Motion estimation accuracy for visible-light/gamma-ray imaging fusion for portable portal monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Gee, Timothy F.
2010-01-01
The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Portable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest. We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal gamma-ray imaging portal monitor that uses machine vision and gamma-ray imaging to monitor multiple lanes of traffic. Vehicles are detected and tracked by using point detection and optical flow methods as implemented in the OpenCV software library. Points are clustered together but imperfections in the detected points and tracks cause errors in the accuracy of the vehicle position estimates. The resulting errors cause a "blurring" effect in the gamma image of the vehicle. To minimize these errors, we have compared a variety of motion estimation techniques including an estimate using the median of the clustered points, a "best-track" filtering algorithm, and a constant velocity motion estimation model. The accuracy of these methods are contrasted and compared to a manually verified ground-truth measurement by quantifying the rootmean- square differences in the times the vehicles cross the gamma-ray image pixel boundaries compared with a groundtruth manual measurement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosman, R. J. A. W.; Vandervaart, J. C.
1984-01-01
An experiment to investigate visual roll attitude and roll rate perception is described. The experiment was also designed to assess the improvements of perception due to cockpit motion. After the onset of the motion, subjects were to make accurate and quick estimates of the final magnitude of the roll angle step response by pressing the appropriate button of a keyboard device. The differing time-histories of roll angle, roll rate and roll acceleration caused by a step response stimulate the different perception processes related the central visual field, peripheral visual field and vestibular organs in different, yet exactly known ways. Experiments with either of the visual displays or cockpit motion and some combinations of these were run to asses the roles of the different perception processes. Results show that the differences in response time are much more pronounced than the differences in perception accuracy.
O’Shea, T; Bamber, J; Harris, E
2015-06-15
Purpose: In similarity-measure based motion estimation incremental tracking (or template update) is challenging due to quantization, bias and accumulation of tracking errors. A method is presented which aims to improve the accuracy of incrementally tracked liver feature motion in long ultrasound sequences. Methods: Liver ultrasound data from five healthy volunteers under free breathing were used (15 to 17 Hz imaging rate, 2.9 to 5.5 minutes in length). A normalised cross-correlation template matching algorithm was implemented to estimate tissue motion. Blood vessel motion was manually annotated for comparison with three tracking code implementations: (i) naive incremental tracking (IT), (ii) IT plus a similarity threshold (ST) template-update method and (iii) ST coupled with a prediction-based state observer, known as the alpha-beta filter (ABST). Results: The ABST method produced substantial improvements in vessel tracking accuracy for two-dimensional vessel motion ranging from 7.9 mm to 40.4 mm (with mean respiratory period: 4.0 ± 1.1 s). The mean and 95% tracking errors were 1.6 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 mm and 9.1 mm, respectively for naive incremental tracking). Conclusions: High confidence in the output motion estimation data is required for ultrasound-based motion estimation for radiation therapy beam tracking and gating. The method presented has potential for monitoring liver vessel translational motion in high frame rate B-mode data with the required accuracy. This work is support by Cancer Research UK Programme Grant C33589/A19727.
Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy
Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho
2013-01-01
Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. Methods: An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Results: Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p < 0.001) and 29% (p < 0.001) for abdominal wall and diaphragm respiratory motion, respectively. Conclusions: This study was the first to demonstrate that the reduction of respiratory irregularities due to the implementation of AV biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sambarov, G. E.; Chernitsov, A. M.; Tamarov, V. A.
2014-12-01
It is obvious that the model of forces used in the differential equations of the movement of asteroids has to correspond to the accuracy of observation material. Depending on type of an orbit, possible encounters with specific planets of Solar system, power function may contain various set of obligatory components; the importance of each of them needs previously to be estimated. Less full, than it is necessary, the model of movement leads to systematic errors in calculations. In case of probable research of movement of asteroids such systematic errors can have the considerable influence on the accuracy of constructions of initial confidence regions. The consequence of this maybe missing of the studied object in estimated region of possible movements that is especially inadmissible in case of research of possibility of collisions of asteroids with Earth. In articles [1, 2] we suggested the method of estimation of accuracy of an asteroid motion model based on computation of a coefficient of displacement of confidence region. In this method the errors of force models are tightly connected with sizes of confidence regions and displacements of the least-square estimations defined for different models of movement of asteroids. In the given work we apply this method to research of movement of the objects having close encounters with Earth. Earth's oblateness might have essential influence on movement of such asteroids. Also reviewed asteroids with small perihelion distances, where Sunâs oblateness has to be taken under consideration during analysis of their movement. The estimations of influence of the Earth oblateness were made by us on the example of 2011 CQ1 and 2011 MD asteroids, and of the Sun oblateness - on the example of potentially hazardous 1995 CR and 2011 KE asteroids. For estimating of displacement of confidence regions of 2011 CQ1 and 2011 MD asteroids, where Earth oblateness was not taken under consideration during their motion calculation, numerical
Autoadaptive motion modelling for MR-based respiratory motion estimation.
Baumgartner, Christian F; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andrew P
2017-01-01
the autoadaptive motion model yielded 21.45% more accurate motion estimations compared to a non-adaptive motion model 10 min after a change in breathing pattern. On real data we demonstrated the method's ability to maintain motion estimation accuracy despite a drift in the respiratory baseline. Due to the cardiac gating of the imaging data, the method is currently limited to one update per heart beat and the calibration requires approximately 12 min of scanning. Furthermore, the method has a prediction latency of 800 ms. These limitations may be overcome in future work by altering the acquisition protocol.
Bayesian estimation of turbulent motion.
Héas, Patrick; Herzet, Cédric; Mémin, Etienne; Heitz, Dominique; Mininni, Pablo D
2013-06-01
Based on physical laws describing the multiscale structure of turbulent flows, this paper proposes a regularizer for fluid motion estimation from an image sequence. Regularization is achieved by imposing some scale invariance property between histograms of motion increments computed at different scales. By reformulating this problem from a Bayesian perspective, an algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate motion, regularization hyperparameters, and to select the most likely physical prior among a set of models. Hyperparameter and model inference are conducted by posterior maximization, obtained by marginalizing out non--Gaussian motion variables. The Bayesian estimator is assessed on several image sequences depicting synthetic and real turbulent fluid flows. Results obtained with the proposed approach exceed the state-of-the-art results in fluid flow estimation.
Aging persons' estimates of vehicular motion.
Schiff, W; Oldak, R; Shah, V
1992-12-01
Estimated arrival times of moving autos were examined in relation to viewer age, gender, motion trajectory, and velocity. Direct push-button judgments were compared with verbal estimates derived from velocity and distance, which were based on assumptions that perceivers compute arrival time from perceived distance and velocity. Experiment 1 showed that direct estimates of younger Ss were most accurate. Older women made the shortest (highly cautious) estimates of when cars would arrive. Verbal estimates were much lower than direct estimates, with little correlation between them. Experiment 2 extended target distances and velocities of targets, with the results replicating the main findings of Experiment 1. Judgment accuracy increased with target velocity, and verbal estimates were again poorer estimates of arrival time than direct ones, with different patterns of findings. Using verbal estimates to approximate judgments in traffic situations appears questionable.
Maximum likelihood estimates of polar motion parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Clark R.; Vicente, R. O.
1990-01-01
Two estimators developed by Jeffreys (1940, 1968) are described and used in conjunction with polar-motion data to determine the frequency (Fc) and quality factor (Qc) of the Chandler wobble. Data are taken from a monthly polar-motion series, satellite laser-ranging results, and optical astrometry and intercompared for use via interpolation techniques. Maximum likelihood arguments were employed to develop the estimators, and the assumption that polar motion relates to a Gaussian random process is assessed in terms of the accuracies of the estimators. The present results agree with those from Jeffreys' earlier study but are inconsistent with the later estimator; a Monte Carlo evaluation of the estimators confirms that the 1968 method is more accurate. The later estimator method shows good performance because the Fourier coefficients derived from the data have signal/noise levels that are superior to those for an individual datum. The method is shown to be valuable for general spectral-analysis problems in which isolated peaks must be analyzed from noisy data.
Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian
2015-01-01
Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their
Estimation and Accuracy after Model Selection
Efron, Bradley
2013-01-01
Classical statistical theory ignores model selection in assessing estimation accuracy. Here we consider bootstrap methods for computing standard errors and confidence intervals that take model selection into account. The methodology involves bagging, also known as bootstrap smoothing, to tame the erratic discontinuities of selection-based estimators. A useful new formula for the accuracy of bagging then provides standard errors for the smoothed estimators. Two examples, nonparametric and parametric, are carried through in detail: a regression model where the choice of degree (linear, quadratic, cubic, …) is determined by the Cp criterion, and a Lasso-based estimation problem. PMID:25346558
Motion models in attitude estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.
1994-01-01
Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.
Fast image interpolation for motion estimation using graphics hardware
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, Francis; Kokaram, Anil
2004-05-01
Motion estimation and compensation is the key to high quality video coding. Block matching motion estimation is used in most video codecs, including MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and H.26L. Motion estimation is also a key component in the digital restoration of archived video and for post-production and special effects in the movie industry. Sub-pixel accurate motion vectors can improve the quality of the vector field and lead to more efficient video coding. However sub-pixel accuracy requires interpolation of the image data. Image interpolation is a key requirement of many image processing algorithms. Often interpolation can be a bottleneck in these applications, especially in motion estimation due to the large number pixels involved. In this paper we propose using commodity computer graphics hardware for fast image interpolation. We use the full search block matching algorithm to illustrate the problems and limitations of using graphics hardware in this way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, M.; Teske, H.; Stoll, M.; Bendl, Rolf
2014-03-01
Purpose: Conformal radiation of moving tumours is a challenging task in radiotherapy. Tumour motion induced by respiration can be visualized in fluoroscopic images recorded during patients breathing. Markerless methods making use of registration techniques can be used to estimate tumour motion. However, registration methods might fail when the tumour is hidden by ribs. Using motion of anatomical surrogates, like the diaphragm, is promising to model tumour motion. Methods: A sequence of 116 fluoroscopic images was analyzed and the tumour positions were manually defined by three experts. A block matching (BM) technique is used to calculate the displacement vector relatively to a selected reference image of the first breathing cycle. An enhanced method was developed: Positions, when the tumour is not located behind a rib, are taken as valid estimations of the tumour position. Furthermore, these valid estimations are used to establish a linear model of tumour position and diaphragm motion. For invalid estimations the calculated tumour positions are not taken into consideration, and instead the model is used to determine tumour motion. Results: Enhancing BM with a model of tumour motion from diaphragm motion improves the tracking accuracy when the tumour moves behind a rib. The error (mean ± SD) in longitudinal dimension was 2.0 ± 1.5mm using only BM and 1.0 ± 1.1mm when the enhanced approach was used. Conclusion: The enhanced tracking technique is capable to improve tracking accuracy compared to BM in the case that the tumour is occluded by ribs.
Accuracy estimation for supervised learning algorithms
Glover, C.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Rao, N.S.V.
1997-04-01
This paper illustrates the relative merits of three methods - k-fold Cross Validation, Error Bounds, and Incremental Halting Test - to estimate the accuracy of a supervised learning algorithm. For each of the three methods we point out the problem they address, some of the important assumptions that are based on, and illustrate them through an example. Finally, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Estimating Motion From MRI Data
OZTURK, CENGIZHAN; DERBYSHIRE, J. ANDREW; MCVEIGH, ELLIOT R.
2007-01-01
Invited Paper Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal imaging modality to measure blood flow and tissue motion. It provides excellent contrast between soft tissues, and images can be acquired at positions and orientations freely defined by the user. From a temporal sequence of MR images, boundaries and edges of tissues can be tracked by image processing techniques. Additionally, MRI permits the source of the image signal to be manipulated. For example, temporary magnetic tags displaying a pattern of variable brightness may be placed in the object using MR saturation techniques, giving the user a known pattern to detect for motion tracking. The MRI signal is a modulated complex quantity, being derived from a rotating magnetic field in the form of an induced current. Well-defined patterns can also be introduced into the phase of the magnetization, and could be thought of as generalized tags. If the phase of each pixel is preserved during image reconstruction, relative phase shifts can be used to directly encode displacement, velocity and acceleration. New methods for modeling motion fields from MRI have now found application in cardiovascular and other soft tissue imaging. In this review, we shall describe the methods used for encoding, imaging, and modeling motion fields with MRI. PMID:18958181
Doppler estimation accuracy of linear FM waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daum, F. E.
The single-pulse Doppler estimation accuracy of an unweighted linear FM waveform is analyzed in detail. Simple formulas are derived that predict that one-sigma Doppler estimation error for realistic radar applications. The effects of multiple target interference and nonlinearlities in the radar measurements are considered. In addition, a practical method to estimate Doppler frequency is presented. This technique uses the phase data after pulse compression, and it limits the effect of multiple target interference. In contrast, the available literature is based on the Cramer-Rao bound for Doppler accuracy, which ignores the effects of nonlinearities, multiple target interference and the question of practical implementation. A simple formula is derived that predicts the region of validity for the Cramer-Rao bound. This formula provides a criterion for minimum signal-to-noise ratio in terms of time-bandwidth product. Finally, an important concept that is demonstrated in this paper is that: the bulk of the Doppler information in a linear FM pulse is encoded in the range sidelobes after pulse compression.
Accuracy Estimation in Force Spectroscopy Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rankl, Christian; Kienberger, Ferry; Gruber, Hermann; Blaas, Dieter; Hinterdorfer, Peter
2007-08-01
Force spectroscopy is a useful tool for the investigation of molecular interactions. We here present a detailed analysis of parameter estimation in force spectroscopy experiments. It provides the values of the statistical errors of the kinetic off-rate constant koff and the energy length scale xβ to be considered using the single barrier model. As a biologically relevant experimental system we used the interaction between human rhinovirus serotype 2 and a recombinant derivative of the very-low density lipoprotein receptor. The interaction forces of single virus-receptor pairs were measured at different loading rates and analysed according to the single barrier model. Accuracy estimates of koff and xβ were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrapping. For this model of virus-receptor attachment, force spectroscopy experiments yielded xβ=(0.38± 0.07) nm and \\ln koff=(-2.3± 1.0)\\ln s-1.
Repurposing video recordings for structure motion estimations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaloo, Ali; Lattanzi, David
2016-04-01
Video monitoring of public spaces is becoming increasingly ubiquitous, particularly near essential structures and facilities. During any hazard event that dynamically excites a structure, such as an earthquake or hurricane, proximal video cameras may inadvertently capture the motion time-history of the structure during the event. If this dynamic time-history could be extracted from the repurposed video recording it would become a valuable forensic analysis tool for engineers performing post-disaster structural evaluations. The diﬃculty is that almost all potential video cameras are not installed to monitor structure motions, leading to camera perspective distortions and other associated challenges. This paper presents a method for extracting structure motions from videos using a combination of computer vision techniques. Images from a video recording are first reprojected into synthetic images that eliminate perspective distortion, using as-built knowledge of a structure for calibration. The motion of the camera itself during an event is also considered. Optical flow, a technique for tracking per-pixel motion, is then applied to these synthetic images to estimate the building motion. The developed method was validated using the experimental records of the NEESHub earthquake database. The results indicate that the technique is capable of estimating structural motions, particularly the frequency content of the response. Further work will evaluate variants and alternatives to the optical flow algorithm, as well as study the impact of video encoding artifacts on motion estimates.
A Fourier approach to cloud motion estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arking, A.; Lo, R. C.; Rosenfield, A.
1977-01-01
A Fourier technique is described for estimating cloud motion from pairs of pictures using the phase of the cross spectral density. The method allows motion estimates to be made for individual spatial frequencies, which are related to cloud pattern dimensions. Results obtained are presented and compared with the results of a Fourier domain cross correlation scheme. Using both artificial and real cloud data show that the technique is relatively sensitive to the presence of mixtures of motions, changes in cloud shape, and edge effects.
Super-resolution without explicit subpixel motion estimation.
Takeda, Hiroyuki; Milanfar, Peyman; Protter, Matan; Elad, Michael
2009-09-01
The need for precise (subpixel accuracy) motion estimates in conventional super-resolution has limited its applicability to only video sequences with relatively simple motions such as global translational or affine displacements. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for adaptive enhancement and spatiotemporal upscaling of videos containing complex activities without explicit need for accurate motion estimation. Our approach is based on multidimensional kernel regression, where each pixel in the video sequence is approximated with a 3-D local (Taylor) series, capturing the essential local behavior of its spatiotemporal neighborhood. The coefficients of this series are estimated by solving a local weighted least-squares problem, where the weights are a function of the 3-D space-time orientation in the neighborhood. As this framework is fundamentally based upon the comparison of neighboring pixels in both space and time, it implicitly contains information about the local motion of the pixels across time, therefore rendering unnecessary an explicit computation of motions of modest size. The proposed approach not only significantly widens the applicability of super-resolution methods to a broad variety of video sequences containing complex motions, but also yields improved overall performance. Using several examples, we illustrate that the developed algorithm has super-resolution capabilities that provide improved optical resolution in the output, while being able to work on general input video with essentially arbitrary motion.
Accuracy and robustness of Kinect pose estimation in the context of coaching of elderly population.
Obdrzálek, Stepán; Kurillo, Gregorij; Ofli, Ferda; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Seto, Edmund; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Michael
2012-01-01
The Microsoft Kinect camera is becoming increasingly popular in many areas aside from entertainment, including human activity monitoring and rehabilitation. Many people, however, fail to consider the reliability and accuracy of the Kinect human pose estimation when they depend on it as a measuring system. In this paper we compare the Kinect pose estimation (skeletonization) with more established techniques for pose estimation from motion capture data, examining the accuracy of joint localization and robustness of pose estimation with respect to the orientation and occlusions. We have evaluated six physical exercises aimed at coaching of elderly population. Experimental results present pose estimation accuracy rates and corresponding error bounds for the Kinect system.
Estimating ground motions using recorded accelerograms
Heaton, T.H.; Tajima, Fumiko ); Mori, A.W. )
1986-03-01
A procedure for estimating ground motions using recorded accelerograms is described. The premise of the study is the assumption that future ground motions will be similar to those observed for similar site and tectonic situations in the past. Direct techniques for scaling existing accelerograms have been developed, based on relative estimates of local magnitude, M{sub L}. Design events are described deterministically in terms of fault dimension, tectonic setting (stress drop), fault distance, and site conditions. A combination of empirical and theoretical arguments is used to develop relationships between M{sub L} and other earthquake magnitude scales. In order to minimize scaling errors due to lack of understanding of the physics of strong ground motion, the procedure employs as few intermediate scaling laws as possible. The procedure conserves a meaningful measure of the uncertainty inherent when predicting ground motions from simple parameterizations of earthquake sources and site conditions.
Accuracy of GFR Estimation in Obese Patients
Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Sens, Florence; Nguyen-Tu, Marie-Sophie; Juillard, Laurent; Dubourg, Laurence; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur
2014-01-01
Background and objectives Adequate estimation of renal function in obese patients is essential for the classification of patients in CKD category as well as the dose adjustment of drugs. However, the body size descriptor for GFR indexation is still debatable, and formulas are not validated in patients with extreme variations of weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 209 stages 1–5 CKD obese patients referred to the Department of Renal Function Study at the University Hospital in Lyon between 2010 and 2013 because of suspected renal dysfunction. GFR was estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease and Epidemiology equation (CKD-EPI) and measured with a gold standard method (inulin or iohexol) not indexed (mGFR) or indexed to body surface area determined by the Dubois and Dubois formula with either real (mGFRr) or ideal (mGFRi) body weight. Mean bias (eGFR−mGFR), precision, and accuracy of mGFR were compared with the results obtained for nonobese participants (body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9) who had a GFR measurement during the same period of time. Results Mean mGFRr (51.6±24.2 ml/min per 1.73 m2) was significantly lower than mGFR, mGFRi, and eGFRCKD-EPI. eGFRCKD-EPI had less bias with mGFR (0.29; −1.7 to 2.3) and mGFRi (−1.62; −3.1 to 0.45) compared with mGFRr (8.7; 7 to 10). This result was confirmed with better accuracy for the whole cohort (78% for mGFR, 84% for mGFRi, and 72% for mGFRr) and participants with CKD stages 3–5. Moreover, the Bland Altman plot showed better agreement between mGFR and eGFRCKD-EPI. The bias between eGFRCKD-EPI and mGFRr was greater in obese than nonobese participants (8.7 versus 0.58, P<0.001). Conclusions This study shows that, in obese CKD patients, the performance of eGFRCKD-EPI is good for GFR≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Indexation of mGFR with body surface area using ideal body weight gives less bias than mGFR scaled with body surface area using real body weight. PMID:24482068
Improving visual estimates of cervical spine range of motion.
Hirsch, Brandon P; Webb, Matthew L; Bohl, Daniel D; Fu, Michael; Buerba, Rafael A; Gruskay, Jordan A; Grauer, Jonathan N
2014-11-01
Cervical spine range of motion (ROM) is a common measure of cervical conditions, surgical outcomes, and functional impairment. Although ROM is routinely assessed by visual estimation in clinical practice, visual estimates have been shown to be unreliable and inaccurate. Reliable goniometers can be used for assessments, but the associated costs and logistics generally limit their clinical acceptance. To investigate whether training can improve visual estimates of cervical spine ROM, we asked attending surgeons, residents, and medical students at our institution to visually estimate the cervical spine ROM of healthy subjects before and after a training session. This training session included review of normal cervical spine ROM in 3 planes and demonstration of partial and full motion in 3 planes by multiple subjects. Estimates before, immediately after, and 1 month after this training session were compared to assess reliability and accuracy. Immediately after training, errors decreased by 11.9° (flexion-extension), 3.8° (lateral bending), and 2.9° (axial rotation). These improvements were statistically significant. One month after training, visual estimates remained improved, by 9.5°, 1.6°, and 3.1°, respectively, but were statistically significant only in flexion-extension. Although the accuracy of visual estimates can be improved, clinicians should be aware of the limitations of visual estimates of cervical spine ROM. Our study results support scrutiny of visual assessment of ROM as a criterion for diagnosing permanent impairment or disability.
Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu
2015-01-01
Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the Neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324
Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing
2015-11-21
Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing
2015-11-01
Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.
Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas
2012-01-01
This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…
Image segmentation via motion vector estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Malek, Aiman A.; Hasekioglu, Orkun; Bloomer, John J.
1990-07-01
In the visual world moving edges in the periphery represent vital pieces of information that directs the human foveation mechanism to selectively gather information around these specific locations. This computationally efficient approach of allocating resources at key locations has inspired computer visionists to develop new target detection and hacking algorithms based on motion detection in image sequences. In this study we implemented a recursive algorithm for estimating motion vector fields for each pixel in a sequence of Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) images. Velocity information is used to segment the image and perform linear quadratic and acceleration-based frame interpolation to produce an apparent frame rate increase. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of low-rate digital fluoroscopy hence less exposure risks while preserving image quality. Furthermore the technique can be useful in the medical Picture Archival and Communication Systems (PACS) where image data can be compressed by storing and transmiting only the motion fields associated with the moving pixels. 1.
Motion Estimation System Utilizing Point Cloud Registration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Qi (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A system and method of estimation motion of a machine is disclosed. The method may include determining a first point cloud and a second point cloud corresponding to an environment in a vicinity of the machine. The method may further include generating a first extended gaussian image (EGI) for the first point cloud and a second EGI for the second point cloud. The method may further include determining a first EGI segment based on the first EGI and a second EGI segment based on the second EGI. The method may further include determining a first two dimensional distribution for points in the first EGI segment and a second two dimensional distribution for points in the second EGI segment. The method may further include estimating motion of the machine based on the first and second two dimensional distributions.
Motion estimation using point cluster method and Kalman filter.
Senesh, M; Wolf, A
2009-05-01
The most frequently used method in a three dimensional human gait analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analyzed segment. This introduces a significant artifact, which strongly influences the bone position and orientation and joint kinematic estimates. In this study, we tested and evaluated the effect of adding a Kalman filter procedure to the previously reported point cluster technique (PCT) in the estimation of a rigid body motion. We demonstrated the procedures by motion analysis of a compound planar pendulum from indirect opto-electronic measurements of markers attached to an elastic appendage that is restrained to slide along the rigid body long axis. The elastic frequency is close to the pendulum frequency, as in the biomechanical problem, where the soft tissue frequency content is similar to the actual movement of the bones. Comparison of the real pendulum angle to that obtained by several estimation procedures--PCT, Kalman filter followed by PCT, and low pass filter followed by PCT--enables evaluation of the accuracy of the procedures. When comparing the maximal amplitude, no effect was noted by adding the Kalman filter; however, a closer look at the signal revealed that the estimated angle based only on the PCT method was very noisy with fluctuation, while the estimated angle based on the Kalman filter followed by the PCT was a smooth signal. It was also noted that the instantaneous frequencies obtained from the estimated angle based on the PCT method is more dispersed than those obtained from the estimated angle based on Kalman filter followed by the PCT method. Addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT method in the estimation procedure of rigid body motion results in a smoother signal that better represents the real motion, with less signal distortion than when using a digital low pass filter. Furthermore, it can be concluded that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT procedure substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal
Complex principal components for robust motion estimation.
Mauldin, F William; Viola, Francesco; Walker, William F
2010-11-01
Bias and variance errors in motion estimation result from electronic noise, decorrelation, aliasing, and inherent algorithm limitations. Unlike most error sources, decorrelation is coherent over time and has the same power spectrum as the signal. Thus, reducing decorrelation is impossible through frequency domain filtering or simple averaging and must be achieved through other methods. In this paper, we present a novel motion estimator, termed the principal component displacement estimator (PCDE), which takes advantage of the signal separation capabilities of principal component analysis (PCA) to reject decorrelation and noise. Furthermore, PCDE only requires the computation of a single principal component, enabling computational speed that is on the same order of magnitude or faster than the commonly used Loupas algorithm. Unlike prior PCA strategies, PCDE uses complex data to generate motion estimates using only a single principal component. The use of complex echo data is critical because it allows for separation of signal components based on motion, which is revealed through phase changes of the complex principal components. PCDE operates on the assumption that the signal component of interest is also the most energetic component in an ensemble of echo data. This assumption holds in most clinical ultrasound environments. However, in environments where electronic noise SNR is less than 0 dB or in blood flow data for which the wall signal dominates the signal from blood flow, the calculation of more than one PC is required to obtain the signal of interest. We simulated synthetic ultrasound data to assess the performance of PCDE over a wide range of imaging conditions and in the presence of decorrelation and additive noise. Under typical ultrasonic elasticity imaging conditions (0.98 signal correlation, 25 dB SNR, 1 sample shift), PCDE decreased estimation bias by more than 10% and standard deviation by more than 30% compared with the Loupas method and normalized
Intensity-Based Registration for Lung Motion Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Kunlin; Ding, Kai; Amelon, Ryan E.; Du, Kaifang; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Raghavan, Madhavan L.; Christensen, Gary E.
Image registration plays an important role within pulmonary image analysis. The task of registration is to find the spatial mapping that brings two images into alignment. Registration algorithms designed for matching 4D lung scans or two 3D scans acquired at different inflation levels can catch the temporal changes in position and shape of the region of interest. Accurate registration is critical to post-analysis of lung mechanics and motion estimation. In this chapter, we discuss lung-specific adaptations of intensity-based registration methods for 3D/4D lung images and review approaches for assessing registration accuracy. Then we introduce methods for estimating tissue motion and studying lung mechanics. Finally, we discuss methods for assessing and quantifying specific volume change, specific ventilation, strain/ stretch information and lobar sliding.
Estimating Consistency and Accuracy Indices for Multiple Classifications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Won-Chan; Hanson, Bradley A.; Brennan, Robert L.
2002-01-01
This article describes procedures for estimating various indices of classification consistency and accuracy for multiple category classifications using data from a single test administration. The estimates of the classification consistency and accuracy indices are compared under three different psychometric models: the two-parameter beta binomial,…
Albedo Accuracy Impact On Evapotranspiration Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattar, C.; Franch, B.; Sobrino, J. A.; Corbari, C.; Jimenez-Munoz, J. C.; Olivera, L.; Skerbaba, D.; Soria, G.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Julien, Y.; Manchini, M.
2013-12-01
In this work, we analyze the influence of estimating the land surface albedo directly from the surface reflectance or through the BRDF integration in the estimation of energy balance components such as the net radiation, latent and heat flux and consequently in the land surface evapotranspiration. To this end, we processed remote sensing and in-situ meteorological data measured at the agricultural test site of Barrax in the framework of Earth Observation: optical Data calibration and Information eXtraction (EODIX) project. Remote sensing images were acquisitioned for different View Zenith Angles (VZA) by the Airborne Hyperspectral Images (AHS). Results have shown that albedo estimations derived from BRDF model present stability through every image while albedo estimations using single reflectance presented high variation depending on the VZA. The highest difference was observed in the backward scattering direction along the hot spot region obtaining a RMSE of 0.11 through the AHS image which implied a relative error of 65%. This work has analyzed the error committed by many evapotranspiration studies that assume the surface as Lambertian and estimate the albedo from a surface reflectance weighted average.
Boldea, Vlad; Sharp, Gregory C; Jiang, Steve B; Sarrut, David
2008-03-01
In this article, our goal is twofold. First, we propose and compare two methods which process deformable registration to estimate patient specific lung and tumor displacements and deformation during free breathing from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) data. Second, we propose techniques to quantify the physiological parameters of motion nonlinearity and hysteresis. A Fréchet distance-based criterion is introduced to measure the motion hysteresis. Experiments were conducted with 4D-CT data of five patients treated in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The accuracy of deformation fields assessed against expert-selected landmarks was found to be within image voxel tolerance. The second method gave slightly better results in terms of accuracy and consistency, although the differences were not statistically significant between the two methods. Lung motion nonlinearity and hysteresis are patient specific, and vary across regions within the lung during respiration. For all patients, motion between end-exhale and end-inhale was well approximated with a straight line trajectory for the majority of lung points. Hysteresis was found to be globally correlated with trajectory length. The main limitation to the proposed method is that intensity-based deformable registration is dependent on image quality and image resolution. Another limitation is the absence of gold standard which makes the validation of the computed motion difficult. However, the proposed tools provide patient specific motion information which, in radiotherapy for example, can ease the definition of precise internal margins. In the future, the integration of physiological information from multiple patients could help to create a general lung atlas with different clinical applications.
Motion estimation in the 3-D Gabor domain.
Feng, Mu; Reed, Todd R
2007-08-01
Motion estimation methods can be broadly classified as being spatiotemporal or frequency domain in nature. The Gabor representation is an analysis framework providing localized frequency information. When applied to image sequences, the 3-D Gabor representation displays spatiotemporal/spatiotemporal-frequency (st/stf) information, enabling the application of robust frequency domain methods with adjustable spatiotemporal resolution. In this work, the 3-D Gabor representation is applied to motion analysis. We demonstrate that piecewise uniform translational motion can be estimated by using a uniform translation motion model in the st/stf domain. The resulting motion estimation method exhibits both good spatiotemporal resolution and substantial noise resistance compared to existing spatiotemporal methods. To form the basis of this model, we derive the signature of the translational motion in the 3-D Gabor domain. Finally, to obtain higher spatiotemporal resolution for more complex motions, a dense motion field estimation method is developed to find a motion estimate for every pixel in the sequence.
Robust ego-motion estimation and 3-D model refinement using surface parallax.
Agrawal, Amit; Chellappa, Rama
2006-05-01
We present an iterative algorithm for robustly estimating the ego-motion and refining and updating a coarse depth map using parametric surface parallax models and brightness derivatives extracted from an image pair. Given a coarse depth map acquired by a range-finder or extracted from a digital elevation map (DEM), ego-motion is estimated by combining a global ego-motion constraint and a local brightness constancy constraint. Using the estimated camera motion and the available depth estimate, motion of the three-dimensional (3-D) points is compensated. We utilize the fact that the resulting surface parallax field is an epipolar field, and knowing its direction from the previous motion estimates, estimate its magnitude and use it to refine the depth map estimate. The parallax magnitude is estimated using a constant parallax model (CPM) which assumes a smooth parallax field and a depth based parallax model (DBPM), which models the parallax magnitude using the given depth map. We obtain confidence measures for determining the accuracy of the estimated depth values which are used to remove regions with potentially incorrect depth estimates for robustly estimating ego-motion in subsequent iterations. Experimental results using both synthetic and real data (both indoor and outdoor sequences) illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying
2014-01-01
When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…
Liu, Hong; Yan, Meng; Song, Enmin; Wang, Jie; Wang, Qian; Jin, Renchao; Jin, Lianghai; Hung, Chih-Cheng
2016-05-01
Myocardial motion estimation of tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (TCMR) images is of great significance in clinical diagnosis and the treatment of heart disease. Currently, the harmonic phase analysis method (HARP) and the local sine-wave modeling method (SinMod) have been proven as two state-of-the-art motion estimation methods for TCMR images, since they can directly obtain the inter-frame motion displacement vector field (MDVF) with high accuracy and fast speed. By comparison, SinMod has better performance over HARP in terms of displacement detection, noise and artifacts reduction. However, the SinMod method has some drawbacks: 1) it is unable to estimate local displacements larger than half of the tag spacing; 2) it has observable errors in tracking of tag motion; and 3) the estimated MDVF usually has large local errors. To overcome these problems, we present a novel motion estimation method in this study. The proposed method tracks the motion of tags and then estimates the dense MDVF by using the interpolation. In this new method, a parameter estimation procedure for global motion is applied to match tag intersections between different frames, ensuring specific kinds of large displacements being correctly estimated. In addition, a strategy of tag motion constraints is applied to eliminate most of errors produced by inter-frame tracking of tags and the multi-level b-splines approximation algorithm is utilized, so as to enhance the local continuity and accuracy of the final MDVF. In the estimation of the motion displacement, our proposed method can obtain a more accurate MDVF compared with the SinMod method and our method can overcome the drawbacks of the SinMod method. However, the motion estimation accuracy of our method depends on the accuracy of tag lines detection and our method has a higher time complexity.
High Accuracy Decoding of Dynamical Motion from a Large Retinal Population
Marre, Olivier; Botella-Soler, Vicente; Simmons, Kristina D.; Mora, Thierry; Tkačik, Gašper; Berry, Michael J.
2015-01-01
Motion tracking is a challenge the visual system has to solve by reading out the retinal population. It is still unclear how the information from different neurons can be combined together to estimate the position of an object. Here we recorded a large population of ganglion cells in a dense patch of salamander and guinea pig retinas while displaying a bar moving diffusively. We show that the bar’s position can be reconstructed from retinal activity with a precision in the hyperacuity regime using a linear decoder acting on 100+ cells. We then took advantage of this unprecedented precision to explore the spatial structure of the retina’s population code. The classical view would have suggested that the firing rates of the cells form a moving hill of activity tracking the bar’s position. Instead, we found that most ganglion cells in the salamander fired sparsely and idiosyncratically, so that their neural image did not track the bar. Furthermore, ganglion cell activity spanned an area much larger than predicted by their receptive fields, with cells coding for motion far in their surround. As a result, population redundancy was high, and we could find multiple, disjoint subsets of neurons that encoded the trajectory with high precision. This organization allows for diverse collections of ganglion cells to represent high-accuracy motion information in a form easily read out by downstream neural circuits. PMID:26132103
Asymptotic accuracy of Bayesian estimation for a single latent variable.
Yamazaki, Keisuke
2015-09-01
In data science and machine learning, hierarchical parametric models, such as mixture models, are often used. They contain two kinds of variables: observable variables, which represent the parts of the data that can be directly measured, and latent variables, which represent the underlying processes that generate the data. Although there has been an increase in research on the estimation accuracy for observable variables, the theoretical analysis of estimating latent variables has not been thoroughly investigated. In a previous study, we determined the accuracy of a Bayes estimation for the joint probability of the latent variables in a dataset, and we proved that the Bayes method is asymptotically more accurate than the maximum-likelihood method. However, the accuracy of the Bayes estimation for a single latent variable remains unknown. In the present paper, we derive the asymptotic expansions of the error functions, which are defined by the Kullback-Leibler divergence, for two types of single-variable estimations when the statistical regularity is satisfied. Our results indicate that the accuracies of the Bayes and maximum-likelihood methods are asymptotically equivalent and clarify that the Bayes method is only advantageous for multivariable estimations.
Increasing accuracy in the assessment of motion sickness: A construct methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stout, Cynthia S.; Cowings, Patricia S.
1993-01-01
The purpose is to introduce a new methodology that should improve the accuracy of the assessment of motion sickness. This construct methodology utilizes both subjective reports of motion sickness and objective measures of physiological correlates to assess motion sickness. Current techniques and methods used in the framework of a construct methodology are inadequate. Current assessment techniques for diagnosing motion sickness and space motion sickness are reviewed, and attention is called to the problems with the current methods. Further, principles of psychophysiology that when applied will probably resolve some of these problems are described in detail.
Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen
2008-01-01
COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.
Testing the Accuracy of a Projectile Motion Apparatus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Bret; Martell, Eric
2013-03-01
The purpose of this research is to predict where a ball would land given initial velocity, angular velocity, and atmospheric conditions. A spinning spherical object flying through air is affected by gravity, quadratic drag forces, and the Magnus force. Mathematica was used to numerically solve predictions for the equations of motion. These predictions were compared with experimental data gathered by launching tennis balls, baseballs, and/or soccer balls from a machine we designed to propel the balls with a pre-determined initial velocity and initial angular velocity.
Colored noise effects on batch attitude accuracy estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilanow, Stephen
1991-01-01
The effects of colored noise on the accuracy of batch least squares parameter estimates with applications to attitude determination cases are investigated. The standard approaches used for estimating the accuracy of a computed attitude commonly assume uncorrelated (white) measurement noise, while in actual flight experience measurement noise often contains significant time correlations and thus is colored. For example, horizon scanner measurements from low Earth orbit were observed to show correlations over many minutes in response to large scale atmospheric phenomena. A general approach to the analysis of the effects of colored noise is investigated, and interpretation of the resulting equations provides insight into the effects of any particular noise color and the worst case noise coloring for any particular parameter estimate. It is shown that for certain cases, the effects of relatively short term correlations can be accommodated by a simple correction factor. The errors in the predicted accuracy assuming white noise and the reduced accuracy due to the suboptimal nature of estimators that do not take into account the noise color characteristics are discussed. The appearance of a variety of sample noise color characteristics are demonstrated through simulation, and their effects are discussed for sample estimation cases. Based on the analysis, options for dealing with the effects of colored noise are discussed.
Flies and humans share a motion estimation strategy that exploits natural scene statistics
Clark, Damon A.; Fitzgerald, James E.; Ales, Justin M.; Gohl, Daryl M.; Silies, Marion A.; Norcia, Anthony M.; Clandinin, Thomas R.
