8 mm (TF-ABC), 14.4 vs. 13.4 mm (SBF), and 9.9 vs. 9.4 mm (SBF-ABC) before correction and 7.3 vs. 6.9 mm (TF), 4.0 vs. 3.8 mm (TF-ABC), 7.5 vs. 7.1 mm (SBF), and 4.5 vs. 4.2 mm (SBF-ABC) after correction. Conclusions: The positioning accuracies of SBF and TF were similar. Active breathing control increased positioning error but reduced internal margin. Cone-beam computed tomography online correction improved the positioning accuracy of NSCLC patients.

  20. The acute inflammatory response to intranigral α-synuclein differs significantly from intranigral lipopolysaccharide and is exacerbated by peripheral inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activated microglia are a feature of the host response to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are thought to contribute to disease progression. Recent evidence suggests that extracellular α-synuclein (eSNCA) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD and that this may be mediated by a microglial response. Methods We wished to discover whether the host response to eSNCA would be sufficient to induce significant cytokine production. In vitro cultured BV-2 microglia were used to determine the basic inflammatory response to eSNCA. In vivo, 8-week old Biozzi mice were subjected to a single intranigral injection of either 3 μg SNCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or serum protein (BSA) and allowed to recover for 24 hours. A second cohort of animals were peripherally challenged with LPS (0.5 mg/kg) 6 hours prior to tissue collection. Inflammation was studied by quantitative real-time PCR for a number of pro-inflammatory genes and immunohistochemistry for microglial activation, endothelial activation and cell death. Results In vitro data showed a robust microglial response to SNCA, including a positive NFĸB response and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Direct injection of SNCA into the substantia nigra resulted in the upregulation of mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the expression of endothelial markers of inflammation and microglial activation. However, these results were significantly different to those obtained after direct injection of LPS. By contrast, when the animals were injected intracerebrally with SNCA and subsequently challenged with systemic LPS, the level of production of IL-1β in the substantia nigra became comparable to that induced by the direct injection of LPS into the brain. The injection of albumin into the nigra with a peripheral LPS challenge did not provoke the production of a significant inflammatory response. Direct injection of LPS into the substantia nigra also induces cell death in a

  1. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing. PMID:25708671

  2. Significant Differences in Sympathetic Nerve Fiber Density Among the Facial Skin Nerves: A Histologic Study Using Human Cadaveric Specimens.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tadatoshi; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Sympathetic nerve fibers in the skin nerves are connected with vasomotor, thermoregulatory, sensory input modulatory, and immunologic events; however, to our knowledge, no histological information is available for skin nerves in the human face. Using specimens from 17 donated cadavers (mean age, 86 years), we measured a sectional area of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive fibers in (1) the frontal nerve (V1), (2) the infraorbital nerve (V2), (3) the mental nerve (V3), (4) the greater auricular nerve (C2), (5) the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN), and (6) the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve (VII). The V1, V2, and V3 were obtained at their entrances to the subcutaneous tissue from the bony canal or notch. The V1, C2, ATN, and/or VII usually contained abundant TH-positive fibers (almost 3%-8% of the nerve sectional area), whereas the V2 and V3 consistently carried few TH-positive fibers (<1%). The difference between these two groups was quite significant (P < 0.001). Thus, from the superior cervical ganglion, the sympathetic nerve fibers reached the forehead through the frontal nerve trunk, whereas artery-bounded fibers came to the cheek, nose, and mouth. The sympathetic palsy caused by trigeminal nerve involvement is mainly characterized by the symptoms seen in the distribution of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, such as in Horner's syndrome. It suggests that the forehead and the other facial areas are representative parts of those different sympathetic innervations that could be useful for evaluating the sympathetic function of the face in various diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1054-1059, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072367

  3. The time-dependent clearance of virulent Treponema pallidum in susceptible and resistant strains of guinea pigs is significantly different.

    PubMed

    Wicher, V; Wicher, K; Abbruscato, F; Auger, I; Rudofsky, U

    1999-04-01

    The kinetics of clearance of Treponema pallidum spp. pallidum Nichols from skin and testes of susceptible C4-deficient (C4D) and -resistant Albany (Alb) strains of guinea pigs (gps) was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the rabbit infectivity test (RIT). For each strain there were two groups of animals, one infected with virulent T. pallidum (TP) and one control injected with heat-killed treponemes (HKTP). The kinetic studies and their statistical analysis showed that in the C4D strain the microbial clearance in both tissues was significantly slower (p < 0.005) and still incomplete at 3 months after infection. In the Alb strain the clearance was faster and apparently completed within a month. A greater permissiveness in bacterial growth in C4D compared to Alb appears to be one critical factor determining the different rate of local elimination after primary infection. In both strains there was some correlation between the severity and duration of cutaneous lesions and the local persistence of viable organisms. This correlation was not observed in testes. These studies suggest a genetic basis for the strain-specific susceptibility and resistance phenotypes in the pathogenesis of syphilis. PMID:10219257

  4. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW) as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW) to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2) over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001) such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84). Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking. PMID:22380843

  5. Testing the Accuracy of Different A-Axis Types for Measuring the Orientation of Bones in the Archaeological and Paleontological Record

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; García-Pérez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Orientation of archaeological and paleontological materials plays a prominent role in the interpretation of site formation processes. Allochthony and authochthony are frequently assumed from orientation patterns or lack thereof. Although it is still debated to what extent orientation of items can be produced in original depositional contexts, the recent use of GIS tools to measure orientations has highlighted several ways of reproducing A-axes with which to address these taphonomic issues. In the present study, the three most relevant A-axis types are compared to test their accuracy in reproducing water current direction. Although results may be similar in specific bone shapes, differences are important in other shapes. As known in engineering working with wind and fluid mechanics (developing shape optimization), longitudinal symmetrical axes (LSA) are the one that best orient structures against or in the same direction of wind and water. The present work shows that this is also the case for bones (regardless of shape), since LSA produce the most accurate estimates of flow direction. This has important consequences for the interpretation of orientation patterns at sites, since this type of axis is still not properly reproduced by GIS available tools. PMID:23874825

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy of brain optical properties estimation at different ages using the frequency-domain multi-distance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette

    2011-03-01

    NIRS is safe, non-invasive and offers the possibility to record local hemodynamic parameters at the bedside, avoiding the transportation of neonates and critically ill patients. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method to retrieve brain optical properties from neonate to adult. Realistic measurements are simulated using a 3D Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation. Height different ages were investigated: a term newborn of 38 weeks gestational age, two infants of 6 and 12 months of age, a toddler of 2 year (yr.) old, two children of 5 and 10 years of age, a teenager of 14 yr. old, and an adult. Measurements are generated at multiple distances on the right parietal area of head models and fitted to a homogeneous FD-MD model to estimate the brain optical properties. In the newborn, infants, toddler and 5 yr. old child models, the error was dominated by the head curvature, while the superficial layer in the 10 yr. old child, teenager and adult heads. The influence of the CSF is also evaluated. In this case, absorption coefficients suffer from an additional error. In all cases, measurements at 5 mm provided worse estimation because of the diffusion approximation.

  7. Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping

    PubMed Central

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements. PMID:26648887

  8. Small difference in international normalized ratio may yield a significant impact on prioritizing patients listed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, E; Seregely, Zs; Fazakas, J; Kovacs, F; Gaal, I; Beko, G; Varga, J; Kobori, L; Nemes, B; Gorog, D; Varga, M; Langer, R M; Monostory, K; Jaray, J; Gerlei, Zs

    2010-01-01

    Priority for liver transplantation is currently based on the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The aim of our study was to assess in detail the contribution of international normalized ratio (INR) differences for MELD scores because of interlaboratory variability. The samples from 92 cirrhotic patients were measured on different systems combining three coagulometers and three thromboplastin products to determine variations in INR and MELD score. The INR differences among the first four systems varied between 0 and 0.2, resulting in MELD differences of 0 to 2. The MELD scores of 92 patients changed only among 10 possible integers so that normally 2 to 10 patients shared the same MELD value. In some cases, one MELD score difference resulted in a 10 superpositioning on the waiting list. Including one more system (mechanical vs optical) into our investigations achieved a five MELD difference. Supposing an extreme situation where one patient competes with his or her lowest, all the other with their highest possible score (and visa versa), the difference may be even 20 positions, overturning the complete waiting list. In conclusion substantial interlaboratory differences in MELD score have profound clinical consequences. PMID:20692471

  9. Accuracy Sampling Design Bias on Coarse Spatial Resolution Land Cover Data in the Great Lakes Region (United States and Canada)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of articles have investigated the impact of sampling design on remotely sensed landcover accuracy estimates. Gong and Howarth (1990) found significant differences for Kappa accuracy values when comparing purepixel sampling, stratified random sampling, and stratified sys...

  10. Proteomic analysis of seedling roots of two maize inbred lines that differ significantly in the salt stress response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dezhou; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Jie; Li, Detao; Xu, Chunyan; Li, Song; Li, Peng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Chuan; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Huabang; Zhao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize. PMID:25659111

  11. Comparisons between Murine Polyomavirus and Simian Virus 40 Show Significant Differences in Small T Antigen Function ▿

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida; Hwang, Justin H.; Choe, Jennifer Kean; Roberts, Thomas M.; Schaffhausen, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    Although members of a virus family produce similar gene products, those products may have quite different functions. Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT), for example, targets p53 directly, but murine polyomavirus LT does not. SV40 small T antigen (SVST) has received considerable attention because of its ability to contribute to transformation of human cells. Here, we show that there are major differences between SVST and polyomavirus small T antigen (POLST) in their effects on differentiation, transformation, and cell survival. Both SVST and POLST induce cell cycle progression. However, POLST also inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and C2C12 myoblasts. Additionally, POLST induces apoptosis of mouse embryo fibroblasts. SVST reduces the proapoptotic transcriptional activity of FOXO1 through phosphorylation. On the other hand, SVST complements large T antigen and Ras for the transformation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs), but POLST does not. Mechanistically, the differences between SVST and POLST may lie in utilization of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). POLST binds both Aα and Aβ scaffolding subunits of PP2A while SVST binds only Aα. Knockdown of Aβ could mimic POLST-induced apoptosis. The two small T antigens can target different proteins for dephosphorylation. POLST binds and dephosphorylates substrates, such as lipins, that SVST does not. PMID:21835797

  12. Women Have Significantly Greater Difference Between Central and Peripheral Arterial Pressure Compared to Men: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca Clark; Sander, Gary; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald; Giles, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between central and peripheral BP are not well described. We sought to investigate gender differences between central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) in adults in the Bogalusa study population. Methods This study enrolled adults in a cross sectional survey conducted in 2007–2010. BP was measured with a standard cuff and Omron applanation tonometer. Data were available from 876 participants. Results Participants were 57.9% female and 42.1% male (mean age 43.5 years ± 4.4). Mean (SD) for cSBP-pSBP was 1.0 (6.9) for males and 7.4 (5.2) for females (p<0.001). Augmentation index (AI) was higher in women (men: 70.8±14 vs. women: 85.5±13; p<0.01), as well as augmentation index standardized to heart rate (HR) of 75 (AI@75) (men: 68.5±13 vs. women: 84.4±11.8; p<0.01). Conclusions Female participants had greater difference between cSBP and pSBP than males. This suggests that given similar peripheral BP females might be at higher risk for developing target organ damage. Women in this study had higher AI, which may contribute to the difference found between cSBP and pSBP. These findings may explain why women have more age-related left ventricular hypertrophy, and poorer prognosis following myocardial infarction compared to males. PMID:23850194

  13. The Effect of Different Materials on the Accuracy of the HYDRA Optical-Fiber-Coupled Coherent Range/Pressure Measurement System and the Development of the Health Care Database System at Old Dominion University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kimberly D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the first project involving the HYDRA laser system was to determine what effects, if any, could been seen in the system's measurements when testing was done with objects composed of different materials. Ideally we would like to have seen that the range of measurements were all within the accepted 0.4 millimeter accuracy of the system. Unfortunately our results were not as we had hoped, and there did appear to be some significant difference in the measurements made on objects composed of different materials. The second project is a continuing project at Old Dominion University. The ultimate goal is to develop a medical database that allows a doctor or hospital to keep medical records on line. The current data of the system consisted of one patient whose medical data had been hard coded to allow for a demonstration of the potentials of the system. The short term goal for this summer was to add additional patients to the system for testing, and to eliminate the hard coding of data by creating a database where data could be stored and queried to produce the results seen in the current state.

  14. Expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli map is significantly different than that of other type III secreted effectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai; Rizvi, Jason; Hecht, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded effectors EspF and Map are multifunctional and have an impact on the tight junction barrier while the non-LEE-encoded proteins NleH1 and NleH2 possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. In order to address the temporal expression of these important genes in vivo, their promoters were cloned upstream of the luxCDABE operon, and luciferase expression was measured in EPEC-infected mice by bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Bioluminescent images of living mice, of excised whole intestines, and of whole intestines longitudinally opened and washed were assessed. The majority of bioluminescent bacteria localized in the cecum by 3 h postinfection, indicating that the cecum is not only a major colonization site of EPEC but also a site of EPEC effector gene expression in mice. espF, nleH1, and nleH2 were abundantly expressed over the course of infection. In contrast, map expression was suppressed at 2 days postinfection, and at 4 days postinfection it was totally abolished. After 2 to 4 days postinfection, when map is suppressed, EPEC colonization is significantly reduced, indicating that map may be one of the factors required to maintain EPEC colonization. This was confirmed in a competitive colonization study and in two models of chronic infection, repeated exposure to ketamine and Citrobacter rodentium infection. Our data suggest that map expression contributes to the maintenance of EPEC colonization. PMID:25312947

  15. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y. Z.; Zhao, L. J.; Chen, S.; Shibata, A.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  16. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Y. Z.; Zhao, L. J.; Chen, S.; Shibata, A.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE. PMID:26582568

  17. Accuracy of deception judgments.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charles F; DePaulo, Bella M

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lies as deceptive and 61% of truths as nondeceptive. Relative to cross-judge differences in accuracy, mean lie-truth discrimination abilities are nontrivial, with a mean accuracy d of roughly .40. This produces an effect that is at roughly the 60th percentile in size, relative to others that have been meta-analyzed by social psychologists. Alternative indexes of lie-truth discrimination accuracy correlate highly with percentage correct, and rates of lie detection vary little from study to study. Our meta-analyses reveal that people are more accurate in judging audible than visible lies, that people appear deceptive when motivated to be believed, and that individuals regard their interaction partners as honest. We propose that people judge others' deceptions more harshly than their own and that this double standard in evaluating deceit can explain much of the accumulated literature. PMID:16859438

  18. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Gettysburg, PA, August 3, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The document explains significant differences to the remedy selected in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site signed by the Regional Administrator on June 30, 1992 (PB93-963911) for Operable Unit 1. The Significant Difference between the remedy presented in the June 30, 1992 ROD and the changes to the ROD that will be implemented are explained.

  19. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  20. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    PubMed

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated. PMID:26209747

  1. No Significant Difference in Depression Rate in Employed and Unemployed in a Pair-Matched Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. Method: The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009–2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. Results: There were no statistical differences (p = 0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51–55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months) in men from rural area with medium level of education. PMID:25105113

  2. Significant Differences in Markers of Oxidant Injury between Idiopathic and Bronchopulmonary-Dysplasia-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Kimberly B.; Moore, Donald; Flack, English; Liske, Michael; Summar, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    While oxidant stress is elevated in adult forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH), levels of oxidant stress in pediatric PH are unknown. The objective of this study is to measure F2-isoprostanes, a marker of oxidant stress, in children with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH) and PH due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that F2-isoprostanes in pediatric IPH and PH associated with BPD will be higher than in controls. Plasma F2-isoprostanes were measured in pediatric PH patients during clinically indicated cardiac catheterization and compared with controls. F2-Isoprostane levels were compared between IPH, PH due to BD, and controls. Five patients with IPH, 12 with PH due to BPD, and 20 control subjects were studied. Patients with IPH had statistically higher isoprostanes than controls 62 pg/mL (37–210) versus 20 pg/mL (16–27), P < 0.01). The patients with PH and BPD had significantly lower isoprostanes than controls 15 pg/mL (8–17) versus 20 pg/ml (16–27), P < 0.02. F2-isoprostanes are elevated in children with IPH compared to both controls and patients with PH secondary to BPD. Furthermore, F2-isoprostanes in PH secondary to BPD are lower than control levels. These findings suggest that IPH and PH secondary to BPD have distinct mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22848815

  3. Treatment of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance: comparison of three different therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B; Stabile, F; Castaman, G; Canciani, M T; Mannucci, P M

    1998-10-15

    Patients with monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS) may develop an acquired bleeding disorder similar to congenital von Willebrand disease, called acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS). In these patients, measures to improve hemostasis are required to prevent or treat bleeding episodes. We diagnosed 10 patients with MGUS and AvWS: 8 had IgGkappa (3) or lambda (5) MGUS and 2 IgM-kappa MGUS. Three therapeutic approaches were compared in them: (1) desmopressin (DDAVP), (2) factor VIII/von Willebrand factor (FVIII/vWF) concentrate, and (3) high-dose (1 g/kg/d for 2 days) intravenous Ig (IVIg). In patients with IgG-MGUS, DDAVP and FVIII/vWF concentrate increased factor VIII and von Willebrand factor in plasma, but only transiently. IVIg determined a more sustained improvement of the laboratory abnormalities and prevented bleeding during surgery (short-term therapy). In addition to the standard 2-day infusion protocol, a long-term IVIg therapy was performed in 2 patients with IgG-MGUS: repeated (every 21 days) single infusions of IVIg did improve laboratory abnormalities and stopped chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. On the other hand, IVIg failed to correct laboratories abnormalities in patients with IgM-MGUS. These comparative data obtained in a relative large and homogeneous group of patients with AvWS and MGUS confirm that DDAVP and FVIII/vWF concentrates improve the bleeding time (BT) and FVIII/vWF measurements only transiently, whereas IVIg provides a sustained treatment of AvWS associated with IgG-MGUS, but not with IgM-MGUS. PMID:9763553

  4. Repositioning accuracy of two different mask systems-3D revisited: Comparison using true 3D/3D matching with cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit . E-mail: judit.boda-heggemann@radonk.ma.uni-heidelberg.de; Walter, Cornelia; Rahn, Angelika; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Loeb, Iris; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The repositioning accuracy of mask-based fixation systems has been assessed with two-dimensional/two-dimensional or two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) matching. We analyzed the accuracy of commercially available head mask systems, using true 3D/3D matching, with X-ray volume imaging and cone-beam CT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiotherapy (intracranial/head-and-neck tumors) were evaluated (14 patients with rigid and 7 with thermoplastic masks). X-ray volume imaging was analyzed online and offline separately for the skull and neck regions. Translation/rotation errors of the target isocenter were analyzed. Four patients were treated to neck sites. For these patients, repositioning was aided by additional body tattoos. A separate analysis of the setup error on the basis of the registration of the cervical vertebra was performed. The residual error after correction and intrafractional motility were calculated. Results: The mean length of the displacement vector for rigid masks was 0.312 {+-} 0.152 cm (intracranial) and 0.586 {+-} 0.294 cm (neck). For the thermoplastic masks, the value was 0.472 {+-} 0.174 cm (intracranial) and 0.726 {+-} 0.445 cm (neck). Rigid masks with body tattoos had a displacement vector length in the neck region of 0.35 {+-} 0.197 cm. The intracranial residual error and intrafractional motility after X-ray volume imaging correction for rigid masks was 0.188 {+-} 0.074 cm, and was 0.134 {+-} 0.14 cm for thermoplastic masks. Conclusions: The results of our study have demonstrated that rigid masks have a high intracranial repositioning accuracy per se. Given the small residual error and intrafractional movement, thermoplastic masks may also be used for high-precision treatments when combined with cone-beam CT. The neck region repositioning accuracy was worse than the intracranial accuracy in both cases. However, body tattoos and image guidance improved the accuracy. Finally, the combination of both mask

  5. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized. PMID:24078102

  6. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  7. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    PubMed

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  8. Material Modeling of 6000 Series Aluminum Alloy Sheets with Different Density Cube Textures and Effect on the Accuracy of Finite Element Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanaga, Daisaku; Kuwabara, Toshihiko; Uema, Naoyuki; Asano, Mineo

    2011-08-01

    Biaxial tensile tests of 6000 series aluminum alloy sheet with different density cube textures were carried out using cruciform specimens similar to that developed by one of the authors [Kuwabara, T. et al., J. Material Process. Technol., 80/81(1998), 517-523.]. The specimens are loaded under linear stress paths in a servo-controlled biaxial tensile testing machine. Plastic orthotropy remained coaxial with the principal stresses throughout every experiment. Successive contours of plastic work in stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates were precisely measured and compared with those calculated using selected yield functions. The Yld2000-2d yield functions with exponents of 12 and 6 [Barlat, F. et al., Int. J. Plasticity 19 (2003), 1297-1319] are capable of reproducing the general trends of the work contours and the directions of plastic strain rates observed for test materials with high and low cube textures, respectively. Hydraulic bulge tests were also conducted and the variation of thickness strain along the meridian direction of the bulged specimen was compared with that calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) based on the Yld2000-2d yield functions with exponents of 12 and 6. The differences of cube texture cause significant differences in the strain distributions of the bulged specimens, and the FEA results calculated using the Yld2000-2d yield functions show good agreement with the measurement results.

  9. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use. PMID:23341318

  10. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Umatilla Army Depot (Lagoons), Hermiston, OR, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This document presents an Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) from the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) Explosives Washout Lagoons Soils Operable Unit issued September 25, 1992 (PB93-964610). This ESD documents the significant differences to the selected remedy outlined in the ROD. In summary, the significant difference from the selected remedy in the ROD is the utilization of the treated soil as the organic component in the re-vegetation of several designated sites on the installation rather than backfilling the former Explosive Washout Lagoons with the compost.

  11. Training in timing improves accuracy in golf.

    PubMed

    Libkuman, Terry M; Otani, Hajime; Steger, Neil

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors investigated the influence of training in timing on performance accuracy in golf. During pre- and posttesting, 40 participants hit golf balls with 4 different clubs in a golf course simulator. The dependent measure was the distance in feet that the ball ended from the target. Between the pre- and posttest, participants in the experimental condition received 10 hr of timing training with an instrument that was designed to train participants to tap their hands and feet in synchrony with target sounds. The participants in the control condition read literature about how to improve their golf swing. The results indicated that the participants in the experimental condition significantly improved their accuracy relative to the participants in the control condition, who did not show any improvement. We concluded that training in timing leads to improvement in accuracy, and that our results have implications for training in golf as well as other complex motor activities. PMID:12038497

  12. Analytical Performance Requirements for Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose With Focus on System Accuracy: Relevant Differences Among ISO 15197:2003, ISO 15197:2013, and Current FDA Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Rutschmann, Malte; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union (EU), the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 standard is applicable for the evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) before the market approval. In 2013, a revised version of this standard was published. Relevant revisions in the analytical performance requirements are the inclusion of the evaluation of influence quantities, for example, hematocrit, and some changes in the testing procedures for measurement precision and system accuracy evaluation, for example, number of test strip lots. Regarding system accuracy evaluation, the most important change is the inclusion of more stringent accuracy criteria. In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States published their own guidance document for the premarket evaluation of SMBG systems with even more stringent system accuracy criteria than stipulated by ISO 15197:2013. The establishment of strict accuracy criteria applicable for the premarket evaluation is a possible approach to further improve the measurement quality of SMBG systems. However, the system accuracy testing procedure is quite complex, and some critical aspects, for example, systematic measurement difference between the reference measurement procedure and a higher-order procedure, may potentially limit the apparent accuracy of a given system. Therefore, the implementation of a harmonized reference measurement procedure for which traceability to standards of higher order is verified through an unbroken, documented chain of calibrations is desirable. In addition, the establishment of regular and standardized post-marketing evaluations of distributed test strip lots should be considered as an approach toward an improved measurement quality of available SMBG systems. PMID:25872965

  13. Dietary analysis of Late Cenozoic Mexican equids from three different geographic/geologic settings using stable carbon isotopes: Coincidences, differences and paleobiologic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrian; Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Bravo-Cuevas, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Puente, Pedro; Ruiz-González, José E.

    2016-03-01

    The development of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico is uneven, so that there is a strong bias in favor of Neogene/Quaternary mammals largely collected in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB hereafter) and Central Plateau (CeP hereafter) Morphotectonic Provinces [MP hereafter]; however, the time is ripe for pursuing research in other than taxonomic areas. Here we investigate C3/C4 plant consumption in the equid lineage in three such provinces, which provide different geographic/geologic and paleoecologic scenarios during the Barstovian, Hemphillian and Rancholabrean times. Our results show that the Barstovian equids from Oaxaca, Sierra Madre del Sur MP Cormohipparion aff. C. quinni, Merychippus cf. M. sejunctus and Pliohippus sp. largely fed on C3 plants, which were the chief food stuff of horses in Mexico, particularly in the Southeast. On the other hand, the Hemphillian equid from Guanajuato, CeP Astrohippus stocki, was an unbalanced C3/C4 mixed feeders in favor of C4 plants, a fact that indicates a profound plant diversification due to the inception and rapid diversification of C4 plants that occurred there at this time, as it occurred in temperate North America, resulting in the differential consumption of C4 plants over that of C3 plants. Such trend prevailed until the Rancholabrean, as born out by the inferred diet for Equus conversidens and Equus sp. from Hidalgo, TMVB. Clearly then, the coeval diet change observed in Mexico and temperate North America implies a correlative vegetation change resulting in the appearance and rapid diversification of C4 plants, which largely formed the preferred food stuff of equids since the Hemphillian, although some C3 plant consumption was maintained till the Rancholabrean. It should be noted that the development of hypsodonty in equids and many artiodactyls, has long been interpreted as the adaptive mammalian response to the new feeding conditions.

  14. Accuracy and cost-benefit of pooled versus singleton screening blood donations for anti-HIV: impact on different blood bank set-ups.