2014-01-01
Sighted animals extract motion information from visual scenes by processing spatiotemporal patterns of light falling on the retina. The dominant models for motion estimation exploit intensity correlations only between pairs of points in space and time. Moving natural scenes, however, contain more complex correlations. Here we show that fly and human visual systems encode the combined direction and contrast polarity of moving edges using triple correlations that enhance motion estimation in natural environments. Both species extract triple correlations with neural substrates tuned for light or dark edges, and sensitivity to specific triple correlations is retained even as light and dark edge motion signals are combined. Thus, both species separately process light and dark image contrasts to capture motion signatures that can improve estimation accuracy. This striking convergence argues that statistical structures in natural scenes have profoundly affected visual processing, driving a common computational strategy over 500 million years of evolution. PMID:24390225
Wang, Liang; Basarab, Adrian; Girard, Patrick R; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Delachartre, Philippe
2015-08-01
Different mathematical tools, such as multidimensional analytic signals, allow for the calculation of 2D spatial phases of real-value images. The motion estimation method proposed in this paper is based on two spatial phases of the 2D analytic signal applied to cardiac sequences. By combining the information of these phases issued from analytic signals of two successive frames, we propose an analytical estimator for 2D local displacements. To improve the accuracy of the motion estimation, a local bilinear deformation model is used within an iterative estimation scheme. The main advantages of our method are: (1) The phase-based method allows the displacement to be estimated with subpixel accuracy and is robust to image intensity variation in time; (2) Preliminary filtering is not required due to the bilinear model. The proposed algorithm, integrating phase-based optical flow motion estimation and the combination of global motion compensation with local bilinear transform, allows spatio-temporal cardiac motion analysis, e.g. strain and dense trajectory estimation over the cardiac cycle. Results from 7 realistic simulated tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences show that our method is more accurate compared with state-of-the-art method for cardiac motion analysis and with another differential approach from the literature. The motion estimation errors (end point error) of the proposed method are reduced by about 33% compared with that of the two methods. In our work, the frame-to-frame displacements are further accumulated in time, to allow for the calculation of myocardial Lagrangian cardiac strains and point trajectories. Indeed, from the estimated trajectories in time on 11 in vivo data sets (9 patients and 2 healthy volunteers), the shape of myocardial point trajectories belonging to pathological regions are clearly reduced in magnitude compared with the ones from normal regions. Myocardial point trajectories, estimated from our phase-based analytic
Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes
Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie
2008-08-15
In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.
Interferometric estimation of ice sheet motion and topography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joughlin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, Mark; Winebrenner, Dale; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Gogenini, Prasad
1997-01-01
With ERS-1/2 satellite radar interferometry, it is possible to make measurements of glacier motion with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. Interferometric techniques were applied to map velocity and topography for several outlet glaciers in Greenland. For the Humboldt and Petermann glaciers, data from several adjacent tracks were combined to make a wide-area map that includes the enhanced flow regions of both glaciers. The discharge flux of the Petermann glacier upstream of the grounding line was estimated, thereby establishing the potential use of ERS-1/2 interferometric data for monitoring ice-sheet discharge. Interferograms collected along a single track are sensitive to only one component of motion. By utilizing data from ascending and descending passes and by making a surface-parallel flow assumption, it is possible to measure the full three-dimensional vector flow field. The application of this technique for an area on the Ryder glacier is demonstrated. Finally, ERS-1/2 interferograms were used to observe a mini-surge on the Ryder glacier that occurred in autumn of 1995.
Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features
Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan
2013-12-15
Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided
Effectiveness of external respiratory surrogates for in vivo liver motion estimation
Chang, Kai-Hsiang; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lian, Feng-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Yen, Jia-Yush; Chen, Yung-Yaw
2012-08-15
Purpose: Due to low frame rate of MRI and high radiation damage from fluoroscopy and CT, liver motion estimation using external respiratory surrogate signals seems to be a better approach to track liver motion in real-time for liver tumor treatments in radiotherapy and thermotherapy. This work proposes a liver motion estimation method based on external respiratory surrogate signals. Animal experiments are also conducted to investigate related issues, such as the sensor arrangement, multisensor fusion, and the effective time period. Methods: Liver motion and abdominal motion are both induced by respiration and are proved to be highly correlated. Contrary to the difficult direct measurement of the liver motion, the abdominal motion can be easily accessed. Based on this idea, our study is split into the model-fitting stage and the motion estimation stage. In the first stage, the correlation between the surrogates and the liver motion is studied and established via linear regression method. In the second stage, the liver motion is estimated by the surrogate signals with the correlation model. Animal experiments on cases of single surrogate signal, multisurrogate signals, and long-term surrogate signals are conducted and discussed to verify the practical use of this approach. Results: The results show that the best single sensor location is at the middle of the upper abdomen, while multisurrogate models are generally better than the single ones. The estimation error is reduced from 0.6 mm for the single surrogate models to 0.4 mm for the multisurrogate models. The long-term validity of the estimation models is quite satisfactory within the period of 10 min with the estimation error less than 1.4 mm. Conclusions: External respiratory surrogate signals from the abdomen motion produces good performance for liver motion estimation in real-time. Multisurrogate signals enhance estimation accuracy, and the estimation model can maintain its accuracy for at least 10 min. This
Theoretical informational estimation of spatial signal restoration accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, Sergey V.; Bakut, Peter A.; Shumilov, Yurij P.
1994-12-01
In the article the relationship between the accuracy of random spatial signal restoration and information quantity about signal, that is inherent in the random observing function, is considered on the base of information and statistical decision theory notions. It is shown that in special case of statistically homogeneous strong correlated signal in the observing area the obtained lower bound of signal restoration error dispersion is analogous to the lower bound defined with Cramer-Rao inequality which is widely used in statistical estimation theory for analysing of the discrete parameters potential accu- racy. The obtained results are used for accuracy analysis of satellite information systems which are employed in the optical wavelength region. The image restoration accuracy is considered in dependence of the influence of small particles ejected from satellite and the quantum noise being, the result of irradiance-photodetector substance interaction.
Estimating psychological networks and their accuracy: A tutorial paper.
Epskamp, Sacha; Borsboom, Denny; Fried, Eiko I
2017-03-24
The usage of psychological networks that conceptualize behavior as a complex interplay of psychological and other components has gained increasing popularity in various research fields. While prior publications have tackled the topics of estimating and interpreting such networks, little work has been conducted to check how accurate (i.e., prone to sampling variation) networks are estimated, and how stable (i.e., interpretation remains similar with less observations) inferences from the network structure (such as centrality indices) are. In this tutorial paper, we aim to introduce the reader to this field and tackle the problem of accuracy under sampling variation. We first introduce the current state-of-the-art of network estimation. Second, we provide a rationale why researchers should investigate the accuracy of psychological networks. Third, we describe how bootstrap routines can be used to (A) assess the accuracy of estimated network connections, (B) investigate the stability of centrality indices, and (C) test whether network connections and centrality estimates for different variables differ from each other. We introduce two novel statistical methods: for (B) the correlation stability coefficient, and for (C) the bootstrapped difference test for edge-weights and centrality indices. We conducted and present simulation studies to assess the performance of both methods. Finally, we developed the free R-package bootnet that allows for estimating psychological networks in a generalized framework in addition to the proposed bootstrap methods. We showcase bootnet in a tutorial, accompanied by R syntax, in which we analyze a dataset of 359 women with posttraumatic stress disorder available online.
Accuracy and Precision of GPS Carrier-Phase Clock Estimates
2001-01-01
L‘Geodesy using the Global Positioning System : The eflects of signal scattering o n esti- mates of site positions , ” Journal of Geophysical Research...maia.usno.navy.mil Abstract The accuracy of GPS -based clock estimates is determined by the pseudorange data. For 24-hour arcs of global data sampled...ps) for 1-day integrations. Assuming such positioning results can be realized also as equivalent light-travel times, the po- tential of GPS carrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Shi; Jiang, Yao; Li, Tiemin; Du, Yunsong
2017-01-01
Flexure-based micro-motion mechanisms have been widely utilized in modern precision industry due to their inherent merits, while model uncertainty, uncertain nonlinearity, and cross-coupling effect will obviously deteriorate their contour accuracy, especially in the high-speed application. This paper aims at improving the contouring performance of a flexure-based micro-motion stage utilized for tracking repetitive trajectories. The dynamic characteristic of the micro-motion stage is first studied and modeled as a second-order system, which is identified through an open-loop sinusoidal sweeping test. Then the iterative learning control (ILC) scheme is utilized to improve the tracking performance of individual axis of the stage. A nonlinear cross-coupled iterative learning control (CCILC) scheme is proposed to reduce the coupling effect among each axis, and thus improves contour accuracy of the stage. The nonlinear gain function incorporated into the CCILC controller can effectively avoid amplifying the non-recurring disturbances and noises in the iterations, which can further improve the stage's contour accuracy in high-speed motion. Comparative experiments between traditional PID, ILC, ILC & CCILC, and the proposed ILC & nonlinear CCILC are carried out on the micro-motion stage to track circular and square trajectories. The results demonstrate that the proposed control scheme outperforms other control schemes much in improving the stage's contour accuracy in high-speed motion. The study in this paper provides a practically effective technique for the flexure-based micro-motion stage in high-speed contouring motion.
Unscented Kalman filtering for single camera based motion and shape estimation.
Jwo, Dah-Jing; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Liu, Jen-Chu; Lee, Hsien-Der
2011-01-01
Accurate estimation of the motion and shape of a moving object is a challenging task due to great variety of noises present from sources such as electronic components and the influence of the external environment, etc. To alleviate the noise, the filtering/estimation approach can be used to reduce it in streaming video to obtain better estimation accuracy in feature points on the moving objects. To deal with the filtering problem in the appropriate nonlinear system, the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which neglects higher-order derivatives in the linearization process, has been very popular. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF), which uses a deterministic sampling approach to capture the mean and covariance estimates with a minimal set of sample points, is able to achieve at least the second order accuracy without Jacobians' computation involved. In this paper, the UKF is applied to the rigid body motion and shape dynamics to estimate feature points on moving objects. The performance evaluation is carried out through the numerical study. The results show that UKF demonstrates substantial improvement in accuracy estimation for implementing the estimation of motion and planar surface parameters of a single camera.
Human joint motion estimation for electromyography (EMG)-based dynamic motion control.
Zhang, Qin; Hosoda, Ryo; Venture, Gentiane
2013-01-01
This study aims to investigate a joint motion estimation method from Electromyography (EMG) signals during dynamic movement. In most EMG-based humanoid or prosthetics control systems, EMG features were directly or indirectly used to trigger intended motions. However, both physiological and nonphysiological factors can influence EMG characteristics during dynamic movements, resulting in subject-specific, non-stationary and crosstalk problems. Particularly, when motion velocity and/or joint torque are not constrained, joint motion estimation from EMG signals are more challenging. In this paper, we propose a joint motion estimation method based on muscle activation recorded from a pair of agonist and antagonist muscles of the joint. A linear state-space model with multi input single output is proposed to map the muscle activity to joint motion. An adaptive estimation method is proposed to train the model. The estimation performance is evaluated in performing a single elbow flexion-extension movement in two subjects. All the results in two subjects at two load levels indicate the feasibility and suitability of the proposed method in joint motion estimation. The estimation root-mean-square error is within 8.3% ∼ 10.6%, which is lower than that being reported in several previous studies. Moreover, this method is able to overcome subject-specific problem and compensate non-stationary EMG properties.
Adamson, Justus; Wu Qiuwen
2008-05-15
Margin reduction for prostate radiotherapy is limited by uncertainty in prostate localization during treatment. We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of measuring prostate intrafraction motion using kV fluoroscopy performed simultaneously with radiotherapy. Three gold coils used for target localization were implanted into the patient's prostate gland before undergoing hypofractionated online image-guided step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. At each fraction, the patient was aligned using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), after which the IMRT treatment delivery and fluoroscopy were performed simultaneously. In addition, a post-treatment CBCT was acquired with the patient still on the table. To measure the intrafraction motion, we developed an algorithm to register the fluoroscopy images to a reference image derived from the post-treatment CBCT, and we estimated coil motion in three-dimensional (3D) space by combining information from registrations at different gantry angles. We also detected the MV beam turning on and off using MV scatter incident in the same fluoroscopy images, and used this information to synchronize our intrafraction evaluation with the treatment delivery. In addition, we assessed the following: the method to synchronize with treatment delivery, the dose from kV imaging, the accuracy of the localization, and the error propagated into the 3D localization from motion between fluoroscopy acquisitions. With 0.16 mAs/frame and a bowtie filter implemented, the coils could be localized with the gantry at both 0 deg. and 270 deg. with the MV beam off, and at 270 deg. with the MV beam on when multiple fluoroscopy frames were averaged. The localization in two-dimensions for phantom and patient measurements was performed with submillimeter accuracy. After backprojection into 3D the patient localization error was (-0.04{+-}0.30) mm, (0.09{+-}0.36) mm, and (0.03{+-}0.68) mm in the
Adamson, Justus; Wu, Qiuwen
2008-01-01
Margin reduction for prostate radiotherapy is limited by uncertainty in prostate localization during treatment. We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of measuring prostate intrafraction motion using kV fluoroscopy performed simultaneously with radiotherapy. Three gold coils used for target localization were implanted into the patient’s prostate gland before undergoing hypofractionated online image-guided step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. At each fraction, the patient was aligned using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), after which the IMRT treatment delivery and fluoroscopy were performed simultaneously. In addition, a post-treatment CBCT was acquired with the patient still on the table. To measure the intrafraction motion, we developed an algorithm to register the fluoroscopy images to a reference image derived from the post-treatment CBCT, and we estimated coil motion in three-dimensional (3D) space by combining information from registrations at different gantry angles. We also detected the MV beam turning on and off using MV scatter incident in the same fluoroscopy images, and used this information to synchronize our intrafraction evaluation with the treatment delivery. In addition, we assessed the following: the method to synchronize with treatment delivery, the dose from kV imaging, the accuracy of the localization, and the error propagated into the 3D localization from motion between fluoroscopy acquisitions. With 0.16 mAs∕frame and a bowtie filter implemented, the coils could be localized with the gantry at both 0° and 270° with the MV beam off, and at 270° with the MV beam on when multiple fluoroscopy frames were averaged. The localization in two-dimensions for phantom and patient measurements was performed with submillimeter accuracy. After backprojection into 3D the patient localization error was (−0.04±0.30) mm, (0.09±0.36) mm, and (0.03±0.68) mm in the right
Real-time soft tissue motion estimation for lung tumors during radiotherapy delivery
Rottmann, Joerg; Keall, Paul; Berbeco, Ross
2013-01-01
Purpose: To provide real-time lung tumor motion estimation during radiotherapy treatment delivery without the need for implanted fiducial markers or additional imaging dose to the patient. Methods: 2D radiographs from the therapy beam's-eye-view (BEV) perspective are captured at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz with a frame grabber allowing direct RAM access to the image buffer. An in-house developed real-time soft tissue localization algorithm is utilized to calculate soft tissue displacement from these images in real-time. The system is tested with a Varian TX linear accelerator and an AS-1000 amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device operating at a resolution of 512 × 384 pixels. The accuracy of the motion estimation is verified with a dynamic motion phantom. Clinical accuracy was tested on lung SBRT images acquired at 2 fps. Results: Real-time lung tumor motion estimation from BEV images without fiducial markers is successfully demonstrated. For the phantom study, a mean tracking error <1.0 mm [root mean square (rms) error of 0.3 mm] was observed. The tracking rms accuracy on BEV images from a lung SBRT patient (≈20 mm tumor motion range) is 1.0 mm. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate for the first time real-time markerless lung tumor motion estimation from BEV images alone. The described system can operate at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz and does not require prior knowledge to establish traceable landmarks for tracking on the fly. The authors show that the geometric accuracy is similar to (or better than) previously published markerless algorithms not operating in real-time. PMID:24007146
The Plus or Minus Game - Teaching Estimation, Precision, and Accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forringer, Edward R.; Forringer, Richard S.; Forringer, Daniel S.
2016-03-01
A quick survey of physics textbooks shows that many (Knight, Young, and Serway for example) cover estimation, significant digits, precision versus accuracy, and uncertainty in the first chapter. Estimation "Fermi" questions are so useful that there has been a column dedicated to them in TPT (Larry Weinstein's "Fermi Questions.") For several years the authors (a college physics professor, a retired algebra teacher, and a fifth-grade teacher) have been playing a game, primarily at home to challenge each other for fun, but also in the classroom as an educational tool. We call the game "The Plus or Minus Game." The game combines estimation with the principle of precision and uncertainty in a competitive and fun way.
2007-08-01
A VARIATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SIMULTANEOUS MOTION ESTIMATION AND RESTORATION OF MOTION-BLURRED VIDEO By Leah Bar Benjamin Berkels Martin Rumpf and...Numerical Simulation University of Bonn, Germany benjamin.berkels@ins.uni-bonn.de Martin Rumpf Institute for Numerical Simulation University of Bonn...Image Processing, 10, no. 2:266 – 277, 2001. 6, 7 [6]D. Cremers and S. Soatto. Motion competition: A variotional approach to piecewiese parametric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taki, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Toru
2015-07-01
High-accuracy ultrasound motion estimation has become an essential technique in blood flow imaging, elastography, and motion imaging of the heart wall. Speckle tracking has been one of the best motion estimators; however, conventional speckle-tracking methods neglect the effect of out-of-plane motion and deformation. Our proposed method assumes that the cross-correlation between a reference signal and a comparison signal depends on the spatio-temporal distance between the two signals. The proposed method uses the decrease in the cross-correlation value in a reference frame to compensate for the intrinsic error caused by out-of-plane motion and deformation without a priori information. The root-mean-square error of the estimated lateral tissue motion velocity calculated by the proposed method ranged from 6.4 to 34% of that using a conventional speckle-tracking method. This study demonstrates the high potential of the proposed method for improving the estimation of tissue motion using an ultrasound speckle-tracking method in medical diagnosis.
Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter for Gait Rehabilitation Motion Estimation and Segmentation.
Joukov, Vladimir; Bonnet, Vincent; Karg, Michelle; Venture, Gentiane; Kulic, Dana
2017-01-26
This work proposes a method to enable the use of non-intrusive, small, wearable, wireless sensors to estimate the pose of the lower body during gait and other periodic motions and to extract objective performance measures useful for physiotherapy. The Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter (Rhythmic- EKF) algorithm is developed to estimate the pose, learn an individualized model of periodic movement over time, and use the learned model to improve pose estimation. The proposed approach learns a canonical dynamical system model of the movement during online observation, which is used to accurately model the acceleration during pose estimation. The canonical dynamical system models the motion as a periodic signal. The estimated phase and frequency of the motion also allow the proposed approach to segment the motion into repetitions and extract useful features such as gait symmetry, step length, and mean joint movement and variance. The algorithm is shown to outperform the extended Kalman filter in simulation, on healthy participant data, and stroke patient data. For the healthy participant marching dataset, the Rhythmic-EKF improves joint acceleration and velocity estimates over regular EKF by 40% and 37% respectively, estimates joint angles with 2.4° RMSE, and segments the motion into repetitions with 96% accuracy.
Estimated Accuracy of Three Common Trajectory Statistical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kabashnikov, Vitaliy P.; Chaikovsky, Anatoli P.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Metelskaya, Natalia S.
2011-01-01
Three well-known trajectory statistical methods (TSMs), namely concentration field (CF), concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and potential source contribution function (PSCF) methods were tested using known sources and artificially generated data sets to determine the ability of TSMs to reproduce spatial distribution of the sources. In the works by other authors, the accuracy of the trajectory statistical methods was estimated for particular species and at specified receptor locations. We have obtained a more general statistical estimation of the accuracy of source reconstruction and have found optimum conditions to reconstruct source distributions of atmospheric trace substances. Only virtual pollutants of the primary type were considered. In real world experiments, TSMs are intended for application to a priori unknown sources. Therefore, the accuracy of TSMs has to be tested with all possible spatial distributions of sources. An ensemble of geographical distributions of virtual sources was generated. Spearman s rank order correlation coefficient between spatial distributions of the known virtual and the reconstructed sources was taken to be a quantitative measure of the accuracy. Statistical estimates of the mean correlation coefficient and a range of the most probable values of correlation coefficients were obtained. All the TSMs that were considered here showed similar close results. The maximum of the ratio of the mean correlation to the width of the correlation interval containing the most probable correlation values determines the optimum conditions for reconstruction. An optimal geographical domain roughly coincides with the area supplying most of the substance to the receptor. The optimal domain s size is dependent on the substance decay time. Under optimum reconstruction conditions, the mean correlation coefficients can reach 0.70 0.75. The boundaries of the interval with the most probable correlation values are 0.6 0.9 for the decay time of 240 h
Wall motion estimation in intracranial aneurysms.
Oubel, E; Cebral, J R; De Craene, M; Blanc, R; Blasco, J; Macho, J; Putman, C M; Frangi, A F
2010-09-01
The quantification of wall motion in cerebral aneurysms is becoming important owing to its potential connection to rupture, and as a way to incorporate the effects of vascular compliance in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Most of papers report values obtained with experimental phantoms, simulated images or animal models, but the information for real patients is limited. In this paper, we have combined non-rigid registration with signal processing techniques to measure pulsation in real patients from high frame rate digital subtraction angiography. We have obtained physiological meaningful waveforms with amplitudes in the range 0 mm-0.3 mm for a population of 18 patients including ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Statistically significant differences in pulsation were found according to the rupture status, in agreement with differences in biomechanical properties reported in the literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morgan, Grant B.; Zhu, Min; Johnson, Robert L.; Hodge, Kari J.
2014-01-01
Common estimators of interrater reliability include Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, Spearman rank-order correlations, and the generalizability coefficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of estimators of interrater reliability when varying the true reliability, number of scale categories, and number of…
Application of genetic algorithm to hexagon-based motion estimation.
Kung, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Wan-Shu; Jeng, Jyh-Horng
2014-01-01
With the improvement of science and technology, the development of the network, and the exploitation of the HDTV, the demands of audio and video become more and more important. Depending on the video coding technology would be the solution for achieving these requirements. Motion estimation, which removes the redundancy in video frames, plays an important role in the video coding. Therefore, many experts devote themselves to the issues. The existing fast algorithms rely on the assumption that the matching error decreases monotonically as the searched point moves closer to the global optimum. However, genetic algorithm is not fundamentally limited to this restriction. The character would help the proposed scheme to search the mean square error closer to the algorithm of full search than those fast algorithms. The aim of this paper is to propose a new technique which focuses on combing the hexagon-based search algorithm, which is faster than diamond search, and genetic algorithm. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the encoding speed and accuracy of hexagon-based search pattern method and proposed method.
Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.
2013-12-01
The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.
Accuracy of selected techniques for estimating ice-affected streamflow
Walker, John F.
1991-01-01
This paper compares the accuracy of selected techniques for estimating streamflow during ice-affected periods. The techniques are classified into two categories - subjective and analytical - depending on the degree of judgment required. Discharge measurements have been made at three streamflow-gauging sites in Iowa during the 1987-88 winter and used to established a baseline streamflow record for each site. Using data based on a simulated six-week field-tip schedule, selected techniques are used to estimate discharge during the ice-affected periods. For the subjective techniques, three hydrographers have independently compiled each record. Three measures of performance are used to compare the estimated streamflow records with the baseline streamflow records: the average discharge for the ice-affected period, and the mean and standard deviation of the daily errors. Based on average ranks for three performance measures and the three sites, the analytical and subjective techniques are essentially comparable. For two of the three sites, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance detects significant differences among the three hydrographers for the subjective methods, indicating that the subjective techniques are less consistent than the analytical techniques. The results suggest analytical techniques may be viable tools for estimating discharge during periods of ice effect, and should be developed further and evaluated for sites across the United States.
Hierarchical motion estimation with smoothness constraints and postprocessing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Kan; Van Eycken, Luc; Oosterlinck, Andre J.
1996-01-01
How to acquire accurate and reliable motion parameters from an image sequence is a knotty problem for many applications in image processing, image recognition, and video coding, especially when scenes involve moving objects with various shapes and sizes as well as very fast and complicated motion. In this paper, an improved pel-based motion estimation (ME) algorithm with smoothness constraints is presented, which is based on the investigation and the comparison of different existing pel-based ME (or optical flow) algorithms. Then, in order to cope with various moving objects and their complex motion, a hierarchical ME algorithm with smoothness constraints and postprocessing is proposed. The experimental results show that the motion parameters obtained by the hierarchical ME algorithm are quite creditable and seem to be close to the real physical motion fields if the luminance intensity changes are due to the motion of objects. The hierarchical ME algorithm still provides approximate and smooth vector fields even for scenes that involve some motion-irrelevant intensity changes or blurring caused by violent motion.
Motion correction for improving the accuracy of dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pack, Jed D.; Yin, Zhye; Xiong, Guanglei; Mittal, Priya; Dunham, Simon; Elmore, Kimberly; Edic, Peter M.; Min, James K.
2016-03-01
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death globally [1]. Modern cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is highly effective at identifying and assessing coronary blockages associated with CAD. The diagnostic value of this anatomical information can be substantially increased in combination with a non-invasive, low-dose, correlative, quantitative measure of blood supply to the myocardium. While CT perfusion has shown promise of providing such indications of ischemia, artifacts due to motion, beam hardening, and other factors confound clinical findings and can limit quantitative accuracy. In this paper, we investigate the impact of applying a novel motion correction algorithm to correct for motion in the myocardium. This motion compensation algorithm (originally designed to correct for the motion of the coronary arteries in order to improve CCTA images) has been shown to provide substantial improvements in both overall image quality and diagnostic accuracy of CCTA. We have adapted this technique for application beyond the coronary arteries and present an assessment of its impact on image quality and quantitative accuracy within the context of dual-energy CT perfusion imaging. We conclude that motion correction is a promising technique that can help foster the routine clinical use of dual-energy CT perfusion. When combined, the anatomical information of CCTA and the hemodynamic information from dual-energy CT perfusion should facilitate better clinical decisions about which patients would benefit from treatments such as stent placement, drug therapy, or surgery and help other patients avoid the risks and costs associated with unnecessary, invasive, diagnostic coronary angiography procedures.
Estimating joint kinematics from skin motion observation: modelling and validation.
Wolf, Alon; Senesh, Merav
2011-11-01
Modelling of soft tissue motion is required in many areas, such as computer animation, surgical simulation, 3D motion analysis and gait analysis. In this paper, we will focus on the use of modelling of skin deformation during 3D motion analysis. The most frequently used method in 3D human motion analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analysed segment which is composed of the rigid bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Skin and soft tissue deformations introduce a significant artefact which strongly influences the resulting bone position, orientation and joint kinematics. For this study, we used a statistical solid dynamics approach which is a combination of several previously reported tools: the point cluster technique (PCT) and a Kalman filter which was added to the PCT. The methods were tested and evaluated on controlled human-arm motions, using an optical motion capture system (Vicon(TM)). The addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT for rigid body motion estimation results in a smoother signal that better represents the joint motion. Calculations indicate less signal distortion than when using a digital low-pass filter. Furthermore, adding a Kalman filter to the PCT substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal instantaneous frequencies. For controlled human movements, the result indicated that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT produced a more accurate signal. However, it could not be concluded that the proposed Kalman filter is better than a low-pass filter for estimation of the motion. We suggest that implementation of a Kalman filter with a better biomechanical motion model will be more likely to improve the results.
O’Shea, Tuathan P. Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Harris, Emma J.
2016-01-15
Purpose: Ultrasound-based motion estimation is an expanding subfield of image-guided radiation therapy. Although ultrasound can detect tissue motion that is a fraction of a millimeter, its accuracy is variable. For controlling linear accelerator tracking and gating, ultrasound motion estimates must remain highly accurate throughout the imaging sequence. This study presents a temporal regularization method for correlation-based template matching which aims to improve the accuracy of motion estimates. Methods: Liver ultrasound sequences (15–23 Hz imaging rate, 2.5–5.5 min length) from ten healthy volunteers under free breathing were used. Anatomical features (blood vessels) in each sequence were manually annotated for comparison with normalized cross-correlation based template matching. Five sequences from a Siemens Acuson™ scanner were used for algorithm development (training set). Results from incremental tracking (IT) were compared with a temporal regularization method, which included a highly specific similarity metric and state observer, known as the α–β filter/similarity threshold (ABST). A further five sequences from an Elekta Clarity™ system were used for validation, without alteration of the tracking algorithm (validation set). Results: Overall, the ABST method produced marked improvements in vessel tracking accuracy. For the training set, the mean and 95th percentile (95%) errors (defined as the difference from manual annotations) were 1.6 and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 and 9.1 mm, respectively, for IT). For each sequence, the use of the state observer leads to improvement in the 95% error. For the validation set, the mean and 95% errors for the ABST method were 0.8 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound-based motion estimation has potential to monitor liver translation over long time periods with high accuracy. Nonrigid motion (strain) and the quality of the ultrasound data are likely to have an impact on tracking
Bayesian-Based Motion Estimation with Flat Priors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keren, Daniel
2004-11-01
This paper demonstrates that in a certain class of motion estimation problems, the Bayesian technique of integrating out the "nuisance parameters" yields stable solutions even if a non-informative ("flat") prior on the motion parameters is used. The advantage of the suggested method is more noticeable when the domain points approach a degenerate configuration, and/or when the noise is relatively large with respect to the size of the point configuration.
Self-Motion and Depth Estimation from Image Sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perrone, John
1999-01-01
An image-based version of a computational model of human self-motion perception (developed in collaboration with Dr. Leland S. Stone at NASA Ames Research Center) has been generated and tested. The research included in the grant proposal sought to extend the utility of the self-motion model so that it could be used for explaining and predicting human performance in a greater variety of aerospace applications. The model can now be tested with video input sequences (including computer generated imagery) which enables simulation of human self-motion estimation in a variety of applied settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilms, M.; Werner, R.; Ehrhardt, J.; Schmidt-Richberg, A.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Handels, H.
2014-03-01
Breathing-induced location uncertainties of internal structures are still a relevant issue in the radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumours. Motion compensation approaches like gating or tumour tracking are usually driven by low-dimensional breathing signals, which are acquired in real-time during the treatment. These signals are only surrogates of the internal motion of target structures and organs at risk, and, consequently, appropriate models are needed to establish correspondence between the acquired signals and the sought internal motion patterns. In this work, we present a diffeomorphic framework for correspondence modelling based on the Log-Euclidean framework and multivariate regression. Within the framework, we systematically compare standard and subspace regression approaches (principal component regression, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis) for different types of common breathing signals (1D: spirometry, abdominal belt, diaphragm tracking; multi-dimensional: skin surface tracking). Experiments are based on 4D CT and 4D MRI data sets and cover intra- and inter-cycle as well as intra- and inter-session motion variations. Only small differences in internal motion estimation accuracy are observed between the 1D surrogates. Increasing the surrogate dimensionality, however, improved the accuracy significantly; this is shown for both 2D signals, which consist of a common 1D signal and its time derivative, and high-dimensional signals containing the motion of many skin surface points. Eventually, comparing the standard and subspace regression variants when applied to the high-dimensional breathing signals, only small differences in terms of motion estimation accuracy are found.
Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian
2013-01-01
Background Inertial measurement of motion with Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) is emerging as an alternative to 3D motion capture systems in biomechanics. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of commercially available AHRS under various types of motion; and 2) to evaluate the effect of motion velocity on the accuracy of these measurements. Methods The criterion validity of accuracy was established under controlled conditions using an instrumented Gimbal table. AHRS modules were carefully attached to the center plate of the Gimbal table and put through experimental static and dynamic conditions. Static and absolute accuracy was assessed by comparing the AHRS orientation measurement to those obtained using an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was assessed by measuring the variation in relative orientation between modules during trials. Findings Evaluated AHRS systems demonstrated good absolute static accuracy (mean error < 0.5o) and clinically acceptable absolute accuracy under condition of slow motions (mean error between 0.5o and 3.1o). In slow motions, relative accuracy varied from 2o to 7o depending on the type of AHRS and the type of rotation. Absolute and relative accuracy were significantly affected (p<0.05) by velocity during sustained motions. The extent of that effect varied across AHRS. Interpretation Absolute and relative accuracy of AHRS are affected by environmental magnetic perturbations and conditions of motions. Relative accuracy of AHRS is mostly affected by the ability of all modules to locate the same global reference coordinate system at all time. Conclusions Existing AHRS systems can be considered for use in clinical biomechanics under constrained conditions of use. While their individual capacity to track absolute motion is relatively consistent, the use of multiple AHRS modules to compute relative motion between rigid bodies needs to be optimized according to
Estimation and filtering techniques for high-accuracy GPS applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, S. M.
1989-01-01
Techniques for determination of very precise orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) are currently being studied and demonstrated. These techniques can be used to make cm-accurate measurements of station locations relative to the geocenter, monitor earth orientation over timescales of hours, and provide tropospheric and clock delay calibrations during observations made with deep space radio antennas at sites where the GPS receivers have been collocated. For high-earth orbiters, meter-level knowledge of position will be available from GPS, while at low altitudes, sub-decimeter accuracy will be possible. Estimation of satellite orbits and other parameters such as ground station positions is carried out with a multi-satellite batch sequential pseudo-epoch state process noise filter. Both square-root information filtering (SRIF) and UD-factorized covariance filtering formulations are implemented in the software.
Zhang, Zhijun; Ashraf, Muhammad; Sahn, David J.; Song, Xubo
2014-01-01
Purpose: Quantitative analysis of cardiac motion is important for evaluation of heart function. Three dimensional (3D) echocardiography is among the most frequently used imaging modalities for motion estimation because it is convenient, real-time, low-cost, and nonionizing. However, motion estimation from 3D echocardiographic sequences is still a challenging problem due to low image quality and image corruption by noise and artifacts. Methods: The authors have developed a temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation approach in which the velocity field instead of the displacement field was optimized. The optimal velocity field optimizes a novel similarity function, which we call the intensity consistency error, defined as multiple consecutive frames evolving to each time point. The optimization problem is solved by using the steepest descent method. Results: Experiments with simulated datasets, images of an ex vivo rabbit phantom, images of in vivo open-chest pig hearts, and healthy human images were used to validate the authors’ method. Simulated and real cardiac sequences tests showed that results in the authors’ method are more accurate than other competing temporal diffeomorphic methods. Tests with sonomicrometry showed that the tracked crystal positions have good agreement with ground truth and the authors’ method has higher accuracy than the temporal diffeomorphic free-form deformation (TDFFD) method. Validation with an open-access human cardiac dataset showed that the authors’ method has smaller feature tracking errors than both TDFFD and frame-to-frame methods. Conclusions: The authors proposed a diffeomorphic motion estimation method with temporal smoothness by constraining the velocity field to have maximum local intensity consistency within multiple consecutive frames. The estimated motion using the authors’ method has good temporal consistency and is more accurate than other temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation methods. PMID:24784402
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing
2016-08-01
In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10-40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET.
Low-complexity motion estimation for long-term memory motion compensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hyukjune; Ortega, Antonio; Sawchuk, Alexander A.
2002-01-01
Long term memory motion compensation (LTMC) is an approach to extend the temporal motion search range by using multiple decoded frames as reference frames. By employing multiple reference frames, LTMC reduces the residual frame energy significantly. However the computational complexity of motion estimation for LTMC increases significantly as well. Therefore reduction of the required computational complexity is one of the most challenging issues for LTMC. Also, if we locate motion search windows at fixed locations in a frame buffer for a given macro-block, it is highly possible that the oldest frames in a frame buffer do not contain matching blocks due to the reduced correlation between the current frame and the reference frames located further in the frame buffer. Therefore, if we can locate the motion search window at a good position adaptively in a frame buffer, we can enhance the gain performance of LTMS. In this paper, we propose a novel motion estimation algorithm for LTMC to reduce significantly the required computation complexity, and to enhance the performance of LTMC. For the proposed motion estimation algorithm, we introduce a directed search strategy. Also, we propose to employ hypothesis testing fast matching (HTFM) as a fast matching criterion. The goal of a directed search strategy is to let the location of the motion search windows change adaptively as the search proceeds to older frames in the frame buffer. The main benefit over standard, fixed window, approaches is that the algorithm can track larger motion and therefore, we can reduce the residual frame energy. In addition, because the directed search strategy keeps track of best matched blocks, we can reduce the computational complexity significantly by reducing the motion search window area in a frame buffer. Simulation results show that by employing the directed search with reduced motion search window, we can reduce the computational complexity approximately 30%-40%, and that by employing HTFM
The SCoRE residual: a quality index to assess the accuracy of joint estimations.
Ehrig, Rainald M; Heller, Markus O; Kratzenstein, Stefan; Duda, Georg N; Trepczynski, Adam; Taylor, William R
2011-04-29
The determination of an accurate centre of rotation (CoR) from skin markers is essential for the assessment of abnormal gait patterns in clinical gait analysis. Despite the many functional approaches to estimate CoRs, no non-invasive analytical determination of the error in the reconstructed joint location is currently available. The purpose of this study was therefore to verify the residual of the symmetrical centre of rotation estimation (SCoRE) as a reliable indirect measure of the error of the computed joint centre. To evaluate the SCoRE residual, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate CoR estimations at different ranges of joint motion. A statistical model was developed and used to determine the theoretical relationships among the SCoRE residual, the magnitude of the skin marker artefact, the corrections to the marker positions, and the error of the CoR estimations to the known centre of rotation. We found that the equation err=0.5r(s) provides a reliable relationship among the CoR error, err, and the scaled SCoRE residual, r(s), providing that any skin marker artefact is first minimised using the optimal common shape technique (OCST). Measurements on six healthy volunteers showed a reduction of SCoRE residual from 11 to below 6mm and therefore demonstrated consistency of the theoretical considerations and numerical simulations with the in vivo data. This study also demonstrates the significant benefit of the OCST for reducing skin marker artefact and thus for predicting the accuracy of determining joint centre positions in functional gait analysis. For the first time, this understanding of the SCoRE residual allows a measure of error in the non-invasive assessment of joint centres. This measure now enables a rapid assessment of the accuracy of the CoR as well as an estimation of the reproducibility and repeatability of skeletal motion patterns.
The accuracy of measuring glenohumeral motion with a surface humeral cuff.
Hamming, David; Braman, Jonathan P; Phadke, Vandana; LaPrade, Robert F; Ludewig, Paula M
2012-04-30
Conclusions about normal and pathologic shoulder motion are frequently made from studies using skin surface markers, yet accuracy of such sensors representing humeral motion is not well known. Nineteen subjects were investigated with flock of birds electromagnetic sensors attached to transcortical pins placed into the scapula and humerus, and a thermoplastic cuff secured on the arm. Subjects completed two repetitions of raising and lowering the arm in the sagittal, scapular and coronal planes, as well as shoulder internal and external rotation with the elbow at the side and abducted to 90°. Humeral motion was recorded simultaneously from surface and bone fixed sensors. The average magnitude of error was calculated for the surface and bone fixed measurements throughout the range of motion. ANOVA tested for differences across angles of elevation, raising and lowering, and differences in body mass index. For all five motions tested, the plane of elevation rotation average absolute error ranged from 0-2°, while the humeral elevation rotation average error ranged from 0-4°. The axial rotation average absolute error was much greater, ranging from 5° during elevation motions to approaching 30° at maximum excursion of internal/external rotation motions. Average absolute error was greater in subjects with body mass index greater than 25. Surface sensors are an accurate way of measuring humeral elevation rotations and plane of elevation rotations. Conversely, there is a large amount of average error for axial rotations when using a humeral cuff to measure glenohumeral internal/external rotation as the primary motion.
Improvement of sub-pixel global motion estimation in UAV image stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yingjuan; Ji, Ming; He, Junfeng; Zhen, Kang; Yang, Yizhou; Chen, Ying
2016-01-01
Global motion estimation within frames is very important in the UAV(unmanned aerial vehicle) image stabilization system. A fast algorithm based on phase correlation and image down-sampling in sub-pixel was proposed. First, down-sampling of the two frames to quantitatively reduce calculate data. Then, take the method based of phase correlation to realize the global motion estimation in integer-pixel. When it calculated out, chooses the overlapped area of the two frames and interpolated them with zero, then adopts the method based on phase correlation to achieve the global motion estimation in sub-pixel. At last, weighted calculate the result in integer-pixel and the result in sub-pixel, the global motion displacement in sub-pixel of the two images will be calculated out. Experimental results show that, using the proposed algorithm can not only achieve good robustness to the influence of noise, illumination and partially sheltered but also improve the accuracy of motion estimation and efficiency of computing significantly.
Improving Accuracy of Influenza-Associated Hospitalization Rate Estimates
Reed, Carrie; Kirley, Pam Daily; Aragon, Deborah; Meek, James; Farley, Monica M.; Ryan, Patricia; Collins, Jim; Lynfield, Ruth; Baumbach, Joan; Zansky, Shelley; Bennett, Nancy M.; Fowler, Brian; Thomas, Ann; Lindegren, Mary L.; Atkinson, Annette; Finelli, Lyn; Chaves, Sandra S.
2015-01-01
Diagnostic test sensitivity affects rate estimates for laboratory-confirmed influenza–associated hospitalizations. We used data from FluSurv-NET, a national population-based surveillance system for laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations, to capture diagnostic test type by patient age and influenza season. We calculated observed rates by age group and adjusted rates by test sensitivity. Test sensitivity was lowest in adults >65 years of age. For all ages, reverse transcription PCR was the most sensitive test, and use increased from <10% during 2003–2008 to ≈70% during 2009–2013. Observed hospitalization rates per 100,000 persons varied by season: 7.3–50.5 for children <18 years of age, 3.0–30.3 for adults 18–64 years, and 13.6–181.8 for adults >65 years. After 2009, hospitalization rates adjusted by test sensitivity were ≈15% higher for children <18 years, ≈20% higher for adults 18–64 years, and ≈55% for adults >65 years of age. Test sensitivity adjustments improve the accuracy of hospitalization rate estimates. PMID:26292017
Performance comparison of motion estimation algorithms on digital video images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, N. A.; Ja'Afar, A. S.; Anathakrishnan, K. S.
2009-12-01
This paper presents a comparative study on technique to achieve high compression ratio in video coding. The focus is on the Block Matching Motion Estimation (BMME) techniques. It has been particularly used in various coding standards. In the BMME, search patterns and the center-biased characteristics of motion vector (MV) have large impact on the search speed and quality of video. Three fast Block Matching Algorithms (BMAs) of motion estimation through block matching have been implemented and performance of these three has been tested using MATLAB software. The Cross Diamond Search (CDS) is compared with Full Search (FS) and Cross Search (CS) algorithms based on search points (search speed) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as the quality of the video. The CDS algorithm was designed to fit the cross-center-biased (CCB) MV distribution characteristics of the real-world video sequences. CDS compares favorably with the other algorithms for low motion sequences in terms of speed, quality and computational complexity. Keywords: Block-matching, motion estimation, digital video compression, cross-centered biased, cross diamond search.
Performance comparison of motion estimation algorithms on digital video images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, N. A.; Ja'afar, A. S.; Anathakrishnan, K. S.
2010-03-01
This paper presents a comparative study on technique to achieve high compression ratio in video coding. The focus is on the Block Matching Motion Estimation (BMME) techniques. It has been particularly used in various coding standards. In the BMME, search patterns and the center-biased characteristics of motion vector (MV) have large impact on the search speed and quality of video. Three fast Block Matching Algorithms (BMAs) of motion estimation through block matching have been implemented and performance of these three has been tested using MATLAB software. The Cross Diamond Search (CDS) is compared with Full Search (FS) and Cross Search (CS) algorithms based on search points (search speed) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as the quality of the video. The CDS algorithm was designed to fit the cross-center-biased (CCB) MV distribution characteristics of the real-world video sequences. CDS compares favorably with the other algorithms for low motion sequences in terms of speed, quality and computational complexity. Keywords: Block-matching, motion estimation, digital video compression, cross-centered biased, cross diamond search.
Hybrid-Empirical Ground Motion Estimations for Georgia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsereteli, Nino; Askan, Aysegul; Hamzehloo, Hossein
2016-10-01
Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. In seismically active regions without sufficiently strong ground motion data to build empirical models, hybrid models become vital. Georgia does not have sufficiently strong ground motion data to build empirical models. In this study, we have applied the host-totarget method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism, while the other is in Iran with the prevalence of reverse-mechanism events. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced in Campbell (2003). An initial set of hybrid empirical ground motion estimates is obtained for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia.
On the Orientation Error of IMU: Investigating Static and Dynamic Accuracy Targeting Human Motion
Ricci, Luca; Taffoni, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
The accuracy in orientation tracking attainable by using inertial measurement units (IMU) when measuring human motion is still an open issue. This study presents a systematic quantification of the accuracy under static conditions and typical human dynamics, simulated by means of a robotic arm. Two sensor fusion algorithms, selected from the classes of the stochastic and complementary methods, are considered. The proposed protocol implements controlled and repeatable experimental conditions and validates accuracy for an extensive set of dynamic movements, that differ in frequency and amplitude of the movement. We found that dynamic performance of the tracking is only slightly dependent on the sensor fusion algorithm. Instead, it is dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the movement and a major contribution to the error derives from the orientation of the rotation axis w.r.t. the gravity vector. Absolute and relative errors upper bounds are found respectively in the range [0.7° ÷ 8.2°] and [1.0° ÷ 10.3°]. Alongside dynamic, static accuracy is thoroughly investigated, also with an emphasis on convergence behavior of the different algorithms. Reported results emphasize critical issues associated with the use of this technology and provide a baseline level of performance for the human motion related application. PMID:27612100
On the Orientation Error of IMU: Investigating Static and Dynamic Accuracy Targeting Human Motion.
Ricci, Luca; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico
2016-01-01
The accuracy in orientation tracking attainable by using inertial measurement units (IMU) when measuring human motion is still an open issue. This study presents a systematic quantification of the accuracy under static conditions and typical human dynamics, simulated by means of a robotic arm. Two sensor fusion algorithms, selected from the classes of the stochastic and complementary methods, are considered. The proposed protocol implements controlled and repeatable experimental conditions and validates accuracy for an extensive set of dynamic movements, that differ in frequency and amplitude of the movement. We found that dynamic performance of the tracking is only slightly dependent on the sensor fusion algorithm. Instead, it is dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the movement and a major contribution to the error derives from the orientation of the rotation axis w.r.t. the gravity vector. Absolute and relative errors upper bounds are found respectively in the range [0.7° ÷ 8.2°] and [1.0° ÷ 10.3°]. Alongside dynamic, static accuracy is thoroughly investigated, also with an emphasis on convergence behavior of the different algorithms. Reported results emphasize critical issues associated with the use of this technology and provide a baseline level of performance for the human motion related application.
Iida, M.; Miyatake, T.; Shimazaki, K.
1990-01-01
We develop general rules for a strong-motion array layout on the basis of our method of applying a prediction analysis to a source inversion scheme. A systematic analysis is done to obtain a relationship between fault-array parameters and the accuracy of a source inversion. Our study of the effects of various physical waves indicates that surface waves at distant stations contribute significantly to the inversion accuracy for the inclined fault plane, whereas only far-field body waves at both small and large distances contribute to the inversion accuracy for the vertical fault, which produces more phase interference. These observations imply the adequacy of the half-space approximation used throughout our present study and suggest rules for actual array designs. -from Authors
Wentz, T; Fayad, H; Bert, J; Pradier, O; Clement, J F; Vourch, S; Boussion, N; Visvikis, D
2012-07-07
Time-of-flight (ToF) camera technology provides a real-time depth map of a scene with adequate frequency for the monitoring of physiological patient motion. However, dynamic surface motion estimation using a ToF camera is limited by issues such as the raw measurement accuracy and the absence of fixed anatomical landmarks. In this work we propose to overcome these limitations using surface modeling through B-splines. This approach was assessed in terms of both motion estimation accuracy and associated variability improvements using acquisitions of an anthropomorphic surface phantom for a range of observation distances (0.6-1.4 m). In addition, feasibility was demonstrated on patient acquisitions. Using the proposed B-spline modeling, the mean motion estimation error and associated repeatability with respect to the raw measurements decreased by a factor of 3. Significant correlation was found between patients' surfaces motion extracted using the proposed B-spline approach applied to the ToF data and the one extracted from synchronized 4D-CT acquisitions as the ground truth. ToF cameras represent a promising alternative for contact-less patient surface monitoring for respiratory motion synchronization or modeling in imaging and/or radiotherapy applications.
Human heading estimation during visually simulated curvilinear motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, L. S.; Perrone, J. A.
1997-01-01
Recent studies have suggested that humans cannot estimate their direction of forward translation (heading) from the resulting retinal motion (flow field) alone when rotation rates are higher than approximately 1 deg/sec. It has been argued that either oculomotor or static depth cues are necessary to disambiguate the rotational and translational components of the flow field and, thus, to support accurate heading estimation. We have re-examined this issue using visually simulated motion along a curved path towards a layout of random points as the stimulus. Our data show that, in this curvilinear motion paradigm, five of six observers could estimate their heading relatively accurately and precisely (error and uncertainty < approximately 4 deg), even for rotation rates as high as 16 deg/sec, without the benefit of either oculomotor or static depth cues signaling rotation rate. Such performance is inconsistent with models of human self-motion estimation that require rotation information from sources other than the flow field to cancel the rotational flow.
An Adaptive Motion Estimation Scheme for Video Coding
Gao, Yuan; Jia, Kebin
2014-01-01
The unsymmetrical-cross multihexagon-grid search (UMHexagonS) is one of the best fast Motion Estimation (ME) algorithms in video encoding software. It achieves an excellent coding performance by using hybrid block matching search pattern and multiple initial search point predictors at the cost of the computational complexity of ME increased. Reducing time consuming of ME is one of the key factors to improve video coding efficiency. In this paper, we propose an adaptive motion estimation scheme to further reduce the calculation redundancy of UMHexagonS. Firstly, new motion estimation search patterns have been designed according to the statistical results of motion vector (MV) distribution information. Then, design a MV distribution prediction method, including prediction of the size of MV and the direction of MV. At last, according to the MV distribution prediction results, achieve self-adaptive subregional searching by the new estimation search patterns. Experimental results show that more than 50% of total search points are dramatically reduced compared to the UMHexagonS algorithm in JM 18.4 of H.264/AVC. As a result, the proposed algorithm scheme can save the ME time up to 20.86% while the rate-distortion performance is not compromised. PMID:24672313
High-dimensional entropy estimation for finite accuracy data: R-NN entropy estimator.
Kybic, Jan
2007-01-01
We address the problem of entropy estimation for high-dimensional finite-accuracy data. Our main application is evaluating high-order mutual information image similarity criteria for multimodal image registration. The basis of our method is an estimator based on k-th nearest neighbor (NN) distances, modified so that only distances greater than some constant R are evaluated. This modification requires a correction which is found numerically in a preprocessing step using quadratic programming. We compare experimentally our new method with k-NN and histogram estimators on synthetic data as well as for evaluation of mutual information for image similarity.
Classifier-based latency estimation: a novel way to estimate and predict BCI accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, David E.; Warschausky, Seth; Huggins, Jane E.
2013-02-01
Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that detect event-related potentials (ERPs) rely on classification schemes that are vulnerable to latency jitter, a phenomenon known to occur with ERPs such as the P300 response. The objective of this work was to investigate the role that latency jitter plays in BCI classification. Approach. We developed a novel method, classifier-based latency estimation (CBLE), based on a generalization of Woody filtering. The technique works by presenting the time-shifted data to the classifier, and using the time shift that corresponds to the maximal classifier score. Main results. The variance of CBLE estimates correlates significantly (p < 10-42) with BCI accuracy in the Farwell-Donchin BCI paradigm. Additionally, CBLE predicts same-day accuracy, even from small datasets or datasets that have already been used for classifier training, better than the accuracy on the small dataset (p < 0.05). The technique should be relatively classifier-independent, and the results were confirmed on two linear classifiers. Significance. The results suggest that latency jitter may be an important cause of poor BCI performance, and methods that correct for latency jitter may improve that performance. CBLE can also be used to decrease the amount of data needed for accuracy estimation, allowing research on effects with shorter timescales.
Liu, Helen; Holt, Cathy; Evans, Sam
2007-01-01
Optical motion analysis techniques have been widely used in biomechanics for measuring large-scale motions such as gait, but have not yet been significantly explored for measuring smaller movements such as the tooth displacements under load. In principle, very accurate measurements could be possible and this could provide a valuable tool in many engineering applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy and repeatability of the Qualisys ProReflex-MCU120 system when measuring small displacements, as a step towards measuring tooth displacements to characterise the properties of the periodontal ligament. Accuracy and repeatability of the system was evaluated using a wedge comparator with a resolution of 0.25 microm to provide measured marker displacements in three orthogonal directions. The marker was moved in ten steps in each direction, for each of seven step sizes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 microm), repeated five times. Spherical and diamond markers were tested. The system accuracy (i.e. percentage of maximum absolute error in range/measurement range), in the 20-200 microm ranges, was +/-1.17%, +/-1.67% and +/-1.31% for the diamond marker in x, y and z directions, while the system accuracy for the spherical marker was +/-1.81%, +/-2.37% and +/-1.39%. The system repeatability (i.e. maximum standard deviation in the measurement range) measured under the different days, light intensity and temperatures for five times, carried out step up and then step down measurements for the same step size, was +/-1.7, +/-2.3 and +/-1.9 microm for the diamond marker, and +/-2.6, +/-3.9 and +/-1.9 microm for the spherical marker in x, y and z directions, respectively. These results demonstrate that the system suffices accuracy for measuring tooth displacements and could potentially be useful in many other applications.
Aviles, Angelica I; Widlak, Thomas; Casals, Alicia; Nillesen, Maartje; Ammari, Habib
2017-03-24
Cardiac motion estimation is an important diagnostic tool to detect heart diseases and it has been explored with modalities such as MRI and conventional ultrasound (US) sequences. US cardiac motion estimation still presents challenges because of the complex motion patterns and the presence of noise. In this work, we propose a novel approach to estimate the cardiac motion using ultrafast ultrasound data. -- Our solution is based on a variational formulation characterized by the L2-regularized class. The displacement is represented by a lattice of b-splines and we ensure robustness by applying a maximum likelihood type estimator. While this is an important part of our solution, the main highlight of this work is to combine a low-rank data representation with topology preservation. Low-rank data representation (achieved by finding the k-dominant singular values of a Casorati Matrix arranged from the data sequence) speeds up the global solution and achieves noise reduction. On the other hand, topology preservation (achieved by monitoring the Jacobian determinant) allows to radically rule out distortions while carefully controlling the size of allowed expansions and contractions. Our variational approach is carried out on a realistic dataset as well as on a simulated one. We demonstrate how our proposed variational solution deals with complex deformations through careful numerical experiments. While maintaining the accuracy of the solution, the low-rank preprocessing is shown to speed up the convergence of the variational problem. Beyond cardiac motion estimation, our approach is promising for the analysis of other organs that experience motion.
Memory bandwidth-scalable motion estimation for mobile video coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Jui-Hung; Tai, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Tian-Sheuan
2011-12-01
The heavy memory access of motion estimation (ME) execution consumes significant power and could limit ME execution when the available memory bandwidth (BW) is reduced because of access congestion or changes in the dynamics of the power environment of modern mobile devices. In order to adapt to the changing BW while maintaining the rate-distortion (R-D) performance, this article proposes a novel data BW-scalable algorithm for ME with mobile multimedia chips. The available BW is modeled in a R-D sense and allocated to fit the dynamic contents. The simulation result shows 70% BW savings while keeping equivalent R-D performance compared with H.264 reference software for low-motion CIF-sized video. For high-motion sequences, the result shows our algorithm can better use the available BW to save an average bit rate of up to 13% with up to 0.1-dB PSNR increase for similar BW usage.
Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K
2015-01-01
Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.
Travel distance estimation from visual motion by leaky path integration.
Lappe, Markus; Jenkin, Michael; Harris, Laurence R
2007-06-01
Visual motion can be a cue to travel distance when the motion signals are integrated. Distance estimates from visually simulated self-motion are imprecise, however. Previous work in our labs has given conflicting results on the imprecision: experiments by Frenz and Lappe had suggested a general underestimation of travel distance, while results from Redlick, Jenkin and Harris had shown an overestimation of travel distance. Here we describe a collaborative study that resolves the conflict by tracing it to differences in the tasks given to the subjects. With an identical set of subjects and identical visual motion simulation we show that underestimation of travel distance occurs when the task involves a judgment of distance from the starting position, and that overestimation of travel distance occurs when the task requires a judgment of the remaining distance to a particular target position. We present a leaky integrator model that explains both effects with a single mechanism. In this leaky integrator model we introduce the idea that, depending on the task, either the distance from start, or the distance to target is used as a state variable. The state variable is updated during the movement by integration over the space covered by the movement, rather than over time. In this model, travel distance mis-estimation occurs because the integration leaks and because the transformation of visual motion to travel distance involves a gain factor. Mis-estimates in both tasks can be explained with the same leak rate and gain in both conditions. Our results thus suggest that observers do not simply integrate traveled distance and then relate it to the task. Instead, the internally represented variable is either distance from the origin or distance to the goal, whichever is relevant.
3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhou, S.; Hurwitz, M.; Mishra, P.; Cai, W.; Rottmann, J.; Li, R.; Williams, C.; Wagar, M.; Berbeco, R.; Ionascu, D.; Lewis, J. H.
2015-05-01
3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we developed and performed initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and used these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparison to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT-based and 4DCT-based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery.
3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models
Dhou, Salam; Hurwitz, Martina; Mishra, Pankaj; Cai, Weixing; Rottmann, Joerg; Li, Ruijiang; Williams, Christopher; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Ionascu, Dan; Lewis, John H.
2015-01-01
3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we develop and perform initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and use these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparing to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT- and 4DCT- based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms, and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery. PMID:25905722
Visual Vibrometry: Estimating Material Properties from Small Motions in Video.
Davis, Abe; Bouman, Katherine L; Chen, Justin G; Rubinstein, Michael; Buyukozturk, Oral; Durand, Fredo; Freeman, William T
2016-11-01
The estimation of material properties is important for scene understanding, with many applications in vision, robotics, and structural engineering. This paper connects fundamentals of vibration mechanics with computer vision techniques in order to infer material properties from small, often imperceptible motion in video. Objects tend to vibrate in a set of preferred modes. The frequencies of these modes depend on the structure and material properties of an object. We show that by extracting these frequencies from video of a vibrating object, we can often make inferences about that object's material properties. We demonstrate our approach by estimating material properties for a variety of objects by observing their motion in high-speed and regular frame rate video.
Tuna, E. Erdem; Franke, Timothy J.; Bebek, Özkan; Shiose, Akira; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk
2013-01-01
Robotic assisted beating heart surgery aims to allow surgeons to operate on a beating heart without stabilizers as if the heart is stationary. The robot actively cancels heart motion by closely following a point of interest (POI) on the heart surface—a process called Active Relative Motion Canceling (ARMC). Due to the high bandwidth of the POI motion, it is necessary to supply the controller with an estimate of the immediate future of the POI motion over a prediction horizon in order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy. In this paper, two least-square based prediction algorithms, using an adaptive filter to generate future position estimates, are implemented and studied. The first method assumes a linear system relation between the consecutive samples in the prediction horizon. On the contrary, the second method performs this parametrization independently for each point over the whole the horizon. The effects of predictor parameters and variations in heart rate on tracking performance are studied with constant and varying heart rate data. The predictors are evaluated using a 3 degrees of freedom test-bed and prerecorded in-vivo motion data. Then, the one-step prediction and tracking performances of the presented approaches are compared with an Extended Kalman Filter predictor. Finally, the essential features of the proposed prediction algorithms are summarized. PMID:23976889
Characterization of cell deformation and migration using a parametric estimation of image motion.
Germain, F; Doisy, A; Ronot, X; Tracqui, P
1999-05-01
This paper deals with the spatio-temporal analysis of two-dimensional deformation and motion of cells from time series of digitized video images. A parametric motion approach based on an affine model has been proposed for the quantitative characterization of cellular movements in different experimental areas of cellular biology including spontaneous cell deformation, cell mitosis, individual cell migration and collective migration of cell populations as cell monolayer. The accuracy and robustness of the affine model parameter estimation, which is based on a multiresolution algorithm, has been established from synthesized image sequences. A major interest of our approach is to follow with time the evolution of a few number of parameters characteristic of cellular motion and deformation. From the time-varying eigenvalues of the affine model square matrix, a precise quantification of the cell pseudopodial activity, as well as of cell division has been performed. For migrating cells, the motion quantification confirms that cell body deformation has a leading role in controlling nucleus displacement, the nucleus itself undergoing a larger rotational motion. At the cell population level, image motion analysis of in vitro wound healing experiments quantifies the heterogeneous cell populations dynamics.
Fast motion vector estimation by using spatiotemporal correlation of motion field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sungook; Chalidabhongse, Junavit; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
1995-04-01
Motion vector (MV) estimation plays an important role in motion compensated video coding. In this research, we first examine a stochastic MV model which enables us to exploit the strong correlation of MVs in both spatial and temporal domains in a given image sequence. Then, a new fast stochastic block matching algorithm (SBMA) is proposed. The basic idea is to select a set of good MV candidates and choose from them the one which satisfies a certain spatio-temporal correlation rule. The proposed algorithm reduces matching operations to about 2% of that of the full block matching algorithm (FBMA) with only 2% increase of the sum of absolute difference (SAD) in motion compensated residuals. The excellent performance of the new algorithm is supported by extensive experimental results.
An Alternative Estimate of the Motion of the Capricorn Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burris, S. G.; Gordon, R. G.
2013-12-01
Diffuse plate boundaries cover ~15% of Earth's surface and can exceed 1000 km in across-strike width. Deforming oceanic lithosphere in the equatorial Indian Ocean accommodates the motion between the India and Capricorn plates and serves as their mutual diffuse plate boundary. This deforming lithosphere lies between the Central Indian Ridge to the west and the Sumatra trench to the east; the plates diverge to the west of ≈74°E and converge to the east of it. Many data have shown that the pole of rotation between the India and Capricorn plates lies within this diffuse plate boundary [1,2]. Surprisingly, however, the recently estimated angular velocity in the MORVEL global set of angular velocities [3] places this pole of rotation north of prior poles by several degrees, and north of the diffuse plate boundary. The motion between the India and Capricorn plates can only be estimated indirectly by differencing the motion of the India plate relative to the Somalia plate, on the one hand, and the motion of the Capricorn plate relative to Somalia plate, on the other. While the MORVEL India-Somalia angular velocity is similar to prior estimates, the MORVEL Capricorn-Somalia pole of rotation lies northwest of its predecessors. The difference is not caused by new transform azimuth data incorporated into MORVEL or by the new application of a correction to spreading rates for outward displacement. Instead the difference appears to be caused by a few anomalous spreading rates near the northern end of the Capricorn-Somalia plate boundary along the Central Indian Ridge. Rejecting these data leads to consistency with prior results. Implications for the motion of the Capricorn plate relative to Australia will be discussed. [1] DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, and J.-Y. Royer, 2005. Motion between the Indian, Capricorn, and Somalian plates since 20 Ma: implications for the timing and magnitude of distributed deformation in the equatorial Indian ocean, Geophys. J. Int., 161, 445-468. [2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W. C.
1976-01-01
The accuracy of wind estimates derived from cloud motion is under investigation. Aircraft measurements of the ambient wind field have been compared with simultaneous inertial navigation system descriptions of the extent and motion of 40 tropical cumulus and 5 cirrus clouds. Preliminary results indicate that cloud-motion wind estimates are sufficiently accurate to be used in sensitive divergence, vorticity, and vertical motion calculations. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cirrus cloud velocity and the mean wind of the cloud layer was found to be about 1.6 m/sec. The major source of error is thought to be in determination of the position of the cloud. In the case of cumulus clouds, the magnitude of the vector difference between the aircraft-measured cloud motion and the cloud-base wind is less than 1.3 m/sec.
Motion Correction for Myocardial T1 Mapping using Image Registration with Synthetic Image Estimation
Xue, Hui; Shah, Saurabh; Greiser, Andreas; Guetter, Christoph; Littmann, Arne; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Arai, Andrew E; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Guehring, Jens; Kellman, Peter
2013-01-01
Quantification of myocardial T1 relaxation has potential value in the diagnosis of both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Image acquisition using the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery technique is clinically feasible for T1 mapping. However, respiratory motion limits its applicability and degrades the accuracy of T1 estimation. The robust registration of acquired inversion recovery images is particularly challenging due to the large changes in image contrast, especially for those images acquired near the signal null point of the inversion recovery and other inversion times for which there is little tissue contrast. In this paper, we propose a novel motion correction algorithm. This approach is based on estimating synthetic images presenting contrast changes similar to the acquired images. The estimation of synthetic images is formulated as a variational energy minimization problem. Validation on a consecutive patient data cohort shows that this strategy can perform robust non-rigid registration to align inversion recovery images experiencing significant motion and lead to suppression of motion induced artifacts in the T1 map. PMID:22135227
Kwon, Young-Hoo; Casebolt, Jeffrey B
2006-01-01
One of the most serious obstacles to accurate quantification of the underwater motion of a swimmer's body is image deformation caused by refraction. Refraction occurs at the water-air interface plane (glass) owing to the density difference. Camera calibration-reconstruction algorithms commonly used in aquatic research do not have the capability to correct this refraction-induced nonlinear image deformation and produce large reconstruction errors. The aim of this paper is to provide a through review of: the nature of the refraction-induced image deformation and its behaviour in underwater object-space plane reconstruction; the intrinsic shortcomings of the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) method in underwater motion analysis; experimental conditions that interact with refraction; and alternative algorithms and strategies that can be used to improve the calibration-reconstruction accuracy. Although it is impossible to remove the refraction error completely in conventional camera calibration-reconstruction methods, it is possible to improve the accuracy to some extent by manipulating experimental conditions or calibration frame characteristics. Alternative algorithms, such as the localized DLT and the double-plane method are also available for error reduction. The ultimate solution for the refraction problem is to develop underwater camera calibration and reconstruction algorithms that have the capability to correct refraction.
Kwon, Young-Hoo; Casebolt, Jeffrey B
2006-07-01
One of the most serious obstacles to accurate quantification of the underwater motion of a swimmer's body is image deformation caused by refraction. Refraction occurs at the water-air interface plane (glass) owing to the density difference. Camera calibration-reconstruction algorithms commonly used in aquatic research do not have the capability to correct this refraction-induced nonlinear image deformation and produce large reconstruction errors. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough review of: the nature of the refraction-induced image deformation and its behaviour in underwater object-space plane reconstruction; the intrinsic shortcomings of the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) method in underwater motion analysis; experimental conditions that interact with refraction; and alternative algorithms and strategies that can be used to improve the calibration-reconstruction accuracy. Although it is impossible to remove the refraction error completely in conventional camera calibration-reconstruction methods, it is possible to improve the accuracy to some extent by manipulating experimental conditions or calibration frame characteristics. Alternative algorithms, such as the localized DLT and the double-plane method are also available for error reduction. The ultimate solution for the refraction problem is to develop underwater camera calibration and reconstruction algorithms that have the capability to correct refraction.
Magnitude Estimation for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Based on Ground Motion Prediction Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshaghi, Attieh; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Ghofrani, Hadi; Atkinson, Gail M.
2015-08-01
This study investigates whether real-time strong ground motion data from seismic stations could have been used to provide an accurate estimate of the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. Ultimately, such an estimate could be used as input data for a tsunami forecast and would lead to more robust earthquake and tsunami early warning. We collected the strong motion accelerograms recorded by borehole and free-field (surface) Kiban Kyoshin network stations that registered this mega-thrust earthquake in order to perform an off-line test to estimate the magnitude based on ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). GMPEs for peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity (PGV) from a previous study by Eshaghi et al. in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103. (2013) derived using events with moment magnitude ( M) ≥ 5.0, 1998-2010, were used to estimate the magnitude of this event. We developed new GMPEs using a more complete database (1998-2011), which added only 1 year but approximately twice as much data to the initial catalog (including important large events), to improve the determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling. These new GMPEs were used to estimate the magnitude of the Tohoku-Oki event. The estimates obtained were compared with real time magnitude estimates provided by the existing earthquake early warning system in Japan. Unlike the current operational magnitude estimation methods, our method did not saturate and can provide robust estimates of moment magnitude within ~100 s after earthquake onset for both catalogs. It was found that correcting for average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m () improved the accuracy of magnitude estimates from surface recordings, particularly for magnitude estimates of PGV (Mpgv). The new GMPEs also were used to estimate the magnitude of all earthquakes in the new catalog with at least 20 records. Results show that the magnitude estimate from PGV values using
Yeo, Desmond Teck Beng; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Kim, Boklye
2008-01-01
In functional MRI, head motion may cause dynamic nonlinear field-inhomogeneity changes, especially with large out-of-plane rotations. This may lead to dynamic geometric distortion or blurring in the time series, which may reduce activation detection accuracy. The use of image registration to estimate dynamic field inhomogeneity maps from a static field map is not sufficient in the presence of such rotations. This paper introduces a retrospective approach to estimate magnetic susceptibility induced field maps of an object in motion, given a static susceptibility induced field map and the associated object motion parameters. It estimates a susceptibility map from a static field map using regularized image restoration techniques, and applies rigid body motion to the former. The dynamic field map is then computed using susceptibility voxel convolution. The method addresses field map changes due to out-of-plane rotations during time series acquisition and does not involve real time field map acquisitions.
Motion visualization and estimation for flapping wing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Tzu-Sheng Shane; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Nguyen, Vincent Phuc; Patel, Trisha; Balachandran, Balakumar
2017-02-01
Studies of fluid-structure interactions associated with flexible structures such as flapping wings require the capture and quantification of large motions of bodies that may be opaque. As a case study, motion capture of a free flying Manduca sexta, also known as hawkmoth, is considered by using three synchronized high-speed cameras. A solid finite element (FE) representation is used as a reference body and successive snapshots in time of the displacement fields are reconstructed via an optimization procedure. One of the original aspects of this work is the formulation of an objective function and the use of shadow matching and strain-energy regularization. With this objective function, the authors penalize the projection differences between silhouettes of the captured images and the FE representation of the deformed body. The process and procedures undertaken to go from high-speed videography to motion estimation are discussed, and snapshots of representative results are presented. Finally, the captured free-flight motion is also characterized and quantified.
Scalable complexity-distortion model for fast motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xiaoquan; Ling, Nam
2005-07-01
Recently established international video coding standard H.264/AVC and the upcoming standard on scalable video coding (SVC) bring part of the solution to high compression ratio requirement and heterogeneity requirement. However, these algorithms have unbearable complexities for real-time encoding. Therefore, there is an important challenge to reduce encoding complexity, preferably in a scalable manner. Motion estimation and motion compensation techniques provide significant coding gain but are the most time-intensive parts in an encoder system. They present tremendous research challenges to design a flexible, rate-distortion optimized, yet computationally efficient encoder, especially for various applications. In this paper, we present a scalable motion estimation framework for complexitydistortion consideration. We propose a new progressive initial search (PIS) method to generate an accurate initial search point, followed by a fast search method, which can greatly benefit from the tighter bounds of the PIS. Such approach offers not only significant speedup but also an optimal distortion performance for a given complexity constrain. We analyze the relationship between computational complexity and distortion (C-D) through probabilistic distance measure extending from the complexity and distortion theory. A configurable complexity quantization parameter (Q) is introduced. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scalable complexity-distortion framework enables video encoder to conveniently adjust its complexity while providing best possible services.
Stochastic FDTD accuracy improvement through correlation coefficient estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masumnia Bisheh, Khadijeh; Zakeri Gatabi, Bijan; Andargoli, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini
2015-04-01
This paper introduces a new scheme to improve the accuracy of the stochastic finite difference time domain (S-FDTD) method. S-FDTD, reported recently by Smith and Furse, calculates the variations in the electromagnetic fields caused by variability or uncertainty in the electrical properties of the materials in the model. The accuracy of the S-FDTD method is controlled by the approximations for correlation coefficients between the electrical properties of the materials in the model and the fields propagating in them. In this paper, new approximations for these correlation coefficients are obtained using Monte Carlo method with a small number of runs, terming them as Monte Carlo correlation coefficients (MC-CC). Numerical results for two bioelectromagnetic simulation examples demonstrate that MC-CC can improve the accuracy of the S-FDTD method and yield more accurate results than previous approximations.
Earthquake detection by new motion estimation algorithm in video processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Chien-Shiang; Wang, Chuen-Ching; Tai, Shen-Chuan; Chen, Ji-Feng; Wang, Chung-Yao
2011-01-01
As increasing urbanization is taking place worldwide, earthquake hazards pose serious threats to lives and properties for urban areas. A practical earthquake prediction method appears to be far from realization. Generally, the traditional instruments for earthquake detection have the disadvantages of high cost and size. To solve these problems, this paper presents a new method which can detect earthquake intensity using video capture device. The main method is based on a new proposed motion vector algorithm with simple but effective methods to immediately calculate acceleration of a predefined target object. By estimating the motion vector variation, the movement distance of predefined target object can be computed, and therefore the earthquake amplitude can be defined. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in a series of experimental simulations. It is shown that the scheme successfully detects the earthquake occurrence and identifies the earthquake amplitude from video streams.
Estimates of Running Ground Reaction Force Parameters from Motion Analysis.
Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Storniolo, Jorge L L; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A
2017-02-01
We compared running mechanics parameters determined from ground reaction force (GRF) measurements with estimated forces obtained from double differentiation of kinematic (K) data from motion analysis in a broad spectrum of running speeds (1.94-5.56 m⋅s(-1)). Data were collected through a force-instrumented treadmill and compared at different sampling frequencies (900 and 300 Hz for GRF, 300 and 100 Hz for K). Vertical force peak, shape, and impulse were similar between K methods and GRF. Contact time, flight time, and vertical stiffness (kvert) obtained from K showed the same trend as GRF with differences < 5%, whereas leg stiffness (kleg) was not correctly computed by kinematics. The results revealed that the main vertical GRF parameters can be computed by the double differentiation of the body center of mass properly calculated by motion analysis. The present model provides an alternative accessible method for determining temporal and kinetic parameters of running without an instrumented treadmill.
Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua
2012-01-01
This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…
A hybrid approach to estimate the complex motions of clouds in sky images
Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; ...
2016-09-14
Tracking the motion of clouds is essential to forecasting the weather and to predicting the short-term solar energy generation. Existing techniques mainly fall into two categories: variational optical flow, and block matching. In this article, we summarize recent advances in estimating cloud motion using ground-based sky imagers and quantitatively evaluate state-of-the-art approaches. Then we propose a hybrid tracking framework to incorporate the strength of both block matching and optical flow models. To validate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we introduce a series of synthetic images to simulate the cloud movement and deformation, and thereafter comprehensively compare our hybrid approachmore » with several representative tracking algorithms over both simulated and real images collected from various sites/imagers. The results show that our hybrid approach outperforms state-of-the-art models by reducing at least 30% motion estimation errors compared with the ground-truth motions in most of simulated image sequences. Furthermore, our hybrid model demonstrates its superior efficiency in several real cloud image datasets by lowering at least 15% Mean Absolute Error (MAE) between predicted images and ground-truth images.« less
A hybrid approach to estimate the complex motions of clouds in sky images
Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul
2016-09-14
Tracking the motion of clouds is essential to forecasting the weather and to predicting the short-term solar energy generation. Existing techniques mainly fall into two categories: variational optical flow, and block matching. In this article, we summarize recent advances in estimating cloud motion using ground-based sky imagers and quantitatively evaluate state-of-the-art approaches. Then we propose a hybrid tracking framework to incorporate the strength of both block matching and optical flow models. To validate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we introduce a series of synthetic images to simulate the cloud movement and deformation, and thereafter comprehensively compare our hybrid approach with several representative tracking algorithms over both simulated and real images collected from various sites/imagers. The results show that our hybrid approach outperforms state-of-the-art models by reducing at least 30% motion estimation errors compared with the ground-truth motions in most of simulated image sequences. Furthermore, our hybrid model demonstrates its superior efficiency in several real cloud image datasets by lowering at least 15% Mean Absolute Error (MAE) between predicted images and ground-truth images.
Real time, high accuracy, relative state estimation for multiple vehicle systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Walton Ross
2000-10-01
This dissertation presents the development, implementation, and test results from a new instrumentation package for relative navigation between moving vehicles. The instrumentation package on each vehicle is composed of a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), a wireless communication system, and a modular computer system. The GPS places all vehicles into the same inertial reference frame and provides a common clock allowing synchronization among all instrument packages. The IMU tracks the high frequency motion of the vehicle alleviating the need for a fixed base station. The wireless communication system communicates GPS code and carrier phase measurements and computed state estimates from each vehicle at a rate fast enough to capture the dynamic changes in the vehicles. This data representing both GPS and IMU measurements from each vehicle is fused together on each vehicle to produce position, velocity and attitude estimates relative to the other vehicles. This capability to estimate relative motion without a base station appears unique. Furthermore, the application of fusion algorithms to address this new estimation problem is unique. The use of carrier phase provides very accurate relative measurements. In constructing carrier phase measurement, the integer number of wave lengths between vehicles must be resolved. Although there exist integer resolution schemes, these algorithms are ad hoe. The scheme presented here is based on generating the conditional probability of the hypothesis of each integer given the measurement sequence. This nonlinear filter is an elegant and novel contribution. The entire system is tested in real time in an experiment intended to validate the measurement accuracy. The system built using the algorithms designed in this dissertation is capable of estimating relative range to less than 5 cm. RMS, relative roll and pitch to less than 0.2 degrees RMS, and relative yaw to less than 0.7 degrees RMS
Accuracy of Estimations of Measurements by Students with Visual Impairments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, M. Gail; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Robertson, Laura E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.