    PubMed

    Novack, Lena; Pliskin, Joseph S; Shinar, Eilat; Safi, Jamal; Sarov, Batia

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and cost-benefit of implementing a pooled screening procedure in blood banks in general and especially in developing countries. The sensitivity of pooled testing was found to be relatively high, with the lowest levels estimated at about 98% for pools consisting of three, six, and 12 samples. Screening in pools of up to 12 samples is expected to be economically beneficial in countries with HIV prevalence rates of 8-10%, which cannot afford the cost of care for an HIV-infected patient. PMID:17034705

  15. Accuracy of polyp localization at colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Sam A.; Hewett, David G.; Watson, Marcus O.; Kendall, Bradley J.; Hourigan, Luke F.; Holtmann, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Accurate documentation of lesion localization at the time of colonoscopic polypectomy is important for future surveillance, management of complications such as delayed bleeding, and for guiding surgical resection. We aimed to assess the accuracy of endoscopic localization of polyps during colonoscopy and examine variables that may influence this accuracy. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in consecutive patients presenting for elective, outpatient colonoscopy. All procedures were performed by Australian certified colonoscopists. The endoscopic location of each polyp was reported by the colonoscopist at the time of resection and prospectively recorded. Magnetic endoscope imaging was used to determine polyp location, and colonoscopists were blinded to this image. Three experienced colonoscopists, blinded to the endoscopist’s assessment of polyp location, independently scored the magnetic endoscope images to obtain a reference standard for polyp location (Cronbach alpha 0.98). The accuracy of colonoscopist polyp localization using this reference standard was assessed, and colonoscopist, procedural and patient variables affecting accuracy were evaluated. Results: A total of 155 patients were enrolled and 282 polyps were resected in 95 patients by 14 colonoscopists. The overall accuracy of polyp localization was 85 % (95 % confidence interval, CI; 60 – 96 %). Accuracy varied significantly (P < 0.001) by colonic segment: caecum 100 %, ascending 77 % (CI;65 – 90), transverse 84 % (CI;75 – 92), descending 56 % (CI;32 – 81), sigmoid 88 % (CI;79 – 97), rectum 96 % (CI;90 – 101). There were significant differences in accuracy between colonoscopists (P < 0.001), and colonoscopist experience was a significant independent predictor of accuracy (OR 3.5, P = 0.028) after adjustment for patient and procedural variables. Conclusions: Accuracy of

  16. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  17. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82-95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  18. Assessment of Functional Differences in Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions and Improvement of Diagnostic Accuracy by Using US-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography in Conjunction with Conventional US.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quing; Ricci, Andrew; Hegde, Poornima; Kane, Mark; Cronin, Edward; Merkulov, Alex; Xu, Yan; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Tannenbaum, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate ultrasonography (US)-guided diffuse optical tomography to distinguish the functional differences of hemoglobin concentrations in a wide range of malignant and benign breast lesions and to improve breast cancer diagnosis in conjunction with conventional US. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards and was HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients (288 women; mean age, 50 years; range, 17-94 years) who underwent US-guided biopsy were imaged with a handheld US and optical probe. The US-imaged lesion was used to guide reconstruction of light absorption maps at four wavelengths, and total hemoglobin (tHb), oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb), and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) were computed from the absorption maps. A threshold (80 μmol/L) was chosen on the basis of this study population. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated US images on the basis of the US Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon, and a lesion was considered malignant when a score of 4C or 5 was given or a lesion had tHb greater than 80 μmol/L. A two-sample t test was used to calculate significance between groups, and Spearman ρ was computed between hemoglobin parameters and tumor pathologic grades. Results Three tumors were Tis, 37 were T1, 19 were T2-T4 carcinomas, and 233 were benign lesions. The mean maximum tHb, oxyHb, and deoxyHb of Tis-T1 and T2-T4 groups were 89.3 μmol/L ± 20.2 (standard deviation), 65.0 μmol/L ± 20.8, and 33.5 μmol/L ± 11.3, respectively, and 84.7 μmol/L ± 32.8, 57.1 μmol/L ± 19.8, and 34.7 μmol/L ± 18.9, respectively. The corresponding values of benign lesions were 54.1 μmol/L ± 23.5, 38.0 μmol/L ± 17.4, and 25.2 μmol/L ± 13.8, respectively. The mean maximum tHb, oxyHb, and deoxyHb were significantly higher in the malignant groups than the benign group (P <.001, <.001, and .041, respectively). For malignant lesions, the mean maximum t

  19. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by

  20. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  1. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Plant, Wrigley, TN, October 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) for the Wrigley Charcoal Superfund site (``the Site``) in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tenn. The purpose of this fact sheet is to modify the Interim Action Record of Decision (IAROD) issued on September 30, 1991, and to inform the public of current site conditions and future actions.

  2. Relative accuracy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  3. Relative Accuracy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  4. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant. PMID:9469693

  5. Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423

  6. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. Methods: An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Results: Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001) for abdominal wall and diaphragm respiratory motion, respectively. Conclusions: This study was the first to demonstrate that the reduction of respiratory irregularities due to the implementation of AV biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion

  7. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  8. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  9. Kinematics of a striking task: accuracy and speed-accuracy considerations.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Handballing in Australian football (AF) is the most efficient passing method, yet little research exists examining technical factors associated with accuracy. This study had three aims: (a) To explore the kinematic differences between accurate and inaccurate handballers, (b) to compare within-individual successful (hit target) and unsuccessful (missed target) handballs and (c) to assess handballing when both accuracy and speed of ball-travel were combined using a novel approach utilising canonical correlation analysis. Three-dimensional data were collected on 18 elite AF players who performed handballs towards a target. More accurate handballers exhibited a significantly straighter hand-path, slower elbow angular velocity and smaller elbow range of motion (ROM) compared to the inaccurate group. Successful handballs displayed significantly larger trunk ROM, maximum trunk rotation velocity and step-angle and smaller elbow ROM in comparison to the unsuccessful handballs. The canonical model explained 73% of variance shared between the variable sets, with a significant relationship found between hand-path, elbow ROM and maximum elbow angular velocity (predictors) and hand-speed and accuracy (dependant variables). Interestingly, not all parameters were the same across each of the analyses, with technical differences between inaccurate and accurate handballers different from those between successful and unsuccessful handballs in the within-individual analysis. PMID:25079111

  10. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions – Changes in Accuracy over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their

  11. Feasibility and accuracy of relative electron density determined by virtual monochromatic CT value subtraction at two different energies using the gemstone spectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work by Saito (2012) has demonstrated a simple conversion from energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) values (ΔHU) obtained using dual-energy CT to relative electron density (RED) via a single linear relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of this method to obtain RED from virtual monochromatic CT images obtained by the gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) mode with fast-kVp switching. Methods A tissue characterization phantom with 13 inserts made of different materials was scanned using the GSI mode on a Discovery CT750 HD. Four sets of virtual monochromatic CT images (60, 77, 100 and 140 keV) were obtained from a single GSI acquisition. When we define Δ HU in terms of the weighting factor for the subtraction α, Δ HU ≡ (1 + α)H - αL (H and L represent the CT values for high and low energy respectively), the relationship between Δ HU and RED is approximated as a linear function, a × Δ HU/1000 + b (a, b = unity). We evaluated the agreement between the determined and nominal RED. We also have investigated reproducibility over short and long time periods. Results For the 13 insert materials, the RED determined by monochromatic CT images agreed with the nominal values within 1.1% and the coefficient of determination for this calculation formula was greater than 0.999. The observed reproducibility (1 standard deviation) of calculation error was within 0.5% for all materials. Conclusions These findings indicate that virtual monochromatic CT scans at two different energies using GSI mode can provide an accurate method for estimating RED. PMID:23570343

  12. Accuracy in optical overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Marciano, Tal; Yaziv, Tal; DeLeeuw, Yaron; Klein, Dana; Feler, Yoel; Adam, Ido; Gurevich, Evgeni; Sella, Noga; Lindenfeld, Ze'ev; Leviant, Tom; Saltoun, Lilach; Ashwal, Eltsafon; Alumot, Dror; Lamhot, Yuval; Gao, Xindong; Manka, James; Chen, Bryan; Wagner, Mark

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the mechanism by which process variations determine the overlay accuracy of optical metrology. We start by focusing on scatterometry, and showing that the underlying physics of this mechanism involves interference effects between cavity modes that travel between the upper and lower gratings in the scatterometry target. A direct result is the behavior of accuracy as a function of wavelength, and the existence of relatively well defined spectral regimes in which the overlay accuracy and process robustness degrades (`resonant regimes'). These resonances are separated by wavelength regions in which the overlay accuracy is better and independent of wavelength (we term these `flat regions'). The combination of flat and resonant regions forms a spectral signature which is unique to each overlay alignment and carries certain universal features with respect to different types of process variations. We term this signature the `landscape', and discuss its universality. Next, we show how to characterize overlay performance with a finite set of metrics that are available on the fly, and that are derived from the angular behavior of the signal and the way it flags resonances. These metrics are used to guarantee the selection of accurate recipes and targets for the metrology tool, and for process control with the overlay tool. We end with comments on the similarity of imaging overlay to scatterometry overlay, and on the way that pupil overlay scatterometry and field overlay scatterometry differ from an accuracy perspective.

  13. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries. PMID:23132011

  14. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. PMID:23863442

  15. Chloroplast protrusions in leaves of Ranunculus glacialis L. respond significantly to different ambient conditions, but are not related to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Moser, Tim; Holzinger, Andreas; Buchner, Othmar

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of chloroplast protrusions (CPs) in leaves of Ranunculus glacialis L. in response to different environmental conditions was assessed. CPs occur highly dynamically. They do not contain thylakoids and their physiological function is still largely unknown. Controlled in situ sampling showed that CP formation follows a pronounced diurnal rhythm. Between 2 and 27 °C the relative proportion of chloroplasts with CPs (rCP) showed a significant positive correlation to leaf temperature (TL; 0.793, P < 0.01), while irradiation intensity had a minor effect on rCP. In situ shading and controlled laboratory experiments confirmed the significant influence of TL. Under moderate irradiation intensity, an increase of TL up to 25 °C significantly promoted CP formation, while a further increase to 37 °C led to a decrease. Furthermore, rCP values were lower in darkness and under high irradiation intensity. Gas treatment at 2000 ppm CO2/2% O2 led to a significant decrease of rCP, suggesting a possible involvement of photorespiration in CP formation. Our findings demonstrate that in R. glacialis, CPs are neither a rare phenomenon nor a result of heat or light stress; on the contrary, they seem to be most abundant under moderate temperature and non-stress irradiation conditions. PMID:25393014

  16. Superfund Explanation of Significant Difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, WI, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-03-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is for the Refuse Hideaway Landfill Superfund site in Middleton, Wisconsin. The June 28, 1995 ROD required groundwater extraction and treatment of the most highly contaminated groundwater (greater than 200 ppb total volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), treatment of groundwater to discharge standards and injection of the treated water into the aquifer upgradient of the landfill to stimulate in-situ biodegradation of the degradable components of the contamination. This ESD documents that US EPA, in consultation with WDNR, has determined, based on the 1998 groundwater data, that it is not necessary to implement the groundwater extraction and treatment component of the selected remedy. The significant decrease of total VOCs in groundwater over a short period of time indicates that groundwater should meet the remedial action objective of NR 140 PALs within a reasonable period of time if source control measures continue to be operated and maintained.

  17. Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görög, Augustín; Görögová, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutteŕs geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners). During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the field of geometric tolerance. It is necessary to bring an overview of the basic concepts and definitions in the field. It will prevent the use of outdated and invalidated terms and definitions in the field. The knowledge presented in the contribution will provide the new perspective of the measurement that will be evaluated according to the current standards.

  18. The construction of high-accuracy schemes for acoustic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Lei; Baeder, James D.

    1995-01-01

    An accuracy analysis of various high order schemes is performed from an interpolation point of view. The analysis indicates that classical high order finite difference schemes, which use polynomial interpolation, hold high accuracy only at nodes and are therefore not suitable for time-dependent problems. Thus, some schemes improve their numerical accuracy within grid cells by the near-minimax approximation method, but their practical significance is degraded by maintaining the same stencil as classical schemes. One-step methods in space discretization, which use piecewise polynomial interpolation and involve data at only two points, can generate a uniform accuracy over the whole grid cell and avoid spurious roots. As a result, they are more accurate and efficient than multistep methods. In particular, the Cubic-Interpolated Psuedoparticle (CIP) scheme is recommended for computational acoustics.

  19. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Fairchild, Intel, and Raytheon Sites, (Mew Study Area), Mountain View, CA, September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the document is to explain the significant differences between the Record of Decision (ROD) signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on June 9, 1989 (PB90-118225) and the remedy that will be implemented at the Middlefield/Ellis/Whisman Study Area (MEW Site). The document provides a brief background on the MEW Site, describes the change to the ROD that EPA is now making and explains the ways in which this change affects implementation of the remedy selected by EPA in June of 1989.

  20. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA region 2): Love Canal, Niagara Falls, NY, September 5, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) announce this Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) to explain modifications to the selected remedy for the final destruction and disposal of Love Canal dioxin-contaminated sewer and creek sediments. These modifications are embodied in proposed changes to a partial consent decree between the United States and the State of New York and the Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.

  1. Rest and stress transluminal attenuation gradient and contrast opacification difference for detection of hemodynamically significant stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James D; Gutman, Sarah; Crossett, Marcus; Munnur, Kiran; Meredith, Ian T; Wong, Dennis T L

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of stress 320 detector CT coronary angiography (CTA) derived transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG320) and contrast opacification (CO) difference to detect hemodynamically significant stenoses as determined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR ≤ 0.80). Twenty-seven patients, including 51 vessels on rest CTA were studied. 16 (31 %) vessels were not interpretable on stress CTA largely secondary to motion artefacts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a comparable area under the curve (AUC) for rest and stress TAG320 (0.78 and 0.75) which was higher than CTA alone (0.68), and rest and stress CO difference (0.76 and 0.67). Compared with rest CTA, stress CTA demonstrated inferior image quality (Median Likert score 4 vs. 3, P < 0.0001) and required a higher mean radiation exposure (3.2 vs. 5.1 mSv, P < 0.0001). Stress TAG320 and CO difference is less feasible and was not superior in diagnostic performance when compared with rest TAG320 and CO difference. PMID:26951537

  2. Gene Expression Analysis of the 26S Proteasome Subunit PSMB4 Reveals Significant Upregulation, Different Expression and Association with Proliferation in Human Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Fabian Dominik; Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Theegarten, Dirk; Hager, Thomas; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Werner, Robert; Stamatis, Georgios; Mairinger, Thomas; Baba, Hideo; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proteasomal subunit PSMB4 was suggested to be a survival gene in an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma and in glioblastoma cell lines. In pulmonary adenocarcinoma, a high expression of these genes was found to be associated with poor differentiation and survival. This study investigates the gene expression levels of 26S proteasome subunits in human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours including typical (TC) and atypical (AC) carcinoid tumours as well as small cell (SCLC) and large cell (LCNEC) neuroendocrine carcinomas. Material and methods: Gene expression levels of proteasomal subunits (PSMA1, PSMA5, PSMB4, PSMB5 and PSMD1) were investigated in 80 neuroendocrine pulmonary tumours (each 20 TC, AC, LCNLC and SCLC) and compared to controls. mRNA levels were determined by using TaqMan assays. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMA) was performed to determine the expression of ki67, cleaved caspase 3 and PSMB4. Results: All proteasomal subunit gene expressions were significantly upregulated in TC, AC, SCLC and LCNEC compared to controls. PSMB4 mRNA is differently expressed between all neuroendocrine tumour subtypes demonstrating the highest expression and greatest range in LCNEC (p=0.043), and is significantly associated with proliferative activity (p=0.039). Conclusion: In line with other 26S proteasomal subunits PSMB4 is significantly increased, but differently expressed between pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and is associated with the proliferative activity. Unlike in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, no association with biological behaviour was observed, suggesting that increased proteasomal subunit gene expression is a common and probably early event in the tumorigenesis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours regardless of their differentiation. PMID:25157275

  3. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences

    PubMed Central

    Kasztelan-Szczerbińska, Beata; Surdacka, Agata; Celiński, Krzysztof; Roliński, Jacek; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Miącz, Sławomir; Szczerbiński, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg) cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed. Materials and Methods 147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort. Conclusions We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury. PMID:26107937

  4. Older and Younger Adults’ Accuracy in Discerning Health and Competence in Older and Younger Faces

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Franklin, Robert G.; Boshyan, Jasmine; Luevano, Victor; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined older and younger adults’ accuracy judging the health and competence of faces. Accuracy differed significantly from chance and varied with face age but not rater age. Health ratings were more accurate for older than younger faces, with the reverse for competence ratings. Accuracy was greater for low attractive younger faces, but not for low attractive older faces. Greater accuracy judging older faces’ health was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and looking older as predictors of their health. Greater accuracy judging younger faces’ competence was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and a positive expression as predictors of their competence. Although the ability to recognize variations in health and cognitive ability is preserved in older adulthood, the effects of face age on accuracy and the different effects of attractiveness across face age may alter social interactions across the life span. PMID:25244467

  5. Significance of the changes occurring in the levels of interleukins, SOD and MDA in rat pulmonary tissue following exposure to different altitudes and exposure times

    PubMed Central

    YUHAI, GU; ZHEN, ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes occurring in the levels of interleukin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat lung tissue at different altitudes and times, and to determine the significance of such changes. A total of 88 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: the control group [low altitude (LA), 1,500 m; n=8], the moderate altitude group (MA group, 2,260 m; n=40) and the high altitude group (HA group, 5,000 m; n=40). The moderate and high altitude groups were subdivided into the 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 day groups (MA1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and HA1, 3, 7, 15, 30; n=8). The levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) in the rat lung tissue were determined by ELISA. The WST-1 Cell Proliferation Assay kit and total bile acids assay were used to determine the activity levels of SOD and the content of MDA, respectively. Compared to the control group, the levels of IL-6/IL-8/IL-10 were higher in the MA1 group; however, no significant differences were observed between the other MA subgroups. In addition, no significant differences were detected in SOD activity and the MDA content in the MA subgroups. The levels of IL-6/IL-8 in all the HA subgroups were higher compared to those of the control group, and with the passing of time, the levels of IL-6/IL-8 decreased, but were still higher than those of the control group. However, the level of IL-10 decreased with the passing of time, and was lower in all the HA subgroups compared to the control group. With the passing of time, SOD activity decreased, and the MDA content gradually increased. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that hypoxia due to high altitude induces lung inflammation and oxidative damage, which subsequently causes severe damage to lung tissue. PMID:26622414

  6. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  7. GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the developmen...

  8. Sex differences in the prognostic significance of KRAS codons 12 and 13, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activating KRAS and BRAF mutations predict unresponsiveness to EGFR-targeting therapies in colorectal cancer (CRC), but their prognostic value needs further validation. In this study, we investigated the impact of KRAS codons 12 and 13, and BRAF mutations on survival from CRC, overall and stratified by sex, in a large prospective cohort study. Methods KRAS codons 12 and 13, and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing of tumours from 525 and 524 incident CRC cases in The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Associations with cancer-specific survival (CSS) were explored by Cox proportional hazards regression, unadjusted and adjusted for age, TNM stage, differentiation grade, vascular invasion and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Results KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive. KRAS mutations were found in 191/ 525 (36.4%) cases, 82.2% of these mutations were in codon 12, 17.3% were in codon 13, and 0.5% cases had mutations in both codons. BRAF mutations were found in 78/524 (14.9%) cases. Overall, mutation in KRAS codon 13, but not codon 12, was associated with a significantly reduced CSS in unadjusted, but not in adjusted analysis, and BRAF mutation did not significantly affect survival. However, in microsatellite stable (MSS), but not in MSI tumours, an adverse prognostic impact of BRAF mutation was observed in unadjusted, but not in adjusted analysis. While KRAS mutation status was not significantly associated with sex, BRAF mutations were more common in women. BRAF mutation was not prognostic in women; but in men, BRAF mutation was associated with a significantly reduced CSS in overall adjusted analysis (HR = 3.50; 95% CI = 1.41–8.70), but not in unadjusted analysis. In men with MSS tumours, BRAF mutation was an independent factor of poor prognosis (HR = 4.91; 95% CI = 1.99–12.12). KRAS codon 13 mutation was associated with a significantly reduced CSS in women, but not in men in unadjusted, but not in adjusted analysis. Conclusions

  9. A new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the telomere of chromosome 21q reveals a significant difference between male and female rates of recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, J.L.; Gos, A.; Morris, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have used a half-YAC containing the human chromosome 21 long-arm telomere to clone, map, and characterize a new dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D21S1575) close to 21qter. The marker is <120 kb from the telomeric (TTAGGG){sub n} sequences and is the most distal highly polymorphic marker on chromosome 21q. This marker has a heterozygosity of 71% because of a variable (TA){sub n} repeat embedded within a long interspersed element (LINE) element. Genotyping of the CEPH families and linkage analysis provided a more accurate determination of the full length of the chromosome 21 genetic map. A highly significant difference was detected between male and female recombination rates in the telomeric region: in the most telomeric 2.3 Mb of chromosome 21q, recombination was only observed in male meioses. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. How a GNSS Receiver Is Held May Affect Static Horizontal Position Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Steven A.; Ucar, Zennure; Bettinger, Pete; Merry, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The static horizontal position accuracy of a mapping-grade GNSS receiver was tested in two forest types over two seasons, and subsequently was tested in one forest type against open sky conditions in the winter season. The main objective was to determine whether the holding position during data collection would result in significantly different static horizontal position accuracy. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether the time of year (season), forest type, or environmental variables had an influence on accuracy. In general, the F4Devices Flint GNSS receiver was found to have mean static horizontal position accuracy levels within the ranges typically expected for this general type of receiver (3 to 5 m) when differential correction was not employed. When used under forest cover, in some cases the GNSS receiver provided a higher level of static horizontal position accuracy when held vertically, as opposed to held at an angle or horizontally (the more natural positions), perhaps due to the orientation of the antenna within the receiver, or in part due to multipath or the inability to use certain satellite signals. Therefore, due to the fact that numerous variables may affect static horizontal position accuracy, we only conclude that there is weak to moderate evidence that the results of holding position are significant. Statistical test results also suggest that the season of data collection had no significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy, and results suggest that atmospheric variables had weak correlation with horizontal position accuracy. Forest type was found to have a significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy in one aspect of one test, yet otherwise there was little evidence that forest type affected horizontal position accuracy. Since the holding position was found in some cases to be significant with regard to the static horizontal position accuracy of positions collected in forests, it may be beneficial to have an

  11. [Navigation in implantology: Accuracy assessment regarding the literature].

    PubMed

    Barrak, Ibrahim Ádám; Varga, Endre; Piffko, József

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the literature regarding the accuracy of the different static guided systems. After applying electronic literature search we found 661 articles. After reviewing 139 articles, the authors chose 52 articles for full-text evaluation. 24 studies involved accuracy measurements. Fourteen of our selected references were clinical and ten of them were in vitro (modell or cadaver). Variance-analysis (Tukey's post-hoc test; p < 0.05) was conducted to summarize the selected publications. Regarding 2819 results the average mean error at the entry point was 0.98 mm. At the level of the apex the average deviation was 1.29 mm while the mean of the angular deviation was 3,96 degrees. Significant difference could be observed between the two methods of implant placement (partially and fully guided sequence) in terms of deviation at the entry point, apex and angular deviation. Different levels of quality and quantity of evidence were available for assessing the accuracy of the different computer-assisted implant placement. The rapidly evolving field of digital dentistry and the new developments will further improve the accuracy of guided implant placement. In the interest of being able to draw dependable conclusions and for the further evaluation of the parameters used for accuracy measurements, randomized, controlled single or multi-centered clinical trials are necessary. PMID:27544966

  12. Capsules from Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. Manifest Significant Differences in Structure and Ability to Protect against Phagocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Glauber de S.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Pontes, Bruno; Torres, Andre; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Casadevall, Arturo; Viana, Nathan B.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frases, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Capsule production is common among bacterial species, but relatively rare in eukaryotic microorganisms. Members of the fungal Cryptococcus genus are known to produce capsules, which are major determinants of virulence in the highly pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Although the lack of virulence of many species of the Cryptococcus genus can be explained solely by the lack of mammalian thermotolerance, it is uncertain whether the capsules from these organisms are comparable to those of the pathogenic cryptococci. In this study, we compared the characteristic of the capsule from the non-pathogenic environmental yeast Cryptococcus liquefaciens with that of C. neoformans. Microscopic observations revealed that C. liquefaciens has a capsule visible in India ink preparations that was also efficiently labeled by three antibodies generated to specific C. neoformans capsular antigens. Capsular polysaccharides of C. liquefaciens were incorporated onto the cell surface of acapsular C. neoformans mutant cells. Polysaccharide composition determinations in combination with confocal microscopy revealed that C. liquefaciens capsule consisted of mannose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine. Physical chemical analysis of the C. liquefaciens polysaccharides in comparison with C. neoformans samples revealed significant differences in viscosity, elastic properties and macromolecular structure parameters of polysaccharide solutions such as rigidity, effective diameter, zeta potential and molecular mass, which nevertheless appeared to be characteristics of linear polysaccharides that also comprise capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans. The environmental yeast, however, showed enhanced susceptibility to the antimicrobial activity of the environmental phagocytes, suggesting that the C. liquefaciens capsular components are insufficient in protecting yeast cells against killing by amoeba. These results suggest that capsular

  13. Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) Offers Clues to Differences Between the Genomes of Adult Philadelphia Positive ALL and the Lymphoid Blast Transformation of CML

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Colin; Nacheva, Elisabeth P.

    2012-01-01

    Philadelphia positive malignant disorders are a clinically divergent group of leukemias. These include chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and de novo acute Philadelphia positive (Ph(+)) leukemia of both myeloid, and lymphoid origin. Recent whole genome screening of Ph(+)ALL in both children and adults identified an almost obligatory cryptic loss of Ikaros, required for the normal B cell maturation. Although similar losses were found in lymphoid blast crisis the genetic background of the transformation in CML is still poorly defined. We used Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) to analyze comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from 30 CML (10 each of chronic phase, myeloid and lymphoid blast stage), 10 Ph(+)ALL adult patients and 10 disease free controls and were able to: (a) discriminate between the genomes of lymphoid and myeloid blast cells and (b) identify differences in the genome profile of de novo Ph(+)ALL and lymphoid blast transformation of CML (BC/L). Furthermore we were able to distinguish a sub group of Ph(+) ALL characterized by gains in chromosome 9 and recurrent losses at several other genome sites offering genetic evidence for the clinical heterogeneity. The significance of these results is that they not only offer clues regarding the pathogenesis of Ph(+) disorders and highlight the potential clinical implications of a set of probes but also demonstrates what SAM can offer for the analysis of genome data. PMID:23071388

  14. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 9): Stringfellow Acid Pits, Riverside, CA, July 9, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-03-01

    This document presents the explanation of significant differences (ESD) for a proposed change to the remedy chosen to the second Record of Decision (ROD2) for the Stringfellow Superfund site (the Site''). Currently, contaminated groundwater is being extracted from a series of wells located in the original disposal area of the Site and in downgradient, contaminated zones just to the south. The extracted groundwater is pumped to the on-site Stringfellow pretreatment plant (the PTP'') where the water is treated to remove site contaminants. The treated water from the PTP is then transported by tanker truck and discharged into the regional wastewater collection system, commonly known as the Santa Ana Regional Interceptor (SARI), that serves the upper Santa Ana River watershed area. Since the time ROD2 was completed, the SARI has been extended and now passes within 1.5 miles of the Stringfellow PTP. A direct pipeline to the SARI line would eliminate the tanker truck trips on the regional highways and municipal streets, and result in a significant reduction in operating costs of the Stringfellow PTP.

  15. Expression and significance of CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of patients with different phenotypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Li, Li; Zhang, Yin; Pan, Shu-Chao; Chen, An-Qiang; Qian, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the changes of immune status and significance in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods: The proportion of CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells in peripheral blood before immunotherapy for 41 patients with GBS (including 29 classic type and 12 variant type) and 42 normal control patients (healthy volunteers) were evaluated by flow cytometry. And molybdenum three phenol red method was used to detect cerebrospinal fluid protein content of 28 patients with GBS (including 19 with classic type and 9 with variant type). Results: Compared with healthy control group, the CD4+CD25+CD127- of GBS group had obvious difference (P<0.05). Of which, the CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells of the classic GBS group had no significant changes compared with the variant group (P>0.05), as well as the cerebrospinal fluid protein content between classic and variant GBS groups. The decrease of the proportion of CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells suggested abnormal expression of immune function in GBS patients. Conclusion: The decrease of GBS regulatory T cell number or function indicated that the immune regulatory T cells mediated imbalance of immune regulation involved in the pathogenesis of GBS. PMID:26770543

  16. Determination of GPS orbits to submeter accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Katsigris, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) were determined with submeter accuracy. Tests used to assess orbital accuracy include orbit comparisons from independent data sets, orbit prediction, ground baseline determination, and formal errors. One satellite tracked 8 hours each day shows rms error below 1 m even when predicted more than 3 days outside of a 1-week data arc. Differential tracking of the GPS satellites in high Earth orbit provides a powerful relative positioning capability, even when a relatively small continental U.S. fiducial tracking network is used with less than one-third of the full GPS constellation. To demonstrate this capability, baselines of up to 2000 km in North America were also determined with the GPS orbits. The 2000 km baselines show rms daily repeatability of 0.3 to 2 parts in 10 to the 8th power and agree with very long base interferometry (VLBI) solutions at the level of 1.5 parts in 10 to the 8th power. This GPS demonstration provides an opportunity to test different techniques for high-accuracy orbit determination for high Earth orbiters. The best GPS orbit strategies included data arcs of at least 1 week, process noise models for tropospheric fluctuations, estimation of GPS solar pressure coefficients, and combine processing of GPS carrier phase and pseudorange data. For data arc of 2 weeks, constrained process noise models for GPS dynamic parameters significantly improved the situation.

  17. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  18. Significance of the lymph nodes in the 7th station in rational dissection for metastasis of distal gastric cancer with different T categories

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wu; Wang, Shaochuan; He, Weiling; Xu, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinicopathological characteristics, and evaluate the appropriate extent of lymph node dissection in distal gastric cancer patients with comparable T category. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 570 distal gastric cancer patients, who underwent gastric resection with D2 nodal dissection, which was performed by the same surgical team from January 1997 to January 2011. We compared the differences in lymph node metastasis rates and metastatic lymph node ratios between different T categories. Additionally, we investigated the impact of lymph node metastasis in the 7th station on survival rate of distal gastric cancer patients with the same TNM staging. Results Among the 570 patients, the overall lymph node metastasis rate of advanced distal gastric cancer was 78.1%, and the metastatic lymph node ratio was 27%. The lymph node metastasis rate in the 7th station was similar to that of perigastric lymph nodes. There was no statistical significance in patients with the same TNM stage (stage II and III), irrespective of the metastatic status in the 7th station. Conclusions Our results suggest that to a certain extent, it is reasonable to include lymph nodes in the 7th station in the D1 lymph node dissection. PMID:25232215

  19. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response: an IRT-based analysis from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara; Stone, Arthur A.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Ware, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function, fatigue, and depression) were completed by 923 adults (age 18–89) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. Results Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported equivalence of factor structure across MOA. Analyses by item response theory found no differences in item location parameters and strongly supported the equivalence of scores across MOA. Conclusions We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis. PMID:23877585

  20. Avian serum. cap alpha. /sub 1/-glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and carbohydrate composition from mammalian (. beta. -glycoprotein) counter parts

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Trimble, R.B.; Falco, M.D.; Liem, H.H.; Metcalfe, S.A.; Wellner, D.; Muller-Eberhard, U.

    1986-10-21

    The physicochemical characteristics of chicken hemopexin, which can be isolated by heme-agarose affinity chromatography, is compared with representative mammalian hemopexins of rat, rabbit, and human. The avian polypeptide chain appears to be slightly longer (52 kDa) than the human, rat, or rabbit forms (49 kDa), and also the glycoprotein differs from the mammalian hemopexins in being an ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoprotein instead of a ..beta../sub 1/-glycoprotein. The distinct electrophoretic mobility probably arises from significant differences in the amino acid composition of the chicken form, which, although lower in serine and particularly in lysine, has a much higher glutamine/glutamate and agrinine content, and also a higher proline, glycine, and histidine content, than the mammalian hemopexins. Compositional analyses and /sup 125/I concanavalin A and /sup 125/I wheat germ agglutinin binding suggest that chicken hemopexin has a mixture of three fucose-free N-linked bi- and triantennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, human hemopexin has give N-linked oligosaccharides and an additional O-linked glycan blocking the N-terminal threonine residue, while the rabbit form has four N-linked oligosaccharides. In keeping with the finding of a simpler carbohydrate structure, the avian hemopexin shows only a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both nondenaturing and denaturing conditions, whereas the hemopexins of the three mammalian species tested show several bands. In contrast, the isoelectric focusing pattern of chicken hemopexin is very complex, revealing at least nine bands between pH 4.0 and pH band 5.0, while the other hemopexins show a broad smear of multiple ill-defined bands in the same region.Results indicate the hemopexin of avians differs substantially from the hemopexins of mammals, which show a notable similarity with regard to carbohydrate structure and amino acid composition.

  1. Accuracy of ambulatory blood pressure determination: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, J C; Geyssant, A; Auboyer, C; Antoniadis, A; Berruyer, J; Lacour, J R

    1991-09-01

    This study was designed to discriminate, according to their accuracy, between three ambulatory pressurometers (Diasys 200R, Novacor; P IV, Del Mar Avionics; SpaceLab 90202, SpaceLab). The evaluation was performed against invasive arterial reference measurements. Accuracy was assessed by calculating the error on pressure (EOP) as the difference between invasive and non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. For the systolic values, accuracy (mean of EOP differences) and uncertainty (SD of these differences) were -0.9 +/- 9.7, -4.3 +/- 10.1 and -16.7 +/- 10.1 mmHg for, respectively, Diasys, PIV and SpaceLab. For diastolic values, they were, respectively, 5.9 +/- 6.7, 6.8 +/- 8.5 and 9.1 +/- 6.6 mmHg. EOP was then separated in two different types of errors: (i) the error of dispersion appreciated by the index of homogeneity calculated by a Lehmann analysis and leading to a statistical classification (ii) the error due to the drift of EOP with the reference value, this last error being easier to correct. Two different behaviours were observed for the EOP: (i) the drift of EOP of systolic values was significantly larger for the oscillometric (SpaceLab) than for the auscultatory (Diasys and P IV) method, with no difference between Diasys and P IV (ii) the homogeneity index was not statistically different among these three devices. These data suggest that, in case the correction of the drift of EOP is carried out, there is no statistical significant difference in accuracy between these three pressurometers. However, in our experimental conditions, the two ambulatory pressurometers recording the Korotkoff sounds have a better accuracy than the one using the oscillometric approach. PMID:1947731

  2. [Gernet and GOW-70-Program intraocular lens calculation. Significance of the of the position of the principal plane of the lens in phakic and pseudophakic eyes for accuracy of the target refraction of different IOL types].

    PubMed

    Gernet, H

    2001-09-01

    The GOW 70 PC programme utilises the individual bio-anatomy of the phacic cataract eye in the IOL power calculation for multifocal or monofocal in-the-bag-implantation for all common IOL types. In addition, an aniseiconia evaluation programme is included. The Gernet IOL power calculation is based on the GOW 70, 71 formulae which consists of the PC programme (one disc), one table (the 60% rule), an instruction for use in personal computers (Windows, Word) and in the 60% procedure. This is based on ultrasound immersion measurements of about 20,000 phacic eyes with and without cataracts and after 2,000 IOL implantations by various surgeons using the d-values of the human eye lenses of the cataract eye and the d-values of the IOL types used. The d-value of a phacic eye is the distance between the corneal vertex and the principal plane (infinitely thin lenses) of the human eye lens and is formed from the depth of the anterior segment (cornea + AC) + 60% of the human lens thickness. The d-value of a pseudophacic eye is the distance between the corneal vertex and the principal plane of the chosen IOL type. In 1984, the first definite clinical connection between the d-values of human eye lenses and of implanted PC IOL (6.0 mm-1.5 mm = 4.5 mm) was established. In 1992 and 1998 it was extended to the "newer" 60% rule and to the 60% procedure, respectively. PMID:11594228

  3. Blood lactate levels differ significantly between surviving and nonsurviving patients within the same risk-adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) group after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Gonen, Yael; Vardi, Amir; Keidan, Ilan; Mishali, David; Rubinshtein, Marina; Yakov, Yusim; Paret, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    levels in RACHS-1 subgroups 1 to 3 were highly correlated with poor prognosis and death (p < 0.03). In addition, the lactate levels differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors within the same RACHS-1 subgroup. The survivors in RACHS-1 subgroups 1 to 3 had lower mean lactate levels than the nonsurvivors in this group (P = 0.011), and this also held true for the survivors and nonsurvivors in RACHS-1 subgroups 4 to 6 (P = 0.026). Lactate levels differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors within the same RACHS-1 subgroup. This combination allows the targeting of appropriately intensive interventions and therapies toward the sickest patients. PMID:20495912

  4. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann® Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed to yield 25-s sound sequences in random order on PCs. Observers, recruited from doctors within the department, classified the sound sequences as either normal or pathological. The reference tests for bowel obstruction were intraoperative and endoscopic findings and clinical follow up. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each observer and compared between junior and senior doctors. Interobserver variation was measured using the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: Bowel sound sequences from 98 patients were assessed by 53 (33 junior and 20 senior) doctors. Laparotomy was performed in 47 patients, 35 of whom had bowel obstruction. Two patients underwent colorectal stenting due to large bowel obstruction. The median sensitivity and specificity was 0.42 (range: 0.19-0.64) and 0.78 (range: 0.35-0.98), respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between junior and senior doctors. The median frequency with which doctors classified bowel sounds as abnormal did not differ significantly between patients with and without bowel obstruction (26% vs 23%, P = 0.08). The 53 doctors made up 1378 unique pairs and the median Kappa value was 0.29 (range: -0.15-0.66). CONCLUSION: Accuracy and inter-observer agreement was generally low. Clinical decisions in patients with possible bowel obstruction should not be based on auscultatory assessment of bowel sounds. PMID:26379407

  5. The clinicopathological significance and ethnic difference of FHIT hypermethylation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Guannan; Yao, Xuequan; Hou, Gang; Jiang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that FHIT is a candidate tumor suppressor in many types of tumors including non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the prognostic value and correlation between FHIT hypermethylation and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC remains unclear. In this report, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of FHIT hypermethylation on the incidence of NSCLC and clinicopathological characteristics of human NSCLC patients. Final analysis of 1,801 NSCLC patients from 18 eligible studies was performed. FHIT hypermethylation was found to be significantly higher in NSCLC than in normal lung tissue. The pooled odds ratio (OR) from ten studies included 819 NSCLC and 792 normal lung tissues (OR =7.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.98–18.91, P<0.0001). Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity implied that FHIT hypermethylation level was higher in NSCLC tissues than in normal tissues in both Caucasians (P=0.02) and Asians (P<0.0001), indicating that the difference in Asians was much more significant. FHIT hypermethylation was also correlated with sex status, smoking status, as well as pathological types. In addition, patients with FHIT hypermethylation had a lower survival rate than those without (hazard ratio =1.73, 95% CI =1.10–2.71, P=0.02). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that FHIT hypermethylation is associated with an increased risk and poor survival in NSCLC patients. FHIT hypermethylation, which induces the inactivation of FHIT gene, plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and clinical outcome and may serve as a potential diagnostic marker and drug target of NSCLC. PMID:26929601

  6. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry. PMID:27085396

  7. Characterization of TiN, TiC and Ti(C,N) in titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels focusing on the significance of different particle morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Michelic, S.K.; Loder, D.; Reip, T.; Ardehali Barani, A.; Bernhard, C.

    2015-02-15

    Titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels are a competitive option to classical austenitic stainless steels owing to their similar corrosion resistance. The addition of titanium significantly influences their final steel cleanliness. The present contribution focuses on the detailed metallographic characterization of titanium nitrides, titanium carbides and titanium carbonitrides with regard to their size, morphology and composition. The methods used are manual and automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy as well as optical microscopy. Additional thermodynamic calculations are performed to explain the precipitation procedure of the analyzed titanium nitrides. The analyses showed that homogeneous nucleation is decisive at an early process stage after the addition of titanium. Heterogeneous nucleation gets crucial with ongoing process time and essentially influences the final inclusion size of titanium nitrides. A detailed investigation of the nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation with automated Scanning Electron Microscopy proved to be difficult due to their small size. Manual Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical microscopy have to be applied. Furthermore, it was found that during solidification an additional layer around an existing titanium nitride can be formed which changes the final inclusion morphology significantly. These layers are also characterized in detail. Based on these different inclusion morphologies, in combination with thermodynamic results, tendencies regarding the formation and modification time of titanium containing inclusions in ferritic chromium steels are derived. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The formation and modification of TiN in the steel 1.4520 was examined. • Heterogeneous nucleation essentially influences the final steel cleanliness. • In most cases heterogeneous nuclei in TiN inclusions are magnesium based. • Particle morphology provides important information

  8. Regional differences of HFE (C282Y, H63D) allele frequencies in the Netherlands A model case illustrating the significance of genographics and prehistorical population migration.

    PubMed

    Cobbaert, C M; Delanghe, J; Boer, J M A; Feskens, E J M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated HFE C282Y and H63D allele frequencies in three Dutch towns in the Netherlands, as well as their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Study subjects were selected from participants of the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Netherlands carried out in Amsterdam, Doetinchem and Maastricht among > 35000 subjects, 20-59 years of age. Mortality follow-up lasted 9 to 13 years. A random sample of the cohort (n = 1075) provided information on the total study population. The random sample and all CVD deaths (n = 301) were genotyped for the C282Y and H63D mutation. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for CVD mortality were calculated per genotype. C282Y allele frequencies differed significantly between the towns investigated (p = 0.017), whereas the allele frequencies of H63D were similar (p = 0.141) across towns. In Maastricht we found a C282Y allele frequency of 0.086 compared to 0.055 in Amsterdam and 0.054 in Doetinchem. C282Y and H63D heterozygosity did not predict fatal CVD in either men or women, whereas homozygosity for the H63D mutation increased fatal CVD in women (adjusted HR = 8.5; 95% CI = 2.3-31.1). The unexpected high C282Y allele frequency in Maastricht is in line with the recent evidence of a Celtic origin of citizens from the former southern Netherlands and with prehistorical population migrations revealed in the context of the international Genographic Project, a landmark study of prehistorical human migrations around the globe. We recommend that when designing national screening programmes and national registries for genetic disorders, potential regional prevalence differences should be taken into account. PMID:23340149

  9. Significant differences in struvite and cystine stone frequency seen among Chinese nephrolithiasis patients living in North America compared to those living in China

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Thomas; Usawachintachit, Manint; Filippou, Pauline; Bayne, David; Hu, Weiguo; Chang, Helena; Xia, Lei; Chen, Qi; Xue, Wei; He, Hui; Long, Qingzhi; Arsovska, Olga; Taylor, Eric; Paterson, Ryan; Sur, Roger L.; Chew, Ben; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interracial disparities in nephrolithiasis prevalence have been reported, but the interplay between genetics and the environment for urinary stone disease risk factors is poorly understood. To examine how environment may alter genetic predisposition for stone formation, we established the International Chinese Consortium on Nephrolithiasis (ICCON) as a multi-institutional collaboration to examine patterns of nephrolithiasis presentation between Chinese patients living in different countries. Methods Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) at six participating institutions in China and North America over 4 years were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographics and clinical data were compared between Chinese patients living in China and North America. Results A total of 806 patients were included, encompassing 721 Chinese patients living in China and 85 living in North America. Nephrolithiasis patients living in China were more likely to be male (67% vs. 56%, P=0.02), present at a younger age (48.6±15.0 vs. 55.0±13.0 years, P<0.01), and have a lower BMI (24.6±4.0 vs. 25.9±5.7, P=0.04) but were less likely to form struvite stones (5.5% vs. 14.1%, P<0.01). No cystine stone patients were seen in North American Chinese patients, whereas 1.8% of nephrolithiasis patients living in China presented with cystine stones. Similar rates of calcium-based and uric acid calculi as well as urinary pH were seen among both groups. Conclusions Significant differences exist between Chinese nephrolithiasis patients living in China compared to those living in North America, highlighting the importance of environmental factors in addition to genetics in modulating risk for urinary stone disease. PMID:27298786

  10. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data.

    PubMed

    Coomans, Frederik; Hofman, Abe; Brinkhuis, Matthieu; van der Maas, Han L J; Maris, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two 'one-process' models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a 'two-process' model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses. PMID:27167518

  11. Knowing your own heart: distinguishing interoceptive accuracy from interoceptive awareness.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Seth, Anil K; Barrett, Adam B; Suzuki, Keisuke; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    Interoception refers to the sensing of internal bodily changes. Interoception interacts with cognition and emotion, making measurement of individual differences in interoceptive ability broadly relevant to neuropsychology. However, inconsistency in how interoception is defined and quantified led to a three-dimensional model. Here, we provide empirical support for dissociation between dimensions of: (1) interoceptive accuracy (performance on objective behavioural tests of heartbeat detection), (2) interoceptive sensibility (self-evaluated assessment of subjective interoception, gauged using interviews/questionnaires) and (3) interoceptive awareness (metacognitive awareness of interoceptive accuracy, e.g. confidence-accuracy correspondence). In a normative sample (N=80), all three dimensions were distinct and dissociable. Interoceptive accuracy was only partly predicted by interoceptive awareness and interoceptive sensibility. Significant correspondence between dimensions emerged only within the sub-group of individuals with greatest interoceptive accuracy. These findings set the context for defining how the relative balance of accuracy, sensibility and awareness dimensions explain cognitive, emotional and clinical associations of interoceptive ability. PMID:25451381

  12. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data

    PubMed Central

    Coomans, Frederik; Hofman, Abe; Brinkhuis, Matthieu; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Maris, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two ‘one-process’ models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a ‘two-process’ model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses. PMID:27167518

  13. Interoceptive accuracy and panic.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, L A; Craske, M G

    1999-12-01

    Psychophysiological models of panic hypothesize that panickers focus attention on and become anxious about the physical sensations associated with panic. Attention on internal somatic cues has been labeled interoception. The present study examined the role of physiological arousal and subjective anxiety on interoceptive accuracy. Infrequent panickers and nonanxious participants participated in an initial baseline to examine overall interoceptive accuracy. Next, participants ingested caffeine, about which they received either safety or no safety information. Using a mental heartbeat tracking paradigm, participants' count of their heartbeats during specific time intervals were coded based on polygraph measures. Infrequent panickers were more accurate in the perception of their heartbeats than nonanxious participants. Changes in physiological arousal were not associated with increased accuracy on the heartbeat perception task. However, higher levels of self-reported anxiety were associated with superior performance. PMID:10596462

  14. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Anti-TLR4-Antibody MTS510 in Experimental Stroke and Significance of Different Routes of Application

    PubMed Central

    Czech-Zechmeister, Bozena; Könnecke, Birte; Lühder, Fred; Trendelenburg, George

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central sensors for the inflammatory response in ischemia-reperfusion injury. We therefore investigated whether TLR4 inhibition could be used to treat stroke in a standard model of focal cerebral ischemia. Anti-TLR4/MD2-antibody (mAb clone MTS510) blocked TLR4-induced cell activation in vitro, as reported previously. Here, different routes of MTS510 application in vivo were used to study the effects on stroke outcome up to 2d after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 45min in adult male C57Bl/6 wild-type mice. Improved neurological performance, reduced infarct volumes, and reduced brain swelling showed that intravascular application of MTS510 had a protective effect in the model of 45min MCAO. Evaluation of potential long-term adverse effects of anti-TLR4-mAb-treament revealed no significant deleterious effect on infarct volumes nor neurological deficit after 14d of reperfusion in a mild model of stroke (15min MCAO). Interestingly, inhibition of TLR4 resulted in an altered adaptive immune response at 48 hours after reperfusion. We conclude that blocking TLR4 by the use of specific mAb is a promising strategy for stroke therapy. However, long-term studies with increased functional sensitivity, larger sampling sizes and use of other species are required before a clinical use could be envisaged. PMID:26849209

  15. Expression of HOXB genes is significantly different in acute myeloid leukemia with a partial tandem duplication of MLL vs. a MLL translocation: a cross-laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsi-Che; Shih, Lee-Yung; May Chen, Mei-Ju; Wang, Chien-Chih; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Tung-Huei; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lin, Chih-Jen; Liang, Der-Cherng

    2011-05-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene may be rearranged to generate a partial tandem duplication (PTD), or fused to partner genes through a chromosomal translocation (tMLL). In this study, we first explored the differentially expressed genes between MLL-PTD and tMLL using gene expression profiling of our cohort (15 MLL-PTD and 10 tMLL) and one published data set. The top 250 probes were chosen from each set, resulting in 29 common probes (21 unique genes) to both sets. The selected genes include four HOXB genes, HOXB2, B3, B5, and B6. The expression values of these HOXB genes significantly differ between MLL-PTD and tMLL cases. Clustering and classification analyses were thoroughly conducted to support our gene selection results. Second, as MLL-PTD, FLT3-ITD, and NPM1 mutations are identified in AML with normal karyotypes, we briefly studied their impact on the HOXB genes. Another contribution of this study is to demonstrate that using public data from other studies enriches samples for analysis and yields more conclusive results. PMID:21665178

  16. Significant differences between Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393T and a commonly used plasmid-cured derivative revealed by a polyphasic study.

    PubMed

    Acedo-Félix, Evelia; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2003-01-01

    Many studies on Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (L. casei) have been carried out using strain ATCC 393 (pLZ15-). Four strains of L. casei ATCC 393T and three of ATCC 393 (pLZ15-) were compared using phenotypic methods and many of the available genotyping techniques. These tests showed that strains of ATCC 393T obtained from independent public type-culture collections were significantly different from the plasmid-free (pLZ15-) strains of ATCC 393T. These findings were confirmed by sequencing the first 580 nt (domain I) of the 16S and 23S rDNAs of the strains. Complete sequencing of the 16S rDNA of one representative strain from each group revealed that strain ATCC 393T from culture collections was 99% similar to Lactobacillus zeae ATCC 15820T and that the strain so far considered as L. casei ATCC 393 (pLZ15-) was, in turn, 100% similar to L. casei ATCC 334 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei ATCC 4022. All data obtained in this work indicate that the ancestral strain of ATCC 393 (pLZ15-) might never have been the strain that is now available from culture collections. PMID:12656154

  17. Children's Singing Accuracy as a Function of Grade Level, Gender, and Individual versus Union Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between vocal pitch accuracy and gender, grade level, and the presence or absence of an accompanying unison voice. Reveals no significant differences between unison or individual singing or for gender. Fourth and fifth graders exhibited significant differences. (MJP)

  18. Effects of landscape characteristics on land-cover class accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jonathan H.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Wickham, James D.; Yang, Limin

    2003-01-01

    The effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy were evaluated using reference data collected for the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment. Logistic regression models quantified the relationship between classification accuracy and these landscape variables for each land-cover class at both the Anderson Levels I and II classification schemes employed in the NLCD. The general relationships were consistent, with the odds of correctly classifying a pixel increasing as patch size increased and decreasing as heterogeneity increased. Specific characteristics of these relationships, however, showed considerable diversity among the various classes. Odds ratios are reported to document these relationships. Interaction between the two landscape variables was not a significant influence on classification accuracy, indicating that the effect of heterogeneity was not impacted by the sample being in a small or large patch. Landscape variables remained significant predictors of class-specific accuracy even when adjusted for regional differences in the mapping and assessment processes or landscape characteristics. The land-cover class-specific analyses provide insight into sources of classification error and a capacity for predicting error based on a pixel's mapped land-cover class, patch size and surrounding land-cover heterogeneity.