2012-01-01
There is a dearth of information about how students with visual impairments learn science-process skills. This study investigated students' concepts and skills in one science area: the estimation of measurements. The estimation of measurements is one of the fundamental concepts that connects all science disciplines that provide the necessary…
Accuracy of knee range of motion assessment after total knee arthroplasty.
Lavernia, Carlos; D'Apuzzo, Michele; Rossi, Mark D; Lee, David
2008-09-01
Measurement of knee joint range of motion (ROM) is important to assess after total knee arthroplasty. Our objective was to determine level of agreement and accuracy between observers with different knowledge on total ROM after total knee arthroplasty. Forty-one patients underwent x-ray of active and passive knee ROM (gold standard). Five different raters evaluated observed and measured ROM: orthopedic surgeon, clinical fellow, physician assistant, research fellow, and a physical therapist. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences in ROM between raters over both conditions. Limit of agreement for each rater for both active and passive total ROM under both conditions was calculated. Analysis of variance indicated a difference between raters for all conditions (range, P = .004 to P < or =.0001). The trend for all raters was to overestimate ROM at higher ranges. Assessment of ROM through direct observation without a goniometer provides inaccurate findings.
SU-E-J-188: Theoretical Estimation of Margin Necessary for Markerless Motion Tracking
Patel, R; Block, A; Harkenrider, M; Roeske, J
2015-06-15
Purpose: To estimate the margin necessary to adequately cover the target using markerless motion tracking (MMT) of lung lesions given the uncertainty in tracking and the size of the target. Methods: Simulations were developed in Matlab to determine the effect of tumor size and tracking uncertainty on the margin necessary to achieve adequate coverage of the target. For simplicity, the lung tumor was approximated by a circle on a 2D radiograph. The tumor was varied in size from a diameter of 0.1 − 30 mm in increments of 0.1 mm. From our previous studies using dual energy markerless motion tracking, we estimated tracking uncertainties in x and y to have a standard deviation of 2 mm. A Gaussian was used to simulate the deviation between the tracked location and true target location. For each size tumor, 100,000 deviations were randomly generated, the margin necessary to achieve at least 95% coverage 95% of the time was recorded. Additional simulations were run for varying uncertainties to demonstrate the effect of the tracking accuracy on the margin size. Results: The simulations showed an inverse relationship between tumor size and margin necessary to achieve 95% coverage 95% of the time using the MMT technique. The margin decreased exponentially with target size. An increase in tracking accuracy expectedly showed a decrease in margin size as well. Conclusion: In our clinic a 5 mm expansion of the internal target volume (ITV) is used to define the planning target volume (PTV). These simulations show that for tracking accuracies in x and y better than 2 mm, the margin required is less than 5 mm. This simple simulation can provide physicians with a guideline estimation for the margin necessary for use of MMT clinically based on the accuracy of their tracking and the size of the tumor.
Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.
Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H
2017-01-30
A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate.
Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.
2016-07-01
Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.
A new cross-diamond search algorithm for fast block motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Shiping; Shen, Xiaodong
2008-10-01
In block motion estimation, search patterns have a large impact on the searching speed and quality of performance. Based on motion vector distribution characteristics of real world video sequences, we propose a new cross-diamond search algorithm (NCDS) using cross-search patterns before large/small diamond search patterns in this paper. NCDS employs halfway technique to achieve significant speedup on sequence with (quasi-) stationary blocks. NCDS employs Modified Partial Distortion Criterion (MPDC), which results in fewer search points with similar distortion. Experimental results show that the improvements of NCDS over CDS can be up to a 16% gain on speedup while similar prediction accuracy is maintained, and NCDS provides faster searching speed and smaller distortions than other popular fast block-matching algorithms.
Real time estimation of ship motions using Kalman filtering techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Triantafyllou, M. S.; Bodson, M.; Athans, M.
1983-01-01
The estimation of the heave, pitch, roll, sway, and yaw motions of a DD-963 destroyer is studied, using Kalman filtering techniques, for application in VTOL aircraft landing. The governing equations are obtained from hydrodynamic considerations in the form of linear differential equations with frequency dependent coefficients. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristics are obtained due to the spatial integration of the water wave forces. The resulting transfer matrix function is irrational and nonminimum phase. The conditions for a finite-dimensional approximation are considered and the impact of the various parameters is assessed. A detailed numerical application for a DD-963 destroyer is presented and simulations of the estimations obtained from Kalman filters are discussed.
Dense motion field estimation from myocardial boundary displacements.
Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Ferreira, Adriano; Rodrigues, Nuno F; Baptista, Maria J; D'hooge, Jan; Vilaça, João L; Barbosa, Daniel
2016-09-01
Minimally invasive cardiovascular interventions guided by multiple imaging modalities are rapidly gaining clinical acceptance for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. These images are typically fused with richly detailed pre-operative scans through registration techniques, enhancing the intra-operative clinical data and easing the image-guided procedures. Nonetheless, rigid models have been used to align the different modalities, not taking into account the anatomical variations of the cardiac muscle throughout the cardiac cycle. In the current study, we present a novel strategy to compensate the beat-to-beat physiological adaptation of the myocardium. Hereto, we intend to prove that a complete myocardial motion field can be quickly recovered from the displacement field at the myocardial boundaries, therefore being an efficient strategy to locally deform the cardiac muscle. We address this hypothesis by comparing three different strategies to recover a dense myocardial motion field from a sparse one, namely, a diffusion-based approach, thin-plate splines, and multiquadric radial basis functions. Two experimental setups were used to validate the proposed strategy. First, an in silico validation was carried out on synthetic motion fields obtained from two realistic simulated ultrasound sequences. Then, 45 mid-ventricular 2D sequences of cine magnetic resonance imaging were processed to further evaluate the different approaches. The results showed that accurate boundary tracking combined with dense myocardial recovery via interpolation/diffusion is a potentially viable solution to speed up dense myocardial motion field estimation and, consequently, to deform/compensate the myocardial wall throughout the cardiac cycle. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shaffer, W O; Spratt, K F; Weinstein, J; Lehmann, T R; Goel, V
1990-08-01
-rater consistency estimates relative to consistencies obtained from the model, although these magnitudes were similar to those reported by others evaluating clinical roentgenograms. The implications of lower consistency estimates relative to increased false-positive and false-negative rates must be more closely examined. These studies present evidence suggesting that high consistency and accuracy indices do not ensure acceptable false-positive and false-negative rates and, thus, provide empirical evidence supporting the view that using roentgenograms as a basis for diagnosing instability often can lead to errors in classification. This is less so when observed translations are relatively large (+/- 5+ mm) on roentgenograms that are relatively clear, with little obliquity, and when concomitant motions are minimal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Cramer-Rao bound on watermark desynchronization parameter estimation accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadasivam, Shankar; Moulin, Pierre
2007-02-01
Various decoding algorithms have been proposed in the literature to combat desynchronization attacks on quantization index modulation (QIM) blind watermarking schemes. Nevertheless, these results have been fairly poor so far. The need to investigate fundamental limitations on the decoder's performance under a desynchronization attack is thus clear. In this paper, we look at the class of estimator-decoders which estimate the desynchronization attack parameter(s) for using in the decoding step. We model the desynchronization attack as an arbitrary (but invertible) linear time-invariant (LTI) system. We then come up with an encoding-decoding scheme for these attacks on cubic QIM watermarking schemes, and derive Cramer-Rao bounds on the estimation error for the desynchronization parameter at the decoder. As an example, we consider the case of a cyclic shift attack and present some numerical findings.
Azevedo, C F; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Viana, J M S; Valente, M S F; Resende, M F R; Oliveira, E J
2016-10-05
Genomic selection is the main force driving applied breeding programs and accuracy is the main measure for evaluating its efficiency. The traditional estimator (TE) of experimental accuracy is not fully adequate. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of two new accuracy estimators, called regularized estimator (RE) and hybrid estimator (HE), which were applied to a practical cassava breeding program and also to simulated data. The simulation study considered two individual narrow sense heritability levels and two genetic architectures for traits. TE, RE, and HE were compared under four validation procedures: without validation (WV), independent validation, ten-fold validation through jacknife allowing different markers, and with the same markers selected in each cycle. RE presented accuracies closer to the parametric ones and less biased and more precise ones than TE. HE proved to be very effective in the WV procedure. The estimators were applied to five traits evaluated in a cassava experiment, including 358 clones genotyped for 390 SNPs. Accuracies ranged from 0.67 to 1.12 with TE and from 0.22 to 0.51 with RE. These results indicated that TE overestimated the accuracy and led to one accuracy estimate (1.12) higher than one, which is outside of the parameter space. Use of RE turned the accuracy into the parameter space. Cassava breeding programs can be more realistically implemented using the new estimators proposed in this study, providing less risky practical inferences.
Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.
Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington
2014-09-09
This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.
Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR
Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868
Analytic Steady-State Accuracy of a Spacecraft Attitude Estimator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis
2000-01-01
This paper extends Farrenkopf's analysis of a single-axis spacecraft attitude estimator using gyro and angle sensor data to include the angle output white noise of a rate-integrating gyro. Analytic expressions are derived for the steady-state pre-update and post-update angle and drift bias variances and for the state update equations. It is shown that only part of the state update resulting from the angle sensor measurement is propagated to future times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Naoki; Yoshioka, Takashi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa
This paper proposes a new fine-motion-control method for realizing high-accuracy and high-speed contact motion of industrial robots by employing sensorless force control. Today, although industrial robots have become considerably important in the modern industrial society, their functions are limited. A typical limited function is the positioning motion control of robots used in the manufacturing industry. Contact motion is necessary for almost all new applications. In this study, by employing the proposed motion control, smooth and quick contact motion of industrial robots is realized by using a sensorless I-P (Integral-Proportional) force feedback controller. The proposed method is simple and effective, takes into account both the inertia of a robot and the behavior of the I-P force controller. In the experiments, a three-degree-of-freedom robot is brought into contact with an object (a concrete block or a rubber board) by the I-P force control using the proposed method. Further, in the experiment, the motion of the robot's end-effector was considered. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by using a six-axis force sensor and an acceleration sensor in the contact motion experiments.
Real-Time Baseline Error Estimation and Correction for GNSS/Strong Motion Seismometer Integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, C. Y. N.; Groves, P. D.; Ziebart, M. K.
2014-12-01
Accurate and rapid estimation of permanent surface displacement is required immediately after a slip event for earthquake monitoring or tsunami early warning. It is difficult to achieve the necessary accuracy and precision at high- and low-frequencies using GNSS or seismometry alone. GNSS and seismic sensors can be integrated to overcome the limitations of each. Kalman filter algorithms with displacement and velocity states have been developed to combine GNSS and accelerometer observations to obtain the optimal displacement solutions. However, the sawtooth-like phenomena caused by the bias or tilting of the sensor decrease the accuracy of the displacement estimates. A three-dimensional Kalman filter algorithm with an additional baseline error state has been developed. An experiment with both a GNSS receiver and a strong motion seismometer mounted on a movable platform and subjected to known displacements was carried out. The results clearly show that the additional baseline error state enables the Kalman filter to estimate the instrument's sensor bias and tilt effects and correct the state estimates in real time. Furthermore, the proposed Kalman filter algorithm has been validated with data sets from the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake. The results indicate that the additional baseline error state can not only eliminate the linear and quadratic drifts but also reduce the sawtooth-like effects from the displacement solutions. The conventional zero-mean baseline-corrected results cannot show the permanent displacements after an earthquake; the two-state Kalman filter can only provide stable and optimal solutions if the strong motion seismometer had not been moved or tilted by the earthquake. Yet the proposed Kalman filter can achieve the precise and accurate displacements by estimating and correcting for the baseline error at each epoch. The integration filters out noise-like distortions and thus improves the real-time detection and measurement capability
Miyajima, Saori; Tanaka, Takayuki; Imamura, Yumeko; Kusaka, Takashi
2015-01-01
We estimate lumbar torque based on motion measurement using only three inertial sensors. First, human motion is measured by a 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope placed on the shank, thigh, and back. Next, the lumbar joint torque during the motion is estimated by kinematic musculoskeletal simulation. The conventional method for estimating joint torque uses full body motion data measured by an optical motion capture system. However, in this research, joint torque is estimated by using only three link angles of the body, thigh, and shank. The utility of our method was verified by experiments. We measured motion of bendung knee and waist simultaneously. As the result, we were able to estimate the lumbar joint torque from measured motion.
Fractional-order variational optical flow model for motion estimation.
Chen, Dali; Sheng, Hu; Chen, YangQuan; Xue, Dingyü
2013-05-13
A new class of fractional-order variational optical flow models, which generalizes the differential of optical flow from integer order to fractional order, is proposed for motion estimation in this paper. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are derived by solving a typical fractional variational problem, and the numerical implementation based on the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional derivative definition is proposed to solve these complicated fractional partial differential equations. Theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed fractional-order variational optical flow model is the generalization of the typical Horn and Schunck (first-order) variational optical flow model and the second-order variational optical flow model, which provides a new idea for us to study the optical flow model and has an important theoretical implication in optical flow model research. The experiments demonstrate the validity of the generalization of differential order.
Influence of ultrasound speckle tracking strategies for motion and strain estimation.
Curiale, Ariel H; Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo; Aja-Fernández, Santiago
2016-08-01
Speckle Tracking is one of the most prominent techniques used to estimate the regional movement of the heart based on ultrasound acquisitions. Many different approaches have been proposed, proving their suitability to obtain quantitative and qualitative information regarding myocardial deformation, motion and function assessment. New proposals to improve the basic algorithm usually focus on one of these three steps: (1) the similarity measure between images and the speckle model; (2) the transformation model, i.e. the type of motion considered between images; (3) the optimization strategies, such as the use of different optimization techniques in the transformation step or the inclusion of structural information. While many contributions have shown their good performance independently, it is not always clear how they perform when integrated in a whole pipeline. Every step will have a degree of influence over the following and hence over the final result. Thus, a Speckle Tracking pipeline must be analyzed as a whole when developing novel methods, since improvements in a particular step might be undermined by the choices taken in further steps. This work presents two main contributions: (1) We provide a complete analysis of the influence of the different steps in a Speckle Tracking pipeline over the motion and strain estimation accuracy. (2) The study proposes a methodology for the analysis of Speckle Tracking systems specifically designed to provide an easy and systematic way to include other strategies. We close the analysis with some conclusions and recommendations that can be used as an orientation of the degree of influence of the models for speckle, the transformation models, interpolation schemes and optimization strategies over the estimation of motion features. They can be further use to evaluate and design new strategy into a Speckle Tracking system.
Estimation of Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait Using Only Inertial Motion Capture
Karatsidis, Angelos; Bellusci, Giovanni; Schepers, H. Martin; de Zee, Mark; Andersen, Michael S.; Veltink, Peter H.
2016-01-01
Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M) are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC). From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments. Then, we solve the indeterminacy problem during double stance using a distribution algorithm based on a smooth transition assumption. The agreement between the IMC-predicted and reference GRF&M was categorized over normal walking speed as excellent for the vertical (ρ = 0.992, rRMSE = 5.3%), anterior (ρ = 0.965, rRMSE = 9.4%) and sagittal (ρ = 0.933, rRMSE = 12.4%) GRF&M components and as strong for the lateral (ρ = 0.862, rRMSE = 13.1%), frontal (ρ = 0.710, rRMSE = 29.6%), and transverse GRF&M (ρ = 0.826, rRMSE = 18.2%). Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of the cut-off frequency used in the filtering of the input kinematics, as well as the threshold velocities for the gait event detection algorithm. This study was the first to use only inertial motion capture to estimate 3D GRF&M during gait, providing comparable accuracy with optical motion capture prediction. This approach enables applications that require estimation of the kinetics during walking outside the gait laboratory. PMID:28042857
Estimation of spatial-temporal gait parameters using a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system.
Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Thomas, Rijil
2014-08-20
In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications.
Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System
Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Thomas, Rijil
2014-01-01
In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications. PMID:25140636
Optimal surface marker locations for tumor motion estimation in lung cancer radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Bin; Jiang Graves, Yan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.
2012-12-01
Using fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to predict the tumor location is a widely used approach in lung cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to propose an algorithm that automatically identifies a sparse set of locations on the patient’s surface with the optimal prediction power for the tumor motion. In our algorithm, it is assumed that there is a linear relationship between the surface marker motion and the tumor motion. The sparse selection of markers on the external surface and the linear relationship between the marker motion and the internal tumor motion are represented by a prediction matrix. Such a matrix is determined by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function contains a sparsity term that penalizes the number of markers chosen on the patient’s surface. Bregman iteration is used to solve the proposed optimization problem. The performance of our algorithm has been tested on realistic clinical data of four lung cancer patients. Thoracic 4DCT scans with ten phases are used for the study. On a reference phase, a grid of points are casted on the patient’s surfaces (except for the patient’s back) and propagated to other phases via deformable image registration of the corresponding CT images. Tumor locations at each phase are also manually delineated. We use nine out of ten phases of the 4DCT images to identify a small group of surface markers that are mostly correlated with the motion of the tumor and find the prediction matrix at the same time. The tenth phase is then used to test the accuracy of the prediction. It is found that on average six to seven surface markers are necessary to predict tumor locations with a 3D error of about 1 mm. It is also found that the selected marker locations lie closely in those areas where surface point motion has a large amplitude and a high correlation with the tumor motion. Our method can automatically select sparse locations on the patient’s external surface and
The Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) for Vehicle Motion State Estimation
Gao, Siwei; Liu, Yanheng; Wang, Jian; Deng, Weiwen; Oh, Heekuck
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a multi-sensory Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) through extending innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) to estimate the motion state of the moving vehicles ahead. JAKF views Lidar and Radar data as the source of the local filters, which aims to adaptively adjust the measurement noise variance-covariance (V-C) matrix ‘R’ and the system noise V-C matrix ‘Q’. Then, the global filter uses R to calculate the information allocation factor ‘β’ for data fusion. Finally, the global filter completes optimal data fusion and feeds back to the local filters to improve the measurement accuracy of the local filters. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that the JAKF has better adaptive ability and fault tolerance. JAKF enables one to bridge the gap of the accuracy difference of various sensors to improve the integral filtering effectivity. If any sensor breaks down, the filtered results of JAKF still can maintain a stable convergence rate. Moreover, the JAKF outperforms the conventional Kalman filter (CKF) and the innovation-based adaptive Kalman filter (IAKF) with respect to the accuracy of displacement, velocity, and acceleration, respectively. PMID:27438835
The Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) for Vehicle Motion State Estimation.
Gao, Siwei; Liu, Yanheng; Wang, Jian; Deng, Weiwen; Oh, Heekuck
2016-07-16
This paper proposes a multi-sensory Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) through extending innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) to estimate the motion state of the moving vehicles ahead. JAKF views Lidar and Radar data as the source of the local filters, which aims to adaptively adjust the measurement noise variance-covariance (V-C) matrix 'R' and the system noise V-C matrix 'Q'. Then, the global filter uses R to calculate the information allocation factor 'β' for data fusion. Finally, the global filter completes optimal data fusion and feeds back to the local filters to improve the measurement accuracy of the local filters. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that the JAKF has better adaptive ability and fault tolerance. JAKF enables one to bridge the gap of the accuracy difference of various sensors to improve the integral filtering effectivity. If any sensor breaks down, the filtered results of JAKF still can maintain a stable convergence rate. Moreover, the JAKF outperforms the conventional Kalman filter (CKF) and the innovation-based adaptive Kalman filter (IAKF) with respect to the accuracy of displacement, velocity, and acceleration, respectively.
Estimating the Consistency and Accuracy of Classifications Based on Test Scores.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles
This paper presents a method for estimating the accuracy and consistency of classifications based on test scores. The scores can be produced by any scoring method, including the formation of a weighted composite. The estimates use data from a single form. The reliability of the score is used to estimate its effective test length in terms of…
Accuracy of estimating wolf summer territories by daytime locations
Demma, Dominic J.; Mech, L. David
2011-01-01
We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night home-range comparisons: (1) daytime = 0800–2000 h; nighttime = 2000–0800 h; and (2) sunup versus sundown. Regardless of location-partitioning method, mean area of daytime MCPs did not differ significantly from nighttime MCPs. Similarly, mean area of daytime FKs (95% probability contour) were not significantly different from nightime FKs. FK core use areas (50% probability contour) did not differ between daytime and nighttime nor between sunup and sundown locations. We conclude that in areas similar to our study area day-only locations are adequate for describing the location, extent and core use areas of summer wolf territories by both MCP and FK methods.
Accuracy of estimating wolf summer territories by daytime locations
Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.
2011-01-01
We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night home-range comparisons: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 Ah; nighttime = 2000-0800 Ah; and (2) sunup versus sundown. Regardless of location-partitioning method, mean area of daytime MCPs did not differ significantly from nighttime MCPs. Similarly, mean area of daytime FKs (95% probability contour) were not significantly different from nightime FKs. FK core use areas (50% probability contour) did not differ between daytime and nighttime nor between sunup and sundown locations. We conclude that in areas similar to our study area day-only locations are adequate for describing the location, extent and core use areas of summer wolf territories by both MCP and FK methods. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.
Accuracy of snow depth estimation in mountain and prairie environments by an unmanned aerial vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harder, Phillip; Schirmer, Michael; Pomeroy, John; Helgason, Warren
2016-11-01
Quantifying the spatial distribution of snow is crucial to predict and assess its water resource potential and understand land-atmosphere interactions. High-resolution remote sensing of snow depth has been limited to terrestrial and airborne laser scanning and more recently with application of structure from motion (SfM) techniques to airborne (manned and unmanned) imagery. In this study, photography from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to generate digital surface models (DSMs) and orthomosaics for snow cover at a cultivated agricultural Canadian prairie and a sparsely vegetated Rocky Mountain alpine ridgetop site using SfM. The accuracy and repeatability of this method to quantify snow depth, changes in depth and its spatial variability was assessed for different terrain types over time. Root mean square errors in snow depth estimation from differencing snow-covered and non-snow-covered DSMs were 8.8 cm for a short prairie grain stubble surface, 13.7 cm for a tall prairie grain stubble surface and 8.5 cm for an alpine mountain surface. This technique provided useful information on maximum snow accumulation and snow-covered area depletion at all sites, while temporal changes in snow depth could also be quantified at the alpine site due to the deeper snowpack and consequent higher signal-to-noise ratio. The application of SfM to UAV photographs returns meaningful information in areas with mean snow depth > 30 cm, but the direct observation of snow depth depletion of shallow snowpacks with this method is not feasible. Accuracy varied with surface characteristics, sunlight and wind speed during the flight, with the most consistent performance found for wind speeds < 10 m s-1, clear skies, high sun angles and surfaces with negligible vegetation cover.
Ramos-Llorden, Gabriel; den Dekker, Arnold J; Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Jeurissen, Ben; Vanhevel, Floris; Van Audekerke, Johan; Verhoye, Marleen; Sijbers, Jan
2017-02-01
In quantitative MR T1 mapping, the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of tissues is estimated from a series of T1 -weighted images. As the T1 estimation is a voxel-wise estimation procedure, correct spatial alignment of the T1 -weighted images is crucial. Conventionally, the T1 -weighted images are first registered based on a general-purpose registration metric, after which the T1 map is estimated. However, as demonstrated in this paper, such a two-step approach leads to a bias in the final T1 map. In our work, instead of considering motion correction as a preprocessing step, we recover the motion-free T1 map using a unified estimation approach. In particular, we propose a unified framework where the motion parameters and the T1 map are simultaneously estimated with a Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimator. With our framework, the relaxation model, the motion model as well as the data statistics are jointly incorporated to provide substantially more accurate motion and T1 parameter estimates. Experiments with realistic Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed unified ML framework outperforms the conventional two-step approach as well as state-of-the-art model-based approaches, in terms of both motion and T1 map accuracy and mean-square error. Furthermore, the proposed method was additionally validated in a controlled experiment with real T1 -weighted data and with two in vivo human brain T1 -weighted data sets, showing its applicability in real-life scenarios.
4D human body posture estimation based on a motion capture system and a multi-rigid link model.
Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Ozaki, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Nomura, Taishin
2012-01-01
Human motion analysis in various fields such as neurophysiology, clinical medicine, and sports sciences utilizes a multi-rigid link model of a human body for considering kinetics by solving inverse dynamics of a motion, in which a motion capture system with reflective markers are often used to measure the motion, and then the obtained motion are mapped onto the multi-rigid link model. However, algorithms for such a mapping from spatio-temporal positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of the model are not always fully disclosed. Moreover, a common difficulty for such algorithms is an error caused by displacements of the markers attached on the body surface, referred to as the skin motion error. In this study, we developed a simple algorithm that maps positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of a rigid link model, and examined accuracy of the algorithm by evaluating quantitatively differences between the measured and the estimated posture. We also analyzed the skin motion error. It is shown that magnitude of the error was determined not only by the amplitude of the skin motion, but also by the direction of the marker displacement relative to the frame of reference attached to each segment of the body.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samejima, Fumiko
1977-01-01
The accuracy of estimation of the subjects' latent ability maintained by tailoring for each testee the order of item presentation and the border of item dichotomization was compared to the information provided by the original graded test items. (RC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altyntsev, M. A.; Arbuzov, S. A.; Popov, R. A.; Tsoi, G. V.; Gromov, M. O.
2016-06-01
A dense digital surface model is one of the products generated by using UAV aerial survey data. Today more and more specialized software are supplied with modules for generating such kind of models. The procedure for dense digital model generation can be completely or partly automated. Due to the lack of reliable criterion of accuracy estimation it is rather complicated to judge the generation validity of such models. One of such criterion can be mobile laser scanning data as a source for the detailed accuracy estimation of the dense digital surface model generation. These data may be also used to estimate the accuracy of digital orthophoto plans created by using UAV aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation for both kinds of products are presented in the paper.
Quantum limits on optical phase estimation accuracy from classical rate-distortion theory
Nair, Ranjith
2014-12-04
The classical information-theoretic lower bound on the distortion of a random variable upon transmission through a noisy channel is applied to quantum-optical phase estimation. An approach for obtaining Bayesian lower bounds on the phase estimation accuracy is described that employs estimates of the classical capacity of the relevant quantum-optical channels. The Heisenberg limit for lossless phase estimation is derived for arbitrary probe state and prior distributions of the phase, and shot-noise scaling of the phase accuracy is established in the presence of nonzero loss for a parallel entanglement-assisted strategy with a single probe mode.
Arterial Mechanical Motion Estimation Based on a Semi-Rigid Body Deformation Approach
Guzman, Pablo; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Ros, Rafael; Ros, Eduardo
2014-01-01
Arterial motion estimation in ultrasound (US) sequences is a hard task due to noise and discontinuities in the signal derived from US artifacts. Characterizing the mechanical properties of the artery is a promising novel imaging technique to diagnose various cardiovascular pathologies and a new way of obtaining relevant clinical information, such as determining the absence of dicrotic peak, estimating the Augmentation Index (AIx), the arterial pressure or the arterial stiffness. One of the advantages of using US imaging is the non-invasive nature of the technique unlike Intra Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS) or angiography invasive techniques, plus the relative low cost of the US units. In this paper, we propose a semi rigid deformable method based on Soft Bodies dynamics realized by a hybrid motion approach based on cross-correlation and optical flow methods to quantify the elasticity of the artery. We evaluate and compare different techniques (for instance optical flow methods) on which our approach is based. The goal of this comparative study is to identify the best model to be used and the impact of the accuracy of these different stages in the proposed method. To this end, an exhaustive assessment has been conducted in order to decide which model is the most appropriate for registering the variation of the arterial diameter over time. Our experiments involved a total of 1620 evaluations within nine simulated sequences of 84 frames each and the estimation of four error metrics. We conclude that our proposed approach obtains approximately 2.5 times higher accuracy than conventional state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24871987
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Bin; Liu, Wanyu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Croisille, Pierre; Delachartre, Philippe; Clarysse, Patrick
2016-12-01
Cine-MRI is widely used for the analysis of cardiac function in clinical routine, because of its high soft tissue contrast and relatively short acquisition time in comparison with other cardiac MRI techniques. The gray level distribution in cardiac cine-MRI is relatively homogenous within the myocardium, and can therefore make motion quantification difficult. To ensure that the motion estimation problem is well posed, more image features have to be considered. This work is inspired by a method previously developed for color image processing. The monogenic signal provides a framework to estimate the local phase, orientation, and amplitude, of an image, three features which locally characterize the 2D intensity profile. The independent monogenic features are combined into a 3D matrix for motion estimation. To improve motion estimation accuracy, we chose the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation as a matching measure, and implemented a bilateral filter for denoising and edge-preservation. The monogenic features distance is used in lieu of the color space distance in the bilateral filter. Results obtained from four realistic simulated sequences outperformed two other state of the art methods even in the presence of noise. The motion estimation errors (end point error) using our proposed method were reduced by about 20% in comparison with those obtained by the other tested methods. The new methodology was evaluated on four clinical sequences from patients presenting with cardiac motion dysfunctions and one healthy volunteer. The derived strain fields were analyzed favorably in their ability to identify myocardial regions with impaired motion.
1987-06-01
A common example of this problem occurs when motion picture films are shown on a conventional NTSC television system. The motion picture industry...second, or 30 frames per second. In order to show a motion picture film on an NTSC television system, temporal interpolation is necessary. The technique...Application to Restoration and Interpolation of Motion Pictures ", Dennis Michael Martinez Technical Report No. 530 June 1987 DTIO aELECTE SEp 2 3N DWM I
The Theory and Practice of Estimating the Accuracy of Dynamic Flight-Determined Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maine, R. E.; Iliff, K. W.
1981-01-01
Means of assessing the accuracy of maximum likelihood parameter estimates obtained from dynamic flight data are discussed. The most commonly used analytical predictors of accuracy are derived and compared from both statistical and simplified geometrics standpoints. The accuracy predictions are evaluated with real and simulated data, with an emphasis on practical considerations, such as modeling error. Improved computations of the Cramer-Rao bound to correct large discrepancies due to colored noise and modeling error are presented. The corrected Cramer-Rao bound is shown to be the best available analytical predictor of accuracy, and several practical examples of the use of the Cramer-Rao bound are given. Engineering judgement, aided by such analytical tools, is the final arbiter of accuracy estimation.
SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation
O'Shea, T; Harris, E; Bamber, J; Evans, P
2014-06-01
Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments.
Magnitude, Location, and Ground Motion Estimates Derived From the Community Internet Intensity Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quitoriano, V.; Wald, D. J.; Hattori, M. F.; Ebel, J. E.
2002-12-01
As is typical for stable continental region events, the 2002 Au Sable Forks, NY, and Evansville, IN, earthquakes had a dearth of ground motion recordings. In contrast, the USGS collected over 9,300 and 6600 Internet responses for these two events, respectively, through the Community Internet Intensity Map (CIIM) Web pages providing a valuable collection of intensity data. CIIM is an automatic system for rapidly generating seismic intensity maps based on shaking and damage reports collected from Internet users immediately following felt earthquakes in the United States. These intensities (CII) have been shown to be comparable to USGS Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI). Given the CII for an event, we have developed tools to make it possible to generate ground motion estimates in the absence of data from seismic instruments. We compare both mean ground motion estimates based on the ShakeMap instrumental intensity relations with values computed from a Bayesian approach, based on combining probabilities of ground motion amplitudes for a given intensity with those for regionally-appropriate attenuation relationships. We also present a method for deriving earthquake magnitude and location automatically, updated as a function of time, from online responses based on the algorithm of Bakun and Wentworth. We perform a grid search centered on the area with the highest intensity responses, treat each node as a `trial epicenter', and determine the magnitude and intensity centroid that best fits the CII observation points according a region-dependent intensity-distance attenuation relation. We use the M4.9 2002 Gilroy, CA, event to test all these new tools since it was well recorded by strong motion instruments and had an impressive CIIM response. We show that the epicenter and ground motions determined from the CIIM data correlate well with instrumentally derived parameters. We then apply these methods to the Au Sable Forks, NY, and Evansville, IN, events. To show the
"Battleship Numberline": A Digital Game for Improving Estimation Accuracy on Fraction Number Lines
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lomas, Derek; Ching, Dixie; Stampfer, Eliane; Sandoval, Melanie; Koedinger, Ken
2011-01-01
Given the strong relationship between number line estimation accuracy and math achievement, might a computer-based number line game help improve math achievement? In one study by Rittle-Johnson, Siegler and Alibali (2001), a simple digital game called "Catch the Monster" provided practice in estimating the location of decimals on a…
The Plus or Minus Game--Teaching Estimation, Precision, and Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forringer, Edward R.; Forringer, Richard S.; Forringer, Daniel S.
2016-01-01
A quick survey of physics textbooks shows that many (Knight, Young, and Serway for example) cover estimation, significant digits, precision versus accuracy, and uncertainty in the first chapter. Estimation "Fermi" questions are so useful that there has been a column dedicated to them in "TPT" (Larry Weinstein's "Fermi…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, C. Almeida; Costa, C. Oliveira; Batista, J.
2016-05-01
The paper describes a kinematic model-based solution to estimate simultaneously the calibration parameters of the vision system and the full-motion (6-DOF) of large civil engineering structures, namely of long deck suspension bridges, from a sequence of stereo images captured by digital cameras. Using an arbitrary number of images and assuming a smooth structure motion, an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter is used to recursively estimate the projection matrices of the cameras and the structure full-motion (displacement and rotation) over time, helping to meet the structure health monitoring fulfilment. Results related to the performance evaluation, obtained by numerical simulation and with real experiments, are reported. The real experiments were carried out in indoor and outdoor environment using a reduced structure model to impose controlled motions. In both cases, the results obtained with a minimum setup comprising only two cameras and four non-coplanar tracking points, showed a high accuracy results for on-line camera calibration and structure full motion estimation.
Prior estimation of motion using recursive perceptron with sEMG: a case of wrist angle.
Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Takeshi; Imura, Masataka; Oshiro, Osamu
2012-01-01
Muscle activity is followed by myoelectric potentials. Prior estimation of motion by surface electromyography can be utilized to assist the physically impaired people as well as surgeon. In this paper, we proposed a real-time method for the prior estimation of motion from surface electromyography, especially in the case of wrist angle. The method was based on the recursive processing of multi-layer perceptron, which is trained quickly. A single layer perceptron calculates quasi tensional force of muscles from surface electromyography. A three-layer perceptron calculates the wrist's change in angle. In order to estimate a variety of motions properly, the perceptron was designed to estimate motion in a short time period, e.g. 1ms. Recursive processing enables the method to estimate motion in the target time period, e.g. 50ms. The results of the experiments showed statistical significance for the precedence of estimated angle to the measured one.
The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, M. R.; Robson, S.
2012-04-01
Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The
Size effect on the polygon-based estimation of user's, producer's and overall accuracies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radoux, J.; Bogaert, P.
2012-04-01
Geographic object-based image analysis is a processing method where groups of spatially adjacent pixels are classified as elementary units. This approach raises concerns about the design of subsequent validation strategies. Thought it has been suggested that polygon sampling units should be used in validation schemes when the map is partitioned in polygons, little attention has been paid on the consequences of this choice. Contrary to the point-based sampling, polygon indeed have different spatial extents that should be used for the estimation of the primary (overall, user's and producer's) thematic accuracy indices. In this paper, the quantitative effects related to the variable size of the sampling units on the estimation primary accuracy indices are addressed. An object-based sampling strategy is proposed and compared with other approaches used in the literature for the thematic accuracy assessment of object-based classifications. The new sampling scheme and sample analysis are founded on a sound theoretical framework based on few working hypotheses. The performance of the sampling strategies is quantified using object-based classifications results simulated for a Quickbird imagery. The different effects of the polygon size on the efficiency of the validation method are assessed. The bias and the variance of the primary accuracy estimates were used as indicators of the methods benefits. The results show that the proposed method is the most efficient for overall accuracy estimates but not systematically better than point-based sampling for user and producer accuracy. The effect of the size distribution, characterized by the coefficient of variation, is to increase the variance of the object-based predictors. In addition, the correlation between the size and the classification accuracy may lead to systematic errors if not properly taken into account. The results therefore suggest that the effect of the size on the estimation of primary parameters should not be
Baltali, Evre; Zhao, Kristin D.; Koff, Matthew F.; Keller, Eugene E.; An, Kai-Nan
2008-01-01
The purpose of the study was to test the precision and accuracy of a method used to track selected landmarks during motion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A precision phantom device was constructed and relative motions between two rigid bodies on the phantom device were measured using optoelectronic (OE) and electromagnetic (EM) motion tracking devices. The motion recordings were also combined with a 3D CT image for each type of motion tracking system (EM+CT and OE+CT) to mimic methods used in previous studies. In the OE and EM data collections, specific landmarks on the rigid bodies were determined using digitization. In the EM+CT and OE+CT data sets, the landmark locations were obtained from the CT images. 3D linear distances and 3D curvilinear path distances were calculated for the points. The accuracy and precision for all 4 methods were evaluated (EM, OE, EM+CT and OE+CT). In addition, results were compared with and without the CT imaging (EM vs. EM+CT, OE vs. OE+CT). All systems overestimated the actual 3D curvilinear path lengths. All systems also underestimated the actual rotation values. The accuracy of all methods was within 0.5 mm for 3D curvilinear path calculations, 0.05 mm for 3D linear distance calculations, and 0.2° for rotation calculations. In addition, Bland-Altman plots for each configuration of the systems suggest that measurements obtained from either system are repeatable and comparable. PMID:18617178
Soydan, Lydia C.; Kellihan, Heidi B.; Bates, Melissa L.; Stepien, Rebecca L.; Consigny, Daniel W.; Bellofiore, Alessandro; Francois, Christopher J.; Chesler, Naomi C.