  19. Black tea is not significantly different from water in the maintenance of normal hydration in human subjects: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Carrie H; Hart, Valerie A

    2011-08-01

    There is a belief that caffeinated drinks, such as tea, may adversely affect hydration. This was investigated in a randomised controlled trial. Healthy resting males (n 21) were recruited from the general population. Following 24 h of abstention from caffeine, alcohol and vigorous physical activity, including a 10 h overnight fast, all men underwent four separate test days in a counter-balanced order with a 5 d washout in between. The test beverages, provided at regular intervals, were 4 × 240 ml black (i.e. regular) tea and 6 × 240 ml black tea, providing 168 or 252 mg of caffeine. The controls were identical amounts of boiled water. The tea was prepared in a standardised way from tea bags and included 20 ml of semi-skimmed milk. All food taken during the 12 h intervention period was controlled, and subjects remained at rest. No other beverages were offered. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h, and a 24 h urine sample was collected. Outcome variables were whole blood cell count, Na, K, bicarbonate, total protein, urea, creatinine and osmolality for blood; and total volume, colour, Na, K, creatinine and osmolality for urine. Although data for all twenty-one participants were included in the analysis (mean age 36 years and mean BMI 25·8 kg/m(2)), nineteen men completed all conditions. Statistical analysis, using a factorial ANOVA approach within PROC MIXED, revealed no significant differences between tea and water for any of the mean blood or urine measurements. It was concluded that black tea, in the amounts studied, offered similar hydrating properties to water. PMID:21450118

  20. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. PMID:26486414

  1. Real-time DNA binding measurements of the ETS1 recombinant oncoproteins reveal significant kinetic differences between the p42 and p51 isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. J.; Fivash, M.; Casas-Finet, J.; Erickson, J. W.; Kondoh, A.; Bladen, S. V.; Fisher, C.; Watson, D. K.; Papas, T.

    1994-01-01

    The sequence-specific DNA binding of recombinant p42 and p51 ETS1 oncoprotein was examined quantitatively to determine whether the loss of the Exon VII phosphorylation domain in p42 ETS1 or the phosphorylation of expressed Exon VII in p51 ETS1 had an effect on DNA binding activity. The kinetics of sequence-specific DNA binding was measured using real-time changes in surface plasmon resonance with BIAcore (registered trademark, Pharmacia Biosensor) technology. The real-time binding of p42 and p51 ETS1 displayed significant differences in kinetic behavior. p51 ETS1 is characterized by a fast initial binding and conversion to a stable complex, whereas p42 ETS1 exhibits a slow initial binding and conversion to a stable complex. All of the p51 ETS1 DNA binding states are characterized by rapid turnover, whereas the p42 ETS1 DNA binding states are 4-20 times more stable. A model describing these kinetic steps is presented. Stoichiometric titrations of either p42 or p51 ETS1 with specific oligonucleotides show 1:1 complex formation. The DNA sequence specificity of the p42 and p51 ETS1 as determined by mutational analysis was similar. The in vitro phosphorylation of p51 ETS1 by CAM kinase II obliterates its binding to specific DNA, suggesting that the regulation of p51 ETS1 sequence-specific DNA binding occurs through phosphorylation by a calcium-dependent second messenger. The p42 ETS1 lacks this regulatory domain (Exon VII), and binding to its specific DNA sequence is not sensitive to calcium signaling. PMID:8003962

  2. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone 1, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-02-01

    Zone 1 is a 1400-acre area outside the fence of the main plant at The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone, ETTP (Zone 1 Interim ROD) (DOE 2002) identifies the remedial actions for contaminated soil, buried waste, and subsurface infrastructure necessary to protect human health and to limit further contamination of groundwater. Since the Zone 1 Interim Record of Decision (ROD) was signed, new information has been obtained that requires the remedy to be modified as follows: (1) Change the end use in Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA) from unrestricted industrial to recreational; (2) Remove Exposure Units (EU5) ZI-50, 51, and 52 from the scope of the Zone I Interim ROD; (3) Change the end use of the duct bank corridor from unrestricted industrial to restricted industrial; and (4) Remove restriction for the disturbance of soils below 10 feet in Exposure Unit (EU) Z1-04. In accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.435, these scope modifications are a 'significant' change to the Zone 1 Interim ROD. In accordance with CERCLA Sect. 117 (c) and 40 CFR 300.435 (c)(2)(i), such a significant change is documented with an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD). The purpose of this ESD is to make the changes listed above. This ESD is part of the Administrative Record file, and it, and other information supporting the selected remedy, can be found at the DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The ORR is located in Roane and Anderson counties, within and adjacent to the corporate city limits of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ETTP is located in Roane County near the northwest corner of the ORR. ETTP began operation during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. The original mission of ETTP was to produce enriched uranium for use in atomic weapons. The plant produced enriched uranium from 1945 until 1985

  3. A comparative evaluation of the dimensional accuracy of heat polymerised PMMA denture base cured by different curing cycles and clamped by R S technique and conventional method – An In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Mandava Ramesh; Rao, C Satyanageswar; Ahmed, Syed Tauqheer; Bharat, J S V; Rao, N Venugopal; Vinod, V

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of heat polymerized PMMA denture base clamped by the conventional method and by R.S technique and cured by a different curing cycle. Materials & Methods: In this study, a total of 40 standardized maxillary record bases were fabricated with seven reference points: Point A - Incisive papilla, Point B & C - Canine region on either side, Point E & G - Midpoint of tuberosities on either side, Point F- Midpoint of the line joining the two tuberosities, Point D- Midpoint between the line joining A and F. Group A: Ten maxillary record bases were fabricated by conventional clamping method and cured by long curing cycle. Group A1: Ten maxillary record bases were fabricated by R.S tension clamping method and cured by long curing cycle. Group B: Ten maxillary record bases were fabricated by conventional clamping method and cured by short curing cycle. Group B1: Ten maxillary record bases were fabricated by R.S tension clamping method and cured by short curing cycle. The distances between the reference points i.e. A-B, A-C, A-D, D-F, B-E, C-G, E-F, F-G, B-D, D-G, CD, D-E of all three thermoplastic denture base plates were measured and recorded with the help of a travelling microscope and were used for comparison with the measured and recorded readings of processed acrylic denture bases. The data obtained was analyzed by using the One Way Analysis of Variance. Results: The overall results of the in vitro study indicate that among all the PMMA bases cured by the two clamping systems and the different curing cycle, group A` was the most dimensionally stable, followed by control group A, then followed by B` and B was most unstable. Conclusion: The study concluded that the denture bases fabricated by the R.S Technique using the long curing cycle would produce the most dimensionally stable PMMA denture bases. How to cite the article: Babu MR, Rao CS, Ahmed ST, Bharat JS, Rao NV, Vinod V. A comparative

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Services for Two Persons with Significant Disabilities with Differing Educational Experiences: A Qualitative Consideration of the Impact of Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Ward, Terri; Alper, Sandra; Montgomery, Jennifer Wilson; Storch, Jill F.

    2010-01-01

    Though research exists related to effective services in inclusive general education settings for students with significant disabilities, there are no longitudinal investigations of adult outcomes for persons with significant disabilities who received services in inclusive general education settings. This study uses qualitative methods to describe…

  5. Optimizing the geometrical accuracy of curvilinear meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulorge, Thomas; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Remacle, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method to generate valid high order meshes with optimized geometrical accuracy. The high order meshing procedure starts with a linear mesh, that is subsequently curved without taking care of the validity of the high order elements. An optimization procedure is then used to both untangle invalid elements and optimize the geometrical accuracy of the mesh. Standard measures of the distance between curves are considered to evaluate the geometrical accuracy in planar two-dimensional meshes, but they prove computationally too costly for optimization purposes. A fast estimate of the geometrical accuracy, based on Taylor expansions of the curves, is introduced. An unconstrained optimization procedure based on this estimate is shown to yield significant improvements in the geometrical accuracy of high order meshes, as measured by the standard Hausdorff distance between the geometrical model and the mesh. Several examples illustrate the beneficial impact of this method on CFD solutions, with a particular role of the enhanced mesh boundary smoothness.

  6. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  7. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from environmental sources differ significantly in acid resistance compared to human outbreak strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies on the influence of acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 have shown considerable strain differences, but limited information has been reported to compare the acid resistance based on the different sources of E. coli O157:H7 isolates. The purpose of this study was to determine the sur...

  8. Significant Differences in the Development of Acquired Resistance to the MDM2 Inhibitor SAR405838 between In Vitro and In Vivo Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman-Luca, C. Gianna; Yang, Chao-Yie; Lu, Jianfeng; Ziazadeh, Daniel; McEachern, Donna; Debussche, Laurent; Wang, Shaomeng

    2015-01-01

    405838 is 3–5 times less effective in all the in vivo derived sublines containing a single heterozygous C176F p53 mutation than in the SJSA-1 parental cell line in assays of cell growth and apoptosis. Computational modeling suggested that a p53 tetramer containing two wild-type p53 molecules and two C176F mutated molecules can maintain the structural stability and interactions with DNA by formation of additional hydrophobic and cation-π interactions which compensate for the loss of sulphur-zinc coordination. Our data thus show that SJSA-1 tumor cells acquire very different levels of resistance in vitro and in vivo to the MDM2 inhibitor SAR405838. Our present study may have a significant implication for the investigation of resistant mechanisms for other classes of anticancer drugs. PMID:26070072

  9. Direct sun and airborne MAX-DOAS measurements of the collision induced oxygen complex, O2O2 absorption with significant pressure and temperature differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinei, E.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Mount, G. H.; Eloranta, E.; Morley, B.; Baidar, S.; Dix, B.; Ortega, I.; Koenig, T.; Volkamer, R.

    2014-09-01

    The collision induced O2 complex, O2O2, is a very important trace gas in remote sensing measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Some ground based MAX-DOAS measurements of O2O2 slant column density require correction factors of 0.75 ± 0.1 to reproduce radiative transfer modeling (RTM) results for a near pure Rayleigh atmosphere. One of the potential causes of this discrepancy is believed to be uncertainty in laboratory measured O2O2 absorption cross section temperature and pressure dependence, due to difficulties in replicating atmospheric conditions in the laboratory environment. This paper presents direct-sun (DS) and airborne multi-axis (AMAX) DOAS measurements of O2O2 absorption optical depths under actual Earth atmospheric conditions in two wavelength regions (335-390 nm and 435-490 nm). DS irradiance measurements were made by the research grade MFDOAS instrument from 2007-2014 at seven sites with significant pressure (778-1013 hPa) and O2O2 profile weighted temperature (247-275 K) differences. Aircraft MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted by the University of Colorado AMAX-DOAS instrument on 29 January 2012 over the Southern Hemisphere subtropical Pacific Ocean. Scattered solar radiance spectra were collected at altitudes between 9 and 13.2 km, with O2O2 profile weighted temperatures of 231-244 K, and near pure Rayleigh scattering conditions. Due to the well defined DS air mass factors and extensively characterized atmospheric conditions during the AMAX-DOAS measurements, O2O2"pseudo" absorption cross sections, σ, are derived from the observed optical depths and estimated O2O2column densities. Vertical O2O2 columns are calculated from the atmospheric sounding temperature, pressure and specific humidity profiles. Based on the atmospheric DS observations, there is no pressure dependence of the O2O2 σ, within the measurement errors (3%). The two data sets are combined to derive peak σ temperature dependence of 360 and 477 nm absorption bands from 231

  10. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen. PMID:25391237

  11. Impact of fiducial arrangement and registration sequence on target accuracy using a phantom frameless stereotactic navigation model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Mithal, Divakar S; Stadler, James A; Asgarian, Camelia; Muro, Kenji; Rosenow, Joshua M

    2014-11-01

    Modern frameless stereotactic techniques utilize scalp fiducial markers for registration. Anecdotal reports from surgeons indicate a variety of methods for improving accuracy using different fiducial arrangements and registration sequences. The few published studies on registration accuracy do not provide a simple and systematic method for determining target accuracy. Nine different arrangements of ten fiducial markers were attached to a model. Ten separate markers were designated as targets for evaluation of registration accuracy. We systematically registered each of the arrangements over multiple trials, in one of four sequences, and then measured the targets. The target coordinates were compared against the established target values, and a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) was derived. A systematic multivariate analysis determined the effects of different variables on the RMSD. We found no correlation between the "Registration Accuracy" provided by Medtronic (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, CO, USA) and our RMSD representing targeting accuracy (R=0.008). RMSD did vary for different fiducial arrangements. We found no significant difference between the various sequences of fiducial arrangement. Thus, regardless of fiducial arrangement, registration sequence has no impact on accuracy. Fiducial arrangements distributed optimally across the skull, however, allowed for significantly improved accuracy. Further studies are required to determine which different arrangements of fiducials are relevant for specific procedures. PMID:24957630

  12. Discrimination in measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Was, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge monitoring predicts academic outcomes in many contexts. However, measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy are often incomplete. In the current study, a measure of students’ ability to discriminate known from unknown information as a component of knowledge monitoring was considered. Undergraduate students’ knowledge monitoring accuracy was assessed and used to predict final exam scores in a specific course. It was found that gamma, a measure commonly used as the measure of knowledge monitoring accuracy, accounted for a small, but significant amount of variance in academic performance whereas the discrimination and bias indexes combined to account for a greater amount of variance in academic performance. PMID:25339979

  13. High accuracy OMEGA timekeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbier, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operates a worldwide satellite tracking network which uses a combination of OMEGA as a frequency reference, dual timing channels, and portable clock comparisons to maintain accurate epoch time. Propagational charts from the U.S. Coast Guard OMEGA monitor program minimize diurnal and seasonal effects. Daily phase value publications of the U.S. Naval Observatory provide corrections to the field collected timing data to produce an averaged time line comprised of straight line segments called a time history file (station clock minus UTC). Depending upon clock location, reduced time data accuracies of between two and eight microseconds are typical.

  14. A Monte Carlo Comparison of Measures of Relative and Absolute Monitoring Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietfeld, John L.; Enders, Craig K; Schraw, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Researchers studying monitoring accuracy currently use two different indexes to estimate accuracy: relative accuracy and absolute accuracy. The authors compared the distributional properties of two measures of monitoring accuracy using Monte Carlo procedures that fit within these categories. They manipulated the accuracy of judgments (i.e., chance…

  15. Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification tree models in species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Cutler, D.R.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Geiser, L.; Moisen, G.G.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by resubstitution rates were similar for each lichen species irrespective of the underlying sample survey form. Cross-validation estimates of prediction accuracies were lower than resubstitution accuracies for all species and both design types, and in all cases were closer to the true prediction accuracies based on the EVALUATION data set. We argue that greater emphasis should be placed on calculating and reporting cross-validation accuracy rates rather than simple resubstitution accuracy rates. Evaluation of the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models on the EVALUATION data set shows significantly lower prediction accuracy for the PURPOSIVE tree models relative to the DESIGN models, indicating that non-probabilistic sample surveys may generate models with limited predictive capability. These differences were consistent across all four lichen species, with 11 of the 12 possible species and sample survey type comparisons having significantly lower accuracy rates. Some differences in accuracy were as large as 50%. The classification tree structures also differed considerably both among and within the modelled species, depending on the sample survey form. Overlap in the predictor variables selected by the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models ranged from only 20% to 38%, indicating the classification trees fit the two evaluated survey forms on different sets of predictor variables. The magnitude of these differences in predictor variables throws doubt on ecological interpretation derived from prediction models based on non-probabilistic sample surveys. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stereoselective self-sorting in the self-assembly of a Phe-Phe extended guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole carboxylate zwitterion: formation of two diastereomeric dimers with significantly different stabilities.

    PubMed

    Rodler, Fabian; Sicking, Wilhelm; Schmuck, Carsten

    2011-07-28

    The 'dipeptide extended' guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole carboxylate zwitterion GCP-Phe-Phe 1 forms stable dimers in DMSO. However, dimerization is highly stereoselective. Only homochiral dimers are formed and the (L,L)·(L,L) dimer (K(dim) > 10(5) M(-1)) is significantly more stable by a factor of 10(3) than the diastereomeric (D,L)·(D,L) dimer (K(dim) = 120 M(-1)). PMID:21670799

  17. Counseling between Recognition, Justice and Difference: The Significance of Power Asymmetries, Communicative Projects and Unintended Consequences in Career Counseling of Immigrants in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Fredrik; Sundelin, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. First we present an ongoing Swedish research project, "Counseling between recognition, justice and difference". The aims of the project are presented, along with an outline of the political and professional questions that motivate it and the theories which inform it. In the second part, an account of…

  18. Ninth-Grade Pupils' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: The Role of Music and of Different Basic Modes of Confronting Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnäs, Leif

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen-sixteen years old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' written descriptions of "strong" experiences were used for comparing (a) the frequency of experiences related to music and to other aesthetic areas (literature, drama etc.) and (b) the frequencies of music experiences related to different basic modes of confronting music:…

  19. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  20. Comparative Dose Accuracy of Durable and Patch Insulin Infusion Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Luis G.; Capurro, Jorge J.; Levy, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As all major insulin pump manufacturers comply with the international infusion pump standard EN 60601-2-24:1998, there may be a general assumption that all pumps are equal in insulin-delivery accuracy. This research investigates single-dose and averaged-dose accuracy of incremental basal deliveries for one patch model and three durable models of insulin pumps. Method: For each pump model, discrete single doses delivered during 0.5 U/h basal rate infusion over a 20 h period were measured using a time-stamped microgravimetric system. Dose accuracy was analyzed by comparing single doses and time-averaged doses to specific accuracy thresholds (±5% to ±30%). Results: The percentage of single doses delivered outside accuracy thresholds of ±5%, ±10%, and ±20% were as follows: Animas OneTouch® Ping® (43.2%, 14.3%, and 1.8%, respectively), Roche Accu-Chek® Combo (50.6%, 24.4%, and 5.5%), Medtronic Paradigm® RevelTM/VeoTM (54.2%, 26.7%, and 6.6%), and Insulet OmniPod® (79.1%, 60.5%, and 34.9%). For 30 min, 1 h, and 2 h averaging windows, the percentage of doses delivered outside a ±15% accuracy were as follows: OneTouch Ping (1.0%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively), Accu-Chek Combo (4.2%, 3.5%, and 3.1%), Paradigm Revel/Veo (3.9%, 3.1%, and 2.2%), and OmniPod (33.9%, 19.9%, and 10.3%). Conclusions: This technical evaluation demonstrates significant differences in single-dose and averaged-dose accuracy among the insulin pumps tested. Differences in dose accuracy were most evident between the patch pump model and the group of durable pump models. Of the pumps studied, the Animas OneTouch Ping demonstrated the best single-dose and averaged-dose accuracy. Further research on the clinical relevance of these findings is warranted. PMID:23911184

  1. Keyboarding Accuracy for a Student with Physical Disabilities: A Synergistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kenneth; McFadden, Gary; Etheridge, Jill; Pounder, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a synergistic application of three different technologies to improve the keyboarding accuracy of an individual with significant motor disorders. Three keyboarding technologies were layered to measure the power of each technology independently and collectively. The results show a significant increase in…

  2. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  3. Quantitative live imaging of cancer and normal cells treated with Kinesin-5 inhibitors indicates significant differences in phenotypic responses and cell fate.

    PubMed

    Orth, James D; Tang, Yangzhong; Shi, Jade; Loy, Clement T; Amendt, Christiane; Wilm, Claudia; Zenke, Frank T; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2008-11-01

    Kinesin-5 inhibitors (K5I) are promising antimitotic cancer drug candidates. They cause prolonged mitotic arrest and death of cancer cells, but their full range of phenotypic effects in different cell types has been unclear. Using time-lapse microscopy of cancer and normal cell lines, we find that a novel K5I causes several different cancer and noncancer cell types to undergo prolonged arrest in monopolar mitosis. Subsequent events, however, differed greatly between cell types. Normal diploid cells mostly slipped from mitosis and arrested in tetraploid G(1), with little cell death. Several cancer cell lines died either during mitotic arrest or following slippage. Contrary to prevailing views, mitotic slippage was not required for death, and the duration of mitotic arrest correlated poorly with the probability of death in most cell lines. We also assayed drug reversibility and long-term responses after transient drug exposure in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Although many cells divided after drug washout during mitosis, this treatment resulted in lower survival compared with washout after spontaneous slippage likely due to chromosome segregation errors in the cells that divided. Our analysis shows that K5Is cause cancer-selective cell killing, provides important kinetic information for understanding clinical responses, and elucidates mechanisms of drug sensitivity versus resistance at the level of phenotype. PMID:18974392

  4. Regulatory and Structural Differences in the Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutases of Salmonella enterica and Their Significance for Virulence*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Serena; Pasquali, Paolo; Pacello, Francesca; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Castor, Margaret; Libby, Stephen J.; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Bossi, Lionello; Fang, Ferric C.; Battistoni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Many of the most virulent strains of Salmonella enterica produce two distinct Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutases (SodCI and SodCII). The bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme makes the greater contribution to Salmonella virulence. We have performed a detailed comparison of the functional, structural, and regulatory properties of the Salmonella SodC enzymes. Here we demonstrate that SodCI and SodCII differ with regard to specific activity, protease resistance, metal affinity, and peroxidative activity, with dimeric SodCI exhibiting superior stability and activity. In particular, monomeric SodCII is unable to retain its catalytic copper ion in the absence of zinc. We have also found that SodCI and SodCII are differentially affected by oxygen, zinc availability, and the transcriptional regulator FNR. SodCII is strongly down-regulated under anaerobic conditions and dependent on the high affinity ZnuABC zinc transport system, whereas SodCI accumulation in vitro and within macrophages is FNR-dependent. We have confirmed earlier findings that SodCII accumulation in intracellular Salmonella is negligible, whereas SodCI is strongly up-regulated in macrophages. Our observations demonstrate that differences in expression, activity, and stability help to account for the unique contribution of the bacteriophage-encoded SodCI enzyme to Salmonella virulence. PMID:18362154

  5. Interoception and symptom reporting: disentangling accuracy and bias

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sibylle; Van Staeyen, Ken; Vögele, Claus; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and anxiety sensitivity are positively related to accuracy in the perception of bodily sensations. At the same time, research consistently reports that these traits are positively related to bias, resulting in the report of more and more intense symptoms that poorly correspond with physiological dysfunction. The aim of this study was to test the relationship of accuracy and bias in interoception. Furthermore, we tested the impact of individual differences in negative affect and symptom report in daily life on interoceptive accuracy and bias. Individuals higher in symptom report in daily life and negative affect were marginally more accurate in an interoceptive classification task in which participants were asked to identify different respiratory stimuli (inducing breathing effort) as belonging to a high or low intensity category. At the same time, bias in overestimating intensity of stimuli was significantly increased in participants higher in symptom report and negative affect, but only for more ambiguous stimuli. Results illustrate that interoceptive accuracy and bias need to be considered independently to understand their interaction with psychological factors and to disentangle (mis)perception of bodily sensations from liberal or conservative perceptual decision strategies. PMID:26089810

  6. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for chemical weathering fluxes within the critical zone (CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Huber, Juliane; Leopold, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  7. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages in the Colorado Front Range (Rocky Mts.) and their significance for the relief and the interflow within the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, J.; Leopold, M.; Huber, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is divided in five altitudinal belts reaching from the alpine tundra (> 3.450 m a.s.l.) down to the plains (> 1.710 m a.s.l.). Our investigations are dealing with different kinds of slope deposits, their genesis and age. The critical zone is the heterogeneous carapace of soil and weathered rock, and the ecosystems they support. Understanding the evolution of the critical zone, and its sensitivity to perturbations, requires an understanding of its architecture and the processes that produce this architecture. The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC CZO) is designed to understand how weathering (both physical and chemical) and transport processes control the structure of the critical zone, and to explore the impact of critical zone structure on hydrological, geochemical and biological functions of the landscape. Slope deposits are crucial elements of the critical zone. The 1.160 km2 Boulder Creek watershed in Colorado's Front Range encompasses strong contrasts in erosional regimes, and therefore contains critical zone architectures that range from dominantly bare rock to deeply weathered profiles. Through the late Cenozoic, a slowly eroding rocky upland comprising Precambrian crystalline rocks has been etched in its headwaters by glaciers, and bitten into by headward migrating stream knickzones. This has produced a landscape in which the critical zone is captured in three states. Each of these is represented in a focus subcatchment in the BcCZO where the critical zone will be characterized in detail. The slope deposits show characteristic variations within the subcatchments. Fundamental characteristics of the critical zone, together control the passage of water, the chemical processes operating, the material strength, and the function of subsurface ecosystems. Slope deposits of different genesis and ages play a decisive role.