2015-01-01
Objectives To compare noninvasive estimates of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) obtained via echocardiography (ECHO) to invasive measurements of PAP obtained during right heart catheterization (RHC) across a wide range of PAP, to examine the accuracy of estimating right atrial pressure via ECHO (RAPECHO) compared to RAP measured by catheterization (RAPRHC), and to determine if adding RAPECHO improves the accuracy of noninvasive PAP estimations. Animals Fourteen healthy female beagle dogs. Methods ECHO and RHC performed at various data collection points, both at normal PAP and increased PAP (generated by microbead embolization). Results Noninvasive estimates of PAP were moderately but significantly correlated with invasive measurements of PAP. A high degree of variance was noted for all estimations, with increased variance at higher PAP. The addition of RAPECHO improved correlation and bias in all cases. RAPRHC was significantly correlated with RAPECHO and with subjectively assessed right atrial size (RA sizesubj). Conclusions Spectral Doppler assessments of tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitation are imperfect methods for predicting PAP as measured by catheterization despite an overall moderate correlation between invasive and noninvasive values. Noninvasive measurements may be better utilized as part of a comprehensive assessment of PAP in canine patients. RAPRHC appears best estimated based on subjective assessment of RA size. Including estimated RAPECHO in estimates of PAP improves the correlation and relatedness between noninvasive and invasive measures of PAP, but notable variability in accuracy of estimations persists. PMID:25601540
Image-based motion estimation for cardiac CT via image registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cammin, J.; Taguchi, K.
2010-03-01
Images reconstructed from tomographic projection data are subject to motion artifacts from organs that move during the duration of the scan. The effect can be reduced by taking the motion into account in the reconstruction algorithm if an estimate of the deformation exists. This paper presents the estimation of the three-dimensional cardiac motion by registering reconstructed images from cardiac quiet phases as a first step towards motion-compensated cardiac image reconstruction. The non-rigid deformations of the heart are parametrized on a coarse grid on the image volume and are interpolated with cubic b-splines. The optimization problem of finding b-spline coefficients that best describe the observed deformations is ill-posed due to the large number of parameters and the resulting motion vector field is sensitive to the choice of initial parameters. Particularly challenging is the task to capture the twisting motion of the heart. The motion vector field from a dynamic computer phantom of the human heart is used to initialize the transformation parameters for the optimization process with realistic starting values. The results are evaluated by comparing the registered images and the obtained motion vector field to the case when the registration is performed without using prior knowledge about the expected cardiac motion. We find that the registered images are similar for both approaches, but the motion vector field obtained from motion estimation initialized with the phantom describes the cardiac contraction and twisting motion more accurately.
Chang, Chien-Chi; McGorry, Raymond W; Lin, Jia-Hua; Xu, Xu; Hsiang, Simon M
2010-08-01
This study investigated prediction accuracy of a video posture coding method for lifting joint trajectory estimation. From three filming angles, the coder selected four key snapshots, identified joint angles and then a prediction program estimated the joint trajectories over the course of a lift. Results revealed a limited range of differences of joint angles (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle) between the manual coding method and the electromagnetic motion tracking system approach. Lifting range significantly affected estimate accuracy for all joints and camcorder filming angle had a significant effect on all joints but the hip. Joint trajectory predictions were more accurate for knuckle-to-shoulder lifts than for floor-to-shoulder or floor-to-knuckle lifts with average root mean square errors (RMSE) of 8.65 degrees , 11.15 degrees and 11.93 degrees , respectively. Accuracy was also greater for the filming angles orthogonal to the participant's sagittal plane (RMSE = 9.97 degrees ) as compared to filming angles of 45 degrees (RMSE = 11.01 degrees ) or 135 degrees (10.71 degrees ). The effects of lifting speed and loading conditions were minimal. To further increase prediction accuracy, improved prediction algorithms and/or better posture matching methods should be investigated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Observation and classification of postures are common steps in risk assessment of manual materials handling tasks. The ability to accurately predict lifting patterns through video coding can provide ergonomists with greater resolution in characterising or assessing the lifting tasks than evaluation based solely on sampling with a single lifting posture event.
2012-07-01
OF: A foot motion filtering algorithm is presented for estimating foot kinematics relative to an earth -fixed reference frame during normal walking...Title ABSTRACT A foot motion filtering algorithm is presented for estimating foot kinematics relative to an earth -fixed reference frame during...filtering algorithm is presented for es- timating foot kinematics relative to an earth -fixed reference frame during normal walking motion. Algorithm
Fuerweger, Christoph; Drexler, Christian; Kufeld, Markus; Muacevic, Alexander; Wowra, Berndt; Schlaefer, Alexander
2010-11-01
Purpose: To evaluate clinical targeting precision and assess patient movement data during fiducial-free, single-fraction spinal radiosurgery with the Cyberknife (CK). Methods and Materials: Image-guided spine tracking accuracy was tested using two phantoms. Movement patterns (three translations, roll, pitch and yaw) were obtained from log files of 260 patient treatments (47 cervical, 89 thoracic, 90 lumbar, and 34 pelvic/sacral). For two treatments (average and maximum motion scenario), we added offsets to all beams according to recorded patient movements and recalculated the delivered dose distribution to simulate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction motion. Results: Phantom spine position was registered with an accuracy of <0.2 mm for translational and <0.3{sup o} for rotational directions. Residual patient motion yielded mean targeting errors per beam of 0.28 {+-} 0.13 mm (X), 0.25 {+-} 0.15 mm (Y), 0.19 {+-} 0.11 mm (Z) and 0.40 {+-} 0.20{sup o} (roll), 0.20 {+-} 0.08{sup o} (pitch), and 0.19 {+-} 0.08{sup o} (yaw). Spine region had little influence on overall targeting error, which was <1 mm for more than 95% of treatments (median, 0.48 mm). In the maximum motion case, target coverage decreased by 1.7% (from 92.1% to 90.4%) for the 20-Gy prescription isodose. Spinal cord volume receiving more than 8 Gy increased slightly, from 2.41 to 2.46 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Submillimeter targeting precision was obtained for fiducial-free spinal radiosurgery despite patient motion. Patient motion has little effect on the delivered dose distribution when image-guided correction of beam aiming is employed.
Method and system for non-linear motion estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ligang (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.
Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods
Collins, John; Huynh, Minh
2014-01-01
The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification. PMID:24910172
Estimation of diagnostic test accuracy without full verification: a review of latent class methods.
Collins, John; Huynh, Minh
2014-10-30
The performance of a diagnostic test is best evaluated against a reference test that is without error. For many diseases, this is not possible, and an imperfect reference test must be used. However, diagnostic accuracy estimates may be biased if inaccurately verified status is used as the truth. Statistical models have been developed to handle this situation by treating disease as a latent variable. In this paper, we conduct a systematized review of statistical methods using latent class models for estimating test accuracy and disease prevalence in the absence of complete verification.
Choi, Minho; Jeong, Jae Jin; Kim, Seung Hun; Kim, Sang Woo
2016-01-01
Non-intrusive electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring has many advantages: easy to measure and apply in daily life. However, motion noise in the measured signal is the major problem of non-intrusive measurement. This paper proposes a method to reduce the noise and to detect the R peaks of ECG in a stable manner in a sitting arrangement using non-intrusive sensors. The method utilizes two capacitive ECG sensors (cECGs) to measure ECG, and another two cECGs located adjacent to the sensors for ECG are added to obtain the information on motion. Then, active noise cancellation technique and the motion information are used to reduce motion noise. To verify the proposed method, ECG was measured indoors and during driving, and the accuracy of the detected R peaks was compared. After applying the method, the sum of sensitivity and positive predictivity increased 8.39% on average and 26.26% maximally in the data. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the motion noise was reduced and that more reliable R peak positions could be obtained by the proposed method. The robustness of the new ECG measurement method will elicit benefits to various health care systems that require noninvasive heart rate or heart rate variability measurements. PMID:27196910
Velocity estimation and comparison of two insect-vision-based motion-detection models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajesh, Sreeja; O'Carroll, David C.; Abbott, Derek
2003-10-01
Insects are blessed with a very efficient yet simple visual system which enable them to navigate with great ease and accuracy. Though a lot has been done in the field of insect vision, there is still not a clear understanding of how velocity is determined in biological vision systems. The dominant model for insect motion detection, first proposed by Hassentein and Reichardt in 1956 has gained widespread acceptance in the invertebrate vision community. The template model, proposed later by Horridge in 1990, permits simple tracking techniques and lends itself easily to both hardware and software. Analysis and simulation by Dror suggest that the inclusion of additional system components to perform pre-filtering, response compression, integration and adaptation, to a basic Reichardt correlator can make it less sensitive to contrast and spatial structure thereby providing a more robust estimate of local image velocity. It was found from the data obtained, from the intracellular recordings of the steady state responses of wide field neurons in the hoverfly Volucella, that the shape of the curves obtained, agreed perfectly with the theoretical predictions made by Dror. In order to compare it with the template model, an experiment was done to get the velocity response curves of the template model using the same image statistics. The results leads us to believe that the fly motion detector emulates a modified Reichardt correlator.
Propagation of measurement accuracy to biomass soft-sensor estimation and control quality.
Steinwandter, Valentin; Zahel, Thomas; Sagmeister, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph
2017-01-01
In biopharmaceutical process development and manufacturing, the online measurement of biomass and derived specific turnover rates is a central task to physiologically monitor and control the process. However, hard-type sensors such as dielectric spectroscopy, broth fluorescence, or permittivity measurement harbor various disadvantages. Therefore, soft-sensors, which use measurements of the off-gas stream and substrate feed to reconcile turnover rates and provide an online estimate of the biomass formation, are smart alternatives. For the reconciliation procedure, mass and energy balances are used together with accuracy estimations of measured conversion rates, which were so far arbitrarily chosen and static over the entire process. In this contribution, we present a novel strategy within the soft-sensor framework (named adaptive soft-sensor) to propagate uncertainties from measurements to conversion rates and demonstrate the benefits: For industrially relevant conditions, hereby the error of the resulting estimated biomass formation rate and specific substrate consumption rate could be decreased by 43 and 64 %, respectively, compared to traditional soft-sensor approaches. Moreover, we present a generic workflow to determine the required raw signal accuracy to obtain predefined accuracies of soft-sensor estimations. Thereby, appropriate measurement devices and maintenance intervals can be selected. Furthermore, using this workflow, we demonstrate that the estimation accuracy of the soft-sensor can be additionally and substantially increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chupeau, Bertrand
1993-10-01
There is no doubt that in a near future a large number of image processing techniques will be based on motion compensation, making thus very common the cascading of several 'motion compensated' devices in the same image chain. A reference scheme for the optimum use of motion compensation in future image communication networks is presented. Motion estimation is performed once only, at a very early stage of the process chain, then motion information is encoded, transmitted in a separate data channel and distributed to the cascaded motion compensated processes. The distribution scenario must take into consideration the various transformations performed on the image signal since its origination so that the motion information distributed is always consistent with the pictures to process. The problems of the representation of motion relatively to a given source image signal and of its adjustment to new frame rate environments are especially addressed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafferty, Mark T.
2010-01-01
The number of project failures and those projects completed over cost and over schedule has been a significant issue for software project managers. Among the many reasons for failure, inaccuracy in software estimation--the basis for project bidding, budgeting, planning, and probability estimates--has been identified as a root cause of a high…
Proença, Martin; Braun, Fabian; Rapin, Michael; Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Bohm, Stephan H; Lemay, Mathieu; Thiran, Jean-Philippe
2015-06-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that can measure cardiac-related intra-thoracic impedance changes. EIT-based cardiac output estimation relies on the assumption that the amplitude of the impedance change in the ventricular region is representative of stroke volume (SV). However, other factors such as heart motion can significantly affect this ventricular impedance change. In the present case study, a magnetic resonance imaging-based dynamic bio-impedance model fitting the morphology of a single male subject was built. Simulations were performed to evaluate the contribution of heart motion and its influence on EIT-based SV estimation. Myocardial deformation was found to be the main contributor to the ventricular impedance change (56%). However, motion-induced impedance changes showed a strong correlation (r = 0.978) with left ventricular volume. We explained this by the quasi-incompressibility of blood and myocardium. As a result, EIT achieved excellent accuracy in estimating a wide range of simulated SV values (error distribution of 0.57 ± 2.19 ml (1.02 ± 2.62%) and correlation of r = 0.996 after a two-point calibration was applied to convert impedance values to millilitres). As the model was based on one single subject, the strong correlation found between motion-induced changes and ventricular volume remains to be verified in larger datasets.
Chattopadhyay, Bhargab; Kelley, Ken
2017-03-01
The standardized mean difference is a widely used effect size measure. In this article, we develop a general theory for estimating the population standardized mean difference by minimizing both the mean square error of the estimator and the total sampling cost. Fixed sample size methods, when sample size is planned before the start of a study, cannot simultaneously minimize both the mean square error of the estimator and the total sampling cost. To overcome this limitation of the current state of affairs, this article develops a purely sequential sampling procedure, which provides an estimate of the sample size required to achieve a sufficiently accurate estimate with minimum expected sampling cost. Performance of the purely sequential procedure is examined via a simulation study to show that our analytic developments are highly accurate. Additionally, we provide freely available functions in R to implement the algorithm of the purely sequential procedure. (PsycINFO Database Record
Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard; Gerr, Fred
2015-05-01
The performance of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for directly measuring thoracolumbar trunk motion was compared to that of the Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM). Thirty-six male participants completed a simulated material handling task with both systems deployed simultaneously. Estimates of thoracolumbar trunk motion obtained with the IMU system were processed using five common methods for estimating trunk motion characteristics. Results of measurements obtained from IMUs secured to the sternum and pelvis had smaller root-mean-square differences and mean bias estimates in comparison to results obtained with the LMM than results of measurements obtained solely from a sternum mounted IMU. Fusion of IMU accelerometer measurements with IMU gyroscope and/or magnetometer measurements was observed to increase comparability to the LMM. Results suggest investigators should consider computing thoracolumbar trunk motion as a function of estimates from multiple IMUs using fusion algorithms rather than using a single accelerometer secured to the sternum in field-based studies.
Precise Image-Based Motion Estimation for Autonomous Small Body Exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Andrew E.; Matthies, Larry H.
1998-01-01
Space science and solar system exploration are driving NASA to develop an array of small body missions ranging in scope from near body flybys to complete sample return. This paper presents an algorithm for onboard motion estimation that will enable the precision guidance necessary for autonomous small body landing. Our techniques are based on automatic feature tracking between a pair of descent camera images followed by two frame motion estimation and scale recovery using laser altimetry data. The output of our algorithm is an estimate of rigid motion (attitude and position) and motion covariance between frames. This motion estimate can be passed directly to the spacecraft guidance and control system to enable rapid execution of safe and precise trajectories.
Factoring vs linear modeling in rate estimation: a simulation study of relative accuracy.
Maldonado, G; Greenland, S
1998-07-01
A common strategy for modeling dose-response in epidemiology is to transform ordered exposures and covariates into sets of dichotomous indicator variables (that is, to factor the variables). Factoring tends to increase estimation variance, but it also tends to decrease bias and thus may increase or decrease total accuracy. We conducted a simulation study to examine the impact of factoring on the accuracy of rate estimation. Factored and unfactored Poisson regression models were fit to follow-up study datasets that were randomly generated from 37,500 population model forms that ranged from subadditive to supramultiplicative. In the situations we examined, factoring sometimes substantially improved accuracy relative to fitting the corresponding unfactored model, sometimes substantially decreased accuracy, and sometimes made little difference. The difference in accuracy between factored and unfactored models depended in a complicated fashion on the difference between the true and fitted model forms, the strength of exposure and covariate effects in the population, and the study size. It may be difficult in practice to predict when factoring is increasing or decreasing accuracy. We recommend, therefore, that the strategy of factoring variables be supplemented with other strategies for modeling dose-response.
The Accuracy of Screw Axis Analysis Using Position Data from Anatomical Motion Studies.
1980-05-05
Hip Motion ........ . 57 7-2 Screw Axis Analysis for the Sacro -iliac Joint. 57 viii " LIST OF FIGURES Figure Title Page 2-1 Systems Anthropometry Data...analyzed are the hip, and the sacro -iliac joint. The bone movements analyzed are the femur moving relative to the left inominate for hip motion, and the...sacrum moving relative to the inominate for the sacro -iliac joint. The cadaver used was a Caucasian male who was 80 years old. The primary cause of
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Knowledge of the extent of the symptoms of a plant disease, generally referred to as severity, is key to both fundamental and applied aspects of plant pathology. Most commonly, severity is obtained visually and the accuracy of each estimate (closeness to the actual value) by individual raters is par...
Accuracy of Parameter Estimation in Gibbs Sampling under the Two-Parameter Logistic Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seock-Ho; Cohen, Allan S.
The accuracy of Gibbs sampling, a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure, was considered for estimation of item and ability parameters under the two-parameter logistic model. Memory test data were analyzed to illustrate the Gibbs sampling procedure. Simulated data sets were analyzed using Gibbs sampling and the marginal Bayesian method. The marginal…
Comparing Accuracy of Parameter Estimation Using IRT Models in the Presence of Guessing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fu, Qiong
2010-01-01
This research investigated how the accuracy of person ability and item difficulty parameter estimation varied across five IRT models with respect to the presence of guessing, targeting, and varied combinations of sample sizes and test lengths. The data were simulated with 50 replications under each of the 18 combined conditions. Five IRT models…
Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling
2010-01-01
To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…
Practical Issues in Estimating Classification Accuracy and Consistency with R Package cacIRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lathrop, Quinn N.
2015-01-01
There are two main lines of research in estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) under Item Response Theory (IRT). The R package cacIRT provides computer implementations of both approaches in an accessible and unified framework. Even with available implementations, there remains decisions a researcher faces when…
Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Berbeco, Ross I.; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Heijmen, Ben
2007-07-15
The Synchrony{sup TM} Respiratory Tracking System (RTS) is a treatment option of the CyberKnife robotic treatment device to irradiate extra-cranial tumors that move due to respiration. Advantages of RTS are that patients can breath normally and that there is no loss of linac duty cycle such as with gated therapy. Tracking is based on a measured correspondence model (linear or polynomial) between internal tumor motion and external (chest/abdominal) marker motion. The radiation beam follows the tumor movement via the continuously measured external marker motion. To establish the correspondence model at the start of treatment, the 3D internal tumor position is determined at 15 discrete time points by automatic detection of implanted gold fiducials in two orthogonal x-ray images; simultaneously, the positions of the external markers are measured. During the treatment, the relationship between internal and external marker positions is continuously accounted for and is regularly checked and updated. Here we use computer simulations based on continuously and simultaneously recorded internal and external marker positions to investigate the effectiveness of tumor tracking by the RTS. The Cyberknife does not allow continuous acquisition of x-ray images to follow the moving internal markers (typical imaging frequency is once per minute). Therefore, for the simulations, we have used data for eight lung cancer patients treated with respiratory gating. All of these patients had simultaneous and continuous recordings of both internal tumor motion and external abdominal motion. The available continuous relationship between internal and external markers for these patients allowed investigation of the consequences of the lower acquisition frequency of the RTS. With the use of the RTS, simulated treatment errors due to breathing motion were reduced largely and consistently over treatment time for all studied patients. A considerable part of the maximum reduction in treatment error
Lempereur, Mathieu; Leboeuf, Fabien; Brochard, Sylvain; Rousset, Jean; Burdin, Valérie; Rémy-Néris, Olivier
2010-01-19
Several algorithms have been proposed for determining the centre of rotation of ball joints. These algorithms are used rather to locate the hip joint centre. Few studies have focused on the determination of the glenohumeral joint centre. However, no studies have assessed the accuracy and repeatability of functional methods for glenohumeral joint centre. This paper aims at evaluating the accuracy and the repeatability with which the glenohumeral joint rotation centre (GHRC) can be estimated in vivo by functional methods. The reference joint centre is the glenohumeral anatomical centre obtained by medical imaging. Five functional methods were tested: the algorithm of Gamage and Lasenby (2002), bias compensated (Halvorsen, 2003), symmetrical centre of rotation estimation (Ehrig et al., 2006), normalization method (Chang and Pollard, 2007), helical axis (Woltring et al., 1985). The glenohumeral anatomical centre (GHAC) was deduced from the fitting of the humeral head. Four subjects performed three cycles of three different movements (flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and circumduction). For each test, the location of the glenohumeral joint centre was estimated by the five methods. Analyses focused on the 3D location, on the repeatability of location and on the accuracy by computing the Euclidian distance between the estimated GHRC and the GHAC. For all the methods, the error repeatability was inferior to 8.25 mm. This study showed that there are significant differences between the five functional methods. The smallest distance between the estimated joint centre and the centre of the humeral head was obtained with the method of Gamage and Lasenby (2002).
Power outage estimation for tropical cyclones: improved accuracy with simpler models.
Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth; Quiring, Steven M
2014-06-01
In this article, we discuss an outage-forecasting model that we have developed. This model uses very few input variables to estimate hurricane-induced outages prior to landfall with great predictive accuracy. We also show the results for a series of simpler models that use only publicly available data and can still estimate outages with reasonable accuracy. The intended users of these models are emergency response planners within power utilities and related government agencies. We developed our models based on the method of random forest, using data from a power distribution system serving two states in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. We also show that estimates of system reliability based on wind speed alone are not sufficient for adequately capturing the reliability of system components. We demonstrate that a multivariate approach can produce more accurate power outage predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoshelham, Kourosh
2016-04-01
Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damljanovic, G.
2009-09-01
Commission 19 (Earth Rotation) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) established the Working Group on Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame (WG ERHRF) in 1995 to collect the optical observations of latitude and universal time variations, made during 1899.7 -- 1992.0 in line with the Earth orientation programmes (to derive Earth Orientation Parameters -- EOP), with Dr. Jan Vondrák (Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague) as the head of WG ERHRF. We participated in this international project using Belgrade Visual Zenith -- Telescope (BLZ) latitude data for the period 1949.0 -- 1986.0, after a new reduction of BLZ data made in my MSc thesis, finished in 1997 at the Faculty of Mathematics of University of Belgrade. Dr. Vondrák collected 4.4 million optical observations of latitude/universal time variations made at 33 observatories. The data were used for the EOP investigations, Hipparcos satellite Catalogue -- radio sources connection, etc. Nowadays, it is customary to correct the positions and proper motions of stars of Hipparcos Catalogue (as an optical reference frame) using ground -- based observations of some Hipparcos stars. In this PhD thesis we use the latitude observations made with several types of classical astrometric instruments: visual (ZT) and floating zenith -- telescope (FZT), visual zenith tube (VZT) and photographic zenith tube (PZT); 26 different instruments located at many observatories all over the world (used in the programs of monitoring the Earth orientation during the 20th century). We received the data from Dr. Vondrák via private communication. The observatories and instruments are: International Latitude Service -- ILS (Carloforte -- CA ZT, Cincinnati -- CI ZT, Gaithersburg -- GT ZT, Kitab -- KZ ZT, Mizusawa -- MZZ ZT, Tschardjui -- TS ZT and Ukiah -- UK ZT), Belgrade (BLZ ZT), Blagoveschtschensk (BK ZT), Irkutsk (IRZ ZT), Poltava (POL ZT), Pulkovo (PU and PUZ ZT), Varsovie (VJZ ZT
The Accuracy of Webcams in 2D Motion Analysis: Sources of Error and Their Control
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Page, A.; Moreno, R.; Candelas, P.; Belmar, F.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented.…
Recursive camera-motion estimation with the trifocal tensor.
Yu, Ying Kin; Wong, Kin Hong; Chang, Michael Ming Yuen; Or, Siu Hang
2006-10-01
In this paper, an innovative extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm for pose tracking using the trifocal tensor is proposed. In the EKF, a constant-velocity motion model is used as the dynamic system, and the trifocal-tensor constraint is incorporated into the measurement model. The proposed method has the advantages of those structure- and-motion-based approaches in that the pose sequence can be computed with no prior information on the scene structure. It also has the strengths of those model-based algorithms in which no updating of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure is necessary in the computation. This results in a stable, accurate, and efficient algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperformed other existing EKFs that tackle the same problem. An extension to the pose-tracking algorithm has been made to demonstrate the application of the trifocal constraint to fast recursive 3-D structure recovery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dong Wook; Bae, Sunhyun; Chung, Weon Kuu; Lee, Yoonhee
2014-04-01
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are currently used for patient positioning and adaptive dose calculation; however, the degree of CBCT uncertainty in cases of respiratory motion remains an interesting issue. This study evaluated the uncertainty of CBCT-based dose calculations for a moving target. Using a phantom, we estimated differences in the geometries and the Hounsfield units (HU) between CT and CBCT. The calculated dose distributions based on CT and CBCT images were also compared using a radiation treatment planning system, and the comparison included cases with respiratory motion. The geometrical uncertainties of the CT and the CBCT images were less than 0.15 cm. The HU differences between CT and CBCT images for standard-dose-head, high-quality-head, normal-pelvis, and low-dose-thorax modes were 31, 36, 23, and 33 HU, respectively. The gamma (3%, 0.3 cm)-dose distribution between CT and CBCT was greater than 1 in 99% of the area. The gamma-dose distribution between CT and CBCT during respiratory motion was also greater than 1 in 99% of the area. The uncertainty of the CBCT-based dose calculation was evaluated for cases with respiratory motion. In conclusion, image distortion due to motion did not significantly influence dosimetric parameters.
Accuracy or precision: Implications of sample design and methodology on abundance estimation
Kowalewski, Lucas K.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Powell, Larkin A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Pegg, Mark A.
2015-01-01
Sampling by spatially replicated counts (point-count) is an increasingly popular method of estimating population size of organisms. Challenges exist when sampling by point-count method, and it is often impractical to sample entire area of interest and impossible to detect every individual present. Ecologists encounter logistical limitations that force them to sample either few large-sample units or many small sample-units, introducing biases to sample counts. We generated a computer environment and simulated sampling scenarios to test the role of number of samples, sample unit area, number of organisms, and distribution of organisms in the estimation of population sizes using N-mixture models. Many sample units of small area provided estimates that were consistently closer to true abundance than sample scenarios with few sample units of large area. However, sample scenarios with few sample units of large area provided more precise abundance estimates than abundance estimates derived from sample scenarios with many sample units of small area. It is important to consider accuracy and precision of abundance estimates during the sample design process with study goals and objectives fully recognized, although and with consequence, consideration of accuracy and precision of abundance estimates is often an afterthought that occurs during the data analysis process.
Space-to-Space Based Relative Motion Estimation Using Direct Relative Orbit Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, T.; Schaub, H.
There has been an increasing interest in space-based space situational awareness around satellite assets and the tracking of orbital debris. Of particular interest is the space-based tracking of objects near critical circular orbit regimes, for example near the Geostationary belt or the International Space Station. Relative orbit descriptions such as the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations describe the motion using time-varying Cartesian or curvilinear coordinates. Orbit element differences describe the unperturbed motion using constant variations of inertial orbit elements. With perturbations these only vary slowly, but can be challenging to estimate. Linearized Relative Orbit Elements (LROEs) employ invariants of the linearized relative motion, are thus constant for the unperturbed linear case, and share the benefit of the CW equations in that they directly related to space-based relative motion measurements. The variational LROE equations enable the relative orbit to be directly propagated including perturbation forces. Utilization of the invariant-inspired relative motion parameters exhibits exciting applications in relative motion sensing and control. Many methods of relative motion estimation involve the direct estimation of time-evolving position and velocity variables. Developed is an angles-only relative orbit Extended Kalman filter (EKF) navigation approach that directly estimates these nominally constant LROEs. The proposed variational equations and filtering scheme enables direct estimation of geometric parameters with clear geometric insight. Preliminary numerical simulation results demonstrate the relative orbit insight gained and speed of convergence. EKF implementations often exhibit significant sensitivity to initial conditions, however, initial results show that the LROE filter converges within fractions of an orbit with initialization errors that exceed 100 percent. The manuscript presents the invariants of motion, develops the variational equations for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan
2015-12-01
The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.
Motion estimation using low-band-shift method for wavelet-based moving-picture coding.
Park, H W; Kim, H S
2000-01-01
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has several advantages of multiresolution analysis and subband decomposition, which has been successfully used in image processing. However, the shift-variant property is intrinsic due to the decimation process of the wavelet transform, and it makes the wavelet-domain motion estimation and compensation inefficient. To overcome the shift-variant property, a low-band-shift method is proposed and a motion estimation and compensation method in the wavelet-domain is presented. The proposed method has a superior performance to the conventional motion estimation methods in terms of the mean absolute difference (MAD) as well as the subjective quality. The proposed method can be a model method for the motion estimation in wavelet-domain just like the full-search block matching in the spatial domain.
Feygelman, Vladimir; Zhang, Geoffrey; Hunt, Dylan; Opp, Daniel; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Wolf, Theresa K.; Nelms, Benjamin E.
2013-02-15
MLC sequences. For all phantoms and plans, time-resolved (10 Hz) ion chamber dose was collected. In addition, coronal (XY) films were exposed in the cube phantom to a VMAT beam with two different starting phases, and compared to the reconstructed motion-perturbed dose planes. Results: For the X or Y motions with the moving strip and geometrical phantoms, the maximum difference between perturbation-reconstructed and ion chamber doses did not exceed 1.9%, and the average for any motion pattern/starting phase did not exceed 1.3%. For the VMAT plans on the cubic and thoracic phantoms, one point exhibited a 3.5% error, while the remaining five were all within 1.1%. Across all the measurements (N = 22), the average disagreement was 0.5 {+-} 1.3% (1 SD). The films exhibited {gamma}(3%/3 mm) passing rates {>=}90%. Conclusions: The dose to an arbitrary moving voxel in a patient can be estimated with acceptable accuracy for a VMAT delivery, by performing a single QA measurement with a cylindrical phantom and applying two consecutive perturbations to the TPS-calculated patient dose. The first one accounts for the differences between the planned and delivered static doses, while the second one corrects for the motion.
Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Dana, Jason
2014-03-01
We develop a general measure of estimation accuracy for fundamental research designs, called v. The v measure compares the estimation accuracy of the ubiquitous ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator, which includes sample means as a special case, with a benchmark estimator that randomizes the direction of treatment effects. For sample and effect sizes common to experimental psychology, v suggests that OLS produces estimates that are insufficiently accurate for the type of hypotheses being tested. We demonstrate how v can be used to determine sample sizes to obtain minimum acceptable estimation accuracy. Software for calculating v is included as online supplemental material (R Core Team, 2012).
Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity predicts the accuracy in estimating others' preferences
Kang, Pyungwon; Lee, Jongbin; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin
2013-01-01
The ability to accurately estimate another person's preferences is crucial for a successful social life. In daily interactions, we often do this on the basis of minimal information. The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether people can accurately judge others based only on a brief exposure to their appearances, and (b) to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to make guesses about unfamiliar target individuals' preferences for various items after looking at their faces for 3 s. The behavioral results showed that participants estimated others' preferences above chance level. The fMRI data revealed that higher accuracy in preference estimation was associated with greater activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) when participants were guessing the targets' preferences relative to thinking about their own preferences. These findings suggest that accurate estimations of others' preferences may require increased activity in the DMPFC. A functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher accuracy in preference estimation was related to increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the brain regions that are known to be involved in theory of mind processing, such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, during correct vs. incorrect guessing trials. On the contrary, the tendency to refer to self-preferences when estimating others' preference was related to greater activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings imply that the DMPFC may be a core region in estimating the preferences of others and that higher accuracy may require stronger communication between the DMPFC and the TPJ and PCC/precuneus, part of a neural network known to be engaged in mentalizing. PMID:24324419
Non-parametric estimation of a time-dependent predictive accuracy curve.
Saha-Chaudhuri, P; Heagerty, P J
2013-01-01
A major biomedical goal associated with evaluating a candidate biomarker or developing a predictive model score for event-time outcomes is to accurately distinguish between incident cases from the controls surviving beyond t throughout the entire study period. Extensions of standard binary classification measures like time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have been developed in this context (Heagerty, P. J., and others, 2000. Time-dependent ROC curves for censored survival data and a diagnostic marker. Biometrics 56, 337-344). We propose a direct, non-parametric method to estimate the time-dependent Area under the curve (AUC) which we refer to as the weighted mean rank (WMR) estimator. The proposed estimator performs well relative to the semi-parametric AUC curve estimator of Heagerty and Zheng (2005. Survival model predictive accuracy and ROC curves. Biometrics 61, 92-105). We establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator and show that the accuracy of markers can be compared very simply using the difference in the WMR statistics. Estimators of pointwise standard errors are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priyatikanto, R.; Arifyanto, M. I.
2015-01-01
Stellar membership determination of an open cluster is an important process to do before further analysis. Basically, there are two classes of membership determination method: parametric and non-parametric. In this study, an alternative of non-parametric method based on Binned Kernel Density Estimation that accounts measurements errors (simply called BKDE- e) is proposed. This method is applied upon proper motions data to determine cluster's membership kinematically and estimate the average proper motions of the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations show that the average proper motions determination using this proposed method is statistically more accurate than ordinary Kernel Density Estimator (KDE). By including measurement errors in the calculation, the mode location from the resulting density estimate is less sensitive to non-physical or stochastic fluctuation as compared to ordinary KDE that excludes measurement errors. For the typical mean measurement error of 7 mas/yr, BKDE- e suppresses the potential of miscalculation by a factor of two compared to KDE. With median accuracy of about 93 %, BKDE- e method has comparable accuracy with respect to parametric method (modified Sanders algorithm). Application to real data from The Fourth USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4), especially to NGC 2682 is also performed. The mode of member stars distribution on Vector Point Diagram is located at μ α cos δ=-9.94±0.85 mas/yr and μ δ =-4.92±0.88 mas/yr. Although the BKDE- e performance does not overtake parametric approach, it serves a new view of doing membership analysis, expandable to astrometric and photometric data or even in binary cluster search.
Boerner, V; Johnston, D; Wu, X-L; Bauck, S
2015-02-01
Genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) for Angus beef cattle are available from at least 2 commercial suppliers (Igenity [http://www.igenity.com] and Zoetis [http://www.zoetis.com]). The utility of these GEBV for improving genetic evaluation depends on their accuracies, which can be estimated by the genetic correlation with phenotypic target traits. Genomically estimated breeding values of 1,032 Angus bulls calculated from prediction equations (PE) derived by 2 different procedures in the U.S. Angus population were supplied by Igenity. Both procedures were based on Illuminia BovineSNP50 BeadChip genotypes. In procedure sg, GEBV were calculated from PE that used subsets of only 392 SNP, where these subsets were individually selected for each trait by BayesCπ. In procedure rg GEBV were calculated from PE derived in a ridge regression approach using all available SNP. Because the total set of 1,032 bulls with GEBV contained 732 individuals used in the Igenity training population, GEBV subsets were formed characterized by a decreasing average relationship between individuals in the subsets and individuals in the training population. Accuracies of GEBV were estimated as genetic correlations between GEBV and their phenotypic target traits modeling GEBV as trait observations in a bivariate REML approach, in which phenotypic observations were those recorded in the commercial Australian Angus seed stock sector. Using results from the GEBV subset excluding all training individuals as a reference, estimated accuracies were generally in agreement with those already published, with both types of GEBV (sg and rg) yielding similar results. Accuracies for growth traits ranged from 0.29 to 0.45, for reproductive traits from 0.11 to 0.53, and for carcass traits from 0.3 to 0.75. Accuracies generally decreased with an increasing genetic distance between the training and the validation population. However, for some carcass traits characterized by a low number of phenotypic
Aviles, Angelica I; Widlak, Thomas; Casals, Alicia; Ammari, Habib
2016-08-01
Estimation of the cardiac motion is very important in order to detect heart diseases. This work presents a cardiac motion estimation approach using ultrafast ultrasound data. We optimize a variational framework which has the benefits of combining low-rank data representation with topology preservation. We show through the analysis of experimental results that this combination offers a radical reduction in computational time and noise while ensuring preservation of the anatomical structure of the heart under complex deformations. Although in this work we use the heart as a study case, our solution is promising to analyze other organs experiencing motion.
Accuracy of visual estimates of joint angle and angular velocity using criterion movements.
Morrison, Craig S; Knudson, Duane; Clayburn, Colby; Haywood, Philip
2005-06-01
A descriptive study to document undergraduate physical education majors' (22.8 +/- 2.4 yr. old) estimates of sagittal plane elbow angle and angular velocity of elbow flexion visually was performed. 42 subjects rated videotape replays of 30 movements organized into three speeds of movement and two criterion elbow angles. Video images of the movements were analyzed with Peak Motus to measure actual values of elbow angles and peak angular velocity. Of the subjects 85.7% had speed ratings significantly correlated with true peak elbow angular velocity in all three angular velocity conditions. Few (16.7%) subjects' ratings of elbow angle correlated significantly with actual angles. Analysis of the subjects with good ratings showed the accuracy of visual ratings was significantly related to speed, with decreasing accuracy for slower speeds of movement. The use of criterion movements did not improve the small percentage of novice observers who could accurately estimate body angles during movement.
HDS: a fast and hierarchical diamond search algorithm in video motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Sheng-rong; Zhou, Xiang
2005-10-01
As the development of the Internet and communication technology, video coding has been more and more important. When the rate of video transmission is high, the correlation between adjacent video frames is high, too. The cost of coding the difference of the frames is litter than that of coding directly video frames. So, when video streams are coding, motion estimation is usually used to reduce the correlation between video streams in temporal axes. Therefore, motion estimation plays an important role in video coding. The present Diamond Search is accepted as one of the most efficient quick search. In this paper, a new motion estimation based on analysis of Diamond Search is proposed, in which video frames fall into two categories: the violent-motion frames and the moderate-motion frames. Based on the new motion estimation method, a quick hierarchical diamond search algorithm is proposed for the majority of moderate-motion frames. The experimental results have showed that the proposed algorithm is much faster than Diamond Search and obtains the same image quality.
Wind estimates from cloud motions - Phase 1 of an in situ aircraft verification experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W.; Skillman, W.
1976-01-01
An initial experiment has been conducted to verify geostationary-satellite-derived cloud motion wind estimates with in situ aircraft wind velocity measurements. Case histories of 1/2 to 2 h were obtained for 3-10 km diameter cumulus cloud systems on 6 days. Also, one cirrus cloud case was obtained. In most cases the clouds were discrete enough that both the cloud motion and the ambient wind could be measured with the same aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS). Since the INS drift error is the same for both the cloud motion and wind measurements, the drift error drops out of the relative motion determinations. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the ambient wind at the cloud base averaged 1.2 m/sec. The wind vector at higher levels in the cloud layer differed by about 3 to 5 m/sec from the cloud motion vector.
Wind estimates from cloud motions: Phase 1 of an in situ aircraft verification experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W.
1974-01-01
An initial experiment was conducted to verify geostationary satellite derived cloud motion wind estimates with in situ aircraft wind velocity measurements. Case histories of one-half hour to two hours were obtained for 3-10km diameter cumulus cloud systems on 6 days. Also, one cirrus cloud case was obtained. In most cases the clouds were discrete enough that both the cloud motion and the ambient wind could be measured with the same aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS). Since the INS drift error is the same for both the cloud motion and wind measurements, the drift error subtracts out of the relative motion determinations. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the ambient wind at the cloud base averaged 1.2 m/sec. The wind vector at higher levels in the cloud layer differed by about 3 m/sec to 5 m/sec from the cloud motion vector.