  8. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret’s and in Pavlova’s media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima’s D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret’s than in Pavlova’s medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05). We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Significant Differences in MicroRNA Expression and Their Target Genes between Adipose and Muscular Tissues in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Bowen; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The posttranscriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) plays an important role in various species. However, to date limited miRNAs have been reported between fat and muscle tissues in beef cattle. In this paper, 412 known and 22 novel miRNAs in backfat as well as 334 known and 10 novel miRNAs in longissimus thoracis were identified in the Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle. Bta-miR-199a-3p, -154c, -320a and -432 were expressed at higher levels in backfat tissue, while bta-miR-1, -133a, -206, and -378 were also significantly enriched in muscle tissue. Functional analysis revealed that fat-enriched miRNAs targeted PRKAA1/2, PPARA and PPARG genes to modulate lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and muscle-enriched miRNAs targeted CSRP3 gene to present function involved in skeletal and muscular system development. The results obtained may help in the design of new selection strategies to improve beef quality. PMID:25006962

  10. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  11. Detecting deception in facial expressions of pain: accuracy and training.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn L; Craig, Kenneth D

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians tend to assign greater weight to nonverbal expression than to patient self-report when judging the location and severity of pain. However, patients can be successful at dissimulating facial expressions of pain, as posed expressions resemble genuine expressions in the frequency and intensity of pain-related facial actions. The present research examined individual differences in the ability to discriminate genuine and deceptive facial pain displays and whether different models of training in cues to deception would improve detection skills. Judges (60 male, 60 female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: 1) control; 2) corrective feedback; 3) deception training; and 4) deception training plus feedback. Judges were shown 4 videotaped facial expressions for each chronic pain patient: neutral expressions, genuine pain instigated by physiotherapy range of motion assessment, masked pain, and faked pain. For each condition, the participants rated pain intensity and unpleasantness, decided which category each of the 4 video clips represented, and described cues they used to arrive at decisions. There were significant individual differences in accuracy, with females more accurate than males, but accuracy was unrelated to past pain experience, empathy, or the number or type of facial cues used. Immediate corrective feedback led to significant improvements in participants' detection accuracy, whereas there was no support for the use of an information-based training program. PMID:15502685

  12. Significant differences in integration sites of Moloney murine leukemia virus/Moloney murine sarcoma virus retroviral vector carrying recombinant coagulation factor IX in two human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Castilho-Fernandes, Andrielle; Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; de Freitas, Marcela Cristina Corrêa; da Rosa, Nathalia Gonsales; Picanço-Castro, Virginia; de Sousa Russo-Carbolante, Elisa Maria; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2015-05-01

    Ligation-mediated-PCR was performed followed by the mapping of 177 and 150 integration sites from HepG2 and Hek293 transduced with chimera vector carrying recombinant human Factor IX (rhFIX) cDNA, respectively. The sequences were analyzed for chromosome preference, CpG, transcription start site (TSS), repetitive elements, fragile sites and target genes. In HepG2, rhFIX was had an increased preference for chromosomes 6 and 17; the median distance to the nearest CpG islands was 15,240 base pairs and 37 % of the integrations occurred in RefSeq genes. In Hek293, rhFIX had an increased preference for chromosome 5; the median distance to the nearest CpG islands was 209,100 base pairs and 74 % of the integrations occurred in RefSeq genes. The integrations in both cell lines were distant from the TSS. The integration patterns associated with this vector are different in each cell line. PMID:25650340

  13. Significance of Haemodynamic and Haemostatic Factors in the Course of Different Manifestations of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The SHEF-CSVD Study—Study Rationale and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Staszewski, Jacek; Piusińska-Macoch, Renata; Skrobowska, Ewa; Brodacki, Bogdan; Pawlik, Rafał; Dutkiewicz, Tomasz; Piechota, Wiesław; Rączka, Alicja; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Rationale. This paper describes the rationale and design of the SHEF-CSVD Study, which aims to determine the long-term clinical and radiological course of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and to evaluate haemostatic and haemodynamic prognostic factors of the condition. Design. This single-centre, prospective, non-interventional cohort study will follow 150 consecutive patients with different clinical manifestations of CSVD (lacunar ischaemic stroke, vascular dementia, vascular parkinsonism or spontaneous deep, intracerebral haemorrhage) and 50 age- and sex-matched controls over a period of 24 months. The clinical and radiological course will be evaluated basing on a detailed neurological, neuropsychological and MRI examinations. Haemodynamic (cerebral vasoreactivity, 24 h blood pressure control) and haemostatic factors (markers of endothelial and platelet dysfunction, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation test) will be determined. Discussion. The scheduled study will specifically address the issue of haemodynamic and haemostatic prognostic factors and their course over time in various clinical manifestations of CSVD. The findings may aid the development of prophylactic strategies and individualised treatment plans, which are critical during the early stages of the disease. PMID:26317092

  14. Significance of different carbon forms and carbonic anhydrase activity in monitoring and prediction of algal blooms in the urban section of Jialing River, Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yudong; Zhang, Zhi; Shen, Qian; Gao, Wenjin; Li, Yingfan

    2016-05-18

    The Three Gorges Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric power plants worldwide; its reservoir was preliminarily impounded in 2003 and finally impounded to 175 m in 2012. The impoundment caused some environmental problems, such as algal blooms. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an important biocatalyst in the carbon utilization by algae and plays an important role in algal blooms. CA has received considerable attention for its role in red tides in oceans, but less investigation has been focused on its role in algal blooms in fresh water. In this study, the seasonal variation of water quality parameters, different carbon forms, carbonic anhydrase activity (CAA), and the algal cell density of four sampling sites in the urban section of the Jialing River were investigated from November 1, 2013 to October 31, 2014. Results indicated that CAA exhibited a positive correlation with dissoluble organic carbon (DOC), pH, and temperature, but a negative correlation with CO2 and dissoluble inorganic carbon (DIC). Algal cell density exhibited a positive correlation with flow velocity (V), pH, particulate organic carbon (POC), and CAA, a negative correlation with CO2, and a negative partial correlation with DIC. The relationship between CAA and algal cell density for the entire year can be described as cells = 23.278CAA - 42.666POC + 139.547pH - 1057.106. The algal bloom prediction model for the key control period can be described as cells = -45.895CAA + 776.103V- 29.523DOC + 14.219PIC + 35.060POC + 19.181 (2 weeks in advance) and cells = 69.200CAA + 203.213V + 4.184CO2 + 38.911DOC + 40.770POC - 189.567 (4 weeks in advance). The findings in this study demonstrate that the carbon utilization by algae is conducted by CA and provide a new method of monitoring algal cell density and predicting algal blooms. PMID:27142237

  15. Accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker.

    PubMed

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; George, Amanda M; Baker, Alicia; Rohr, Linda E; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the vivofit activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure and step count. Thirteen participants wore the vivofit activity tracker for five days. Participants were required to independently perform 1 h of self-selected activity each day of the study. On day four, participants came to the lab to undergo BMR and a treadmill-walking task (TWT). On day five, participants completed 1 h of office-type activities. BMR values estimated by the vivofit were not significantly different from the values measured through indirect calorimetry (IC). The vivofit significantly underestimated EE for treadmill walking, but responded to the differences in the inclination. Vivofit underestimated step count for level walking but provided an accurate estimate for incline walking. There was a strong correlation between EE and the exercise intensity. The vivofit activity tracker is on par with similar devices and can be used to track physical activity. PMID:27266422

  16. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821

  17. Food Label Accuracy of Common Snack Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. Therefore we tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured “true” caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile −1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, p=0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, p=0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, p=0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, p=0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (−12.8% [−38.6, 9.6], p=0.23; 6.1% [−6.1, 17.5], p=0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. PMID:23505182

  18. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  19. Coding accuracy on the psychophysical scale

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neurons are often reported to adjust their coding accuracy to the stimulus statistics. The observed match is not always perfect and the maximal accuracy does not align with the most frequent stimuli. As an alternative to a physiological explanation we show that the match critically depends on the chosen stimulus measurement scale. More generally, we argue that if we measure the stimulus intensity on the scale which is proportional to the perception intensity, an improved adjustment in the coding accuracy is revealed. The unique feature of stimulus units based on the psychophysical scale is that the coding accuracy can be meaningfully compared for different stimuli intensities, unlike in the standard case of a metric scale. PMID:27021783

  20. Caregiver accuracy in detecting deception in facial expressions of pain in children.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; Craig, Kenneth D; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Parker, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    Facial expressions provide a primary source of inference about a child's pain. Although facial expressions typically appear spontaneous, children have some capacity to fake or suppress displays of pain, thereby potentially misleading caregiver judgments. The present study was designed to compare accuracy of different groups of caregivers in detecting deception in children's facial expressions of pain when voluntarily controlled. Caregivers (15 pediatricians, 15 pediatric nurses, and 15 parents) viewed 48 video clips of children, 12 in each of 4 conditions (genuine pain, faked pain, suppressed pain, neutral baseline), and judged which condition was apparent to them. A 3 (group: pediatrician vs pediatric nurse vs parent)×4 (condition: genuine vs faked vs suppressed vs neutral) mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) of judgment accuracies revealed a significant main effect of group, with nurses demonstrating higher overall accuracy scores than parents, and pediatricians not differing from either group. As well, all caregivers, regardless of group, demonstrated the lowest accuracy when viewing the genuine condition, relative to the faked and suppressed conditions, with accuracy for the neutral condition not differing significantly from the other conditions. Overall, caregivers were more successful at identifying faked and suppressed than genuine expressions of pain in children, and pediatric nurses fared better overall in judgment accuracy than parents. PMID:23375511

  1. Positioning Accuracy in Otosurgery Measured with Optical Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Óvári, Attila; Neményi, Dóra; Just, Tino; Schuldt, Tobias; Buhr, Anne; Mlynski, Robert; Csókay, András; Pau, Hans-Wilhelm; Valálik, István

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess positioning accuracy in otosurgery and to test the impact of the two-handed instrument holding technique and the instrument support technique on surgical precision. To test an otologic training model with optical tracking. Study Design In total, 14 ENT surgeons in the same department with different levels of surgical experience performed static and dynamic tasks with otologic microinstruments under simulated otosurgical conditions. Methods Tip motion of the microinstrument was registered in three dimensions by optical tracking during 10 different tasks simulating surgical steps such as prosthesis crimping and dissection of the middle ear using formalin-fixed temporal bone. Instrument marker trajectories were compared within groups of experienced and less experienced surgeons performing uncompensated or compensated exercises. Results Experienced surgeons have significantly better positioning accuracy than novice ear surgeons in terms of mean displacement values of marker trajectories. The instrument support and the two-handed instrument holding techniques significantly reduce surgeons’ tremor. The laboratory set-up presented in this study provides precise feedback for otosurgeons about their surgical skills and proved to be a useful device for otosurgical training. Conclusions Simple tremor compensation techniques may offer trainees the potential to improve their positioning accuracy to the level of more experienced surgeons. Training in an experimental otologic environment with optical tracking may aid acquisition of technical skills in middle ear surgery and potentially shorten the learning curve. Thus, simulated exercises of surgical steps should be integrated into the training of otosurgeons. PMID:27027500

  2. Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2016-08-21

    Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water - a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge - in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed. PMID:27544113

  3. Assessing accuracy in citizen science-based plant phenology monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuccillo, Kerissa K.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; de Rivera, Catherine E.; Elder, Timothy S.

    2015-07-01

    In the USA, thousands of volunteers are engaged in tracking plant and animal phenology through a variety of citizen science programs for the purpose of amassing spatially and temporally comprehensive datasets useful to scientists and resource managers. The quality of these observations and their suitability for scientific analysis, however, remains largely unevaluated. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of plant phenology observations collected by citizen scientist volunteers following protocols designed by the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN). Phenology observations made by volunteers receiving several hours of formal training were compared to those collected independently by a professional ecologist. Approximately 11,000 observations were recorded by 28 volunteers over the course of one field season. Volunteers consistently identified phenophases correctly (91 % overall) for the 19 species observed. Volunteers demonstrated greatest overall accuracy identifying unfolded leaves, ripe fruits, and open flowers. Transitional accuracy decreased for some species/phenophase combinations (70 % average), and accuracy varied significantly by phenophase and species ( p < 0.0001). Volunteers who submitted fewer observations over the period of study did not exhibit a higher error rate than those who submitted more total observations. Overall, these results suggest that volunteers with limited training can provide reliable observations when following explicit, standardized protocols. Future studies should investigate different observation models (i.e., group/individual, online/in-person training) over subsequent seasons with multiple expert comparisons to further substantiate the ability of these monitoring programs to supply accurate broadscale datasets capable of answering pressing ecological questions about global change.

  4. Orbit Determination Accuracy for Comets on Earth-Impacting Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay-Bunnell, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The results presented show the level of orbit determination accuracy obtainable for long-period comets discovered approximately one year before collision with Earth. Preliminary orbits are determined from simulated observations using Gauss' method. Additional measurements are incorporated to improve the solution through the use of a Kalman filter, and include non-gravitational perturbations due to outgassing. Comparisons between observatories in several different circular heliocentric orbits show that observatories in orbits with radii less than 1 AU result in increased orbit determination accuracy for short tracking durations due to increased parallax per unit time. However, an observatory at 1 AU will perform similarly if the tracking duration is increased, and accuracy is significantly improved if additional observatories are positioned at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, or L5. A single observatory at 1 AU capable of both optical and range measurements yields the highest orbit determination accuracy in the shortest amount of time when compared to other systems of observatories.

  5. Making a Significant Difference with Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Focusing on the changing roles of institutional researchers (IRs) due to the widespread distribution of computer technology, this monograph explores the effective application of IR skills to maximize the impact of research on campus policy making. The discussion is centered around three major principles guiding institutional research: know the…

  6. No Significant Difference in Service Learning Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGorry, Sue Y.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are realizing the importance of service learning initiatives in developing awareness of students' civic responsibilities, leadership and management skills, and social responsibility. These skills and responsibilities are the foundation of program outcomes in accredited higher education business programs at…

  7. Power Differences among Tests of Combined Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    Power is an indicator of the ability of a statistical analysis to detect a phenomenon that does in fact exist. The issue of power is crucial for social science research because sample size, effects, and relationships studied tend to be small and the power of a study relates directly to the size of the effect of interest and the sample size.…

  8. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  9. Accuracy assessment of a surface electromyogram decomposition system in human first dorsal interosseus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a surface electromyogram (sEMG) motor unit (MU) decomposition algorithm during low levels of muscle contraction. Approach. A two-source method was used to verify the accuracy of the sEMG decomposition system, by utilizing simultaneous intramuscular and surface EMG recordings from the human first dorsal interosseous muscle recorded during isometric trapezoidal force contractions. Spike trains from each recording type were decomposed independently utilizing two different algorithms, EMGlab and dEMG decomposition algorithms. The degree of agreement of the decomposed spike timings was assessed for three different segments of the EMG signals, corresponding to specified regions in the force task. A regression analysis was performed to examine whether certain properties of the sEMG and force signal can predict the decomposition accuracy. Main results. The average accuracy of successful decomposition among the 119 MUs that were common to both intramuscular and surface records was approximately 95%, and the accuracy was comparable between the different segments of the sEMG signals (i.e., force ramp-up versus steady state force versus combined). The regression function between the accuracy and properties of sEMG and force signals revealed that the signal-to-noise ratio of the action potential and stability in the action potential records were significant predictors of the surface decomposition accuracy. Significance. The outcomes of our study confirm the accuracy of the sEMG decomposition algorithm during low muscle contraction levels and provide confidence in the overall validity of the surface dEMG decomposition algorithm.

  10. Landsat classification accuracy assessment procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, R. R.; Szajgin, John

    1982-01-01

    A working conference was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 12-14 November, 1980 dealing with Landsat classification Accuracy Assessment Procedures. Thirteen formal presentations were made on three general topics: (1) sampling procedures, (2) statistical analysis techniques, and (3) examples of projects which included accuracy assessment and the associated costs, logistical problems, and value of the accuracy data to the remote sensing specialist and the resource manager. Nearly twenty conference attendees participated in two discussion sessions addressing various issues associated with accuracy assessment. This paper presents an account of the accomplishments of the conference.

  11. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  12. Navigation Accuracy Guidelines for Orbital Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Alfriend, Kyle T.

    2004-01-01

    Some simple guidelines based on the accuracy in determining a satellite formation s semi-major axis differences are useful in making preliminary assessments of the navigation accuracy needed to support such missions. These guidelines are valid for any elliptical orbit, regardless of eccentricity. Although maneuvers required for formation establishment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping require accurate prediction of the state estimate to the maneuver time, and hence are directly affected by errors in all the orbital elements, experience has shown that determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. Furthermore, any differences among the member s semi-major axes are undesirable for a satellite formation, since it will lead to differential along-track drift due to period differences. Since inevitable navigation errors prevent these differences from ever being zero, one may use the guidelines this paper presents to determine how much drift will result from a given relative navigation accuracy, or conversely what navigation accuracy is required to limit drift to a given rate. Since the guidelines do not account for non-two-body perturbations, they may be viewed as useful preliminary design tools, rather than as the basis for mission navigation requirements, which should be based on detailed analysis of the mission configuration, including all relevant sources of uncertainty.

  13. Integration of classification methods for improvement of land-cover map accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Skidmore, A. K.; Van Oosten, H.

    Classifiers, which are used to recognize patterns in remotely sensing images, have complementary capabilities. This study tested whether integrating the results from individual classifiers improves classification accuracy. Two integrated approaches were undertaken. One approach used a consensus builder (CSB) to adjust classification output in the case of disagreement in classification between maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), expert system classifier (ESC) and neural network classifier (NNC). If the output classes for each individual pixel differed, the producer accuracies for each class were compared and the class with the highest producer accuracy was assigned to the pixel. The consensus builder approach resulted in a classification with a slightly lower accuracy (72%) when compared with the neural network classifier (74%), but it did significantly better than the maximum likelihood (62%) and expert system (59%) classifiers. The second approach integrated a rule-based expert system classifier and a neural network classifier. The output of the expert system classifier was used as one additional new input layer of the neural network classifier. A postprocessing using the producer accuracies and some additional expert rules was applied to improve the output of the integrated classifier. This is a relatively new approach in the field of image processing. This second approach produced the highest overall accuracy (80%). Thus, incorporating correct, complete and relevant expert knowledge in a neural network classifier leads to higher classification accuracy.

  14. Declinations in the Almagest: accuracy, epoch, and observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, John C.; Zimmer, Peter; Jones, Patricia B.

    2014-11-01

    Almagest declinations attributed to Timocharis, Aristyllos, Hipparchus, and Ptolemy are investigated through comparisons of the reported declinations with the declinations computed from modern positions translated to the earlier epochs. Consistent results indicate an observational accuracy of ≈ 0.1° and epochs of: Timocharis, c. 298 BC; Aristyllos, c. 256 BC, and Hipparchus, c. 128 BC.The ≈ 42-year difference between Aristyllos and Timocharis is confirmed to be statistically significant. The declinations attributed to Ptolemy were likely two distinct groups—observations taken c. AD 57 and observations taken c. AD 128. The later observations could have been taken by Ptolemy himself.

  15. Accuracy of Four Tooth Size Prediction Methods on Malay Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Belal Khaled; Abu Asab, Saifeddin Hamed I.; Taib, Haslina

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the accuracy of Moyers 50%, Tanaka and Johnston, Ling and Wong and Jaroontham and Godfrey methods in predicting the mesio-distal crown width of the permanent canines and premolars (C + P1 + P2) in Malay population. Materials and Methods. The study models of 240 Malay children (120 males and 120 females) aged 14 to 18 years, all free of any signs of dental pathology or anomalies, were measured using a digital caliper accurate to 0.01 mm. The predicted widths (C + P1 + P2) in both arches derived from the tested prediction equations were compared with the actual measured widths. Results. Moyers and Tanaka and Johnston methods showed significant difference between the actual and predicted widths of (C + P1 + P2) for both sexes. Ling and Wong method also showed statistically significant difference for males, however, there was no significant difference for females. Jaroontham and Godfrey method showed statistical significant difference for females, but the male values did not show any significant difference. Conclusion. For male Malay, the method proposed by Jaroontham and Godfrey for male Thai proved to be highly accurate. For female Malay, the method proposed by Ling and Wong for southern Chinese females proved to be highly accurate. PMID:23209918

  16. Accuracy metrics for judging time scale algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Jacques, C.

    1994-01-01

    Time scales have been constructed in different ways to meet the many demands placed upon them for time accuracy, frequency accuracy, long-term stability, and robustness. Usually, no single time scale is optimum for all purposes. In the context of the impending availability of high-accuracy intermittently-operated cesium fountains, we reconsider the question of evaluating the accuracy of time scales which use an algorithm to span interruptions of the primary standard. We consider a broad class of calibration algorithms that can be evaluated and compared quantitatively for their accuracy in the presence of frequency drift and a full noise model (a mixture of white PM, flicker PM, white FM, flicker FM, and random walk FM noise). We present the analytic techniques for computing the standard uncertainty for the full noise model and this class of calibration algorithms. The simplest algorithm is evaluated to find the average-frequency uncertainty arising from the noise of the cesium fountain's local oscillator and from the noise of a hydrogen maser transfer-standard. This algorithm and known noise sources are shown to permit interlaboratory frequency transfer with a standard uncertainty of less than 10(exp -15) for periods of 30-100 days.

  17. Asymptotic accuracy of two-class discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.K.; Baird, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    Poor quality-e.g. sparse or unrepresentative-training data is widely suspected to be one cause of disappointing accuracy of isolated-character classification in modern OCR machines. We conjecture that, for many trainable classification techniques, it is in fact the dominant factor affecting accuracy. To test this, we have carried out a study of the asymptotic accuracy of three dissimilar classifiers on a difficult two-character recognition problem. We state this problem precisely in terms of high-quality prototype images and an explicit model of the distribution of image defects. So stated, the problem can be represented as a stochastic source of an indefinitely long sequence of simulated images labeled with ground truth. Using this sequence, we were able to train all three classifiers to high and statistically indistinguishable asymptotic accuracies (99.9%). This result suggests that the quality of training data was the dominant factor affecting accuracy. The speed of convergence during training, as well as time/space trade-offs during recognition, differed among the classifiers.

  18. Towards Experimental Accuracy from the First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyansky, O. L.; Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.; Zobov, N. F.

    2013-06-01

    Producing ab initio ro-vibrational energy levels of small, gas-phase molecules with an accuracy of 0.10 cm^{-1} would constitute a significant step forward in theoretical spectroscopy and would place calculated line positions considerably closer to typical experimental accuracy. Such an accuracy has been recently achieved for the H_3^+ molecular ion for line positions up to 17 000 cm ^{-1}. However, since H_3^+ is a two-electron system, the electronic structure methods used in this study are not applicable to larger molecules. A major breakthrough was reported in ref., where an accuracy of 0.10 cm^{-1} was achieved ab initio for seven water isotopologues. Calculated vibrational and rotational energy levels up to 15 000 cm^{-1} and J=25 resulted in a standard deviation of 0.08 cm^{-1} with respect to accurate reference data. As far as line intensities are concerned, we have already achieved for water a typical accuracy of 1% which supersedes average experimental accuracy. Our results are being actively extended along two major directions. First, there are clear indications that our results for water can be improved to an accuracy of the order of 0.01 cm^{-1} by further, detailed ab initio studies. Such level of accuracy would already be competitive with experimental results in some situations. A second, major, direction of study is the extension of such a 0.1 cm^{-1} accuracy to molecules containg more electrons or more than one non-hydrogen atom, or both. As examples of such developments we will present new results for CO, HCN and H_2S, as well as preliminary results for NH_3 and CH_4. O.L. Polyansky, A. Alijah, N.F. Zobov, I.I. Mizus, R. Ovsyannikov, J. Tennyson, L. Lodi, T. Szidarovszky and A.G. Csaszar, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London A, {370}, 5014-5027 (2012). O.L. Polyansky, R.I. Ovsyannikov, A.A. Kyuberis, L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and N.F. Zobov, J. Phys. Chem. A, (in press). L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and O.L. Polyansky, J. Chem. Phys. {135}, 034113 (2011).

  19. Accuracy and Efficiency in Fixed-Point Neural ODE Solvers.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Michael; Furber, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of neural behavior on digital architectures often requires the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) at each step of the simulation. For some neural models, this is a significant computational burden, so efficiency is important. Accuracy is also relevant because solutions can be sensitive to model parameterization and time step. These issues are emphasized on fixed-point processors like the ARM unit used in the SpiNNaker architecture. Using the Izhikevich neural model as an example, we explore some solution methods, showing how specific techniques can be used to find balanced solutions. We have investigated a number of important and related issues, such as introducing explicit solver reduction (ESR) for merging an explicit ODE solver and autonomous ODE into one algebraic formula, with benefits for both accuracy and speed; a simple, efficient mechanism for cancelling the cumulative lag in state variables caused by threshold crossing between time steps; an exact result for the membrane potential of the Izhikevich model with the other state variable held fixed. Parametric variations of the Izhikevich neuron show both similarities and differences in terms of algorithms and arithmetic types that perform well, making an overall best solution challenging to identify, but we show that particular cases can be improved significantly using the techniques described. Using a 1 ms simulation time step and 32-bit fixed-point arithmetic to promote real-time performance, one of the second-order Runge-Kutta methods looks to be the best compromise; Midpoint for speed or Trapezoid for accuracy. SpiNNaker offers an unusual combination of low energy use and real-time performance, so some compromises on accuracy might be expected. However, with a careful choice of approach, results comparable to those of general-purpose systems should be possible in many realistic cases. PMID:26313605

  20. Accuracy and consistency of weights provided by home bathroom scales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-reported body weight is often used for calculation of Body Mass Index because it is easy to collect. Little is known about sources of error introduced by using bathroom scales to measure weight at home. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of digital versus dial-type bathroom scales commonly used for self-reported weight. Methods Participants brought functioning bathroom scales (n = 18 dial-type, n = 43 digital-type) to a central location. Trained researchers assessed accuracy and consistency using certified calibration weights at 10 kg, 25 kg, 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg, and 110 kg. Data also were collected on frequency of calibration, age and floor surface beneath the scale. Results All participants reported using their scale on hard surface flooring. Before calibration, all digital scales displayed 0, but dial scales displayed a mean absolute initial weight of 0.95 (1.9 SD) kg. Digital scales accurately weighed test loads whereas dial-type scale weights differed significantly (p < 0.05). Imprecision of dial scales was significantly greater than that of digital scales at all weights (p < 0.05). Accuracy and precision did not vary by scale age. Conclusions Digital home bathroom scales provide sufficiently accurate and consistent weights for public health research. Reminders to zero scales before each use may further improve accuracy of self-reported weight. PMID:24341761

  1. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  2. On the Standardization of Vertical Accuracy Figures in Dems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, V.; Padova, B.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) play a key role in hydrological risk prevention and mitigation: hydraulic numeric simulations, slope and aspect maps all heavily rely on DEMs. Hydraulic numeric simulations require the used DEM to have a defined accuracy, in order to obtain reliable results. Are the DEM accuracy figures clearly and uniquely defined? The paper focuses on some issues concerning DEM accuracy definition and assessment. Two DEM accuracy definitions can be found in literature: accuracy at the interpolated point and accuracy at the nodes. The former can be estimated by means of randomly distributed check points, while the latter by means of check points coincident with the nodes. The two considered accuracy figures are often treated as equivalent, but they aren't. Given the same DEM, assessing it through one or the other approach gives different results. Our paper performs an in-depth characterization of the two figures and proposes standardization coefficients.

  3. Optimizing Tsunami Forecast Model Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Nyland, D. L.; Huang, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent tsunamis provide a means to determine the accuracy that can be expected of real-time tsunami forecast models. Forecast accuracy using two different tsunami forecast models are compared for seven events since 2006 based on both real-time application and optimized, after-the-fact "forecasts". Lessons learned by comparing the forecast accuracy determined during an event to modified applications of the models after-the-fact provide improved methods for real-time forecasting for future events. Variables such as source definition, data assimilation, and model scaling factors are examined to optimize forecast accuracy. Forecast accuracy is also compared for direct forward modeling based on earthquake source parameters versus accuracy obtained by assimilating sea level data into the forecast model. Results show that including assimilated sea level data into the models increases accuracy by approximately 15% for the events examined.

  4. Accuracy of recall of information about a cancer-predisposing BRCA1/2 gene mutation among patients and relatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Chris; Dancyger, Caroline; Smith, Jonathan A; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This observational study aimed to (i) compare the accuracy of information recalled by patients and relatives following genetic counselling about a newly identified BRCA1/2 mutation, (ii) identify differences in accuracy of information about genetics and hereditary cancer and (iii) investigate whether accuracy among relatives improved when information was provided directly by genetics health professionals. Semistructured interviews following results from consultations with 10 breast/ovarian cancer patients and 22 relatives were audio-recorded and transcribed. Information provided by the genetics health professional was tracked through the families and coded for accuracy. Accuracy was analysed using the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test. Sources of information were tested using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient. Fifty-three percent of the information recalled by patients was accurate. Accuracy of recall among relatives was significantly lower than that among patients (P=0.017). Both groups recalled a lower proportion of information about hereditary cancer than about genetics (P=0.005). Relatives who learnt the information from the patient alone recalled significantly less accurate information than those informed directly by genetics health professionals (P=0.001). Following genetic counselling about a BRCA1/2 mutation, accuracy of recall was low among patients and relatives, particularly about hereditary cancer. Multiple sources of information, including direct contact with genetics health professionals, may improve the accuracy of information among relatives. PMID:24848747

  5. LANDSAT Scene-to-scene Registration Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Initial results obtained from the registration of LANDSAT-4 data to LANDSAT-2 MSS data are documented and compared with results obtained from a LANDSAT-2 MSS-to-LANDSAT-2 scene-to-scene registration (using the same LANDSAT-2 MSS data as the base data set in both procedures). RMS errors calculated on the control points used in the establishment of scene-to-scene mapping equations are compared to error computed from independently chosen verification points. Models developed to estimate actual scene-to-scene registration accuracy based on the use of electrostatic plots are also presented. Analysis of results indicates a statistically significant difference in the RMS errors for the element contribution. Scan line errors were not significantly different. It appears that a modification to the LANDSAT-4 MSS scan mirror coefficients is required to correct the situation.

  6. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  7. Accuracy assessment system and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Houston, A. G.; Badhwar, G.; Bender, M. J.; Rader, M. L.; Eppler, W. G.; Ahlers, C. W.; White, W. P.; Vela, R. R.; Hsu, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy and reliability of LACIE estimates of wheat production, area, and yield is determined at regular intervals throughout the year by the accuracy assessment subsystem which also investigates the various LACIE error sources, quantifies the errors, and relates then to their causes. Timely feedback of these error evaluations to the LACIE project was the only mechanism by which improvements in the crop estimation system could be made during the short 3 year experiment.

  8. Evaluating LANDSAT wildland classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures to evaluate the accuracy of LANDSAT derived wildland cover classifications are described. The evaluation procedures include: (1) implementing a stratified random sample for obtaining unbiased verification data; (2) performing area by area comparisons between verification and LANDSAT data for both heterogeneous and homogeneous fields; (3) providing overall and individual classification accuracies with confidence limits; (4) displaying results within contingency tables for analysis of confusion between classes; and (5) quantifying the amount of information (bits/square kilometer) conveyed in the LANDSAT classification.

  9. The accuracy of automatic tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastrov, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that tracking accuracy changes similarly to the rate of change of the curve of the measurement conversion. The problem that internal noise increases along with the signals processed by the tracking device and that tracking accuracy thus drops were considered. The main prerequisite for solution is consideration of the dependences of the output signal of the tracking device sensor not only on the measured parameter but on the signal itself.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Artificial Immune Algorithms for Primary Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Ufuk; Yurtay, Nilüfer; Koç, Emine Rabia; Tepe, Nermin; Güllüoğlu, Halil; Ertaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of immune system algorithms with the aim of classifying the primary types of headache that are not related to any organic etiology. They are divided into four types: migraine, tension, cluster, and other primary headaches. After we took this main objective into consideration, three different neurologists were required to fill in the medical records of 850 patients into our web-based expert system hosted on our project web site. In the evaluation process, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) were used as the classification algorithms. The AIS are classification algorithms that are inspired by the biological immune system mechanism that involves significant and distinct capabilities. These algorithms simulate the specialties of the immune system such as discrimination, learning, and the memorizing process in order to be used for classification, optimization, or pattern recognition. According to the results, the accuracy level of the classifier used in this study reached a success continuum ranging from 95% to 99%, except for the inconvenient one that yielded 71% accuracy. PMID:26075014

  11. Inspection of 3D parts using high accuracy range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Flavio; Lepage, Richard; Boulanger, Pierre; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2000-03-01

    The use of a laser range sensor in the 3D part digitalization process for inspection tasks allows very significant improvement in acquisition speed and in 3D measurement points density but does not equal the accuracy obtained with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Inspection consists in verifying the accuracy of a part related to a given set of tolerances. It is thus necessary that the 3D measurements be accurate. In the 3D capture of a part, several sources of error can alter the measured values. So, we have to find and model the most influent parameters affecting the accuracy of the range sensor in the digitalization process. This model is used to produce a sensing plan to acquire completely and accurately the geometry of a part. The sensing plan is composed of the set of viewpoints which defines the exact position and orientation of the camera relative to the part. The 3D cloud obtained from the sensing plan is registered with the CAD model of the part and then segmented according to the different surfaces. Segmentation results are used to check tolerances of the part. By using the noise model, we introduce a dispersion value for each 3D point acquired according to the sensing plan. This value of dispersion is shown as a weight factor in the inspection results.

  12. Understanding vs. competency: the case of accuracy checking dispensed medicines in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    James, K Lynette; Davies, J Graham; Kinchin, Ian; Patel, Jignesh P; Whittlesea, Cate

    2010-12-01

    Ensuring the competence of healthcare professionals' is core to undergraduate and post-graduate education. Undergraduate pharmacy students and pre-registration graduates are required to demonstrate competence at dispensing and accuracy checking medicines. However, competence differs from understanding. This study determined the competence and understanding of undergraduate students and pharmacists at accuracy checking dispensed medicines. Third year undergraduate pharmacy students and first year post-graduate diploma pharmacists participated in the study, which involved an accuracy checking task and concept mapping exercise. Participants accuracy checked eight medicines which contained 13 dispensing errors and then constructed a concept map illustrating their understanding of the accuracy checking process. The error detection rates and types of dispensing errors detected by undergraduates and pharmacists were compared using Mann-Whitney and chi-square, respectively. Statistical significance was p ≤ 0.05. Concept maps were qualitatively analysed to identify structural typologies. Forty-one undergraduates and 78 pharmacists participated in the study. Pharmacists detected significantly more dispensing errors (85%) compared to the undergraduates (77%, p ≤ 0.001). Only one undergraduate and seven pharmacists detected all dispensing errors. The majority of concept maps were chains (undergraduates = 46%, n = 19; pharmacists = 45%, n = 35) and spokes (undergraduates = 54%, n = 22; pharmacists = 54%, n = 42) indicating surface learning. One pharmacist, who detected all dispensing errors in the accuracy checking exercise, created a networked map characteristic of deep learning. Undergraduate students and pharmacists demonstrated a degree of operational competence at detecting dispensing errors without fully understanding the accuracy checking process. Accuracy checking training should be improved at undergraduate and post-graduate level so that pharmacists are equipped

  13. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene is associated with behavioral and neural correlates of empathic accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Helle Ruff; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Haren, Tina; Madsen, Kristoffer; Grønlund, Rikke; Hulme, Oliver; Henningsson, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The neuromodulators oxytocin and serotonin have been implicated in regulating affective processes underlying empathy. Understanding this dependency, however, has been limited by a lack of objective metrics for measuring empathic performance. Here we employ a novel psychophysical method for measuring empathic performance that quantitatively measures the ability of subjects to decode the experience of another person's pain. In 50 female subjects, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data as they were exposed to a target subject experiencing variable degrees of pain, whilst performing an irrelevant attention-demanding task. We investigated the effect of variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) on the psychophysical and neurometric variability associated with empathic performance. The OXTR rs2268498 and rs53576 polymorphisms, but not the SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, were associated with significant differences in empathic accuracy, with CC- and AA-carriers, respectively, displaying higher empathic accuracy. For OXTR rs2268498 there was also a genotype difference in the correlation between empathic accuracy and activity in the superior temporal sulcus (STS). In OXTR rs2268498 CC-carriers, high empathic accuracy was associated with stronger responsiveness of the right STS to the observed pain. Together, the results show that genetic variation in the OXTR has significant influence on empathic accuracy and that this may be linked to variable responsivity of the STS. PMID:25538588

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Accuracy of a Cast Fixed Partial Denture Compared to Soldered Fixed Partial Denture Made of Two Different Base Metal Alloys and Casting Techniques: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Jei, J Brintha; Mohan, Jayashree

    2014-03-01

    The periodontal health of abutment teeth and the durability of fixed partial denture depends on the marginal adaptation of the prosthesis. Any discrepancy in the marginal area leads to dissolution of luting agent and plaque accumulation. This study was done with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of marginal fit of four unit crown and bridge made up of Ni-Cr and Cr-Co alloys under induction and centrifugal casting. They were compared to cast fixed partial denture (FPD) and soldered FPD. For the purpose of this study a metal model was fabricated. A total of 40 samples (4-unit crown and bridge) were prepared in which 20 Cr-Co samples and 20 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated. Within these 20 samples of each group 10 samples were prepared by induction casting technique and other 10 samples with centrifugal casting technique. The cast FPD samples obtained were seated on the model and the samples were then measured with travelling microscope having precision of 0.001 cm. Sectioning of samples was done between the two pontics and measurements were made, then the soldering was made with torch soldering unit. The marginal discrepancy of soldered samples was measured and all findings were statistically analysed. The results revealed minimal marginal discrepancy with Cr-Co samples when compared to Ni-Cr samples done under induction casting technique. When compared to cast FPD samples, the soldered group showed reduced marginal discrepancy. PMID:24605006

  15. Concept Mapping Improves Metacomprehension Accuracy among 7th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.; Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored concept map construction as a useful intervention to improve metacomprehension accuracy among 7th grade students. In the first experiment, metacomprehension was marginally better for a concept mapping group than for a rereading group. In the second experiment, metacomprehension accuracy was significantly greater for a…

  16. A novel method for assessing the 3-D orientation accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Rizun, Peter; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-10-18

    A novel method for assessing the accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors is presented. The method, referred to as the "residual matrix" method, is advantageous because it decouples the sensor's error with respect to Earth's gravity vector (attitude residual error: pitch and roll) from the sensor's error with respect to magnetic north (heading residual error), while remaining insensitive to singularity problems when the second Euler rotation is close to ±90°. As a demonstration, the accuracy of an inertial/magnetic sensor mounted to a participant's forearm was evaluated during a reaching task in a laboratory. Sensor orientation was measured internally (by the inertial/magnetic sensor) and externally using an optoelectronic measurement system with a marker cluster rigidly attached to the sensor's enclosure. Roll, pitch and heading residuals were calculated using the proposed novel method, as well as using a common orientation assessment method where the residuals are defined as the difference between the Euler angles measured by the inertial sensor and those measured by the optoelectronic system. Using the proposed residual matrix method, the roll and pitch residuals remained less than 1° and, as expected, no statistically significant difference between these two measures of attitude accuracy was found; the heading residuals were significantly larger than the attitude residuals but remained below 2°. Using the direct Euler angle comparison method, the residuals were in general larger due to singularity issues, and the expected significant difference between inertial/magnetic sensor attitude and heading accuracy was not present. PMID:24016678

  17. Ethanol, errors, and the speed-accuracy trade-off.

    PubMed

    Tiplady, B; Drummond, G B; Cameron, E; Gray, E; Hendry, J; Sinclair, W; Wright, P

    2001-01-01

    Ethanol has been shown to have a relatively greater effect on error rates in speeded tasks than temazepam, and this may be due to a differential effect on the speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO). This study used different instruction sets to influence the SATO. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (24 males, aged 18-41 years) were allocated at random to one of three instruction conditions--emphasising accuracy, neutral, and emphasising speed. After familiarisation, they took part in two sessions spaced at least 4 days apart in which they received either ethanol (0.8 g/kg, max 60 g males, 50 g females) or placebo in randomised order. Tests were administered starting at 30 and 75 min postdrug. Instructions significantly affected performance. In two maze tasks, one on paper, the other on a pen computer, the pattern of instruction effects was as expected. A significant increase in errors with ethanol was seen for both maze tasks, and there was a tendency to speed up with ethanol (significant only for the pen computer task). Responses to fixed stimulus sequences on the Four-Choice Reaction Test also showed a tendency to speed up and an increase in errors with ethanol, while all other tests showed both slowing and increases in errors with ethanol compared to placebo. Error scores are consistently increased by ethanol in all test situations, while the effects of ethanol on speed are variable across tests. PMID:11509226

  18. Generalized and Heuristic-Free Feature Construction for Improved Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wei; Zhong, Erheng; Peng, Jing; Verscheure, Olivier; Zhang, Kun; Ren, Jiangtao; Yan, Rong; Yang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art learning algorithms accept data in feature vector format as input. Examples belonging to different classes may not always be easy to separate in the original feature space. One may ask: can transformation of existing features into new space reveal significant discriminative information not obvious in the original space? Since there can be infinite number of ways to extend features, it is impractical to first enumerate and then perform feature selection. Second, evaluation of discriminative power on the complete dataset is not always optimal. This is because features highly discriminative on subset of examples may not necessarily be significant when evaluated on the entire dataset. Third, feature construction ought to be automated and general, such that, it doesn't require domain knowledge and its improved accuracy maintains over a large number of classification algorithms. In this paper, we propose a framework to address these problems through the following steps: (1) divide-conquer to avoid exhaustive enumeration; (2) local feature construction and evaluation within subspaces of examples where local error is still high and constructed features thus far still do not predict well; (3) weighting rules based search that is domain knowledge free and has provable performance guarantee. Empirical studies indicate that significant improvement (as much as 9% in accuracy and 28% in AUC) is achieved using the newly constructed features over a variety of inductive learners evaluated against a number of balanced, skewed and high-dimensional datasets. Software and datasets are available from the authors. PMID:21544257

  19. Improved Motor-Timing: Effects of Synchronized Metro-Nome Training on Golf Shot Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Marius; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. Twenty-six experienced male golfers participated (mean age 27 years; mean golf handicap 12.6) in this study. Pre- and post-test investigations of golf shots made by three different clubs were conducted by use of a golf simulator. The golfers were randomized into two groups: a SMT group and a Control group. After the pre-test, the golfers in the SMT group completed a 4-week SMT program designed to improve their motor timing, the golfers in the Control group were merely training their golf-swings during the same time period. No differences between the two groups were found from the pre-test outcomes, either for motor timing scores or for golf shot accuracy. However, the post-test results after the 4-weeks SMT showed evident motor timing improvements. Additionally, significant improvements for golf shot accuracy were found for the SMT group and with less variability in their performance. No such improvements were found for the golfers in the Control group. As with previous studies that used a SMT program, this study’s results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy. Key points This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. A randomized control group design was used. The 4 week SMT intervention showed significant improvements in motor timing, golf shot accuracy, and lead to less variability. We conclude that this study’s results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT training and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy. PMID:24149608

  20. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  1. Anesthesia recordkeeping: accuracy of recall with computerized and manual entry recordkeeping.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thomas Corey; Green, Jeffrey A; Colquhoun, Alexander; Hage, Brenda L; Biddle, Chuck

    2012-06-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are rapidly gaining widespread acceptance. Aggressively promoted as an improvement to manual-entry recordkeeping systems (MERS) in the areas of accuracy, quality improvement, billing and vigilance, these systems record all patient vital signs and parameters, providing a legible hard copy and permanent electronic record. Concern exists that the practitioner may be less vigilant unless this data is recorded manually. This study's purpose was to determine if vigilance, as measured by the ability to recall important data, is influenced by the method of recordkeeping. This study analyzed differences in the accuracy of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists' (CRNAs) recall of specific patient variables during the course of an actual anesthetic case. CRNAs using AIMS were compared to CRNAs using MERS. Accuracy of recalled values of 10 patient variables was measured: highest and lowest values for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, inspiratory pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide levels, lowest oxygen saturation and total fluid volume. Four tertiary care facilities participated in this research; two of which used MERS, two utilized AIMS. A total of 214 subjects participated in this study; 106 in the computerized recordkeeping group, and 108 in the manual entry recordkeeping group. Demographic covariates were analyzed to ensure homogeneity between groups and facilities. No significant statistical differences were identified between the accuracy of recall among the groups. There was no difference in the accuracy of practitioners' recall of patient variables when using computerized or manual entry recordkeeping systems, suggesting little impact on vigilance. PMID:22426831

  2. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, Charles E.; Mar, Alan; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  3. Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement. PMID:27044032

  4. Improving forest cover classification accuracy from Landsat by incorporating topographic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper shows that accuracies of computer classification of species-specific forest cover types from Landsat imagery can be improved by 27% or more through the incorporation of topographic information from digital terrain tapes registered to multidate Landsat imagery. The topographic information improves classification accuracies because many common forest tree species have preferred elevation ranges and slope aspects. These preferences allow the separation of forest cover types which have similar spectral signatures but different species compositions. It is noted that the development of a classification system which uses prior probabilities and sets of prior probabilities conditioned by one or two external variables represents a significant increase in classification power.

  5. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  6. Measurement Accuracy Limitation Analysis on Synchrophasors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiecheng; Zhan, Lingwei; Liu, Yilu; Qi, Hairong; Gracia, Jose R; Ewing, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the theoretical accuracy limitation of synchrophasors measurements on phase angle and frequency of the power grid. Factors that cause the measurement error are analyzed, including error sources in the instruments and in the power grid signal. Different scenarios of these factors are evaluated according to the normal operation status of power grid measurement. Based on the evaluation and simulation, the errors of phase angle and frequency caused by each factor are calculated and discussed.

  7. Accuracy and Bias in Adolescents’ Perceptions of Friends’ Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David B.; Kobus, Kimberly; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested competing hypotheses related to the false consensus effect and pluralistic ignorance by examining the accuracy and bias of adolescents’ perceptions of peer substance use, and the effects of their own substance use, gender, and age on perceptions of peer behavior. Two samples (Ns = 163 and 2,194) that collected data on peer nominations, perceptions of peer substance use, and self-reports of substance use were used in analyses. Results from both samples provided evidence supporting the false consensus effect, that is, adolescents’ reports of their friends’ substance use were biased in the direction of their own use. Users and non-users did not differ in accuracy of perceptions; however, across all substances and samples, they differed significantly in bias. Substance users displayed nearly perfect liberal bias, assuming their friends also used substances. Non-users displayed an opposite, conservative bias, assuming their friends did not use substances. Gender and age differences in bias also were observed, with older adolescents and females having more liberal biases than younger adolescents and males. Results suggest the importance of differentiating the effects of actual and perceived peer substance use. PMID:21244119

  8. Sound source localization identification accuracy: Level and duration dependencies.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A

    2016-07-01

    Sound source localization accuracy for noises was measured for sources in the front azimuthal open field mainly as a function of overall noise level and duration. An identification procedure was used in which listeners identify which loudspeakers presented a sound. Noises were filtered and differed in bandwidth and center frequency. Sound source localization accuracy depended on the bandwidth of the stimuli, and for the narrow bandwidths, accuracy depended on the filter's center frequency. Sound source localization accuracy did not depend on overall level or duration. PMID:27475204

  9. Impact of heart disease and calibration interval on accuracy of pulse transit time-based blood pressure estimation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yuanting; Tsang, Hon Ki

    2016-02-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement without a cuff is advantageous for the early detection and prevention of hypertension. The pulse transit time (PTT) method has proven to be promising for continuous cuffless BP measurement. However, the problem of accuracy is one of the most challenging aspects before the large-scale clinical application of this method. Since PTT-based BP estimation relies primarily on the relationship between PTT and BP under certain assumptions, estimation accuracy will be affected by cardiovascular disorders that impair this relationship and by the calibration frequency, which may violate these assumptions. This study sought to examine the impact of heart disease and the calibration interval on the accuracy of PTT-based BP estimation. The accuracy of a PTT-BP algorithm was investigated in 37 healthy subjects and 48 patients with heart disease at different calibration intervals, namely 15 min, 2 weeks, and 1 month after initial calibration. The results showed that the overall accuracy of systolic BP estimation was significantly lower in subjects with heart disease than in healthy subjects, but diastolic BP estimation was more accurate in patients than in healthy subjects. The accuracy of systolic and diastolic BP estimation becomes less reliable with longer calibration intervals. These findings demonstrate that both heart disease and the calibration interval can influence the accuracy of PTT-based BP estimation and should be taken into consideration to improve estimation accuracy. PMID:26767518

  10. Accuracy levels of land cover classified maps derived from mid and high spatial resolution remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bonnie J.

    This dissertation compares the accuracy of results of classifying data from mid-level to very high spatial resolutions (Landsat ETM+, SPOT 4, ASTER, SPOT 5, and QuickBird). Data from all of these sensors were classified for both urban and rural settings. The dissertation also examines accuracy levels between spectral and radiometric resolutions. Finally, it investigates the role that shadow plays in affecting accuracy levels from higher spatial resolution satellites. To compare as to whether there were significant differences in the accuracy levels between different sensors, each map's accuracy percentages were analyzed using Z-scores and kappa as described in the methodology section. QuickBird, with the highest spatial resolution, performed significantly more poorly in terms of providing accurate classification than any other sensor with respect to the rural environment. It also was significantly worse than Landsat ETM+ in providing accurate classification in the urban environment. In order to control for radiometric resolution, the 11-bit QuickBird data were converted to 8-bit data since QuickBird is the only sensor that does not have the same radiometric resolution. The resulting classification accuracy percentages were no better than that of random chance. When testing for accuracy in classification using only the three bands common to all sensors (green, red, and near-infrared) the result was there was essentially no difference between any of the sensors. This outcome supports the hypothesis that spectral resolution plays an important role in land cover accuracy. Using simple linear regression, the relationship between the percentage of shadow pixels and spatial resolution is examined. There is a moderate relationship between the spatial resolution of sensors and the percentages of shadow pixels where sensors with higher spatial resolution have a higher percentage of shadow pixels. These results agreed with literature from other studies in similar environments.

  11. Exploring a Three-Level Model of Calibration Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory; Kuch, Fred; Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Richmond, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    We compared 5 different statistics (i.e., G index, gamma, "d'", sensitivity, specificity) used in the social sciences and medical diagnosis literatures to assess calibration accuracy in order to examine the relationship among them and to explore whether one statistic provided a best fitting general measure of accuracy. College…

  12. Assessment of the Thematic Accuracy of Land Cover Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhle, J.

    2015-08-01

    Several land cover maps are generated from aerial imagery and assessed by different approaches. The test site is an urban area in Europe for which six classes (`building', `hedge and bush', `grass', `road and parking lot', `tree', `wall and car port') had to be derived. Two classification methods were applied (`Decision Tree' and `Support Vector Machine') using only two attributes (height above ground and normalized difference vegetation index) which both are derived from the images. The assessment of the thematic accuracy applied a stratified design and was based on accuracy measures such as user's and producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient. In addition, confidence intervals were computed for several accuracy measures. The achieved accuracies and confidence intervals are thoroughly analysed and recommendations are derived from the gained experiences. Reliable reference values are obtained using stereovision, false-colour image pairs, and positioning to the checkpoints with 3D coordinates. The influence of the training areas on the results is studied. Cross validation has been tested with a few reference points in order to derive approximate accuracy measures. The two classification methods perform equally for five classes. Trees are classified with a much better accuracy and a smaller confidence interval by means of the decision tree method. Buildings are classified by both methods with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 95%-100%) using independent 3D checkpoints. The average width of the confidence interval of six classes was 14% of the user's accuracy.

  13. Accuracy of unloading with the anti-gravity treadmill.

    PubMed

    McNeill, David K P; de Heer, Hendrik D; Bounds, Roger G; Coast, J Richard

    2015-03-01

    Body weight (BW)-supported treadmill training has become increasingly popular in professional sports and rehabilitation. To date, little is known about the accuracy of the lower-body positive pressure treadmill. This study evaluated the accuracy of the BW support reported on the AlterG "Anti-Gravity" Treadmill across the spectrum of unloading, from full BW (100%) to 20% BW. Thirty-one adults (15 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 29.3 years (SD = 10.9), and a mean weight of 66.55 kg (SD = 12.68) were recruited. Participants were weighed outside the machine and then inside at 100-20% BW in 10% increments. Predicted BW, as presented by the AlterG equipment, was compared with measured BW. Significant differences between predicted and measured BW were found at all but 90% through 70% of BW. Differences were small (<5%), except at the extreme ends of the unloading spectrum. At 100% BW, the measured weight was lower than predicted (mean = 93.15%, SD = 1.21, p < 0.001 vs. predicted). At 30 and 20% BW, the measured weight was higher than predicted at 35.75% (SD = 2.89, p < 0.001), and 27.67% (SD = 3.76, p < 0.001), respectively. These findings suggest that there are significant differences between reported and measured BW support on the AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill®, with the largest differences (>5%) found at 100% BW and the greatest BW support (30 and 20% BW). These differences may be associated with changes in metabolic demand and maximum speed during walking or running and should be taken into consideration when using these devices for training and research purposes. PMID:25226319

  14. ACCURACY AND TRACE ORGANIC ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy in trace organic analysis presents a formidable problem to the residue chemist. He is confronted with the analysis of a large number and variety of compounds present in a multiplicity of substrates at levels as low as parts-per-trillion. At these levels, collection, isol...