Using known map category marginal frequencies to improve estimates of thematic map accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Card, D. H.
1982-01-01
By means of two simple sampling plans suggested in the accuracy-assessment literature, it is shown how one can use knowledge of map-category relative sizes to improve estimates of various probabilities. The fact that maximum likelihood estimates of cell probabilities for the simple random sampling and map category-stratified sampling were identical has permitted a unified treatment of the contingency-table analysis. A rigorous analysis of the effect of sampling independently within map categories is made possible by results for the stratified case. It is noted that such matters as optimal sample size selection for the achievement of a desired level of precision in various estimators are irrelevant, since the estimators derived are valid irrespective of how sample sizes are chosen.
Estimating accuracy of land-cover composition from two-stage cluster sampling
Stehman, S.V.; Wickham, J.D.; Fattorini, L.; Wade, T.D.; Baffetta, F.; Smith, J.H.
2009-01-01
Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation (CORR) to quantify accuracy of land-cover composition for a general two-stage cluster sampling design, and for the special case of simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) at each stage. The bias of the estimators for the two-stage SRSWOR design is evaluated via a simulation study. The estimators of RMSE and CORR have small bias except when sample size is small and the land-cover class is rare. The estimator of MAD is biased for both rare and common land-cover classes except when sample size is large. A general recommendation is that rare land-cover classes require large sample sizes to ensure that the accuracy estimators have small bias. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.
Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.
2016-01-01
Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1)-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1)-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1)-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2) and quadripolar (n = 3) electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected. PMID:27294933
Accuracy of three different techniques for automatically estimating innervation zone location.
Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Stock, Matt S
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the estimated innervation zone (IZ) locations obtained from cross-correlation, the minimum amplitude, and maximum center frequency criteria. Eight healthy men (mean±SD age=23.0±4.3 yrs) performed isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors, and 15 separate bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis. A custom software program was used to estimate the location of the IZ based on: (1) the EMG channel that demonstrated the lowest amplitude, (2) the EMG channel that showed the highest mean frequency, and (3) the EMG channel that demonstrated the lowest peak cross-correlation between the signals from adjacent channels. The IZ location estimates from the lowest amplitude and highest mean frequency criteria were accurate in only 43.75% and 7.5% of the cases, respectively. The accuracy of the cross-correlation-based method was 90%. The cross-correlation-based method was much more accurate for estimating IZ location than were the lowest amplitude and highest mean frequency criteria. Cross-correlation could potentially be used for estimating the location of the IZ without the need for visual inspection of EMG signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.
2011-12-01
In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.
Motion Estimation Utilizing Range Detection-Enhanced Visual Odometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friend, Paul Russell (Inventor); Chen, Qi (Inventor); Chang, Hong (Inventor); Morris, Daniel Dale (Inventor); Graf, Jodi Seaborn (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A motion determination system is disclosed. The system may receive a first and a second camera image from a camera, the first camera image received earlier than the second camera image. The system may identify corresponding features in the first and second camera images. The system may receive range data comprising at least one of a first and a second range data from a range detection unit, corresponding to the first and second camera images, respectively. The system may determine first positions and the second positions of the corresponding features using the first camera image and the second camera image. The first positions or the second positions may be determined by also using the range data. The system may determine a change in position of the machine based on differences between the first and second positions, and a VO-based velocity of the machine based on the determined change in position.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yingzhe; Wang, Jinxiang; Fu, Fangfa
2013-04-01
The H.264/AVC video standard adopts a fixed search range (SR) and fixed reference frame (RF) for motion estimation. These fixed settings result in a heavy computational load in the video encoder. We propose a dynamic SR and multiframe selection algorithm to improve the computational efficiency of motion estimation. By exploiting the relationship between the predicted motion vector and the SR size, we develop an adaptive SR adjustment algorithm. We also design a RF selection scheme based on the correlation between the different block sizes of the macroblock. Experimental results show that our algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation compared with the JM15.1 reference software, with a negligible decrease in peak signal-to-noise ratio and a slight increase in bit rate. Our algorithm also outperforms existing methods in terms of its low complexity and high coding quality.
Motion Estimation Using the Firefly Algorithm in Ultrasonic Image Sequence of Soft Tissue
Chao, Chih-Feng; Horng, Ming-Huwi; Chen, Yu-Chan
2015-01-01
Ultrasonic image sequence of the soft tissue is widely used in disease diagnosis; however, the speckle noises usually influenced the image quality. These images usually have a low signal-to-noise ratio presentation. The phenomenon gives rise to traditional motion estimation algorithms that are not suitable to measure the motion vectors. In this paper, a new motion estimation algorithm is developed for assessing the velocity field of soft tissue in a sequence of ultrasonic B-mode images. The proposed iterative firefly algorithm (IFA) searches for few candidate points to obtain the optimal motion vector, and then compares it to the traditional iterative full search algorithm (IFSA) via a series of experiments of in vivo ultrasonic image sequences. The experimental results show that the IFA can assess the vector with better efficiency and almost equal estimation quality compared to the traditional IFSA method. PMID:25873987
Specification of hierarchical-model-based fast quarter-pixel motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Junsang; Suh, Jung W.; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang
2010-06-01
We propose a robust and fast quarter-pixel motion estimation algorithm. This algorithm is an advanced version of the previously proposed model-based quarter-pixel motion estimation (MBQME). MBQME has many advantages in computational complexity, running speed, and hardware implementations. But it has the problem that it does not find the quarter-pixel positions that locate beyond the half-pixel positions. That is one of limitations of model-based motion estimation methods, and it leads to both peak-SNR degradation and bit-rate increase. To solve this problem, we propose a hierarchical mathematical model with minimum interpolations. Through this model, we can determine a motion vector at every quarter-pixel point, which is perfectly compatible with the quarter-pixel motion estimation method within international video coding standards such as MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC. The simulation results show that the proposed method yields almost the same or even better peak-SNR performance than that of full-search quarter-pixel motion estimation, with much lower computational complexity.
Design of an Orbital Element Estimator Using Relative Motion Data.
1981-12-01
the semi-major axis and used to definethe total energy of the orbit. G is related to the eccentricity and is the total angular momentum of the orbit...errors 67 Compute 66 (changes to the relative element state vector) using least squares estimation Store ( TQ-I1K) as P 1 (-) for subsequent Bayes...A6i < Vii 68 68t convergence GO TO B NO Criteria Met? YES Estimation o elative lement - sta.e vector is E Store 3 as Z(-) for Bayes filter Sequential
Gong, Gordon; Mattevada, Sravan; O'Bryant, Sid E
2014-04-01
Exposure to arsenic causes many diseases. Most Americans in rural areas use groundwater for drinking, which may contain arsenic above the currently allowable level, 10µg/L. It is cost-effective to estimate groundwater arsenic levels based on data from wells with known arsenic concentrations. We compared the accuracy of several commonly used interpolation methods in estimating arsenic concentrations in >8000 wells in Texas by the leave-one-out-cross-validation technique. Correlation coefficient between measured and estimated arsenic levels was greater with inverse distance weighted (IDW) than kriging Gaussian, kriging spherical or cokriging interpolations when analyzing data from wells in the entire Texas (p<0.0001). Correlation coefficient was significantly lower with cokriging than any other methods (p<0.006) for wells in Texas, east Texas or the Edwards aquifer. Correlation coefficient was significantly greater for wells in southwestern Texas Panhandle than in east Texas, and was higher for wells in Ogallala aquifer than in Edwards aquifer (p<0.0001) regardless of interpolation methods. In regression analysis, the best models are when well depth and/or elevation were entered into the model as covariates regardless of area/aquifer or interpolation methods, and models with IDW are better than kriging in any area/aquifer. In conclusion, the accuracy in estimating groundwater arsenic level depends on both interpolation methods and wells' geographic distributions and characteristics in Texas. Taking well depth and elevation into regression analysis as covariates significantly increases the accuracy in estimating groundwater arsenic level in Texas with IDW in particular.
Low-Cost MEMS sensors and vision system for motion and position estimation of a scooter.
Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio
2013-01-24
The possibility to identify with significant accuracy the position of a vehicle in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is a topic which is attracting a lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate position, orientation and velocity of the system with high measurement rates. In this work we test a system which uses low-cost sensors, based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, coupled with information derived from a video camera placed on a two-wheel motor vehicle (scooter). In comparison to a four-wheel vehicle; the dynamics of a two-wheel vehicle feature a higher level of complexity given that more degrees of freedom must be taken into account. For example a motorcycle can twist sideways; thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well; since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion compared to four-wheel motor vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a "Vespa" scooter; which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on GPS/INS sensor integration. Position and orientation of the scooter are obtained by integrating MEMS-based orientation sensor data with digital images through a cascade of a Kalman filter and a Bayesian particle filter.
Low-Cost MEMS Sensors and Vision System for Motion and Position Estimation of a Scooter
Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio
2013-01-01
The possibility to identify with significant accuracy the position of a vehicle in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is a topic which is attracting a lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate position, orientation and velocity of the system with high measurement rates. In this work we test a system which uses low-cost sensors, based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, coupled with information derived from a video camera placed on a two-wheel motor vehicle (scooter). In comparison to a four-wheel vehicle; the dynamics of a two-wheel vehicle feature a higher level of complexity given that more degrees of freedom must be taken into account. For example a motorcycle can twist sideways; thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well; since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion compared to four-wheel motor vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a “Vespa” scooter; which can be used as alternative to the “classical” approach based on GPS/INS sensor integration. Position and orientation of the scooter are obtained by integrating MEMS-based orientation sensor data with digital images through a cascade of a Kalman filter and a Bayesian particle filter. PMID:23348036
Plate Motion and Crustal Deformation Estimated with Geodetic Data from the Global Positioning System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.
1995-01-01
We use geodetic data taken over four years with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate: (1) motion between six major plates and (2) motion relative to these plates of ten sites in plate boundary zones. The degree of consistency between geodetic velocities and rigid plates requires the (one-dimensional) standard errors in horizontal velocities to be approx. 2 mm/yr. Each of the 15 angular velocities describing motion between plate pairs that we estimate with GPS differs insignificantly from the corresponding angular velocity in global plate motion model NUVEL-1A, which averages motion over the past 3 m.y. The motion of the Pacific plate relative to both the Eurasian and North American plates is observed to be faster than predicted by NUVEL-1A, supporting the inference from Very Long B ase- line Interferometry (VLBI) that motion of the Pacific plate has speed up over the past few m.y. The Eurasia-North America pole of rotation is estimated to be north of NUVEL-1A, consistent with the independent hypothesis that the pole has recently migrated northward across northeast Asia to near the Lena River delta. Victoria, which lies above the main thrust at the Cascadia subduction zone, moves relative to the interior of the overriding plate at 30% of the velocity of the subducting plate, reinforcing the conclusion that the thrust there is locked beneath the continental shelf and slope.
Estimates of laboratory accuracy and precision on Hanford waste tank samples
Dodd, D.A.
1995-02-02
A review was performed on three sets of analyses generated in Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories and three sets generated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Analytical Laboratory. Laboratory accuracy and precision was estimated by analyte and is reported in tables. The sources used to generate this estimate is of limited size but does include the physical forms, liquid and solid, which are representative of samples from tanks to be characterized. This estimate was published as an aid to programs developing data quality objectives in which specified limits are established. Data resulting from routine analyses of waste matrices can be expected to be bounded by the precision and accuracy estimates of the tables. These tables do not preclude or discourage direct negotiations between program and laboratory personnel while establishing bounding conditions. Programmatic requirements different than those listed may be reliably met on specific measurements and matrices. It should be recognized, however, that these are specific to waste tank matrices and may not be indicative of performance on samples from other sources.
Recursive estimation of 3D motion and surface structure from local affine flow parameters.
Calway, Andrew
2005-04-01
A recursive structure from motion algorithm based on optical flow measurements taken from an image sequence is described. It provides estimates of surface normals in addition to 3D motion and depth. The measurements are affine motion parameters which approximate the local flow fields associated with near-planar surface patches in the scene. These are integrated over time to give estimates of the 3D parameters using an extended Kalman filter. This also estimates the camera focal length and, so, the 3D estimates are metric. The use of parametric measurements means that the algorithm is computationally less demanding than previous optical flow approaches and the recursive filter builds in a degree of noise robustness. Results of experiments on synthetic and real image sequences demonstrate that the algorithm performs well.
Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.
2014-01-01
Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayanagi, Sumiko; Bernstein, Lynne E.; Auer, Edward T.
2003-10-01
Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the statistical structure among sets of experiential (word age of acquisition and subjective familiarity) and lexical similarity (lexical equivalence class size and neighborhood density) variables for word identification and reaction time latency tasks. Stimuli were 240 vocoded monosyllabic English words with reduced intelligibility and altered similarity relationships. Participants detected a target word following a prime and on every trial reported the prime. The identification accuracy was estimated by words and phonemes correct, and detection latency was estimated by trimmed and harmonic mean RTs. A parsimonious SEM was chosen in terms of the chi-square and model fit indices that determine whether the models adequately described the particular associations of variables/interfactor relationships. The variable/factor error variances were constrained to be uncorrelated with each other in order to evaluate effects independently. A bootstrapping technique indicated that the regression weights of the top-down and bottom-up factors were small, but they were significant in the model. The variance accounted for (VAF) by the model was 7.1% for identification accuracy, and 5.2% for RT latency. The model also indicated that RT latency was highly influenced by prime identification accuracy (15% VAF). [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD00695.
Accuracy of Four Dental Age Estimation Methods in Southern Indian Children
Sanghvi, Praveen; Perumalla, Kiran Kumar; Srinivasaraju, D.; Srinivas, Jami; Kalyan, U. Siva; Rasool, SK. Md. Iftekhar
2015-01-01
Introduction: For various forensic investigations of both living and dead individuals, the knowledge of the actual age or date of birth of the subject is of utmost importance. In recent years, age estimation has gained importance for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement. Developing teeth are used to assess maturity and estimate age in number of disciplines; however the accuracy of different methods has not been assessed systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of four dental age estimation methods. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomographs (OPGS) of South Indian children between the ages of 6 and 16 y who visited the department of Department of Oral medicine and Radiology of GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India with similar ethnic origin were assessed. Dental age was calculated using Demirjian, Willems, Nolla, and adopted Haavikko methods and the difference between estimated dental age and chronological age were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: An overestimation of the dental age was observed by using Demirjian and Nolla methods (0.1±1.63, 0.47±0.83 years in total sample respectively) and an underestimation of dental age was observed by using Willems and Haavikko methods (-0.4±1.53, -2.9±1.41 years respectively in total sample). Conclusion: Nolla’s method was more accurate in estimating dental age compared to other methods. Moreover, all the four methods were found to be reliable in estimating age of individuals of unknown chronological age in South Indian children. PMID:25738008
Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.
2011-01-01
Segmentation and delineation of structures of interest in medical images is paramount to quantifying and characterizing structural, morphological, and functional correlations with clinically relevant conditions. The established gold standard for performing segmentation has been manual voxel-by-voxel labeling by a neuroanatomist expert. This process can be extremely time consuming, resource intensive and fraught with high inter-observer variability. Hence, studies involving characterizations of novel structures or appearances have been limited in scope (numbers of subjects), scale (extent of regions assessed), and statistical power. Statistical methods to fuse data sets from several different sources (e.g., multiple human observers) have been proposed to simultaneously estimate both rater performance and the ground truth labels. However, with empirical datasets, statistical fusion has been observed to result in visually inconsistent findings. So, despite the ease and elegance of a statistical approach, single observers and/or direct voting are often used in practice. Hence, rater performance is not systematically quantified and exploited during label estimation. To date, statistical fusion methods have relied on characterizations of rater performance that do not intrinsically include spatially varying models of rater performance. Herein, we present a novel, robust statistical label fusion algorithm to estimate and account for spatially varying performance. This algorithm, COnsensus Level, Labeler Accuracy and Truth Estimation (COLLATE), is based on the simple idea that some regions of an image are difficult to label (e.g., confusion regions: boundaries or low contrast areas) while other regions are intrinsically obvious (e.g., consensus regions: centers of large regions or high contrast edges). Unlike its predecessors, COLLATE estimates the consensus level of each voxel and estimates differing models of observer behavior in each region. We show that COLLATE provides
Accuracy of tablet counts estimated by members of the public and healthcare professionals
Choi, Hyun-Sik; Choi, Yoon Hee
2015-01-01
Objective Intentional and accidental drug intoxication is commonly seen in the emergency department. When treating intoxicated patients, accessing the amount of the ingested drug is crucial albeit often difficult. We investigated the accuracy of estimating tablet counts when participants were asked to hold tablets in their fists and hands (semi-quantitative terms). Methods The widths and lengths of the participants’ hands were measured. Then, the subjects were asked to hold 5-mm round, 10-mm round, 10-mm oval, and 15-mm elliptical tablets using their hands and fists and to estimate the number of tablets they were holding. Differences between the estimated and actual numbers of tablets were examined. Results A total of 47 members of the public and 32 healthcare professionals were included in our study. In our analyses of the differences between the actual and estimated amounts of tablets held in the participants’ hands and fists, we found that the actual amount was higher than the estimated amount for all tablet types and in both groups. When participants held the tablets in the same manner (handful or fistful), the differences between the actual and estimated amounts were greater for 5- than 15-mm-sized tablets (P<0.05). Conclusion The treatment of patients presenting with drug overdoses to the emergency department should be based on the assumption that the actual amount of drugs the patients ingested is likely greater than the amount the patients state. PMID:27752592
Detection of incoherent joint state due to inaccurate bone motion estimation.
Schwartz, Cédric; Leboeuf, Fabien; Rémy-Néris, Olivier; Brochard, Sylvain; Lempereur, Mathieu; Burdin, Valérie
2013-01-01
In biomechanical modelling and motion analysis, the use of personalised data such as bone geometry would provide more accurate and reliable results. However, there are still a limited number of tools used to measure the evolution of articular interactions. This paper proposes a coherence index to describe the articular status of contact surfaces during motion. The index relies on a robust estimation of the evolution of surfacic interactions between the joint surfaces. The index is first compared to distance maps on simulated motions. It is then used to compare two motion capture protocols (two different localisations of the markers for scapula tracking). The results show that the index detects progressive modifications in the joint and allows distinguishing the two protocols, in accordance with the literature. In the future, the index could, among other things, be used to compare/improve biomechanical models and motion analysis protocols.
Is acceleration used for ocular pursuit and spatial estimation during prediction motion?
Bennett, Simon J; Benguigui, Nicolas
2013-01-01
Here we examined ocular pursuit and spatial estimation in a linear prediction motion task that emphasized extrapolation of occluded accelerative object motion. Results from the ocular response up to occlusion showed that there was evidence in the eye position, velocity and acceleration data that participants were attempting to pursue the moving object in accord with the veridical motion properties. They then attempted to maintain ocular pursuit of the randomly-ordered accelerative object motion during occlusion but this was not ideal, and resulted in undershoot of eye position and velocity at the moment of object reappearance. In spatial estimation there was a general bias, with participants less likely to report object reappearance being behind than ahead of the expected position. In addition, participants' spatial estimation did not take into account the effects of object acceleration. Logistic regression indicated that spatial estimation was best predicted for the majority of participants by the difference between actual object reappearance position and an extrapolation based on pre-occlusion velocity. In combination, and in light of previous work, we interpret these findings as showing that eye movements are scaled in accord with the effects of object acceleration but do not directly specify information for accurate spatial estimation in prediction motion.
Comparing C- and L-band SAR images for sea ice motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehtiranta, J.; Siiriä, S.; Karvonen, J.
2015-02-01
Pairs of consecutive C-band synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are routinely used for sea ice motion estimation. The L-band radar has a fundamentally different character, as its longer wavelength penetrates deeper into sea ice. L-band SAR provides information on the seasonal sea ice inner structure in addition to the surface roughness that dominates C-band images. This is especially useful in the Baltic Sea, which lacks multiyear ice and icebergs, known to be confusing targets for L-band sea ice classification. In this work, L-band SAR images are investigated for sea ice motion estimation using the well-established maximal cross-correlation (MCC) approach. This work provides the first comparison of L-band and C-band SAR images for the purpose of motion estimation. The cross-correlation calculations are hardware accelerated using new OpenCL-based source code, which is made available through the author's web site. It is found that L-band images are preferable for motion estimation over C-band images. It is also shown that motion estimation is possible between a C-band and an L-band image using the maximal cross-correlation technique.
Robust Parallel Motion Estimation and Mapping with Stereo Cameras in Underground Infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chun; Li, Zhengning; Zhou, Yuan
2016-06-01
Presently, we developed a novel robust motion estimation method for localization and mapping in underground infrastructure using a pre-calibrated rigid stereo camera rig. Localization and mapping in underground infrastructure is important to safety. Yet it's also nontrivial since most underground infrastructures have poor lighting condition and featureless structure. Overcoming these difficulties, we discovered that parallel system is more efficient than the EKF-based SLAM approach since parallel system divides motion estimation and 3D mapping tasks into separate threads, eliminating data-association problem which is quite an issue in SLAM. Moreover, the motion estimation thread takes the advantage of state-of-art robust visual odometry algorithm which is highly functional under low illumination and provides accurate pose information. We designed and built an unmanned vehicle and used the vehicle to collect a dataset in an underground garage. The parallel system was evaluated by the actual dataset. Motion estimation results indicated a relative position error of 0.3%, and 3D mapping results showed a mean position error of 13cm. Off-line process reduced position error to 2cm. Performance evaluation by actual dataset showed that our system is capable of robust motion estimation and accurate 3D mapping in poor illumination and featureless underground environment.
Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L
2007-02-09
We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Hee-Suk
2015-09-01
In gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, the parameter estimate is performed to find the physical parameters of GW sources. The result of the parameter estimate is given by a posterior probability density function, and the measurement errors can be computed by using the Fisher matrix method. Using this method, we investigate the accuracy in estimates of neutron star (NS) masses ( M NS) for GWs emitted from merging compact binaries. As GW sources, we consider nonspinning binaries in which the primary component is assumed to be a NS and the companion is assumed to be a NS or a stellar-mass black hole (BH). Adopting GW signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 for Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) sensitivity, we calculate measurement errors (σ) of M NS. We find that the errors strongly depend on the mass ratio of the companion mass ( M com) to the NS mass ( M NS). For NS-NS binaries, the fractional errors (σ/ M NS) are larger than 10% only in the symmetric mass region. For BH-NS binaries, the fractional errors tend to decrease with increasing mass ratio ( M com/ M NS), and the measurement accuracies are better than those for NS-NS binaries. In this case, the errors are always smaller than ~ 3%.
Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio
2015-01-01
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606
Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio
2015-09-18
In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.
High-resolution Neogene and Quaternary estimates of Nubia-Eurasia-North America Plate motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMets, C.; Iaffaldano, G.; Merkouriev, S.
2015-10-01
Reconstructions of the history of convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates constitute an important part of a broader framework for understanding deformation in the Mediterranean region and the closing of the Mediterranean Basin. Herein, we combine high-resolution reconstructions of Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate motions to determine rotations that describe Nubia-Eurasia Plate motion at ˜1 Myr intervals for the past 20 Myr. We apply trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian inference to the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America rotation sequences in order to reduce noise in the newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations. The noise-reduced rotation sequences for the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate pairs describe remarkably similar kinematic histories since 20 Ma, consisting of relatively steady seafloor spreading from 20 to 8 Ma, ˜20 per cent opening-rate slowdowns at 8-6.5 Ma, and steady plate motion from ˜7 Ma to the present. Our newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations predict that convergence across the central Mediterranean Sea slowed by ˜50 per cent and rotated anticlockwise after ˜25 Ma until 13 Ma. Motion since 13 Ma has remained relatively steady. An absence of evidence for a significant change in motion immediately before or during the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 6.3-5.6 Ma argues against a change in plate motion as its causative factor. The detachment of the Arabian Peninsula from Africa at 30-24 Ma may have triggered the convergence rate slowdown before 13 Ma; however, published reconstructions of Nubia-Eurasia motion for times before 20 Ma are too widely spaced to determine with confidence whether the two are correlated. A significant discrepancy between our new estimates of Nubia-Eurasia motion during the past few Myr and geodetic estimates calls for further investigation.
Precise Image-Based Motion Estimation for Autonomous Small Body Exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Andrew Edie; Matthies, Larry H.
2000-01-01
We have developed and tested a software algorithm that enables onboard autonomous motion estimation near small bodies using descent camera imagery and laser altimetry. Through simulation and testing, we have shown that visual feature tracking can decrease uncertainty in spacecraft motion to a level that makes landing on small, irregularly shaped, bodies feasible. Possible future work will include qualification of the algorithm as a flight experiment for the Deep Space 4/Champollion comet lander mission currently under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
1984-07-24
34 are from the simulation with motion reported here. Note that the vertical axis is in log^Q StdvCd^-d^]. The confidence intevals , [20, pp. 113-115...LIST OF ACRONYMS ASSP Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing COV Covariance matrix CPE Correlation Performance Estimate CRLB Cramer-Rao Lower Bound ...delay estimate, Var[D] is equal to the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), and, as such, it is an optimum (minimum variance) estimator (see next section
The accuracy of large-area forest canopy cover estimation using Landsat in boreal region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadi; Korhonen, Lauri; Hovi, Aarne; Rönnholm, Petri; Rautiainen, Miina
2016-12-01
Large area prediction of continuous field of tree cover i.e., canopy cover (CC) using Earth observation data is of high interest in practical forestry, ecology, and climate change mitigation activities. We report the accuracy of using Landsat images for CC prediction in boreal forests validated with field reference plots (N = 250) covering large variation in latitude, forest structure, species composition, and site type. We tested two statistical models suitable for estimating CC: the beta regression (BetaReg) and random forest (RanFor). Landsat-based predictors utilized include individual bands, spectral vegetation indices (SVI), and Tasseled cap (Tass) features. Additionally, we tested an alternative model based on spectral mixture analysis (SMA). Finally, we carried out a first validation in boreal forests of the recently published Landsat Tree Cover Continuous (TCC) global product. Results showed simple BetaReg with red band reflectance provided the highest prediction accuracy (leave-site-out RMSECV 13.7%; R2CV 0.59; biasCV 0.5%). Spectral transformations into SVI and Tass did not improve accuracy. Including additional predictors did not significantly improve accuracy either. Nonlinear model RanFor did not outperform BetaReg. The alternative SMA model did not outperform the empirical models. However, empirical models cannot resolve the underestimation of high cover and overestimation of low cover. SMA prediction errors appeared less dependent on forest structure, while there seemed to be a potential for improvement by accounting for endmember variability of different tree species. Finally, using temporally concurrent observations, we showed the reasonably good accuracy of Landsat TCC product in boreal forests (RMSE 13.0%; R2 0.53; bias -2.1%), however with a tendency to underestimate high cover.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClelland, Jamie
It is often difficult or impossible to directly monitor the respiratory motion of the tumour and other internal anatomy during RT treatment. Implanted markers can be used, but this involves an invasive procedure and has a number of other associated risks and problems. An alternative option is to use a correspondence model. This models the relationship between a respiratory surrogate signal(s), such as spirometry or the displacement of the skin surface, and the motion of the internal anatomy. Such a model allows the internal motion to be estimated from the surrogate signal(s), which can be easily monitored during RT treatment. The correspondence model is constructed prior to RT treatment. Imaging data is simultaneously acquired with the surrogate signal(s), and the internal motion is measured from the imaging data, e.g. using deformable image registration. A correspondence model is then fit relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal(s). This can then be used during treatment to estimate the internal motion from the surrogate signal(s). This chapter reviews the most popular correspondence models that have been used in the literature, as well as the different surrogate signals, types of imaging data used to measure the internal motion, and fitting methods used to fit the correspondence model to the data.
Samad, Manar D; Hu, Yaoping; Sutherland, Garnette R
2010-01-01
In robot-assisted surgery, it may be important to provide force feedback to the hand of the surgeon. Here we examine how force feedback from each degree of freedom (DOF) on a hand controller affects the motion accuracy of a surgical tool. We studied the motion accuracy of a needle-shaped tool in performing a robot-assisted tracing task. On a virtual simulation of the tool and neuroArm robot, human participants manipulated a hand controller to move the tool attached to the end-effector of the robot. They used the tool to trace a line on pipes (mimicking blood vessels) along 3 orthogonal directions, corresponding to 3 DOF on the hand controller. We observed that force feedback from each DOF on the hand controller had a significant effect on the motion accuracy of the tool during tracing. Varying force conditions yielded insignificant difference in motion accuracy. These results indicate a need of revising the hand controller for achieving improved motion accuracy in performing robot-assisted tasks.
SLIMMER: SLIce MRI motion estimation and reconstruction tool for studies of fetal anatomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kio; Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin
2011-03-01
We describe a free software tool which combines a set of algorithms that provide a framework for building 3D volumetric images of regions of moving anatomy using multiple fast multi-slice MRI studies. It is specifically motivated by the clinical application of unsedated fetal brain imaging, which has emerged as an important area for image analysis. The tool reads multiple DICOM image stacks acquired in any angulation into a consistent patient coordinate frame and allows the user to select regions to be locally motion corrected. It combines algorithms for slice motion estimation, bias field inconsistency correction and 3D volume reconstruction from multiple scattered slice stacks. The tool is built onto the RView (http://rview.colin-studholme.net) medical image display software and allows the user to inspect slice stacks, and apply both stack and slice level motion estimation that incorporates temporal constraints based on slice timing and interleave information read from the DICOM data. Following motion estimation an algorithm for bias field inconsistency correction provides the user with the ability to remove artifacts arising from the motion of the local anatomy relative to the imaging coils. Full 3D visualization of the slice stacks and individual slice orientations is provided to assist in evaluating the quality of the motion correction and final image reconstruction. The tool has been evaluated on a range of clinical data acquired on GE, Siemens and Philips MRI scanners.
Accuracy of soil water content estimates from gamma radiation monitoring data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Jie; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry
2016-04-01
Terrestrial gamma radiation is known to be sensitive to soil water content, and could be promising for soil water content determination because of the availability of continental-scale gamma radiation monitoring networks. However, the accuracy of soil water content estimates that can be obtained from this type of data is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of soil water content estimates from measured time series of gamma radiation. For this, four gamma radiation monitoring stations were each equipped with four soil water content sensors at 5 and 15 cm depth to provide reference soil water content measurements. The contributions of terrestrial radiation and secondary cosmic radiation were separated from the total amount of measured gamma radiation by assuming that the long-term contribution of secondary cosmic radiation was constant, and that variations were related to changes in air pressure and incoming neutrons. In addition, precipitation effects related to atmospheric washout of radon progenies to the ground that cause an increase of gamma radiation were considered by excluding time periods with precipitation and time periods less than three hours after precipitation. The estimated terrestrial gamma radiation was related to soil water content using an exponential function with two fit parameters. For daily soil water content estimates, the goodness of fit ranged from R2= 0.21 to 0.48 and the RMSE ranged from 0.048 to 0.117 m3m-3. The accuracy of the soil water content estimates improved considerably when a weekly resolution was used (RMSE ranged from 0.029 to 0.084 m3m-3). Overall, these results indicate that gamma radiation monitoring data can be used to obtain useful soil water content information. The remaining differences between measured and estimated soil water content can at least partly be explained by the fact that the terrestrial gamma radiation is strongly determined by the upper few centimeters of the soil
Accuracy of food portion size estimation from digital pictures acquired by a chest-worn camera
Jia, Wenyan; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Fernstrom, John; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Chengliu; Sun, Mingui
2014-01-01
Objective Accurate estimation of food portion size is of paramount importance in dietary studies. We have developed a small, chest-worn electronic device called eButton which automatically takes pictures of consumed foods for objective dietary assessment. From the acquired pictures, the food portion size can be calculated semi-automatically with the help of computer software. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the calculated food portion size (volumes) from eButton pictures. Design Participants wore an eButton during their lunch. The volume of food in each eButton picture was calculated using software. For comparison, three raters estimated the food volume by viewing the same picture. The actual volume was determined by physical measurement using seed displacement. Setting Dining room and offices in a research laboratory. Subjects Seven lab member volunteers. Results Images of 100 food samples (fifty Western and fifty Asian foods) were collected and each food volume was estimated from these images using software. The mean relative error between the estimated volume and the actual volume over all the samples was −2.8 % (95 % CI −6.8 %, 1.2%) with SD of 20.4 %. For eighty-five samples, the food volumes determined by computer differed by no more than 30 % from the results of actual physical measurements. When the volume estimates by the computer and raters were compared, the computer estimates showed much less bias and variability. Conclusions From the same eButton pictures, the computer-based method provides more objective and accurate estimates of food volume than the visual estimation method. PMID:24476848
Paradkar, Neeraj; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy
2014-01-01
The paper presents a fingertip photoplethysmography (PPG) based technique to estimate the pulse rate of the subject. The PPG signal obtained from a pulse oximeter is used for the analysis. The input samples are corrupted with motion artifacts due to minor motion of the subjects. Entropy measure of the input samples is used to detect the motion artifacts and estimate the pulse rate. A three step methodology is adapted to identify and classify signal peaks as true systolic peaks or artifact. CapnoBase database and CSL Benchmark database are used to analyze the technique and pulse rate estimation was performed with positive predictive value and sensitivity figures of 99.84% and 99.32% respectively for CapnoBase and 98.83% and 98.84% for CSL database respectively.
Probabilistic estimates of the seismic ground-motion hazard in western Saudi Arabia
Thenhaus, P.C.; Algermissen, S.T.; Perkins, D.M.; Hanson, S.L.; Diment, W.H.
1989-01-01
Estimates of seismic horizontal ground acceleration and velocity having a 90 percent probability of nonexceedance in 100 yr in western Saudi Arabia indicate the highest relative levels of ground motion are expected in regions neighboring the Gulf of Aqaba and North Yemen. Estimated ground motions within the Arabia Shield are relatively low; whereas the central and northern coastal plan regions are characterized by intermediate-level ground-motion values that are governed by far-field effects of earthquakes in the central Red Sea Rift. The seismic hazard estimates were derived from regional seismic source zones that are based on interpretation relating potential seismic activity to the Precambrian through Tertiary structural framework of the region.
Multiresolution parametric estimation of transparent motions and denoising of fluoroscopic images.
Auvray, Vincent; Liénard, Jean; Bouthemy, Patrick
2005-01-01
We describe a novel multiresolution parametric framework to estimate transparent motions typically present in X-Ray exams. Assuming the presence if two transparent layers, it computes two affine velocity fields by minimizing an appropriate objective function with an incremental Gauss-Newton technique. We have designed a realistic simulation scheme of fluoroscopic image sequences to validate our method on data with ground truth and different levels of noise. An experiment on real clinical images is also reported. We then exploit this transparent-motion estimation method to denoise two layers image sequences using a motion-compensated estimation method. In accordance with theory, we show that we reach a denoising factor of 2/3 in a few iterations without bringing any local artifacts in the image sequence.
Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear
Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.; Mech, L.D.
2000-01-01
We evaluated the accuracy and precision of tooth wear for aging gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario based on 47 known-age or known-minimum-age skulls. Estimates of age using tooth wear and a commercial cementum annuli-aging service were useful for wolves up to 14 years old. The precision of estimates from cementum annuli was greater than estimates from tooth wear, but tooth wear estimates are more applicable in the field. We tended to overestimate age by 1-2 years and occasionally by 3 or 4 years. The commercial service aged young wolves with cementum annuli to within ?? 1 year of actual age, but under estimated ages of wolves ???9 years old by 1-3 years. No differences were detected in tooth wear patterns for wild wolves from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario, nor between captive and wild wolves. Tooth wear was not appropriate for aging wolves with an underbite that prevented normal wear or severely broken and missing teeth.
Rispens, S M; Pijnappels, M; van Dieën, J H; van Schooten, K S; Beek, P J; Daffertshofer, A
2014-01-22
Characteristics of dynamical systems are often estimated to describe physiological processes. For instance, Lyapunov exponents have been determined to assess the stability of the cardio-vascular system, respiration, and, more recently, human gait and posture. However, the systematic evaluation of the accuracy and precision of these estimates is problematic because the proper values of the characteristics are typically unknown. We fill this void with a set of standardized time series with well-defined dynamical characteristics that serve as a benchmark. Estimates ought to match these characteristics, at least to good approximation. We outline a procedure to employ this generic benchmark test and illustrate its capacity by examining methods for estimating the maximum Lyapunov exponent. In particular, we discuss algorithms by Wolf and co-workers and by Rosenstein and co-workers and evaluate their performances as a function of signal length and signal-to-noise ratio. In all scenarios, the precision of Rosenstein's algorithm was found to be equal to or greater than Wolf's algorithm. The latter, however, appeared more accurate if reasonably large signal lengths are available and noise levels are sufficiently low. Due to its modularity, the presented benchmark test can be used to evaluate and tune any estimation method to perform optimally for arbitrary experimental data.
García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F
2016-02-01
Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Sakuta, Keita; Kawashima, Hiroki
2015-05-01
The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of bone suppression image processing in image-guided radiation therapy. We demonstrated the improved accuracy of markerless motion tracking on bone suppression images. Chest fluoroscopic images of nine patients with lung nodules during respiration were obtained using a flat-panel detector system (120 kV, 0.1 mAs/pulse, 5 fps). Commercial bone suppression image processing software was applied to the fluoroscopic images to create corresponding bone suppression images. Regions of interest were manually located on lung nodules and automatic target tracking was conducted based on the template matching technique. To evaluate the accuracy of target tracking, the maximum tracking error in the resulting images was compared with that of conventional fluoroscopic images. The tracking errors were decreased by half in eight of nine cases. The average maximum tracking errors in bone suppression and conventional fluoroscopic images were 1.3 ± 1.0 and 3.3 ± 3.3 mm, respectively. The bone suppression technique was especially effective in the lower lung area where pulmonary vessels, bronchi, and ribs showed complex movements. The bone suppression technique improved tracking accuracy without special equipment and implantation of fiducial markers, and with only additional small dose to the patient. Bone suppression fluoroscopy is a potential measure for respiratory displacement of the target. This paper was presented at RSNA 2013 and was carried out at Kanazawa University, JAPAN.
de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; Chaudru, Ségolène; Gernigon, Marie; Mahé, Guillaume; Bickert, Sandrine; Prioux, Jacques; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Le Faucheur, Alexis
2016-09-21
The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the accuracy of a low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receiver for estimating grade during outdoor walking. Thirty subjects completed outdoor walks (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 km · h(-1)) in three randomized conditions: 1/level walking on a 0.0% grade; 2/graded (uphill and downhill) walking on a 3.4% grade; and 3/on a 10.4% grade. Subjects were equipped with a GPS receiver (DG100, GlobalSat Technology Corp., Taiwan; ~US$75). The GPS receiver was set to record at 1 Hz and its antenna was placed on the right shoulder. Grade was calculated from GPS speed and altitude data (grade = altitude variation/travelled distance × 100). Two methods were used for the grade calculation: one using uncorrected altitude data given by the GPS receiver and another one using corrected altitude data obtained using map projection software (CartoExploreur, version 3.11.0, build 2.6.6.22, Bayo Ltd, Appoigny, France, ~US$35). Linear regression of GPS-estimated versus actual grade with R (2) coefficients, bias with 95% limits of agreement (±95% LoA), and typical error of the estimate with 95% confidence interval (TEE (95% CI)) were computed to assess the accuracy of the GPS receiver. 444 walking periods were performed. Using uncorrected altitude data, we obtained: R (2) = 0.88 (p < 0.001), bias = 0.0 ± 6.6%, TEE between 1.9 (1.7-2.2)% and 4.2 (3.6-4.9)% according to the grade level. Using corrected altitude data, we obtained: R (2) = 0.98 (p < 0.001), bias = 0.2 ± 1.9%, TEE between 0.2 (0.2-0.3)% and 1.0 (0.9-1.2)% according to the grade level. The low-cost GPS receiver used was weakly accurate for estimating grade during outdoor walking when using uncorrected altitude data. However, the accuracy was greatly improved when using corrected altitude data. This study supports the potential interest of using GPS for estimating energy
Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H
2016-09-01
A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the biological sex of a decedent by exploiting the sexual dimorphism between males and females. Estimation methods are often based on analysis of skeletal collections of known sex and most include a research-based accuracy rate. However, the accuracy rates of sex estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses sex determinations based on DNA results from 360 forensic cases to develop accuracy rates for sex estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct sex estimation from these cases is 94.7% with increasing accuracy rates as more skeletal material is available for analysis and as the education level and certification of the examiner increases. Nine of 19 incorrect assessments resulted from cases in which one skeletal element was available, suggesting that the use of an "undetermined" result may be more appropriate for these cases.