  15. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  16. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    PubMed

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually. PMID:21923052

  17. Psychology Textbooks: Examining Their Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steuer, Faye B.; Ham, K. Whitfield, II

    2008-01-01

    Sales figures and recollections of psychologists indicate textbooks play a central role in psychology students' education, yet instructors typically must select texts under time pressure and with incomplete information. Although selection aids are available, none adequately address the accuracy of texts. We describe a technique for sampling…

  18. Examination of standardized patient performance: Accuracy and consistency of six standardized patients over time

    PubMed Central

    Erby, Lori A.H.; Roter, Debra L.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the accuracy and consistency of standardized patient (SP) performance in the context of routine genetic counseling, focusing on elements beyond scripted case items including general communication style and affective demeanor. Methods One hundred seventy-seven genetic counselors were randomly assigned to counsel one of six SPs. Videotapes and transcripts of the sessions were analyzed to assess consistency of performance across four dimensions. Results Accuracy of script item presentation was high; 91% and 89% in the prenatal and cancer cases. However, there were statistically significant differences among SPs in the accuracy of presentation, general communication style, and some aspects of affective presentation. All SPs were rated as presenting with similarly high levels of realism. SP performance over time was generally consistent, with some small but statistically significant differences. Conclusion and practice implications These findings demonstrate that well-trained SPs can not only perform the factual elements of a case with high degrees of accuracy and realism; but they can also maintain sufficient levels of uniformity in general communication style and affective demeanor over time to support their use in even the demanding context of genetic counseling. Results indicate a need for an additional focus in training on consistency between different SPs. PMID:21094590

  19. Improved accuracies for satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammeyer, P. C.; Fiala, A. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    A charge coupled device (CCD) camera on an optical telescope which follows the stars can be used to provide high accuracy comparisons between the line of sight to a satellite, over a large range of satellite altitudes, and lines of sight to nearby stars. The CCD camera can be rotated so the motion of the satellite is down columns of the CCD chip, and charge can be moved from row to row of the chip at a rate which matches the motion of the optical image of the satellite across the chip. Measurement of satellite and star images, together with accurate timing of charge motion, provides accurate comparisons of lines of sight. Given lines of sight to stars near the satellite, the satellite line of sight may be determined. Initial experiments with this technique, using an 18 cm telescope, have produced TDRS-4 observations which have an rms error of 0.5 arc second, 100 m at synchronous altitude. Use of a mosaic of CCD chips, each having its own rate of charge motion, in the focal place of a telescope would allow point images of a geosynchronous satellite and of stars to be formed simultaneously in the same telescope. The line of sight of such a satellite could be measured relative to nearby star lines of sight with an accuracy of approximately 0.03 arc second. Development of a star catalog with 0.04 arc second rms accuracy and perhaps ten stars per square degree would allow determination of satellite lines of sight with 0.05 arc second rms absolute accuracy, corresponding to 10 m at synchronous altitude. Multiple station time transfers through a communications satellite can provide accurate distances from the satellite to the ground stations. Such observations can, if calibrated for delays, determine satellite orbits to an accuracy approaching 10 m rms.

  20. Accuracy of patient-reported range of elbow motion

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Paul M; van Rensburg, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome meaures (PROMs) not only provide valuable insights into subjective indices of joint health, but also may provide limited objective information about range of motion (ROM). We sought to evaluate the accuracy of patient-reported range of elbow motion compared to measured ROM. Methods Sixty clinic patients were recruited, of whom 26 had elbow pathologies and 34 had pathologies other than at the elbow joint. Each patient independently estimated ROM for extension, flexion, pronation and supination before this was measured by a clinician using a universal goniometer, with the mean being the gold standard. Results We found that patients’ ROM estimates were significantly different from measured ROM (p < 0.00001 at 95% confidence interval). There was no statistically significant difference between elbow pathology and non-elbow pathology patients’ estimated ROM. Conclusions There was great disparity between patient-estimated and measured ROM, although estimates of patients with known elbow pathology did not demonstrate any significant difference from their healthy counterparts. These differences may be too great for patient-estimated range of motion to be used as a reliable tool for assessing outcomes.

  1. MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

  2. Speed/accuracy tradeoff in force perception.

    PubMed

    Rank, Markus; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-06-01

    There is a well-known tradeoff between speed and accuracy in judgments made under uncertainty. Diffusion models have been proposed to capture the increase in response time for more uncertain decisions and the change in performance due to a prioritization of speed or accuracy in the responses. Experimental paradigms have been confined to the visual modality and model analysis have mostly used quantile-probability (QP) plots--response probability as a function of quantized RTs. Here, we extend diffusion modeling to haptics and test a novel type of analysis for judging model fitting. Participants classified force stimuli applied to the hand as "high" or "low." Data in QP plots indicate that the diffusion model captures well the overall pattern of responses in conditions where either speed or accuracy has been prioritized. To further the analysis, we compute just noticeable difference (JND) values separately for responses delivered with different RTs--we define these plots as JND quantile. The pattern of results evidences that slower responses lead to better force discrimination up to a plateau that is unaffected by prioritization instructions. Instead, the diffusion model predicts two well-separated plateaus depending on the condition. We propose that analyzing the relation between JNDs and response time should be considered in the evaluation of the diffusion model beyond the haptic modality, thus including vision. PMID:25867512

  3. Cone beam CT guidance provides superior accuracy for complex needle paths compared with CT guidance

    PubMed Central

    Braak, S J; Fütterer, J J; van Strijen, M J L; Hoogeveen, Y L; de Lange, F; Schultze Kool, L J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) guidance and CT guidance in reaching small targets in relation to needle path complexity in a phantom. Methods: CBCT guidance combines three-dimensional CBCT imaging with fluoroscopy overlay and needle planning software to provide real-time needle guidance. The accuracy of needle positioning, quantified as deviation from a target, was assessed for inplane, angulated and double angulated needle paths. Four interventional radiologists reached four targets along the three paths using CBCT and CT guidance. Accuracies were compared between CBCT and CT for each needle path and between the three approaches within both modalities. The effect of user experience in CBCT guidance was also assessed. Results: Accuracies for CBCT were significantly better than CT for the double angulated needle path (2.2 vs 6.7 mm, p<0.001) for all radiologists. CBCT guidance showed no significant differences between the three approaches. For CT, deviations increased with increasing needle path complexity from 3.3 mm for the inplane placements to 4.4 mm (p=0.007) and 6.7 mm (p<0.001) for the angulated and double angulated CT-guided needle placements, respectively. For double angulated needle paths, experienced CBCT users showed consistently higher accuracies than trained users [1.8 mm (range 1.2–2.2) vs 3.3 mm (range 2.1–7.2) deviation from target, respectively; p=0.003]. Conclusion: In terms of accuracy, CBCT is the preferred modality, irrespective of the level of user experience, for more difficult guidance procedures requiring double angulated needle paths as in oncological interventions. Advances in knowledge: Accuracy of CBCT guidance has not been discussed before. CBCT guidance allows accurate needle placement irrespective of needle path complexity. For angulated and double-angulated needle paths, CBCT is more accurate than CT guidance. PMID:23913308

  4. Influence of scanning strategies on the accuracy of digital intraoral scanning systems.

    PubMed

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2013-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression is a central part in today's CAD/CAM dentistry. With its possibilities, new treatment options for the patient is provided and the prosthetic workflow is accelerated. Nowadays, the major issue with intraoral scanning systems is to gain more accuracy especially for larger scan areas and to simplify clinical handling for the dentist. The aim of this study was to investigate different scanning strategies regardingtheir accuracy with full arch scans in an in-vitro study design. A reference master model was used for the digital impressions with the Lava COS, the Cerec Bluecam and a powderfree intraoral scanning system, Cadent iTero. The trueness and precision of each scanning protocol was measured. Lava COS provides the a trueness of 45.8 microm with the scanning protocol recommended from the manufacturer. A different scanning protocol shows significantly lower accuracy (trueness +/- 90.2 microm). Cerec Bluecam also benefits from an optimal scanning protocol with a trueness of +/- 23.3 microm compared to +/- 52.5 microm with a standard protocol. The powderfree impression system Cadent iTero shows also a high accurate full-arch scan with a trueness of +/- 35.0 microm and a precision of +/- 30.9 microm. With the current intraoral scanning systems, full arch dental impressions are possible with a high accuracy, if adequate scan strategies are used. The powderfree scanning system provides the same level of accuracy compared to scanning systems with surface pretreatment. PMID:23641661

  5. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory

    PubMed Central

    Atucha, Erika; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, retention latencies of each rat were assessed in the training apparatus (Shock box) as well as in a novel, contextually modified, apparatus. Retention latencies in the Shock box were significantly longer than those in the Novel box, indicating accurate memory of the training context. When the noradrenergic stimulant yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg, sc) was administered after the training, 48-h retention latencies in the Shock box, but not Novel box, were increased, indicating that the noradrenergic activation enhanced memory of the training experience without reducing memory accuracy. In the second experiment, rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task: They were first trained in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus without footshock (Non-Shock box), followed 1 min later by footshock training in a contextually modified apparatus (Shock box). Forty-eight-hour retention latencies in the Shock and Non-Shock boxes did not differ from each other but were both significantly longer than those in a Novel box, indicating that rats remembered the two training contexts but did not have episodic-like memory of the association of footshock with the correct training context. When the interval between the two training episodes was increased to 2 min, rats showed accurate memory of the association of footshock with the training context. Yohimbine administered after the training also enhanced rats' ability to remember in which training context they had received actual footshock. These findings indicate that the inhibitory avoidance discrimination task is a novel variant of the well-established inhibitory avoidance task suitable to investigate accuracy of memory. PMID:25814942

  6. Do saccharide doped PAGAT dosimeters increase accuracy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, B.; Skyt, P. S.; Holloway, L.; Hill, R.; Sankar, A.; De Deene, Y.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the dosimetric accuracy of normoxic polyacrylamide gelatin (PAGAT) gel dosimeters, the addition of saccharides (glucose and sucrose) has been suggested. An increase in R2-response sensitivity upon irradiation will result in smaller uncertainties in the derived dose if all other uncertainties are conserved. However, temperature variations during the magnetic resonance scanning of polymer gels result in one of the highest contributions to dosimetric uncertainties. The purpose of this project was to study the dose sensitivity against the temperature sensitivity. The overall dose uncertainty of PAGAT gel dosimeters with different concentrations of saccharides (0, 10 and 20%) was investigated. For high concentrations of glucose or sucrose, a clear improvement of the dose sensitivity was observed. For doses up to 6 Gy, the overall dose uncertainty was reduced up to 0.3 Gy for all saccharide loaded gels compared to PAGAT gel. Higher concentrations of glucose and sucrose deteriorate the accuracy of PAGAT dosimeters for doses above 9 Gy.

  7. Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution in Strain Measurements on Diffraction Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvino, Sean M.

    Diffraction stress analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the properties and performance of different classes of materials from engineering materials, such as steels and alloys, to electronic materials like Silicon chips. Often to better understand the performance of these materials at operating conditions they are also commonly subjected to elevated temperatures and different loading conditions. The validity of any measurement under these conditions is only as good as the control of the conditions and the accuracy and precision of the instrument being used to measure the properties. What is the accuracy and precision of a typical diffraction system and what is the best way to evaluate these quantities? Is there a way to remove systematic and random errors in the data that are due to problems with the control system used? With the advent of device engineering employing internal stress as a method for increasing performance the measurement of stress from microelectronic structures has become of enhanced importance. X-ray diffraction provides an ideal method for measuring these small areas without the need for modifying the sample and possibly changing the strain state. Micro and nano diffraction experiments on Silicon-on-Insulator samples revealed changes to the material under investigation and raised significant concerns about the usefulness of these techniques. This damage process and the application of micro and nano diffraction is discussed.

  8. Critical assessment of the claim of a significant difference between the results of measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B and the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B direct capture reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2006-08-15

    The Coulomb dissociation (CD) of {sup 8}B has emerged as a landmark testing ground of the very method of CD for measuring the cross section of the low-energy {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B direct capture (DC) reaction. Recent claims of evidence of slope difference between CD and DC results are critically examined. We include all relevant RIKEN2 data and all previously published DC data, and we examine the extracted so-called average scale-independent slope (b). The parametrization used by the Seattle group to extract the so-called b-slope parameter is also examined at energies above 300 keV. Considering the physical slope (S{sup '}=dS/dE) above 300 keV, we observe a (1.7{sigma}) agreement between slopes (S{sup '}) measured in CD and DC above 300 keV. The claim that S{sub 17}(0) values extracted from CD data are inconsistent and lower than DC results arises from a neglect of substantial systematic uncertainty of low-energy CD data. A consideration of the published CD S{sub 17}(0) results yields very consistent S{sub 17}(0) values that agree with most recent DC measurements. The recent correction of the b-slope parameter suggested by Esbensen, Bertsch, and Snover (EBS) was applied to the wrong b slope calculated using part of the RIKEN2 data. When the correct slope of the RIKEN2 data is used, the EBS correction in fact leads to a substantial disagreement between the slopes of the RIKEN2 data and DC data. In spite of an agreement between CD and DC data neither allow for extracting the slope above 300 keV with high accuracy. Uncertainty of the slope (S{sup '}) leads to an additional uncertainty of the extrapolated S{sub 17}(0). The slope of the astrophysical cross-section factor S{sub 17} must be measured with high precision to enable extraction of the d/s ratio and a high-precision extrapolation of S{sub 17}(0)

  9. PHAT: PHoto-z Accuracy Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Arnouts, S.; Capak, P.; Moustakas, L. A.; Wolf, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Assef, R. J.; Banerji, M.; Benítez, N.; Brammer, G. B.; Budavári, T.; Carliles, S.; Coe, D.; Dahlen, T.; Feldmann, R.; Gerdes, D.; Gillis, B.; Ilbert, O.; Kotulla, R.; Lahav, O.; Li, I. H.; Miralles, J.-M.; Purger, N.; Schmidt, S.; Singal, J.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Photometric redshifts (photo-z's) have become an essential tool in extragalactic astronomy. Many current and upcoming observing programmes require great accuracy of photo-z's to reach their scientific goals. Aims: Here we introduce PHAT, the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing programme, an international initiative to test and compare different methods of photo-z estimation. Methods: Two different test environments are set up, one (PHAT0) based on simulations to test the basic functionality of the different photo-z codes, and another one (PHAT1) based on data from the GOODS survey including 18-band photometry and ~2000 spectroscopic redshifts. Results: The accuracy of the different methods is expressed and ranked by the global photo-z bias, scatter, and outlier rates. While most methods agree very well on PHAT0 there are differences in the handling of the Lyman-α forest for higher redshifts. Furthermore, different methods produce photo-z scatters that can differ by up to a factor of two even in this idealised case. A larger spread in accuracy is found for PHAT1. Few methods benefit from the addition of mid-IR photometry. The accuracy of the other methods is unaffected or suffers when IRAC data are included. Remaining biases and systematic effects can be explained by shortcomings in the different template sets (especially in the mid-IR) and the use of priors on the one hand and an insufficient training set on the other hand. Some strategies to overcome these problems are identified by comparing the methods in detail. Scatters of 4-8% in Δz/(1+z) were obtained, consistent with other studies. However, somewhat larger outlier rates (>7.5% with Δz/(1+z)>0.15; >4.5% after cleaning) are found for all codes that can only partly be explained by AGN or issues in the photometry or the spec-z catalogue. Some outliers were probably missed in comparisons of photo-z's to other, less complete spectroscopic surveys in the past. There is a general trend that empirical codes produce

  10. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Yolima; Quintero, Constanza; Châtel, Marc Henri; Tohme, Joe; Courtois, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP) and of the validation population (VP), the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian) on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb) and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%), and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06). The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed. PMID:26313446

  11. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Cécile; Cao, Tuong-Vi; Ospina, Yolima; Quintero, Constanza; Châtel, Marc Henri; Tohme, Joe; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP) and of the validation population (VP), the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian) on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb) and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%), and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06). The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed. PMID:26313446

  12. A high accuracy sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, H.

    The High Accuracy Sun Sensor (HASS) is described, concentrating on measurement principle, the CCD detector used, the construction of the sensorhead and the operation of the sensor electronics. Tests on a development model show that the main aim of a 0.01-arcsec rms stability over a 10-minute period is closely approached. Remaining problem areas are associated with the sensor sensitivity to illumination level variations, the shielding of the detector, and the test and calibration equipment.

  13. The Accuracy of Surgeons' Provided Estimates for the Duration of Hysterectomies: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Dario R.; Robison, Katina; Raker, Christina A.; Wharton, Gary G.; Frishman, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the accuracy of gynecologic surgeons' estimate of operative times for hysterectomies and to compare these with the existing computer-generated estimate at our institution. Design Pilot prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting Academic tertiary women's hospital in the Northeast United States. Participants Thirty gynecologic surgeons including 23 general gynecologists, 4 gynecologic oncologists, and 3 urogynecologists. Intervention Via a 6-question survey, surgeons were asked to predict the operative time for a hysterectomy they were about to perform. The surgeons' predictions were then compared with the time predicted by the scheduling system at our institution and with the actual operative time, to determine accuracy and differences between actual and predicted times. Patient and surgery data were collected to perform a secondary analysis to determine factors that may have significantly affected the prediction. Measurements and Main Results Of 75 hysterectomies analyzed, 36 were performed abdominally, 18 vaginally, and 21 laparoscopically. Accuracy was established if the actual procedure time was within the 15-minute increment predicted by either the surgeons or the scheduling system. The surgeons accurately predicted the duration of 20 hysterectomies (26.7%), whereas the accuracy of the scheduling system was only 9.3%. The scheduling system accuracy was significantly less precise than the surgeons, primarily due to overestimation (p = .01); operative time was overestimated on average 34 minutes. The scheduling system overestimated the time required to a greater extent than the surgeons for nearly all data examined, including patient body mass index, surgical approach, indication for surgery, surgeon experience, uterine size, and previous abdominal surgery. Conclusion Although surgeons' accuracy in predicting operative time was poor, it was significantly better than that of the computerized scheduling

  14. Accuracy of remotely sensed data: Sampling and analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congalton, R. G.; Oderwald, R. G.; Mead, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A review and update of the discrete multivariate analysis techniques used for accuracy assessment is given. A listing of the computer program written to implement these techniques is given. New work on evaluating accuracy assessment using Monte Carlo simulation with different sampling schemes is given. The results of matrices from the mapping effort of the San Juan National Forest is given. A method for estimating the sample size requirements for implementing the accuracy assessment procedures is given. A proposed method for determining the reliability of change detection between two maps of the same area produced at different times is given.

  15. Determination of Accuracy of Fetal Weight Using Ultrasound and Clinical Fetal Weight Estimations in Calabar South, South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Charles; Emechebe, Cajethan; Odusolu, Patience; Abeshi, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    Information on fetal weight is of importance to obstetricians in the management of pregnancy and delivery. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of clinical and sonographic methods of predicting fetal weights at term. This prospective comparative study of 200 parturients was conducted at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. The study participants were mothers with singleton term pregnancy admitted for delivery. The mean absolute percentage errors of both clinical and ultrasound methods were 11.16% ± 9.48 and 9.036% ± 7.61, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.205). The accuracy within 10% of actual birth weights was 69.5% and 72% for both clinical estimation of fetal weight and ultrasound, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.755). The accuracy of fetal weight estimation using Dare's formula is comparable to ultrasound estimates for predicting birth weight at term.

  16. Piezoresistive position microsensors with ppm-accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Shulev, Assen; Stavreva, Galina; Todorov, Vencislav

    2015-05-01

    In this article, the relation between position accuracy and the number of simultaneously measured values, such as coordinates, has been analyzed. Based on this, a conceptual layout of MEMS devices (microsensors) for multidimensional position monitoring comprising a single anchored and a single actuated part has been developed. Both parts are connected with a plurality of micromechanical flexures, and each flexure includes position detecting cantilevers. Microsensors having detecting cantilevers oriented in X and Y direction have been designed and prototyped. Experimentally measured results at characterization of 1D, 2D and 3D position microsensors are reported as well. Exploiting different flexure layouts, a travel range between 50μm and 1.8mm and sensors' sensitivity in the range between 30μV/μm and 5mV/μm@ 1V DC supply voltage have been demonstrated. A method for accurate calculation of all three Cartesian coordinates, based on measurement of at least three microsensors' signals has also been described. The analyses of experimental results prove the capability of position monitoring with ppm-(part per million) accuracy. The technology for fabrication of MEMS devices with sidewall embedded piezoresistors removes restrictions in strong improvement of their usability for position sensing with a high accuracy. The present study is, also a part of a common strategy for developing a novel MEMS-based platform for simultaneous accurate measurement of various physical values when they are transduced to a change of position.

  17. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing ulcerative early gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyungkil; Bang, Byongwook; Kwon, Kyesook; Shin, Youngwoon

    2016-07-01

    Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the first-choice imaging modality for predicting the invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the prediction accuracy of EUS is significantly decreased when EGC is combined with ulceration.The aim of present study was to compare the accuracy of EUS and conventional endoscopy (CE) for determining the depth of EGC. In addition, the various clinic-pathologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of EUS, with a particular focus on endoscopic ulcer shapes, were evaluated.We retrospectively reviewed data from 236 consecutive patients with ulcerative EGC. All patients underwent EUS for estimating tumor invasion depth, followed by either curative surgery or endoscopic treatment. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS and CE was evaluated by comparing the final histologic result of resected specimen. The correlation between accuracy of EUS and characteristics of EGC (tumor size, histology, location in stomach, tumor invasion depth, and endoscopic ulcer shapes) was analyzed. Endoscopic ulcer shapes were classified into 3 groups: definite ulcer, superficial ulcer, and ill-defined ulcer.The overall accuracy of EUS and CE for predicting the invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was 68.6% and 55.5%, respectively. Of the 236 patients, 36 patients were classified as definite ulcers, 98 were superficial ulcers, and 102 were ill-defined ulcers, In univariate analysis, EUS accuracy was associated with invasion depth (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.034), and endoscopic ulcer shapes (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between superficial ulcer in CE and EUS accuracy (odds ratio: 2.977; 95% confidence interval: 1.255-7.064; P = 0.013).The accuracy of EUS for determining tumor invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was superior to that of CE. In addition, ulcer shape was an important factor that affected EUS accuracy. PMID:27472672

  18. Nuclear Data Target Accuracies for Generation-IV Systems Based on the use of New Covariance Data

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; M. Assawaroongruengchot; M. Herman; P. Oblozinsky; C. Mattoon

    2010-04-01

    A target accuracy assessment using new available covariance data, the AFCI 1.2 covariance data, has been carried out. At the same time, the more theoretical issue of taking into account correlation terms in target accuracy assessment studies has been deeply investigated. The impact of correlation terms is very significant in target accuracy assessment evaluation and can produce very stringent requirements on nuclear data. For this type of study a broader energy group structure should be used, in order to smooth out requirements and provide better feedback information to evaluators and cross section measurement experts. The main difference in results between using BOLNA or AFCI 1.2 covariance data are related to minor actinides, minor Pu isotopes, structural materials (in particular Fe56), and coolant isotopes (Na23) accuracy requirements.

  19. Nuclear Data Target Accuracies for Generation-IV Systems Based on the Use of New Covariance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Herman, M.; Palmiotti,G.; Assawaroongruengchot,M.; Salvatores,M.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.; Pigni,M.

    2011-08-01

    A target accuracy assessment using new available covariance data, the AFCI 1.2 covariance data, has been carried out. At the same time, the more theoretical issue of taking into account correlation terms in target accuracy assessment studies has been deeply investigated. The impact of correlation terms is very significant in target accuracy assessment evaluation and can produce very stringent requirements on nuclear data. For this type of study a broader energy group structure should be used, in order to smooth out requirements and provide better feedback information to evaluators and cross section measurement experts. The main difference in results between using BOLNA or AFCI 1.2 covariance data are related to minor actinides, minor Pu isotopes, structural materials (in particular Fe56), and coolant isotopes (Na23) accuracy requirements.

  20. The Effects of Expressive and Experiential Suppression on Memory Accuracy and Memory Distortion in Women with and Without PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sally A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Specific emotion regulation strategies impinge on cognitive resources, impairing memory accuracy; however, their effects on memory distortion have been largely unexamined. Further, little is known about the effects of emotion regulation on memory in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who exhibit both emotion regulation and memory difficulties. We examined the effects of expressive suppression (i.e., concealing visible signs of emotion), experiential suppression (i.e., suppressing the subjective emotional experience), and control instructions on memory accuracy and distortion in trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD, those without PTSD, and psychologically healthy controls. Expressive and, to a lesser degree, experiential suppression led to poorer memory accuracy and both expressive and experiential suppression led to less memory distortion compared to control instructions. Participants with and without PTSD did not significantly differ. Under high cognitive load, irrelevant details may receive more processing, potentially leading to lower accuracy but improved processing of source information, preventing memory distortion. PMID:23308337

  1. Influence of object-system distance on accuracy of remote temperature measurement with IR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    1995-04-01

    An investigation on the effect of the differencebetween the values of the distance object-system under calibration and real work conditions on the accuracy of the temperature measurement with IR systems has been carried out. The formulas that enable determination of the temperature measurement errors due to this difference for any measurement conditions and system parameters has been developed. It has been shown that the errors due to this source can be significant.

  2. Evaluating the accuracy of technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Peter J; Saya, Frank G; Lovett, Larry T; Tan, Sandy; Adams, Dale W; Shane, Rita

    2002-06-15

    The accuracy rates of board-registered pharmacy technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes in the inpatient setting at two separate institutions were examined. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, both in Los Angeles county, petitioned the California State Board of Pharmacy to approve a waiver of the California Code of Regulations to conduct an experimental program to compare the accuracy of unit dose medication cassettes checked by pharmacists with that of cassettes checked by trained, certified pharmacy technicians. The study consisted of three parts: assessing pharmacist baseline checking accuracy (Phase I), developing a technician-training program and certifying technicians who completed the didactic and practical training (Phase II), and evaluating the accuracy of certified technicians checking unit dose medication cassettes as a daily function (Phase III). Twenty-nine pharmacists and 41 technicians (3 of whom were pharmacy interns) participated in the study. Of the technicians, all 41 successfully completed the didactic and practical training, 39 successfully completed the audits and became certified checkers, and 2 (including 1 of the interns) did not complete the certification audits because they were reassigned to another work area or had resigned. In Phase II, the observed accuracy rate and its lower confidence limit exceeded the predetermined minimum requirement of 99.8% for a certified checker. The mean accuracy rates for technicians were identical at the two institutions (p = 1.0). The difference in mean accuracy rates between pharmacists (99.52%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 99.44-99.58%) and technicians, (99.89%; 95% CI 99.87-99.90%) was significant (p < 0.0001). Inpatient technicians who had been trained and certified in a closely supervised program that incorporated quality assurance mechanisms could safely and accurately check unit dose medication cassettes filled by other technicians

  3. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  4. Accuracy assessment of landslide prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A. N.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Noraini, S.