Shared Sensory Estimates for Human Motion Perception and Pursuit Eye Movements
Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio
2015-01-01
Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. PMID:26041919
On-line 3D motion estimation using low resolution MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glitzner, M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.; Crijns, S. P. M.
2015-08-01
Image processing such as deformable image registration finds its way into radiotherapy as a means to track non-rigid anatomy. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided radiotherapy, intrafraction anatomy snapshots become technically feasible. MRI provides the needed tissue signal for high-fidelity image registration. However, acquisitions, especially in 3D, take a considerable amount of time. Pushing towards real-time adaptive radiotherapy, MRI needs to be accelerated without degrading the quality of information. In this paper, we investigate the impact of image resolution on the quality of motion estimations. Potentially, spatially undersampled images yield comparable motion estimations. At the same time, their acquisition times would reduce greatly due to the sparser sampling. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, exemplary 4D datasets of the abdomen were downsampled gradually. Subsequently, spatiotemporal deformations are extracted consistently using the same motion estimation for each downsampled dataset. Errors between the original and the respectively downsampled version of the dataset are then evaluated. Compared to ground-truth, results show high similarity of deformations estimated from downsampled image data. Using a dataset with {{≤ft(2.5 \\text{mm}\\right)}3} voxel size, deformation fields could be recovered well up to a downsampling factor of 2, i.e. {{≤ft(5 \\text{mm}\\right)}3} . In a therapy guidance scenario MRI, imaging speed could accordingly increase approximately fourfold, with acceptable loss of estimated motion quality.
Byun, Yeun-Sub; Jeong, Rag-Gyo; Kang, Seok-Won
2015-11-13
The real-time recognition of absolute (or relative) position and orientation on a network of roads is a core technology for fully automated or driving-assisted vehicles. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the design, implementation, and evaluation of a self-positioning system based on a magnetic marker reference sensing method for an autonomous vehicle. Specifically, the estimation accuracy of the magnetic sensing ruler (MSR) in the up-to-date estimation of the actual position was successfully enhanced by compensating for time delays in signal processing when detecting the vertical magnetic field (VMF) in an array of signals. In this study, the signal processing scheme was developed to minimize the effects of the distortion of measured signals when estimating the relative positional information based on magnetic signals obtained using the MSR. In other words, the center point in a 2D magnetic field contour plot corresponding to the actual position of magnetic markers was estimated by tracking the errors between pre-defined reference models and measured magnetic signals. The algorithm proposed in this study was validated by experimental measurements using a test vehicle on a pilot network of roads. From the results, the positioning error was found to be less than 0.04 m on average in an operational test.
Byun, Yeun-Sub; Jeong, Rag-Gyo; Kang, Seok-Won
2015-01-01
The real-time recognition of absolute (or relative) position and orientation on a network of roads is a core technology for fully automated or driving-assisted vehicles. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the design, implementation, and evaluation of a self-positioning system based on a magnetic marker reference sensing method for an autonomous vehicle. Specifically, the estimation accuracy of the magnetic sensing ruler (MSR) in the up-to-date estimation of the actual position was successfully enhanced by compensating for time delays in signal processing when detecting the vertical magnetic field (VMF) in an array of signals. In this study, the signal processing scheme was developed to minimize the effects of the distortion of measured signals when estimating the relative positional information based on magnetic signals obtained using the MSR. In other words, the center point in a 2D magnetic field contour plot corresponding to the actual position of magnetic markers was estimated by tracking the errors between pre-defined reference models and measured magnetic signals. The algorithm proposed in this study was validated by experimental measurements using a test vehicle on a pilot network of roads. From the results, the positioning error was found to be less than 0.04 m on average in an operational test. PMID:26580622
Multiple-camera/motion stereoscopy for range estimation in helicopter flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Raymond E.
1993-01-01
Aiding the pilot to improve safety and reduce pilot workload by detecting obstacles and planning obstacle-free flight paths during low-altitude helicopter flight is desirable. Computer vision techniques provide an attractive method of obstacle detection and range estimation for objects within a large field of view ahead of the helicopter. Previous research has had considerable success by using an image sequence from a single moving camera to solving this problem. The major limitations of single camera approaches are that no range information can be obtained near the instantaneous direction of motion or in the absence of motion. These limitations can be overcome through the use of multiple cameras. This paper presents a hybrid motion/stereo algorithm which allows range refinement through recursive range estimation while avoiding loss of range information in the direction of travel. A feature-based approach is used to track objects between image frames. An extended Kalman filter combines knowledge of the camera motion and measurements of a feature's image location to recursively estimate the feature's range and to predict its location in future images. Performance of the algorithm will be illustrated using an image sequence, motion information, and independent range measurements from a low-altitude helicopter flight experiment.
Piella, Gemma; De Craene, Mathieu; Butakoff, Constantine; Grau, Vicente; Yao, Cheng; Nedjati-Gilani, Shahrum; Penney, Graeme P; Frangi, Alejandro F
2013-04-01
This paper presents a new registration framework for quantifying myocardial motion and strain from the combination of multiple 3D ultrasound (US) sequences. The originality of our approach lies in the estimation of the transformation directly from the input multiple views rather than from a single view or a reconstructed compounded sequence. This allows us to exploit all spatiotemporal information available in the input views avoiding occlusions and image fusion errors that could lead to some inconsistencies in the motion quantification result. We propose a multiview diffeomorphic registration strategy that enforces smoothness and consistency in the spatiotemporal domain by modeling the 4D velocity field continuously in space and time. This 4D continuous representation considers 3D US sequences as a whole, therefore allowing to robustly cope with variations in heart rate resulting in different number of images acquired per cardiac cycle for different views. This contributes to the robustness gained by solving for a single transformation from all input sequences. The similarity metric takes into account the physics of US images and uses a weighting scheme to balance the contribution of the different views. It includes a comparison both between consecutive images and between a reference and each of the following images. The strain tensor is computed locally using the spatial derivatives of the reconstructed displacement fields. Registration and strain accuracy were evaluated on synthetic 3D US sequences with known ground truth. Experiments were also conducted on multiview 3D datasets of 8 volunteers and 1 patient treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy. Strain curves obtained from our multiview approach were compared to the single-view case, as well as with other multiview approaches. For healthy cases, the inclusion of several views improved the consistency of the strain curves and reduced the number of segments where a non-physiological strain pattern was
Accuracy of Non-Destructive Testing of PBRs to Estimate Fragilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brune, J. N.; Brune, R.; Biasi, G. P.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Purvance, M.
2011-12-01
Prior studies of Precariously Balanced Rocks (PBRs) have involved various methods of documenting rock shapes and fragilities. These have included non-destructive testing (NDT) methods such as photomodeling, and potentially destructive testing (PDT) such as forced tilt tests. PDT methods usually have the potential of damaging or disturbing the rock or its pedestal so that the PBR usefulness for future generations is compromised. To date we have force-tilt tested approximately 28 PBRs, and of these we believe 7 have been compromised. We suggest here that given other inherent uncertainties in the current methodologies, NDT methods are now sufficiently advanced as to be adequate for the current state of the art use for comparison with Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) and seismic hazard maps (SHMs). Here we compare tilt-test static toppling estimates to three non-destructive methods: (1) 3-D photographic modeling (2) profile analysis assuming the rock is 2-D, and (3) expert judgments from photographs. 3-D modeling uses the commercial Photomodeler program and photographs in the field taken from numerous directions around the rock. The output polyhedral shape is analyzed in Matlab determine the center of mass and in Autocad to estimate the static overturning angle alpha. For the 2-D method we chose the photograph in profile looking perpendicular to the estimated direction of toppling. The rock is outlined as a 2-D object in Matlab. Rock dimensions, rocking points, and a vertical reference are supplied by the photo analyst to estimate the center of gravity and static force overturning angles. For the expert opinion method we used additional photographs taken from different directions to improve the estimates of the center of mass and the rocking points. We used 7 rocks for comparisons. The error in estimating tan alpha from 3-D modeling is about 0.05. For 2-D estimates an average error is about 0.1 (?). For expert opinion estimates the error is about 0.06. For
Video stimuli reduce object-directed imitation accuracy: a novel two-person motion-tracking approach
Reader, Arran T.; Holmes, Nicholas P.
2015-01-01
Imitation is an important form of social behavior, and research has aimed to discover and explain the neural and kinematic aspects of imitation. However, much of this research has featured single participants imitating in response to pre-recorded video stimuli. This is in spite of findings that show reduced neural activation to video vs. real life movement stimuli, particularly in the motor cortex. We investigated the degree to which video stimuli may affect the imitation process using a novel motion tracking paradigm with high spatial and temporal resolution. We recorded 14 positions on the hands, arms, and heads of two individuals in an imitation experiment. One individual freely moved within given parameters (moving balls across a series of pegs) and a second participant imitated. This task was performed with either simple (one ball) or complex (three balls) movement difficulty, and either face-to-face or via a live video projection. After an exploratory analysis, three dependent variables were chosen for examination: 3D grip position, joint angles in the arm, and grip aperture. A cross-correlation and multivariate analysis revealed that object-directed imitation task accuracy (as represented by grip position) was reduced in video compared to face-to-face feedback, and in complex compared to simple difficulty. This was most prevalent in the left-right and forward-back motions, relevant to the imitator sitting face-to-face with the actor or with a live projected video of the same actor. The results suggest that for tasks which require object-directed imitation, video stimuli may not be an ecologically valid way to present task materials. However, no similar effects were found in the joint angle and grip aperture variables, suggesting that there are limits to the influence of video stimuli on imitation. The implications of these results are discussed with regards to previous findings, and with suggestions for future experimentation. PMID:26042073
Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.
1989-01-01
Strong ground motions are estimated for the Pacific Northwest assuming that large shallow earthquakes, similar to those experienced in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, may also occur on the Cascadia subduction zone. Fifty-six strong motion recordings for twenty-five subduction earthquakes of Ms???7.0 are used to estimate the response spectra that may result from earthquakes Mw<81/4. Large variations in observed ground motion levels are noted for a given site distance and earthquake magnitude. When compared with motions that have been observed in the western United States, large subduction zone earthquakes produce relatively large ground motions at surprisingly large distances. An earthquake similar to the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) is the largest event that is considered to be plausible for the Cascadia subduction zone. This event has a moment which is two orders of magnitude larger than the largest earthquake for which we have strong motion records. The empirical Green's function technique is used to synthesize strong ground motions for such giant earthquakes. Observed teleseismic P-waveforms from giant earthquakes are also modeled using the empirical Green's function technique in order to constrain model parameters. The teleseismic modeling in the period range of 1.0 to 50 sec strongly suggests that fewer Green's functions should be randomly summed than is required to match the long-period moments of giant earthquakes. It appears that a large portion of the moment associated with giant earthquakes occurs at very long periods that are outside the frequency band of interest for strong ground motions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a giant earthquake in the Pacific Northwest may produce quite strong shaking over a very large region. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Wentao; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jiaoying; Yang, Heng
2016-01-01
The electronic image stabilization technology based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation technique can effectively improve the non normal shift, such as jitter, rotation and so on. Firstly, the ORB features are extracted from the image, a set of regions are built on these features; Secondly, the optical-flow vector is computed in the feature regions, in order to reduce the computational complexity, the multi resolution strategy of Pyramid is used to calculate the motion vector of the frame; Finally, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of the algorithm is carried out. The results show that the proposed algorithm has better stability compared with image stabilization based on the traditional optical-flow motion vector estimation method.
Tracking of EEG activity using motion estimation to understand brain wiring.
Nisar, Humaira; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ullah, Rafi; Shim, Seong-O; Bawakid, Abdullah; Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Subhani, Ahmad Rauf
2015-01-01
The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Seng Hooi; Nisar, Humaira; Yap, Vooi Voon; Shim, Seong-O.
2015-11-01
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the signal generated by electrical activity in the human brain. EEG topographic maps (topo-maps) give an idea of brain activation. Functional connectivity helps to find functionally integrated relationship between spatially separated brain regions. Brain connectivity can be measured by several methods. The classical methods calculate the coherence and correlation of the signal. We have developed an algorithm to map functional neural connectivity in the brain by using a full search block matching motion estimation algorithm. We have used oddball paradigm to examine the flow of activation across brain lobes for a specific activity. In the first step, the EEG signal is converted into topo-maps. The flow of activation between consecutive frames is tracked using full search block motion estimation, which appears in the form of motion vectors. In the second step, vector median filtering is used to obtain a smooth motion field by removing the unwanted noise. For each topo-map, several activation paths are tracked across various brain lobes. We have also developed correlation activity maps by following the correlation coefficient paths between electrodes. These paths are selected when the correlation coefficient between electrodes is >70%. We have compared the motion estimation path with the correlation coefficient activation maps. The tracked paths obtained by using motion estimation and correlation give very similar results. The inter-subject comparison shows that four out of five subjects tracked path involves all four (occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal) brain lobes for the same stimuli. The intra-subject analysis shows that three out of five subjects show different tracked lobes for different stimuli.
Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W
2017-04-01
Quantitative ultrasound elastography is increasingly being used in the assessment of chronic liver disease. Many studies have reported ranges of liver shear wave velocity values for healthy individuals and patients with different stages of liver fibrosis. Nonetheless, ongoing efforts exist to stabilize quantitative ultrasound elastography measurements by assessing factors that influence tissue shear wave velocity values, such as food intake, body mass index, ultrasound scanners, scanning protocols, and ultrasound image quality. Time-to-peak (TTP) methods have been routinely used to measure the shear wave velocity. However, there is still a need for methods that can provide robust shear wave velocity estimation in the presence of noisy motion data. The conventional TTP algorithm is limited to searching for the maximum motion in time profiles at different spatial locations. In this paper, two modified shear wave speed estimation algorithms are proposed. The first method searches for the maximum motion in both space and time [spatiotemporal peak (STP)]; the second method applies an amplitude filter [spatiotemporal thresholding (STTH)] to select points with motion amplitude higher than a threshold for shear wave group velocity estimation. The two proposed methods (STP and STTH) showed higher precision in shear wave velocity estimates compared with TTP in phantom. Moreover, in a cohort of 14 healthy subjects, STP and STTH methods improved both the shear wave velocity measurement precision and the success rate of the measurement compared with conventional TTP.
Predictive-based cross line for fast motion estimation in MPEG-4 videos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Hui; Jiang, Jianmin
2004-05-01
Block-based motion estimation is widely used in the field of video compression due to its feature of high processing speed and competitive compression efficiency. In the chain of compression operations, however, motion estimation still remains to be the most time-consuming process. As a result, any improvement in fast motion estimation will enable practical applications of MPEG techniques more efficient and more sustainable in terms of both processing speed and computing cost. To meet the requirements of real-time compression of videos and image sequences, such as video conferencing, remote video surveillance and video phones etc., we propose a new search algorithm and achieve fast motion estimation for MPEG compression standards based on existing algorithm developments. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we adopted MPEG-4 and the prediction line search algorithm as the benchmarks to design the experiments. Their performances are measured by: (i) reconstructed video quality; (ii) processing time. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm provides a competitive alternative to the existing prediction line search algorithm. In comparison with MPEG-4, the proposed algorithm illustrates significant advantages in terms of processing speed and video quality.
Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles
Atman, Jamal; Popp, Manuel; Ruppelt, Jan; Trommer, Gert F.
2016-01-01
Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV’s navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P) problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results. PMID:27649203
On the accuracy of Black Hole Mass estimation from Broad Emission Lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejia-Restrepo, Julian; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Capellupo, Daniel
2016-08-01
In this talk we compare single-epoch (SE) black hole mass (MBH) estimates based on low ionization (Hα, Hβ, and MgII) and high ionization (CIV) broad emission lines. We also examine the implications of different continuum modeling approaches in line width and MBH measurements. For this purpose we use a sample of 39 unobscured AGNs at z=1.55 selected to cover a large range in MBH (2.0dex) and L/Ledd (2.5dex) and observed by X-shooter. We find that using a local power-law continuum instead of a physically-motivated thin disk continuum leads to only slight underestimation of the FWHM of the lines and the associated MBH(FWHM). However, the line dispersion σ and associated MBH(σ) are strongly affected by the continuum placement providing less reliable mass estimates. We find that low ionization lines provides reliable virial MBH estimation. However, the CIV line is not reliable in the majority of the cases, indicating that the gas emitting this line may not be virialized. We find that Hα, Hβ show similar line widths and that FWHM(MgII) is about 30% narrower than FWHM(Hβ) . We test and confirm several recent suggestions to improve the accuracy in CIV-based mass estimates, relying on other UV emission lines. However, we find that such improvements do not help in reducing the scatter between CIV-based and Balmer-line-based mass estimates. This work has been recently accepted for publication in MNRAS.
Phase-sensitive lateral motion estimator for measurement of artery-wall displacement--phantom study.
Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi
2009-11-01
Artery-wall motion due to the pulsation of the heart is often measured to evaluate mechanical properties of the arterial wall. Such motion is thought to occur only in the arterial radial direction because the main source of the motion is an increase of blood pressure. However, it has recently been reported that the artery also moves in the longitudinal direction. Therefore, a 2-D motion estimator is required even when the artery is scanned in the longitudinal direction because the arterial wall moves both in the radial (axial) and longitudinal (lateral) directions. Methods based on 2-D correlation of RF echoes are often used to estimate the lateral displacement together with axial displacement. However, these methods require much interpolation of the RF echo or correlation function to achieve a sufficient resolution in the estimation of displacement. To overcome this problem, Jensen et al. modulated the ultrasonic field in the lateral direction at a designed spatial frequency to use the lateral phase for the estimation of lateral motion. This method, namely, the lateral modulation method, generates complex signals whose phases change depending on the lateral motion. Therefore, the lateral displacement can be estimated with a good resolution without interpolation, although special beamformers are required. The present paper describes a method that can be applied to ultrasonic echoes obtained by a conventional beamformer to estimate lateral displacements using the phases of lateral fluctuations of ultrasonic echoes. In the proposed method, complex signals were generated by the Hilbert transform, and the phase shift was estimated by correlation-based estimators. The proposed method was validated using a cylindrical phantom mimicking an artery. The error in the lateral displacement estimated by the proposed method was 13.5% of the true displacement of 0.5 mm with a kernel size used for calculating the correlation function of 0.6 mm in the lateral direction, which was
Medina, Aída C; Blanco, Lucila
2014-01-01
Dental age is a somatic maturity indicator with importance in clinical and forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study is to compare the applicability of the Demirjian and Willems methods for dental age estimation in a group of Venezuelan children. Panoramic radiographs of 238 Venezuelan children aged 5-13 years were used to assess dental age using the methods described by Demirjian and Willems. Children with unclear panoramic radiographs, dental agenesis, and premature loss of primary teeth were excluded. Mean differences between dental age and chronological age by gender and age groups were estimated (ANOVA, Student tests p = 0.05). For the Demirjian method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.62 +/- 0.93 years, statistically significant. The mean overestimation was lower for females than for males (females 0.56 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.67 +/- 0.93 years). For the Willems method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.15 +/- 0.97 years, not statistically significant. Accuracy was significantly different between genders, performing best for females (females 0.01 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.29 +/- 0.96 years). The Willems method for age estimation was found to be more accurate than the Demirjian method in this sample of Venezuelan children.
Accuracy of energy expenditure estimation by activity monitors differs with ethnicity.
Brazeau, A-S; Suppere, C; Strychar, I; Belisle, V; Demers, S-P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R
2014-09-01
The aim of this project is to explore the accuracy of 2 activity monitors (SenseWear Armband & Actical) to estimate energy expenditure during rest and light to moderate intensity exercises in 2 ethnic groups. 18 Caucasian and 20 Black adults (age: 26.8±5.2 years; body mass index: 23.9±3.0 kg/m(2)) wore the 2 devices simultaneously during 3 standardised activities: 30-min rest, 45-min of treadmill at 40% of their V˙O2peak and 45-min of stationary cycling at 50% of their V˙O2peak. Energy estimated with the 2 devices was compared to indirect calorimetry measurements. Both devices overestimated energy expenditure during rest (SenseWear: 36% in Black vs. 16% in Caucasian; Actical: 26% vs. 11%, p<0.01 between groups) and treadmill (SenseWear: 50% vs. 25%; Actical: 67% vs. 32%, p<0.01 between groups). Both devices significantly underestimated energy expenditure during stationary cycling (SenseWear: 24% vs. 26%; Actical: 58% vs. 70%, p=NS between groups). Equations used to estimate energy expenditure from accelerometer data is less precise among Black adults than Caucasian adults. Ethnic-specific formulas are probably required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghaddam, M.; Akbar, R.; West, R. D.; Colliander, A.; Kim, S.; Dunbar, R. S.
2015-12-01
The NASA Soil Moisture Active-Passive Mission (SMAP), launched in January 2015, provides near-daily global surface soil moisture estimates via combined Active Radar and Passive Radiometer observations at various spatial resolutions. The goal of this mission is to enhance our understanding of global carbon and water cycles. This presentation will focus on a comprehensive assessment of the SMAP high resolution radar backscatter data (formally the L1C_S0_HiRes data product) obtained over a 3 km Woody Savanna region in north-central California during a 2.5 month period starting late May 2015. The effects of spacecraft observation geometry (fore- and aft-looks as well as ascending and descending obits) along with regional topography on soil moisture estimation abilities will be examined. Furthermore surface soil moisture retrievals, obtained through utilization of different combinations of observation geometries, will be compared to an existing network of in situsensors. Current electromagnetic scattering and emission models do not properly account for surface topography, therefore physical forward model predictions and observations have unaccounted mismatch errors which also affect soil moisture estimation accuracies. The goal of this study is to quantify these soil moisture prediction errors and highlight the need for new and complete Electromagnetic modeling efforts.
Luo, Shezhou; Chen, Jing M; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Zeng, Hongcheng; Peng, Dailiang; Li, Dong
2016-05-30
Vegetation leaf area index (LAI), height, and aboveground biomass are key biophysical parameters. Corn is an important and globally distributed crop, and reliable estimations of these parameters are essential for corn yield forecasting, health monitoring and ecosystem modeling. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is considered an effective technology for estimating vegetation biophysical parameters. However, the estimation accuracies of these parameters are affected by multiple factors. In this study, we first estimated corn LAI, height and biomass (R^{2} = 0.80, 0.874 and 0.838, respectively) using the original LiDAR data (7.32 points/m^{2}), and the results showed that LiDAR data could accurately estimate these biophysical parameters. Second, comprehensive research was conducted on the effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on the estimation accuracy of LAI, height and biomass. Our findings indicated that LiDAR point density had an important effect on the estimation accuracy for vegetation biophysical parameters, however, high point density did not always produce highly accurate estimates, and reduced point density could deliver reasonable estimation results. Furthermore, the results showed that sampling size and height threshold were additional key factors that affect the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Therefore, the optimal sampling size and the height threshold should be determined to improve the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Our results also implied that a higher LiDAR point density, larger sampling size and height threshold were required to obtain accurate corn LAI estimation when compared with height and biomass estimations. In general, our results provide valuable guidance for LiDAR data acquisition and estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters using LiDAR data.
Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.
2000-06-06
This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMets, C.; Merkouriev, S.; Sauter, D.; Calais, E.
2013-12-01
Plate kinematic data from the slow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) are the primary source of information about relative movements between Antarctica and Africa over geologic time and are critical for linking the movements of plates in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean basins. We describe the first high-resolution model of SWIR plate kinematics from the present to 20 Ma, consisting of rotations based on 21 magnetic reversals with ~1 million-year spacing. The new rotations, which are derived from 4822 identifications of magnetic reversals C1n to C6no and 6000 crossings of 21 fracture zones and transform faults, describe in detail the ultra-slow motions of the Nubia, Lwandle, and Somalia plates north of the SWIR relative to the Antarctic plate. A search for the Nubia-Lwandle-Antarctic triple junction with all data since C5n.2 (11.0 Ma) gives a best location at the Andrew Bain transform fault (~32E), in accord with previous work. Plate kinematic data from the SWIR east of the Andrew Bain fracture zone support the existence of the previously proposed Lwandle plate at high confidence level. The likely diffuse Lwandle-Somalia plate boundary north of the SWIR is however only loosely constrained to 45E-52E. After calibrating the new rotations for the biasing effects of finite-width magnetic polarity transition zones (i.e. outward displacement), the new rotations reveal that SWIR plate motion has remained steady from the present back to 7.5 Ma, but was modestly faster (~25%) from 19.6 Ma to 7.5 Ma. GPS estimates of present SWIR plate motions based on more than 100 continuous GPS sites on the Antarctic, Nubia, and Somalia plates are remarkably consistent with SWIR velocities determined with the new geological reconstructions. The superb agreement between the two independent plate motion estimates validates both sets of estimates and our calibration for outward displacement. Implications of the new estimates, including evidence for anomalously wide outward displacement
Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven
2014-01-01
Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain-computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation.
Tian, Lili; Xiong, Chengjie; Lai, Chin-Ying; Vexler, Albert
2011-01-01
In the cases with three ordinal diagnostic groups, the important measures of diagnostic accuracy are the volume under surface (VUS) and the partial volume under surface (PVUS) which are the extended forms of the area under curve (AUC) and the partial area under curve (PAUC). This article addresses confidence interval estimation of the difference in paired VUS s and the difference in paired PVUS s. To focus especially on studies with small to moderate sample sizes, we propose an approach based on the concepts of generalized inference. A Monte Carlo study demonstrates that the proposed approach generally can provide confidence intervals with reasonable coverage probabilities even at small sample sizes. The proposed approach is compared to a parametric bootstrap approach and a large sample approach through simulation. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated via an application to a data set of blood test results of anemia patients.
Wood, Nathan A; Del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N
2011-12-05
HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described.
Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus
Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z
2002-05-07
The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling
Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus
Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.
2000-11-01
The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical
Volcanic explosion clouds - Density, temperature, and particle content estimates from cloud motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, L.; Self, S.
1980-01-01
Photographic records of 10 vulcanian eruption clouds produced during the 1978 eruption of Fuego Volcano in Guatemala have been analyzed to determine cloud velocity and acceleration at successive stages of expansion. Cloud motion is controlled by air drag (dominant during early, high-speed motion) and buoyancy (dominant during late motion when the cloud is convecting slowly). Cloud densities in the range 0.6 to 1.2 times that of the surrounding atmosphere were obtained by fitting equations of motion for two common cloud shapes (spheres and vertical cylinders) to the observed motions. Analysis of the heat budget of a cloud permits an estimate of cloud temperature and particle weight fraction to be made from the density. Model results suggest that clouds generally reached temperatures within 10 K of that of the surrounding air within 10 seconds of formation and that dense particle weight fractions were less than 2% by this time. The maximum sizes of dense particles supported by motion in the convecting clouds range from 140 to 1700 microns.
Impact of ground motion characterization on conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates
Sewell, R.T.; Toro, G.R.; McGuire, R.K.
1996-07-01
This study evaluates the impact, on estimates of seismic risk and its uncertainty, of alternative methods in treatment and characterization of earthquake ground motions. The objective of this study is to delineate specific procedures and characterizations that may lead to less biased and more precise seismic risk results. This report focuses on sources of conservatism and variability in risk that may be introduced through the analytical processes and ground-motion descriptions which are commonly implemented at the interface of seismic hazard and fragility assessments. In particular, implication of the common practice of using a single, composite spectral shape to characterize motions of different magnitudes is investigated. Also, the impact of parameterization of ground motion on fragility and hazard assessments is shown. Examination of these results demonstrates the following. (1) There exists significant conservatism in the review spectra (usually, spectra characteristic of western U.S. earthquakes) that have been used in conducting past seismic risk assessments and seismic margin assessments for eastern U.S. nuclear power plants. (2) There is a strong dependence of seismic fragility on earthquake magnitude when PGA is used as the ground-motion characterization. When, however, magnitude-dependent spectra are anchored to a common measure of elastic spectral acceleration averaged over the appropriate frequency range, seismic fragility shows no important nor consistent dependence on either magnitude or strong-motion duration. Use of inelastic spectral acceleration (at the proper frequency) as the ground spectrum anchor demonstrates a very similar result. This study concludes that a single, composite-magnitude spectrum can generally be used to characterize ground motion for fragility assessment without introducing significant bias or uncertainty in seismic risk estimates.
Testing the accuracy of a 1-D volcanic plume model in estimating mass eruption rate
Mastin, Larry G.
2014-01-01
During volcanic eruptions, empirical relationships are used to estimate mass eruption rate from plume height. Although simple, such relationships can be inaccurate and can underestimate rates in windy conditions. One-dimensional plume models can incorporate atmospheric conditions and give potentially more accurate estimates. Here I present a 1-D model for plumes in crosswind and simulate 25 historical eruptions where plume height Hobs was well observed and mass eruption rate Mobs could be calculated from mapped deposit mass and observed duration. The simulations considered wind, temperature, and phase changes of water. Atmospheric conditions were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 2.5° model. Simulations calculate the minimum, maximum, and average values (Mmin, Mmax, and Mavg) that fit the plume height. Eruption rates were also estimated from the empirical formula Mempir = 140Hobs4.14 (Mempir is in kilogram per second, Hobs is in kilometer). For these eruptions, the standard error of the residual in log space is about 0.53 for Mavg and 0.50 for Mempir. Thus, for this data set, the model is slightly less accurate at predicting Mobs than the empirical curve. The inability of this model to improve eruption rate estimates may lie in the limited accuracy of even well-observed plume heights, inaccurate model formulation, or the fact that most eruptions examined were not highly influenced by wind. For the low, wind-blown plume of 14–18 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull, where an accurate plume height time series is available, modeled rates do agree better with Mobs than Mempir.
A Robust Method for Ego-Motion Estimation in Urban Environment Using Stereo Camera
Ci, Wenyan; Huang, Yingping
2016-01-01
Visual odometry estimates the ego-motion of an agent (e.g., vehicle and robot) using image information and is a key component for autonomous vehicles and robotics. This paper proposes a robust and precise method for estimating the 6-DoF ego-motion, using a stereo rig with optical flow analysis. An objective function fitted with a set of feature points is created by establishing the mathematical relationship between optical flow, depth and camera ego-motion parameters through the camera’s 3-dimensional motion and planar imaging model. Accordingly, the six motion parameters are computed by minimizing the objective function, using the iterative Levenberg–Marquard method. One of key points for visual odometry is that the feature points selected for the computation should contain inliers as much as possible. In this work, the feature points and their optical flows are initially detected by using the Kanade–Lucas–Tomasi (KLT) algorithm. A circle matching is followed to remove the outliers caused by the mismatching of the KLT algorithm. A space position constraint is imposed to filter out the moving points from the point set detected by the KLT algorithm. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is employed to further refine the feature point set, i.e., to eliminate the effects of outliers. The remaining points are tracked to estimate the ego-motion parameters in the subsequent frames. The approach presented here is tested on real traffic videos and the results prove the robustness and precision of the method. PMID:27763508
Quaternionic Spatiotemporal Filtering for Dense Motion Field Estimation in Ultrasound Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marion, Adrien; Girard, Patrick; Vray, Didier
2010-12-01
Blood motion estimation provides fundamental clinical information to prevent and detect pathologies such as cancer. Ultrasound imaging associated with Doppler methods is often used for blood flow evaluation. However, Doppler methods suffer from shortcomings such as limited spatial resolution and the inability to estimate lateral motion. Numerous methods such as block matching and decorrelation-based techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. In this paper, we propose an original method to estimate dense fields of vector velocity from ultrasound image sequences. Our proposal is based on a spatiotemporal approach and considers 2D+t data as a 3D volume. Orientation of the texture within this volume is related to velocity. Thus, we designed a bank of 3D quaternionic filters to estimate local orientation and then calculate local velocities. The method was applied to a large set of experimental and simulated flow sequences with low motion ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]1 mm/s) within small vessels ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]1 mm). Evaluation was conducted with several quantitative criteria such as the normalized mean error or the estimated mean velocity. The results obtained show the good behaviour of our method, characterizing the flows studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, D. E.; Wood, D. L.; Gulledge, W. L.; Goodrich, R. L.
1979-01-01
Two types of experiments concerning the estimated magnitude of self-motion during exposure to linear oscillation on a parallel swing are described in this paper. Experiment I examined changes in magnitude estimation as a function of variation of the subject's head orientation, and Experiments II a, II b, and II c assessed changes in magnitude estimation performance following exposure to sustained, 'intense' linear oscillation (fatigue-inducting stimulation). The subjects' performance was summarized employing Stevens' power law R = k x S to the nth, where R is perceived self-motion magnitude, k is a constant, S is amplitude of linear oscillation, and n is an exponent). The results of Experiment I indicated that the exponents, n, for the magnitude estimation functions varied with head orientation and were greatest when the head was oriented 135 deg off the vertical. In Experiments II a-c, the magnitude estimation function exponents were increased following fatigue. Both types of experiments suggest ways in which the vestibular system's contribution to a spatial orientation perceptual system may vary. This variability may be a contributing factor to the development of pilot/astronaut disorientation and may also be implicated in the occurrence of motion sickness.
Wu, Yabei; Lu, Huanzhang; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong
2016-01-01
Shape serves as an important additional feature for space target classification, which is complementary to those made available. Since different shapes lead to different projection functions, the projection property can be regarded as one kind of shape feature. In this work, the problem of estimating the projection function from the infrared signature of the object is addressed. We show that the projection function of any rotationally symmetric object can be approximately represented as a linear combination of some base functions. Based on this fact, the signal model of the emissivity-area product sequence is constructed, which is a particular mathematical function of the linear coefficients and micro-motion parameters. Then, the least square estimator is proposed to estimate the projection function and micro-motion parameters jointly. Experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27763500
Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong
2015-05-01
The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.
Estimation Accuracy on Execution Time of Run-Time Tasks in a Heterogeneous Distributed Environment
Liu, Qi; Cai, Weidong; Jin, Dandan; Shen, Jian; Fu, Zhangjie; Liu, Xiaodong; Linge, Nigel
2016-01-01
Distributed Computing has achieved tremendous development since cloud computing was proposed in 2006, and played a vital role promoting rapid growth of data collecting and analysis models, e.g., Internet of things, Cyber-Physical Systems, Big Data Analytics, etc. Hadoop has become a data convergence platform for sensor networks. As one of the core components, MapReduce facilitates allocating, processing and mining of collected large-scale data, where speculative execution strategies help solve straggler problems. However, there is still no efficient solution for accurate estimation on execution time of run-time tasks, which can affect task allocation and distribution in MapReduce. In this paper, task execution data have been collected and employed for the estimation. A two-phase regression (TPR) method is proposed to predict the finishing time of each task accurately. Detailed data of each task have drawn interests with detailed analysis report being made. According to the results, the prediction accuracy of concurrent tasks’ execution time can be improved, in particular for some regular jobs. PMID:27589753
Estimation Accuracy on Execution Time of Run-Time Tasks in a Heterogeneous Distributed Environment.
Liu, Qi; Cai, Weidong; Jin, Dandan; Shen, Jian; Fu, Zhangjie; Liu, Xiaodong; Linge, Nigel
2016-08-30
Distributed Computing has achieved tremendous development since cloud computing was proposed in 2006, and played a vital role promoting rapid growth of data collecting and analysis models, e.g., Internet of things, Cyber-Physical Systems, Big Data Analytics, etc. Hadoop has become a data convergence platform for sensor networks. As one of the core components, MapReduce facilitates allocating, processing and mining of collected large-scale data, where speculative execution strategies help solve straggler problems. However, there is still no efficient solution for accurate estimation on execution time of run-time tasks, which can affect task allocation and distribution in MapReduce. In this paper, task execution data have been collected and employed for the estimation. A two-phase regression (TPR) method is proposed to predict the finishing time of each task accurately. Detailed data of each task have drawn interests with detailed analysis report being made. According to the results, the prediction accuracy of concurrent tasks' execution time can be improved, in particular for some regular jobs.
The influence of cloud cover index on the accuracy of solar irradiance model estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, F. R.; Silva, S. A. B.; Pereira, E. B.; Abreu, S. L.
2008-04-01
Cloud cover index ( CCI) obtained from satellite images contains information on cloud amount and their optical thickness. It is the chief climate data for the assessment of solar energy resources in most radiative transfer models, particularly for the model BRASIL-SR that is currently operational at CPTEC. The wide range of climate environments in Brazil turns CCI determination into a challenging activity and great effort has been directed to develop new methods and procedures to improve the accuracy of these estimations from satellite images (Martins 2001; Martins et al. 2003a; Ceballos et al. 2004). This work demonstrates the influence of CCI determination methods on estimates of surface solar irradiances obtained by the model BRASIL-SR comparing deviations among ground data and model results. Three techniques using visible and/or thermal infrared images of GOES-8 were employed to generate the CCI for input into the model BRASIL-SR. The ground-truth data was provided by the solar radiation station located at Caicó/PE, in Brazilian Northeast region, which is part of the UNEP/GEF project SWERA (Solar and Wind Energy Resources Assessment). Results have shown that the application of the bi-spectral techniques have reduced mean bias error up to 66% and root mean square error up to 50% when compared to the usual technique for CCI determination based on the straightforward determination of month-by-month extremes for maximum and minimum cloud states.