    2014-02-01

    The increasing population and expansion of settlements over hilly areas has greatly increased the impact of natural disasters such as landslide. Therefore, it is important to developed models which could accurately predict landslide hazard zones. Over the years, various techniques and models have been developed to predict landslide hazard zones. The aim of this paper is to access the accuracy of landslide prediction models developed by the authors. The methodology involved the selection of study area, data acquisition, data processing and model development and also data analysis. The development of these models are based on nine different landslide inducing parameters i.e. slope, land use, lithology, soil properties, geomorphology, flow accumulation, aspect, proximity to river and proximity to road. Rank sum, rating, pairwise comparison and AHP techniques are used to determine the weights for each of the parameters used. Four (4) different models which consider different parameter combinations are developed by the authors. Results obtained are compared to landslide history and accuracies for Model 1, Model 2, Model 3 and Model 4 are 66.7, 66.7%, 60% and 22.9% respectively. From the results, rank sum, rating and pairwise comparison can be useful techniques to predict landslide hazard zones.

  5. Improved accuracy of the remote sensing of sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalu, G.; Prabhakara, C.; Lo, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for determining the water vapor content to within + or - 0.4 g/sq cm from remotely sensed radiances in three infrared channels, 11, 13, 18 microns. Using this method, it is possible to significantly improve the accuracy of sea surface temperature (SST) over what is obtainable with the two channel technique. A radiative computational scheme for the radiative transfer equation is used to study the manner in which the equivalent radiative temperature of the atmosphere changes as a function of wave number for different atmospheric conditions. Average climatological conditions are used to simulate the radiative response of the atmosphere. This radiative transfer simulation is used to compute brightness temperatures for radiosonde profiles obtained from oceanographic ships, which temperatures are in turn used to estimate the SST. Nimbus 4 IRIS spectral measurements corresponding to the profiles were used in the same way for purposes of comparison.

  6. The accuracy of Nimbus 7 LIMS temperatures in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    Zonal-mean temperatures from the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment are compared with a temperature 'climatology' derived from 4 years of Rayleigh backscatter lidar measurements at 44 N and for the months of March, April, and May, when wave activity and thus atmospheric variability is very weak. The mean difference between the two data sets is less than 3.5 K between 37 and 64 km and is consistent with the theoretical estimates of accuracy reported for the LIMS data. The effects of longitudinal and year-to-year variaiations in this comparison were considered, but they do not change the conclusions significantly. These validation results extend the altitude range of accurate LIMS temperatures in the mesosphere some 10 km higher than previously reported. It also means the LIMS ozone and NO2 retrievals in the lower mesosphere should be free of any major temperature bias error effects.

  7. Timbral influences on vocal pitch-matching accuracy.

    PubMed

    Watts, Christopher R; Hall, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how vocal fundamental frequency control was influenced by the timbre of target auditory stimuli. Nineteen female participants were asked to vocally reproduce the pitch of target tones, which consisted of female, male, violin, and clarinet timbres at three different fundamental frequencies. Results revealed that the participants were significantly more accurate at matching the pitch of female target tones compared to the instrumental timbres. This was interpreted as being due to an effect of spectral similarity of the female timbre to that of the female participants. The results of this study support the hypothesis of a perceptual integrality between timbre and pitch, and that stimulus timbre can influence the accuracy of vocal reproduction. PMID:18569646

  8. The precision and accuracy of a portable heart rate monitor.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L; Sleamaker, R H; McAuliffe, T; Clapp, J F

    1990-01-01

    A device that would comfortably and accurately measure exercise heart rate during field performance could be valuable for athletes, fitness participants, and investigators in the field of exercise physiology. Such a device, a portable telemeterized microprocessor, was compared with direct EKG measurements in a laboratory setting under several conditions to assess its accuracy. Twenty-four subjects were studied at rest and during light-, moderate-, high-, and maximal-intensity endurance activities (walking, running, aerobic dancing, and Nordic Track simulated cross-country skiing. Differences between values obtained by the two measuring devices were not statistically significant, with correlation coefficient (r) values ranging from 0.998 to 0.999. The two methods proved equally reliable for measuring heart rate in a host of varied aerobic activities at varying intensities. PMID:2306564

  9. Accuracy of subsurface temperature distributions computed from pulsed photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Smithies, D J; Milner, T E; Tanenbaum, B S; Goodman, D M; Nelson, J S

    1998-09-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) is a non-contact method for determining the temperature increase in subsurface chromophore layers immediately following pulsed laser irradiation. In this paper the inherent limitations of PPTR are identified. A time record of infrared emission from a test material due to laser heating of a subsurface chromophore layer is calculated and used as input data for a non-negatively constrained conjugate gradient algorithm. Position and magnitude of temperature increase in a model chromophore layer immediately following pulsed laser irradiation are computed. Differences between simulated and computed temperature increase are reported as a function of thickness, depth and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The average depth of the chromophore layer and integral of temperature increase in the test material are accurately predicted by the algorithm. When the thickness/depth ratio is less than 25%, the computed peak temperature increase is always significantly less than the true value. Moreover, the computed thickness of the chromophore layer is much larger than the true value. The accuracy of the computed subsurface temperature distribution is investigated with the singular value decomposition of the kernel matrix. The relatively small number of right singular vectors that may be used (8% of the rank of the kernel matrix) to represent the simulated temperature increase in the test material limits the accuracy of PPTR. We show that relative error between simulated and computed temperature increase is essentially constant for a particular thickness/depth ratio. PMID:9755938

  10. On the Accuracy Potential in Underwater/Multimedia Photogrammetry

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Hans-Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Underwater applications of photogrammetric measurement techniques usually need to deal with multimedia photogrammetry aspects, which are characterized by the necessity of handling optical rays that are refracted at interfaces between optical media with different refractive indices according to Snell’s Law. This so-called multimedia geometry has to be incorporated into geometric models in order to achieve correct measurement results. The paper shows a flexible yet strict geometric model for the handling of refraction effects on the optical path, which can be implemented as a module into photogrammetric standard tools such as spatial resection, spatial intersection, bundle adjustment or epipolar line computation. The module is especially well suited for applications, where an object in water is observed by cameras in air through one or more planar glass interfaces, as it allows for some simplifications here. In the second part of the paper, several aspects, which are relevant for an assessment of the accuracy potential in underwater/multimedia photogrammetry, are discussed. These aspects include network geometry and interface planarity issues as well as effects caused by refractive index variations and dispersion and diffusion under water. All these factors contribute to a rather significant degradation of the geometric accuracy potential in underwater/multimedia photogrammetry. In practical experiments, a degradation of the quality of results by a factor two could be determined under relatively favorable conditions. PMID:26213942

  11. On the Accuracy Potential in Underwater/Multimedia Photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Maas, Hans-Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Underwater applications of photogrammetric measurement techniques usually need to deal with multimedia photogrammetry aspects, which are characterized by the necessity of handling optical rays that are refracted at interfaces between optical media with different refractive indices according to Snell's Law. This so-called multimedia geometry has to be incorporated into geometric models in order to achieve correct measurement results. The paper shows a flexible yet strict geometric model for the handling of refraction effects on the optical path, which can be implemented as a module into photogrammetric standard tools such as spatial resection, spatial intersection, bundle adjustment or epipolar line computation. The module is especially well suited for applications, where an object in water is observed by cameras in air through one or more planar glass interfaces, as it allows for some simplifications here. In the second part of the paper, several aspects, which are relevant for an assessment of the accuracy potential in underwater/multimedia photogrammetry, are discussed. These aspects include network geometry and interface planarity issues as well as effects caused by refractive index variations and dispersion and diffusion under water. All these factors contribute to a rather significant degradation of the geometric accuracy potential in underwater/multimedia photogrammetry. In practical experiments, a degradation of the quality of results by a factor two could be determined under relatively favorable conditions. PMID:26213942

  12. Quantifying the accuracy of laboratory SIP experimental set ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method has reemerged as a promising method for subsurface investigations. The sensitivity of SIP to bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties permits a wider range of hydrogeophysical and environmental applications, including monitoring of subsurface biogeochemical transformations. Improvements in instrumentation and experimental designs, along with faster acquisition capabilities and easy access to processing routines are encouraging novel applications of the method, and support quantitative interpretation of the data acquired. Motivated by recent research that focus on small scale changes, over large frequency ranges, we performed a series of experiments to identify the accuracy of common laboratory SIP experimental set ups. We performed measurements on resistor - capacitor (RC) networks, to identify the instrumentation accuracy, and also on standard laboratory columns filled with materials of known SIP response, primarily on well characterized fluids of different conductivity. Early results show small errors in the low frequency range, attributed to electrode polarization; in higher frequencies, typically above 1000 Hz, the errors may become significant limiting the meaningful interpretation of small phase angles at these frequencies. The data will be compared with published data using comparable experimental set ups, and could be used to set realistic expectations on future SIP experiments and applications. With this work we aim at developing a best practices document that can aid the SIP user in collecting meaningful and repeatable results.

  13. Ethnic differences in serum lipids and lipoproteins in overweight/obese African-American and white American women with pre-diabetes: significance of NMR-derived lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Trudy; Osei, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Objective African-American women (AAW) suffer disproportionately from higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality compared with white American women (WAW), despite favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile. Therefore, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes in overweight/obese AAW and WAW with pre-diabetes. Participants and methods We studied 69 AAW and 41 WAW, with mean age 46.5±11.3 years and body mass index (BMI) 37.8±6.4 kg/m2. All participants completed standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). Insulin sensitivity (Si) was calculated using MINIMOD method. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Fasting blood was obtained for traditional lipids/lipoproteins and NMR-derived lipoprotein particle sizes and concentrations. Results We found that AAW with pre-diabetes were more obese (BMI 38.8±6.7 vs 36.0±5.4 kg/m2, p=0.02) than WAW. Mean Si was not significantly different. However, the mean serum triglycerides were lower, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) were significantly higher in AAW versus WAW. The large HDL particle concentration (6.1±3.1 vs 4.6±3.1 µmol/L, p=0.02) was significantly higher in AAW versus WAW. Mean total very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle concentration was lower in AAW versus WAW (39.9±24.4 vs 59.2±25.6 nmol/L, p≤0.001). While mean total LDL particle concentrations were not different, mean small LDL particle concentrations were lower in AAW versus WAW (538.8±294.1 vs 638.4±266 nmol/L, p=0.07). Conclusions We found a more favorable NMR-derived lipoprotein profile in AAW that extends the traditional antiatherogenic lipid/lipoprotein profiles. Clinically, these favorable lipid/lipoprotein profiles cannot explain the paradoxically higher CVD mortality in AAW than WAW and warrant further

  14. Does reader visual fatigue impact interpretation accuracy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2010-02-01

    To measure the impact of reader of reader visual fatigue by assessing symptoms, the ability to keep the eye focused on the display and diagnostic accuracy. Twenty radiology residents and 20 radiologists were given a diagnostic performance test containing 60 skeletal radiographic studies, half with fractures, before and after a day of clinical reading. Diagnostic accuracy was measured using area under the proper binormal curve (AUC). Error in visual accommodation was measured before and after each test session and subjects completed the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and the oculomotor strain subscale of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before each session. Average AUC was 0.89 for before work test and 0.85 for the after work test, (F(1,36) = 4.15, p = 0.049 < 0.05). There was significantly greater error in accommodation after the clinical workday (F(1,14829) = 7.81, p = 0.005 < 0.01), and after the reading test (F(1,14829) = 839.33, p < 0.0001). SOFI measures of lack of energy, physical discomfort and sleepiness were higher after a day of clinical reading (p < 0.05). The SSQ measure of oculomotor symptoms (i.e., difficulty focusing, blurred vision) was significantly higher after a day of clinical reading (F(1,75) = 20.38, p < 0.0001). Radiologists are visually fatigued by their clinical reading workday. This reduces their ability to focus on diagnostic images and to accurately interpret them.

  15. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  16. High accuracy time transfer synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Paul J.; Koppang, Paul A.; Chalmers, David; Davis, Angela; Kubik, Anthony; Powell, William M.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchronization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance cesium frequency standards were transported from the USNO in Washington, DC to Los Angeles, California in the USNO's mobile earth station. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer links between the mobile earth station and the USNO were conducted each day of the trip, using the Naval Research Laboratory(NRL) designed spread spectrum modem, built by Allen Osborne Associates(AOA). A Motorola six channel GPS receiver was used to track the location and altitude of the mobile earth station and to provide coordinates for calculating Sagnac corrections for the two-way measurements, and relativistic corrections for the cesium clocks. This paper will discuss the trip, the measurement systems used and the results from the data collected. We will show the accuracy of using two-way satellite time transfer for synchronization and the performance of the three HP 5071 cesium clocks in an operational environment.

  17. Accuracy of the river discharge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung Yang, Han

    2013-04-01

    Discharge values recorded for water conservancy and hydrological analysis is a very important work. Flood control projects, watershed remediation and river environmental planning projects quite need the discharge measurement data. In Taiwan, we have 129 rivers, in accordance with the watershed situation, economic development and other factors, divided into 24 major rivers, 29 minor rivers and 79 ordinary rivers. If each river needs to measure and record these discharge values, it will be enormous work. In addition, the characteristics of Taiwan's rivers contain steep slope, flow rapidly and sediment concentration higher, so it really encounters some difficulties in high flow measurement. When the flood hazards come, to seek a solution for reducing the time, manpower and material resources in river discharge measurement is very important. In this study, the river discharge measurement accuracy is used to determine the tolerance percentage to reduce the number of vertical velocity measurements, thereby reducing the time, manpower and material resources in the river discharge measurement. The velocity data sources used in this study form Yang (1998). Yang (1998) used the Fiber-optic Laser Doppler Velocimetery (FLDV) to obtain different velocity data under different experimental conditions. In this study, we use these data to calculate the mean velocity of each vertical line by three different velocity profile formula (that is, the law of the wall, Chiu's theory, Hu's theory), and then multiplied by each sub-area to obtain the discharge measurement values and compared with the true values (obtained by the direct integration mode) to obtain the accuracy of discharge. The research results show that the discharge measurement values obtained by Chiu's theory are closer to the true value, while the maximum error is the law of the wall. The main reason is that the law of the wall can't describe the maximum velocity occurred in underwater. In addition, the results also show

  18. Accuracy of lineaments mapping from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nicholas M.

    1989-01-01

    The use of Landsat and other space imaging systems for lineaments detection is analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in recognizing and mapping fractures and faults, and the results of several studies providing a quantitative assessment of lineaments mapping accuracies are discussed. The cases under investigation include a Landsat image of the surface overlying a part of the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, the Landsat images and selected radar imagery of major lineaments systems distributed over much of Canadian Shield, and space imagery covering a part of the East African Rift in Kenya. It is demonstrated that space imagery can detect a significant portion of a region's fracture pattern, however, significant fractions of faults and fractures recorded on a field-produced geological map are missing from the imagery as it is evident in the Kenya case.

  19. Accuracy of analyses of microelectronics nanostructures in atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurpillot, F.; Rolland, N.; Estivill, R.; Duguay, S.; Blavette, D.

    2016-07-01

    The routine use of atom probe tomography (APT) as a nano-analysis microscope in the semiconductor industry requires the precise evaluation of the metrological parameters of this instrument (spatial accuracy, spatial precision, composition accuracy or composition precision). The spatial accuracy of this microscope is evaluated in this paper in the analysis of planar structures such as high-k metal gate stacks. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that the in-depth accuracy of reconstructed APT images is perturbed when analyzing this structure composed of an oxide layer of high electrical permittivity (higher-k dielectric constant) that separates the metal gate and the semiconductor channel of a field emitter transistor. Large differences in the evaporation field between these layers (resulting from large differences in material properties) are the main sources of image distortions. An analytic model is used to interpret inaccuracy in the depth reconstruction of these devices in APT.

  20. Accuracy requirements. [for monitoring of climate changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgenio, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Satellite and surface measurements, if they are to serve as a climate monitoring system, must be accurate enough to permit detection of changes of climate parameters on decadal time scales. The accuracy requirements are difficult to define a priori since they depend on unknown future changes of climate forcings and feedbacks. As a framework for evaluation of candidate Climsat instruments and orbits, we estimate the accuracies that would be needed to measure changes expected over two decades based on theoretical considerations including GCM simulations and on observational evidence in cases where data are available for rates of change. One major climate forcing known with reasonable accuracy is that caused by the anthropogenic homogeneously mixed greenhouse gases (CO2, CFC's, CH4 and N2O). Their net forcing since the industrial revolution began is about 2 W/sq m and it is presently increasing at a rate of about 1 W/sq m per 20 years. Thus for a competing forcing or feedback to be important, it needs to be of the order of 0.25 W/sq m or larger on this time scale. The significance of most climate feedbacks depends on their sensitivity to temperature change. Therefore we begin with an estimate of decadal temperature change. Presented are the transient temperature trends simulated by the GISS GCM when subjected to various scenarios of trace gas concentration increases. Scenario B, which represents the most plausible near-term emission rates and includes intermittent forcing by volcanic aerosols, yields a global mean surface air temperature increase Delta Ts = 0.7 degrees C over the time period 1995-2015. This is consistent with the IPCC projection of about 0.3 degrees C/decade global warming (IPCC, 1990). Several of our estimates below are based on this assumed rate of warming.

  1. Increasing the range accuracy of three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar using optimum slicing number method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Lu; Yang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yue-Hao; Zhao, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The range accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) ghost imaging is derived. Based on the derived range accuracy equation, the relationship between the slicing number and the range accuracy is analyzed and an optimum slicing number (OSN) is determined. According to the OSN, an improved 3D ghost imaging algorithm is proposed to increase the range accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the slicing number can affect the range accuracy significantly and the highest range accuracy can be achieved if the 3D ghost imaging system works with OSN. Project supported by the Young Scientist Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61108072).

  2. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  3. Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) schemes of uniform accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, PETER-M.; Hsu, Chung-Hao; Liu, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    Explicit second-order accurate finite-difference schemes for the approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws are presented. These schemes are nonlinear even for the constant coefficient case. They are based on first-order upwind schemes. Their accuracy is enhanced by locally replacing the first-order one-sided differences with either second-order one-sided differences or central differences or a blend thereof. The appropriate local difference stencils are selected such that they give TVD schemes of uniform second-order accuracy in the scalar, or linear systems, case. Like conventional TVD schemes, the new schemes avoid a Gibbs phenomenon at discontinuities of the solution, but they do not switch back to first-order accuracy, in the sense of truncation error, at extrema of the solution. The performance of the new schemes is demonstrated in several numerical tests.

  4. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  5. Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.

  6. Accuracy of numerically produced compensators.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H; Evans, M D; Fallone, B G

    1999-01-01

    A feasibility study is performed to assess the utility of a computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill to produce compensating filters for conventional clinical use and for the delivery of intensity-modulated beams. A computer aided machining (CAM) software is used to assist in the design and construction of such filters. Geometric measurements of stepped and wedged surfaces are made to examine the accuracy of surface milling. Molds are milled and filled with molten alloy to produce filters, and both the molds and filters are examined for consistency and accuracy. Results show that the deviation of the filter surfaces from design does not exceed 1.5%. The effective attenuation coefficient is measured for CadFree, a cadmium-free alloy, in a 6 MV photon beam. The effective attenuation coefficients at the depth of maximum dose (1.5 cm) and at 10 cm in solid water phantom are found to be 0.546 cm-1 and 0.522 cm-1, respectively. Further attenuation measurements are made with Cerrobend to assess the variations of the effective attenuation coefficient with field size and source-surface distance. The ability of the CNC mill to accurately produce surfaces is verified with dose profile measurements in a 6 MV photon beam. The test phantom is composed of a 10 degrees polystyrene wedge and a 30 degrees polystyrene wedge, presenting both a sharp discontinuity and sloped surfaces. Dose profiles, measured at the depth of compensation (10 cm) beneath the test phantom and beneath a flat phantom, are compared to those produced by a commercial treatment planning system. Agreement between measured and predicted profiles is within 2%, indicating the viability of the system for filter production. PMID:10100166

  7. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcass traits, gestation length, scrotal circumference and two selection indices. 685 samples and 320 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used in the analyses. A forward-prediction scheme was adopted to predict the genomic breeding values (DGV). In the training step, the estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls were deregressed (dEBV) and used as pseudo-phenotypes to estimate marker effects using four methods: genomic BLUP with or without a residual polygenic effect (GBLUP20 and GBLUP0, respectively), a mixture model (Bayes C) and Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO). Empirical accuracies of the resulting genomic predictions were assessed based on the correlation between DGV and dEBV for the testing group. Results Accuracies of genomic predictions ranged from 0.17 (navel at weaning) to 0.74 (finishing precocity). Across traits, Bayesian regression models (Bayes C and BLASSO) were more accurate than GBLUP. The average empirical accuracies were 0.39 (GBLUP0), 0.40 (GBLUP20) and 0.44 (Bayes C and BLASSO). Bayes C and BLASSO tended to produce deflated predictions (i.e. slope of the regression of dEBV on DGV greater than 1). Further analyses suggested that higher-than-expected accuracies were observed for traits for which EBV means differed significantly between two breeding subgroups that were identified in a principal component analysis based on genomic relationships. Conclusions Bayesian regression models are of interest for future applications of genomic selection in this population

  8. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA): theory and application

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Rommel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error) used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously) and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy). We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross) has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error) and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered) will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density to more accurately

  9. Accuracy of scanography using storage phosphor plate systems and film for assessment of mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Matzen, LH; Christensen, J; Wenzel, A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) systems and film for assessment of mandibular third molars before surgery. Methods 110 patients were referred to have both their mandibular third molars removed. Each patient underwent a radiographic examination with scanography using either Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and film or VistaScan (Dürr Dental, Beitigheim-Bissingen, Germany) and film in a randomized paired design. Two observers examined the following variables on the scanograms: bone coverage, angulation of the tooth in the bone, number of roots, root morphology and the relationship to the mandibular canal. In 75 of the pairs (Digora/film pair = 38 and Vista/film pair = 37) both third molars were eventually removed. During and after surgery the same variables were assessed, which served as reference standard for the radiographic assessments. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test tested differences in accuracy (radiographic compared with surgical findings) between Digora/film and between Vista/film. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic accuracy of film and either of the two digital receptors for assessment of mandibular third molars before surgery (P > 0.05), although Digora obtained a higher accuracy than film. Conclusions Scanography is a valuable method for examination of mandibular third molars before removal and the PSP digital receptors in this study were equal to film for this purpose. PMID:21697156

  10. Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Reyner, L A; Horne, J A

    2013-08-15

    Athletes often lose sleep on the night before a competition. Whilst it is unlikely that sleep loss will impair sports mostly relying on strength and endurance, little is known about potential effects on sports involving psychomotor performance necessitating judgement and accuracy, rather than speed, as in tennis for example, and where caffeine is 'permitted'. Two studies were undertaken, on 5h sleep (33%) restriction versus normal sleep, on serving accuracy in semi-professional tennis players. Testing (14:00 h-16:00 h) comprised 40 serves into a (1.8 m×1.1 m) 'service box' diagonally, over the net. Study 1 (8 m; 8 f) was within-Ss, counterbalanced (normal versus sleep restriction). Study 2 (6m;6f -different Ss) comprised three conditions (Latin square), identical to Study 1, except for an extra sleep restriction condition with 80 mg caffeine vs placebo in a sugar-free drink, given (double blind), 30 min before testing. Both studies showed significant impairments to serving accuracy after sleep restriction. Caffeine at this dose had no beneficial effect. Study 1 also assessed gender differences, with women significantly poorer under all conditions, and non-significant indications that women were more impaired by sleep restriction (also seen in Study 2). We conclude that adequate sleep is essential for best performance of this type of skill in tennis players and that caffeine is no substitute for 'lost sleep'. 210. PMID:23916998

  11. Effects of Dissolving Solutions on the Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator-Integrated Endodontic Handpiece

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Yakup; Uzun, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat; Yalpı, Fatma; Canakci, Burhan Can

    2013-01-01

    The effects of three dissolving agents on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator- (EAL-) integrated endodontic handpiece during retreatment procedures were evaluated. The true lengths (TLs) of 56 extracted incisor teeth were determined visually. Twenty teeth were filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (group A), 20 with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide/eugenol-based sealer (group B), and 16 roots were used as the control group (group C). All roots were prepared to TL. Guttasolv, Resosolv, and Endosolv E were used as the dissolving solutions. Two evaluations of the handpiece were performed: the apical accuracy during the auto reverse function (ARL) and the apex locator function (EL) alone. The ARL function of the handpiece gave acceptable results. There were significant differences between the EL mode measurements and the TL (P < 0.05). In these comparisons, Tri Auto ZX EL mode measurements were significantly shorter than those of the TL. PMID:24379743

  12. An assessment of accuracy, error, and conflict with support values from genome-scale phylogenetic data.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Derek J; Piel, William H

    2004-08-01

    Despite the importance of molecular phylogenetics, few of its assumptions have been tested with real data. It is commonly assumed that nonparametric bootstrap values are an underestimate of the actual support, Bayesian posterior probabilities are an overestimate of the actual support, and among-gene phylogenetic conflict is low. We directly tested these assumptions by using a well-supported yeast reference tree. We found that bootstrap values were not significantly different from accuracy. Bayesian support values were, however, significant overestimates of accuracy but still had low false-positive error rates (0% to 2.8%) at the highest values (>99%). Although we found evidence for a branch-length bias contributing to conflict, there was little evidence for widespread, strongly supported among-gene conflict from bootstraps. The results demonstrate that caution is warranted concerning conclusions of conflict based on the assumption of underestimation for support values in real data. PMID:15140947

  13. A Stable and Conservative Interface Treatment of Arbitrary Spatial Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Nordstrom, Jan; Gottlieb, David

    1998-01-01

    Stable and accurate interface conditions are derived for the linear advection-diffusion equation. The conditions are functionally independent of the spatial order of accuracy and rely only on the form of the discrete operator. We focus on high-order finite-difference operators that satisfy the summation-by-parts (SBP) property. We prove that stability is a natural consequence of the SBP operators used in conjunction with the new boundary conditions. In addition, we show that the interface treatments are conservative. New finite-difference operators of spatial accuracy up to sixth order are constructed: these operators satisfy the SBP property. Finite-difference operators are shown to admit design accuracy (p(sup th)-order global accuracy) when (p - 1)(sup th)-order stencil closures are used near the boundaries if the physical boundary conditions are implemented to at least p(sup th)-order accuracy. Stability and accuracy are demonstrated on the nonlinear Burgers' equation for an twelve-subdomain problem with randomly distributed interfaces.

  14. Decoding Accuracy in Supplementary Motor Cortex Correlates with Perceptual Sensitivity to Tactile Roughness