Choe, Kyoung Whan; Blake, Randolph; Lee, Sang-Hun
2016-01-01
Video-based eye tracking relies on locating pupil center to measure gaze positions. Although widely used, the technique is known to generate spurious gaze position shifts up to several degrees in visual angle because pupil centration can change without eye movement during pupil constriction or dilation. Since pupil size can fluctuate markedly from moment to moment, reflecting arousal state and cognitive processing during human behavioral and neuroimaging experiments, the pupil size artifact is prevalent and thus weakens the quality of the video-based eye tracking measurements reliant on small fixational eye movements. Moreover, the artifact may lead to erroneous conclusions if the spurious signal is taken as an actual eye movement. Here, we measured pupil size and gaze position from 23 human observers performing a fixation task and examined the relationship between these two measures. Results disclosed that the pupils contracted as fixation was prolonged, at both small (<16s) and large (∼4min) time scales, and these pupil contractions were accompanied by systematic errors in gaze position estimation, in both the ellipse and the centroid methods of pupil tracking. When pupil size was regressed out, the accuracy and reliability of gaze position measurements were substantially improved, enabling differentiation of 0.1° difference in eye position. We confirmed the presence of systematic changes in pupil size, again at both small and large scales, and its tight relationship with gaze position estimates when observers were engaged in a demanding visual discrimination task.
Do missing data influence the accuracy of divergence-time estimation with BEAST?
Zheng, Yuchi; Wiens, John J
2015-04-01
Time-calibrated phylogenies have become essential to evolutionary biology. A recurrent and unresolved question for dating analyses is whether genes with missing data cells should be included or excluded. This issue is particularly unclear for the most widely used dating method, the uncorrelated lognormal approach implemented in BEAST. Here, we test the robustness of this method to missing data. We compare divergence-time estimates from a nearly complete dataset (20 nuclear genes for 32 species of squamate reptiles) to those from subsampled matrices, including those with 5 or 2 complete loci only and those with 5 or 8 incomplete loci added. In general, missing data had little impact on estimated dates (mean error of ∼5Myr per node or less, given an overall age of ∼220Myr in squamates), even when 80% of sampled genes had 75% missing data. Mean errors were somewhat higher when all genes were 75% incomplete (∼17Myr). However, errors increased dramatically when only 2 of 9 fossil calibration points were included (∼40Myr), regardless of missing data. Overall, missing data (and even numbers of genes sampled) may have only minor impacts on the accuracy of divergence dating with BEAST, relative to the dramatic effects of fossil calibrations.
Integral quantification accuracy estimation for reporter ion-based quantitative proteomics (iQuARI).
Vaudel, Marc; Burkhart, Julia M; Radau, Sonja; Zahedi, René P; Martens, Lennart; Sickmann, Albert
2012-10-05
With the increasing popularity of comparative studies of complex proteomes, reporter ion-based quantification methods such as iTRAQ and TMT have become commonplace in biological studies. Their appeal derives from simple multiplexing and quantification of several samples at reasonable cost. This advantage yet comes with a known shortcoming: precursors of different species can interfere, thus reducing the quantification accuracy. Recently, two methods were brought to the community alleviating the amount of interference via novel experimental design. Before considering setting up a new workflow, tuning the system, optimizing identification and quantification rates, etc. one legitimately asks: is it really worth the effort, time and money? The question is actually not easy to answer since the interference is heavily sample and system dependent. Moreover, there was to date no method allowing the inline estimation of error rates for reporter quantification. We therefore introduce a method called iQuARI to compute false discovery rates for reporter ion based quantification experiments as easily as Target/Decoy FDR for identification. With it, the scientist can accurately estimate the amount of interference in his sample on his system and eventually consider removing shadows subsequently, a task for which reporter ion quantification might not be the solution of choice.
Evaluation of the accuracy of fetal dose estimates using TG-36 data
Kry, Stephen F.; Starkschall, George; Antolak, John A.; Salehpour, Mohammad
2007-04-15
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 36 report (TG-36) provides guidelines for managing radiation therapy of pregnant patients. Included in the report are data that can be used to estimate the dose to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of these fetal dose estimates as compared to clinically measured values. TG-36 calculations were performed and compared with measurements of the fetal dose made in vivo or in appropriately-designed phantoms. Calculation and measurement data was collected for eight pregnant patients who underwent radiation therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center as well as for several fetal dose studies in the literature. The maximum measured unshielded fetal dose was 47 cGy, which was 1.5% of the prescription dose. For all cases, TG-36 calculations and measured fetal doses differed by up to a factor of 3--the ratio of the calculated to measured dose ranged from 0.34 to 2.93. On average, TG-36 calculations underestimated the measured dose by 31%. No significant trends in the relationship between the calculated and measured fetal doses were found based on the distance from, or the size of, the treatment field.
We developed a technique for assessing the accuracy of sub-pixel derived estimates of impervious surface extracted from LANDSAT TM imagery. We utilized spatially coincident
sub-pixel derived impervious surface estimates, high-resolution planimetric GIS data, vector--to-
r...
Lane, D M; Hill, S A; Huntingford, J L; Lafuente, P; Wall, R; Jones, K A
2015-01-01
Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman's rho, Cramer's V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters' SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways.
Lane, D.M.; Hill, S.A.; Huntingford, J.L.; Lafuente, P.; Wall, R.; Jones, K.A.
2015-01-01
Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman’s rho, Cramer’s V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters’ SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways. PMID:26623383
Moschetti, Morgan P.; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo
2011-01-01
In this research we characterize the goodness-of-fit between observed and synthetic seismograms from three small magnitude (M3.6-4.5) earthquakes in the region using the Wasatch Front community velocity model (WCVM) in order to determine the ability of the WCVM to predict earthquake ground motions for scenario earthquake modeling efforts. We employ the goodness-of-fit algorithms and criteria of Olsen and Mayhew (2010). In focusing comparisons on the ground motion parameters that are of greatest importance in engineering seismology, we find that the synthetic seismograms calculated using the WCVM produce a fair fit to the observed ground motion records up to a frequency of 0.5 Hz for two of the modeled earthquakes and up to 0.1 Hz for one of the earthquakes. In addition to the reference seismic material model (WCVM), we carry out earthquake simulations using material models with perturbations to the regional seismic model and with perturbations to the deep sedimentary basins. Simple perturbations to the regional seismic velocity model and to the seismic velocities of the sedimentary basin result in small improvements in the observed misfit but do not indicate a significantly improved material model. Unresolved differences between the observed and synthetic seismograms are likely due to un-modeled heterogeneities and incorrect basin geometries in the WCVM. These differences suggest that ground motion prediction accuracy from deterministic modeling varies across the region and further efforts to improve the WCVM are needed.
Efficient temporal search range prediction for motion estimation in H.264
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Changsung; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
2005-08-01
An efficient search range prediction method is proposed to reduce the complexity of motion search in the H.264 video coding standard in this work. The main idea is to predict the temporal search range by modeling the relationship between the rate-distortion (RD) coding gain and the required computational complexity. The proposed algorithm first predicts the temporal search range to maximize the ratio of the expected RD coding gain and the normalized computational cost. Then, fast motion search is performed within the predicted search range with some early termination rule. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save approximately 63-75% of the encoding complexity in motion estimation of H.264 (JM9.3) with negligible degradation in the RD performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand, Judith, Ed.
2002-01-01
This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.
This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…
Angular motion estimation using dynamic models in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit.
Edwan, Ezzaldeen; Knedlik, Stefan; Loffeld, Otmar
2012-01-01
In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU). The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU) that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV) composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements' produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters.
Xu, Gang; Xing, Mengdao; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qianqian; Bao, Zheng
2016-05-01
In the current scenario of high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, the non-cooperative targets may have strong maneuverability, which tends to cause time-variant Doppler modulation and imaging plane in the echoed data. Furthermore, it is still a challenge to realize ISAR imaging of maneuvering targets from sparse aperture (SA) data. In this paper, we focus on the problem of 3D geometry and motion estimations of maneuvering targets for interferometric ISAR (InISAR) with SA. For a target of uniformly accelerated rotation, the rotational modulation in echo is formulated as chirp sensing code under a chirp-Fourier dictionary to represent the maneuverability. In particular, a joint multi-channel imaging approach is developed to incorporate the multi-channel data and treat the multi-channel ISAR image formation as a joint-sparsity constraint optimization. Then, a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem to produce high-resolution range-Doppler (RD) images and chirp parameter estimation. The 3D target geometry and the motion estimations are followed by using the acquired RD images and chirp parameters. Herein, a joint estimation approach of 3D geometry and rotation motion is presented to realize outlier removing and error reduction. In comparison with independent single-channel processing, the proposed joint multi-channel imaging approach performs better in 2D imaging, 3D imaging, and motion estimation. Finally, experiments using both simulated and measured data are performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Huang, Q; Zhang, Y; Liu, Y; Hu, L; Yin, F; Cai, J; Miller, W
2014-06-15
Purpose: Hyperpolarized gas (HP) tagging MRI is a novel imaging technique for direct measurement of lung motion during breathing. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) in lung motion estimation using HP tagging MRI as references. Methods: Three healthy subjects were imaged using the HP MR tagging, as well as a high-resolution 3D proton MR sequence (TrueFISP) at the end-of-inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE). Ground truth of lung motion and corresponding displacement vector field (tDVF) was derived from HP tagging MRI by manually tracking the displacement of tagging grids between EOI and EOE. Seven different DIR methods were applied to the high-resolution TrueFISP MR images (EOI and EOE) to generate the DIR-based DVFs (dDVF). The DIR methods include Velocity (VEL), MIM, Mirada, multi-grid B-spline from Elastix (MGB) and 3 other algorithms from DIRART toolbox (Double Force Demons (DFD), Improved Lucas-Kanade (ILK), and Iterative Optical Flow (IOF)). All registrations were performed by independent experts. Target registration error (TRE) was calculated as tDVF – dDVF. Analysis was performed for the entire lungs, and separately for the upper and lower lungs. Results: Significant differences between tDVF and dDVF were observed. Besides the DFD and IOF algorithms, all other dDVFs showed similarity in deformation magnitude distribution but away from the ground truth. The average TRE for entire lung ranged 2.5−23.7mm (mean=8.8mm), depending on the DIR method and subject's breathing amplitude. Larger TRE (13.3–23.7mm) was found in subject with larger breathing amplitude of 45.6mm. TRE was greater in lower lung (2.5−33.9 mm, mean=12.4mm) than that in upper lung (2.5−11.9 mm, mean=5.8mm). Conclusion: Significant differences were observed in lung motion estimation between the HP gas tagging MRI method and the DIR methods, especially when lung motion is large. Large variation among different DIR
Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.
1991-01-01
The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.
Stemkens, B; Tijssen, RHN; Denis de Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, JJW; Berg, CAT van den
2015-06-15
Purpose: To estimate full field-of-view abdominal respiratory motion from fast 2D image navigators using a 4D-MRI based motion model. This will allow for radiation dose accumulation mapping during MR-Linac treatment. Methods: Experiments were conducted on a Philips Ingenia 1.5T MRI. First, a retrospectively ordered 4D-MRI was constructed using 3D transient-bSSFP with radial in-plane sampling. Motion fields were calculated through 3D non-rigid registration. From these motion fields a PCA-based abdominal motion model was constructed and used to warp a 3D reference volume to fast 2D cine-MR image navigators that can be used for real-time tracking. To test this procedure, a time-series consisting of two interleaved orthogonal slices (sagittal and coronal), positioned on the pancreas or kidneys, were acquired for 1m38s (dynamic scan-time=0.196ms), during normal, shallow, or deep breathing. The coronal slices were used to update the optimal weights for the first two PCA components, in order to warp the 3D reference image and construct a dynamic 4D-MRI time-series. The interleaved sagittal slices served as an independent measure to test the model’s accuracy and fit. Spatial maps of the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and histograms of the motion differences within the pancreas and kidneys were used to evaluate the method. Results: Cranio-caudal motion was accurately calculated within the pancreas using the model for normal and shallow breathing with an RMSE of 1.6mm and 1.5mm and a histogram median and standard deviation below 0.2 and 1.7mm, respectively. For deep-breathing an underestimation of the inhale amplitude was observed (RMSE=4.1mm). Respiratory-induced antero-posterior and lateral motion were correctly mapped (RMSE=0.6/0.5mm). Kidney motion demonstrated good motion estimation with RMSE-values of 0.95 and 2.4mm for the right and left kidney, respectively. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method that can calculate dynamic 3D abdominal motion in a large volume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ying; Prummer, Simone; Chen, Terrence; Ostermeier, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin
2009-02-01
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a well-known technique for improving the visibility and perceptibility of blood vessels in the human body. Coronary DSA extends conventional DSA to dynamic 2D fluoroscopic sequences of coronary arteries which are subject to respiratory and cardiac motion. Effective motion compensation is the main challenge for coronary DSA. Without a proper treatment, both breathing and heart motion can cause unpleasant artifacts in coronary subtraction images, jeopardizing the clinical value of coronary DSA. In this paper, we present an effective method to separate the dynamic layer of background structures from a fluoroscopic sequence of the heart, leaving a clean layer of moving coronary arteries. Our method combines the techniques of learning-based vessel detection and robust motion estimation to achieve reliable motion compensation for coronary sequences. Encouraging results have been achieved on clinically acquired coronary sequences, where the proposed method considerably improves the visibility and perceptibility of coronary arteries undergoing breathing and cardiac movement. Perceptibility improvement is significant especially for very thin vessels. The potential clinical benefit is expected in the context of obese patients and deep angulation, as well as in the reduction of contrast dose in normal size patients.
Estimation of internal organ motion-induced variance in radiation dose in non-gated radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Sumin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Mutian; Zheng, Dandan; Lei, Yu; Li, Sicong; Bennion, Nathan; Verma, Vivek; Zhen, Weining; Enke, Charles
2016-12-01
In the delivery of non-gated radiotherapy (RT), owing to intra-fraction organ motion, a certain degree of RT dose uncertainty is present. Herein, we propose a novel mathematical algorithm to estimate the mean and variance of RT dose that is delivered without gating. These parameters are specific to individual internal organ motion, dependent on individual treatment plans, and relevant to the RT delivery process. This algorithm uses images from a patient’s 4D simulation study to model the actual patient internal organ motion during RT delivery. All necessary dose rate calculations are performed in fixed patient internal organ motion states. The analytical and deterministic formulae of mean and variance in dose from non-gated RT were derived directly via statistical averaging of the calculated dose rate over possible random internal organ motion initial phases, and did not require constructing relevant histograms. All results are expressed in dose rate Fourier transform coefficients for computational efficiency. Exact solutions are provided to simplified, yet still clinically relevant, cases. Results from a volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient case are also presented. The results obtained from our mathematical algorithm can aid clinical decisions by providing information regarding both mean and variance of radiation dose to non-gated patients prior to RT delivery.
Estimates of the wind speeds required for particle motion on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R.; Greeley, R.; Iversen, J.
1976-01-01
Threshold wind speeds for setting particles into motion on Mars are estimated by evaluating experimentally observed threshold friction velocities and determining the ratio of this velocity to the threshold wind speed at the top of earth's atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turning angles between the direction of the wind at the top of the ABL and the wind stress at the surface are also estimated. Detailed consideration is given to the dependence of the threshold wind speed at the top of the ABL on particle diameter, surface pressure, air temperature, atmospheric stability and composition, surface roughness, and interparticle cohesion. The results are applied to interpret a number of phenomena that have been observed on Mars and are attributable to aeolian processes. It is shown that: (1) minimum threshold wind speeds of about 50 to 100 m/sec are required to cause particle motion on Mars under 'favorable' conditions; (2) particle motion should be infrequent and strongly correlated with proximity to small topographical features; (3) in general, particle motion occurs more readily at night than during the day, in winter polar areas than equatorial areas around noon, and for H2O or CO2 ice particles than for silicate particles; and (4) the boundary between saltating and suspendible particles is located at a particle diameter of about 100 microns.
Vertical Motions Estimated Using Data from a Single Station and a Form of the Adiabatic Method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nastrom, G. D.; Warnock, J. M.
1994-01-01
The so-called adiabatic method for estimating vertical air motions under isentropic flow conditions can be used with wind and temperature data from a single station. With the advent of radio acoustic sounding systems, wind and temperature measurements will be available with the necessary frequency to employ this form of the adiabatic method on a routine basis. In an effort to test this method, data from series of Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System balloons launched at high frequency from Champaign, Illinois, have been used to compute vertical motions. The results are compared with the synoptic setting of each campaign and with estimates made using the kinematic method. It appears that smoothing over layers about 100 hPa deep is necessary to remove features not associated with the large-scale flow. The vertical-motion results show that the adiabatic method usually compares as favorably as the kinematic method with proxy indicators of vertical motion such as clouds and moisture. The adiabatic method does not appear as reliable at the edge of cloud decks, apparently due to radiative flux divergence.
The accuracy of thematic map products is not spatially homogenous, but instead variable across most landscapes. Properly analyzing and representing the spatial distribution (pattern) of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable user information for assessing appropriate applic...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vopham, Trang Minh
Pesticide exposure estimation in epidemiologic studies can be constrained to analysis scales commonly available for cancer data - census tracts and ZIP codes. Research goals included (1) demonstrating the feasibility of modifying an existing geographic information system (GIS) pesticide exposure method using California Pesticide Use Reports (PURs) and land use surveys to incorporate Landsat remote sensing and to accommodate aggregated analysis scales, and (2) assessing the accuracy of two rurality metrics (quality of geographic area being rural), Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes and the U.S. Census Bureau urban-rural system, as surrogates for pesticide exposure when compared to the GIS gold standard. Segments, derived from 1985 Landsat NDVI images, were classified using a crop signature library (CSL) created from 1990 Landsat NDVI images via a sum of squared differences (SSD) measure. Organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate Kern County PUR applications (1974-1990) were matched to crop fields using a modified three-tier approach. Annual pesticide application rates (lb/ac), and sensitivity and specificity of each rurality metric were calculated. The CSL (75 land use classes) classified 19,752 segments [median SSD 0.06 NDVI]. Of the 148,671 PUR records included in the analysis, Landsat contributed 3,750 (2.5%) additional tier matches. ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) rates ranged between 0 and 1.36 lb/ac and census tract rates between 0 and 1.57 lb/ac. Rurality was a mediocre pesticide exposure surrogate; higher rates were observed among urban areal units. ZCTA-level RUCA codes offered greater specificity (39.1-60%) and sensitivity (25-42.9%). The U.S. Census Bureau metric offered greater specificity (92.9-97.5%) at the census tract level; sensitivity was low (≤6%). The feasibility of incorporating Landsat into a modified three-tier GIS approach was demonstrated. Rurality accuracy is affected by rurality metric, areal aggregation, pesticide chemical
Ali, I; Oyewale, S; Ahmad, S; Algan, O; Alsbou, N
2014-06-01
Purpose: To investigate quantitatively patient motion effects on the localization accuracy of image-guided radiation with fiducial markers using axial CT (ACT), helical CT (HCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using modeling and experimental phantom studies. Methods: Markers with different lengths (2.5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm) were inserted in a mobile thorax phantom which was imaged using ACT, HCT and CBCT. The phantom moved with sinusoidal motion with amplitudes ranging 0–20 mm and a frequency of 15 cycles-per-minute. Three parameters that include: apparent marker lengths, center position and distance between the centers of the markers were measured in the different CT images of the mobile phantom. A motion mathematical model was derived to predict the variations in the previous three parameters and their dependence on the motion in the different imaging modalities. Results: In CBCT, the measured marker lengths increased linearly with increase in motion amplitude. For example, the apparent length of the 10 mm marker was about 20 mm when phantom moved with amplitude of 5 mm. Although the markers have elongated, the center position and the distance between markers remained at the same position for different motion amplitudes in CBCT. These parameters were not affected by motion frequency and phase in CBCT. In HCT and ACT, the measured marker length, center and distance between markers varied irregularly with motion parameters. The apparent lengths of the markers varied with inverse of the phantom velocity which depends on motion frequency and phase. Similarly the center position and distance between markers varied inversely with phantom speed. Conclusion: Motion may lead to variations in maker length, center position and distance between markers using CT imaging. These effects should be considered in patient setup using image-guided radiation therapy based on fiducial markers matching using 2D-radiographs or volumetric CT imaging.
ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS
Site specific accuracy assessments provide fine-scale evaluation of the thematic accuracy of land use/land cover (LULC) datasets; however, they provide little insight into LULC accuracy across varying spatial extents. Additionally, LULC data are typically used to describe lands...
Accuracy of estimated geometric parameters of trees depending on the LIDAR data density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadas, Edyta; Estornell, Javier
2015-04-01
The estimation of dendrometric variables has become important for spatial planning and agriculture projects. Because classical field measurements are time consuming and inefficient, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements are successfully used in this area. Point clouds acquired for relatively large areas allows to determine the structure of forestry and agriculture areas and geometrical parameters of individual trees. In this study two LiDAR datasets with different densities were used: sparse with average density of 0.5pt/m2 and the dense with density of 4pt/m2. 25 olive trees were selected and field measurements of tree height, crown bottom height, length of crown diameters and tree position were performed. To determine the tree geometric parameters from LiDAR data, two independent strategies were developed that utilize the ArcGIS, ENVI and FUSION software. Strategy a) was based on canopy surface model (CSM) slicing at 0.5m height and in strategy b) minimum bounding polygons as tree crown area were created around detected tree centroid. The individual steps were developed to be applied also in automatic processing. To assess the performance of each strategy with both point clouds, the differences between the measured and estimated geometric parameters of trees were analyzed. As expected, the tree height were underestimated for both strategies (RMSE=0.7m for dense dataset and RMSE=1.5m for sparse) and tree crown height were overestimated (RMSE=0.4m and RMSE=0.7m for dense and sparse dataset respectively). For dense dataset, strategy b) allows to determine more accurate crown diameters (RMSE=0.5m) than strategy a) (RMSE=0.8m), and for sparse dataset, only strategy a) occurs to be relevant (RMSE=1.0m). The accuracy of strategies were also examined for their dependency on tree size. For dense dataset, the larger the tree (height or crown longer diameter), the higher was the error of estimated tree height, and for sparse dataset, the larger the tree
Vision-Based 3D Motion Estimation for On-Orbit Proximity Satellite Tracking and Navigation
2015-06-01
printed using the Fortus 400mc 3D rapid- prototyping printer of the NPS Space Systems Academic Group, while the internal structure is made of aluminum...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited VISION-BASED 3D ...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VISION-BASED 3D MOTION ESTIMATION FOR ON-ORBIT PROXIMITY SATELLITE TRACKING
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, K.; Maier, A. K.; Schwemmer, C.; Lauritsch, G.; De Buck, S.; Wielandts, J.-Y.; Hornegger, J.; Fahrig, R.
2014-06-01
The acquisition of data for cardiac imaging using a C-arm computed tomography system requires several seconds and multiple heartbeats. Hence, incorporation of motion correction in the reconstruction step may improve the resulting image quality. Cardiac motion can be estimated by deformable three-dimensional (3D)/3D registration performed on initial 3D images of different heart phases. This motion information can be used for a motion-compensated reconstruction allowing the use of all acquired data for image reconstruction. However, the result of the registration procedure and hence the estimated deformations are influenced by the quality of the initial 3D images. In this paper, the sensitivity of the 3D/3D registration step to the image quality of the initial images is studied. Different reconstruction algorithms are evaluated for a recently proposed cardiac C-arm CT acquisition protocol. The initial 3D images are all based on retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated data. ECG-gating of data from a single C-arm rotation provides only a few projections per heart phase for image reconstruction. This view sparsity leads to prominent streak artefacts and a poor signal to noise ratio. Five different initial image reconstructions are evaluated: (1) cone beam filtered-backprojection (FDK), (2) cone beam filtered-backprojection and an additional bilateral filter (FFDK), (3) removal of the shadow of dense objects (catheter, pacing electrode, etc) before reconstruction with a cone beam filtered-backprojection (cathFDK), (4) removal of the shadow of dense objects before reconstruction with a cone beam filtered-backprojection and a bilateral filter (cathFFDK). The last method (5) is an iterative few-view reconstruction (FV), the prior image constrained compressed sensing combined with the improved total variation algorithm. All reconstructions are investigated with respect to the final motion-compensated reconstruction quality. The algorithms were tested on a mathematical
Vertical Air Motion Estimates from W-band Radar Doppler Spectra Observed during DYNAMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, C. R.; Gibson, J. S.; Fairall, C. W.
2014-12-01
During the DYNAMO field campaign, a vertically pointing NOAA W-band (94 GHz) radar was mounted on the R/V Revelle to sample a wide range of clouds from shallow warm clouds to high cirrus clouds. The Doppler velocity spectra often contained multiple peak structures. In warm clouds, multiple peaks were due to cloud droplets and drizzle droplets in the same radar pulse volume. And in rainfall beneath well-defined reflectivity dim-bands near the melting layer, the multiple peaks were due to Mie scattering signatures from raindrops larger than 1.6 mm. This presentation will describe a method of identifying multiple peaks in Doppler spectra and then determining if the multiple peaks were due to cloud and drizzle droplets or due to large raindrops exciting a Mie scattering signature. In both cases, the multiple peak structure provides a signature to estimate vertical air motion. For spectra containing cloud droplets, the symmetric peak is a tracer used to estimate the air motion. For spectra with asymmetric shapes and large downward Doppler velocities, the Mie scattering notch is used to estimate the air motion. Examples of the retrieval procedure will be provided at the conference.
New FPSoC-based architecture for efficient FSBM motion estimation processing in video standards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canals, J. A.; Martínez, M. A.; Ballester, F. J.; Mora, A.
2007-05-01
Due to the timing constraints in real time video encoding, hardware accelerator cores are used for video compression. System on Chip (SoC) designing tools offer a complex microprocessor system designing methodologies with an easy Intellectual Property (IP) core integration. This paper presents a PowerPC-based SoC with a motion-estimation accelerator core attached to the system bus. Motion-estimation (ME) algorithms are the most critical part in video compression due to the huge amount of data transfers and processing time. The main goal of our proposed architecture is to minimize the amount of memory accesses, thus exploiting the bandwidth of a direct memory connection. This architecture has been developed using Xilinx XPS, a SoC platforms design tool. The results show that our system is able to process the integer pixel full search block matching (FSBM) motion-estimation process and interframe mode decision of a QCIF frame (176*144 pixels), using a 48*48 pixel searching window, with an embedded PPC in a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA running at 100 MHz, in 1.5 ms, 4.5 % of the total processing time at 30 fps.
Estimate of procession and polar motion errors from planetary encounter station location solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pease, G. E.
1978-01-01
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Station (DSS) location solutions based on two JPL planetary ephemerides, DE 84 and DE 96, at eight planetary encounters were used to obtain weighted least squares estimates of precession and polar motion errors. The solution for precession error in right ascension yields a value of 0.3 X 10 to the minus 5 power plus or minus 0.8 X 10 to the minus 6 power deg/year. This maps to a right ascension error of 1.3 X 10 to the minus 5 power plus or minus 0.4 X 10 to the minus 5 power deg at the first Voyager 1979 Jupiter encounter if the current JPL DSS location set is used. Solutions for precession and polar motion using station locations based on DE 84 agree well with the solution using station locations referenced to DE 96. The precession solution removes the apparent drift in station longitude and spin axis distance estimates, while the encounter polar motion solutions consistently decrease the scatter in station spin axis distance estimates.
A GPS estimate of relative motion between North and South America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, Timothy H.; Mao, Ailin
GPS velocity data are used to estimate the Euler vector describing rigid body motion of North America relative to South America. Assuming the boundary between the North and South American plates is located near the Fifteen Twenty fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic, the Euler vector predicts extension across the Royal Trough up to 1 mm/yr, and convergence across the Barracuda Ridge at about 2 mm/yr, in agreement with geological estimates averaged over tens of millions of years. Further west, convergence between North and South America at rates up to 8 mm/yr may contribute to deformation of the Caribbean plate along its southwest boundary with South America.
On the accuracy of indirect methods for estimating the sizes of asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozhenko, A. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.
2013-09-01
Using data on the maximum value of negative polarization degree is shown to be the least reliable in estimating asteroid albedos. To improve the reliability of the method based on the information relative to the positive polarization branch slope, the approximation coefficient values are bound to be chosen for a particular type of asteroids. The same situation is in the case of the thermal method where each type needs a corresponding value of the phase integral q. In addition, the accuracy of both methods increases if a corresponding type of characteristic phase dependence of brightness is used for the transition from A(0) to A(alpha), including the opposition effect. Our simulation within the frame work of the Irwin-Yanovitskij modification of the Hapke shadow model shows that the values of the phase coefficient beta for (10°
Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak
2006-01-01
A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.
ABodyBuilder: Automated antibody structure prediction with data–driven accuracy estimation
Leem, Jinwoo; Dunbar, James; Georges, Guy; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M.
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Computational modeling of antibody structures plays a critical role in therapeutic antibody design. Several antibody modeling pipelines exist, but no freely available methods currently model nanobodies, provide estimates of expected model accuracy, or highlight potential issues with the antibody's experimental development. Here, we describe our automated antibody modeling pipeline, ABodyBuilder, designed to overcome these issues. The algorithm itself follows the standard 4 steps of template selection, orientation prediction, complementarity-determining region (CDR) loop modeling, and side chain prediction. ABodyBuilder then annotates the ‘confidence’ of the model as a probability that a component of the antibody (e.g., CDRL3 loop) will be modeled within a root–mean square deviation threshold. It also flags structural motifs on the model that are known to cause issues during in vitro development. ABodyBuilder was tested on 4 separate datasets, including the 11 antibodies from the Antibody Modeling Assessment–II competition. ABodyBuilder builds models that are of similar quality to other methodologies, with sub–Angstrom predictions for the ‘canonical’ CDR loops. Its ability to model nanobodies, and rapidly generate models (∼30 seconds per model) widens its potential usage. ABodyBuilder can also help users in decision–making for the development of novel antibodies because it provides model confidence and potential sequence liabilities. ABodyBuilder is freely available at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/abodybuilder. PMID:27392298
Niehoff, P; Gabler, H C
2006-01-01
The objective of this paper is to investigate the accuracy of WinSmash delta-V estimates as a function of crash mode, vehicle body type, and vehicle stiffness. The accuracy of WinSmash delta-V estimates was evaluated for 121 NASS/CDS 2000-2003 cases for which direct measurements of delta-V had been retrieved from an Event Data Recorder on the case vehicle. WinSmash was found to underestimate delta-V by 23% on average. WinSmash was found to be most accurate in crashes involving full frontal engagement of the vehicle structure. When using categorical stiffness coefficients, the accuracy of delta-V estimates was found to be a strong function of vehicle type. WinSmash underestimated delta-V for pickup trucks by only 3%, but underestimated delta-V for front-wheel drive cars by 31%. The use of vehicle-specific stiffness coefficients improved the accuracy of the longitudinal delta-V estimate. The single most important factor in improving WinSmash accuracy was the inclusion of restitution. After adjusting for restitution, WinSmash underestimated delta-V in frontal crashes by only 1% on average.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.
2016-04-01
There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.
Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.
2012-06-01
A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMets, C.; Calais, E.; Merkouriev, S.
2017-01-01
We use recently published, high-resolution reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge to test whether a previously described systematic difference between Global Positioning System (GPS) and 3.16-Myr-average estimates of seafloor spreading rates between Antarctica and Africa is evidence for a recent slowdown in Southwest Indian Ridge seafloor spreading rates. Along the Nubia-Antarctic segment of the ridge, seafloor opening rates that are estimated with the new, high-resolution reconstructions and corrected for outward displacement agree well with geodetic rate estimates and reduce previously reported, highly significant non-closure of the Nubia-Antarctic-Sur plate circuit. The observations are inconsistent with a slowdown in spreading rates and instead indicate that Nubia-Antarctic plate motion has been steady since at least 5.2 Ma. Lwandle-Antarctic seafloor spreading rates that are estimated from the new high-resolution reconstructions differ insignificantly from a GPS estimate, thereby implying steady Lwandle-Antarctic plate motion since 5.2 Ma. Between the Somalia and Antarctic plates, the new Southwest Indian Ridge reconstructions eliminate roughly half of the systematic difference between the GPS and MORVEL spreading rate estimates.We interpret the available observations as evidence that Somalia-Antarctic spreading rates have been steady since at least 5.2 Ma and postulate that the remaining difference is attributable to random and/or systematic errors in the plate kinematic estimates and the combined effects of insufficient geodetic sampling of undeforming areas of the Somalia plate, glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica and transient deformation triggered by the 1998 Mw = 8.2 Antarctic earthquake, the 2004 Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake, or possibly other large historic earthquakes.
Reconciling geodetic and geologic estimates of recent plate motion across the Southwest Indian Ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMets, C.; Calais, E.; Merkouriev, S.
2016-10-01
We use recently published, high-resolution reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge to test whether a previously described systematic difference between Global Positioning System (GPS) and 3.16-Myr-average estimates of seafloor spreading rates between Antarctica and Africa is evidence for a recent slowdown in Southwest Indian Ridge seafloor spreading rates. Along the Nubia-Antarctic segment of the ridge, seafloor opening rates that are estimated with the new, high-resolution reconstructions and corrected for outward displacement agree well with geodetic rate estimates and reduce previously reported, highly significant non-closure of the Nubia-Antarctic-Sur plate circuit. The observations are inconsistent with a slowdown in spreading rates and instead indicate that Nubia-Antarctic plate motion has been steady since at least 5.2 Ma. Lwandle-Antarctic seafloor spreading rates that are estimated from the new high-resolution reconstructions differ insignificantly from a GPS estimate, thereby implying steady Lwandle-Antarctic plate motion since 5.2 Ma. Between the Somalia and Antarctic plates, the new Southwest Indian Ridge reconstructions eliminate roughly half of the systematic difference between the GPS and MORVEL spreading rate estimates. We interpret the available observations as evidence that Somalia-Antarctic spreading rates have been steady since at least 5.2 Ma and postulate that the remaining difference is attributable to random and/or systematic errors in the plate kinematic estimates and the combined effects of insufficient geodetic sampling of undeforming areas of the Somalia plate, glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica, and transient deformation triggered by the 1998 Mw=8.2 Antarctic earthquake, the 2004 Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake, or possibly other large historic earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Manami; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma
2016-09-01
The measurement using a motion capture camera is fluctuated by white noise and outliers. In addition, markers to be measured are frequently hidden from cameras by occlusion, then the position and heading angle of a vehicle cannot be uniquely determined because of failure to detect sufficient number of markers. Thus, robust estimation method is required which suppresses the influence of the white noise, the outlier and the occlusion. In this study, we introduce Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) using partial marker information of motion capture system. It optimizes the objective function using both the marker information in the evaluation range and the constraints on the robot dynamics. By virtue of introduction of constraints, even if the cameras fail to measure the actual state of the robot, the estimated value is determined by MHE. It is the difference from our previous research which assumed that sufficient number of markers are available. In this paper, we estimate the position of the vehicle robot by MHE using the information of the measured markers on the robot, even if several markers are hidden. We will prove the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing MHE with EKF.
3D motion and strain estimation of the heart: initial clinical findings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbosa, Daniel; Hristova, Krassimira; Loeckx, Dirk; Rademakers, Frank; Claus, Piet; D'hooge, Jan
2010-03-01
The quantitative assessment of regional myocardial function remains an important goal in clinical cardiology. As such, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking based methods have been introduced to estimate local myocardial strain. Recently, volumetric ultrasound has become more readily available, allowing therefore the 3D estimation of motion and myocardial deformation. Our lab has previously presented a method based on spatio-temporal elastic registration of ultrasound volumes to estimate myocardial motion and deformation in 3D, overcoming the spatial limitations of the existing methods. This method was optimized on simulated data sets in previous work and is currently tested in a clinical setting. In this manuscript, 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patient with myocardial infarction and 10 patients with arterial hypertension were included. The cardiac strain values extracted with the proposed method were compared with the ones estimated with 1D tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking in all patient groups. Although the absolute values of the 3D strain components assessed by this new methodology were not identical to the reference methods, the relationship between the different patient groups was similar.
This paper presents a fuzzy set-based method of mapping spatial accuracy of thematic map and computing several ecological indicators while taking into account spatial variation of accuracy associated with different land cover types and other factors (e.g., slope, soil type, etc.)...
Song, Jin-Myoung; Cho, Jin-Hyoung
2016-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of head motion on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan. Materials and Methods Fifteen dry skulls were incorporated into a motion controller which simulated four types of head motion during CBCT scan: 2 horizontal rotations (to the right/to the left) and 2 vertical rotations (upward/downward). Each movement was triggered to occur at the start of the scan for 1 second by remote control. Four maxillofacial surface models with head motion and one control surface model without motion were obtained for each skull. Nine landmarks were identified on the five maxillofacial surface models for each skull, and landmark identification errors were compared between the control model and each of the models with head motion. Results Rendered surface models with head motion were similar to the control model in appearance; however, the landmark identification errors showed larger values in models with head motion than in the control. In particular, the Porion in the horizontal rotation models presented statistically significant differences (P < .05). Statistically significant difference in the errors between the right and left side landmark was present in the left side rotation which was opposite direction to the scanner rotation (P < .05). Conclusions Patient movement during CBCT scan might cause landmark identification errors on the 3D surface model in relation to the direction of the scanner rotation. Clinicians should take this into consideration to prevent patient movement during CBCT scan, particularly horizontal movement. PMID:27065238
Eberhard, Wynn L
2017-04-01
The maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is derived for retrieving the extinction coefficient and zero-range intercept in the lidar slope method in the presence of random and independent Gaussian noise. Least-squares fitting, weighted by the inverse of the noise variance, is equivalent to the MLE. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that two traditional least-squares fitting schemes, which use different weights, are less accurate. Alternative fitting schemes that have some positive attributes are introduced and evaluated. The principal factors governing accuracy of all these schemes are elucidated. Applying these schemes to data with Poisson rather than Gaussian noise alters accuracy little, even when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Methods to estimate optimum weighting factors in actual data are presented. Even when the weighting estimates are coarse, retrieval accuracy declines only modestly. Mathematical tools are described for predicting retrieval accuracy. Least-squares fitting with inverse variance weighting has optimum accuracy for retrieval of parameters from single-wavelength lidar measurements when noise, errors, and uncertainties are Gaussian distributed, or close to optimum when only approximately Gaussian.
Kaklamanos, James; Baise, Laurie G.; Boore, David M.
2011-01-01
The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA-West) project in 2008 are becoming widely used in seismic hazard analyses. However, these new models are considerably more complicated than previous GMPEs, and they require several more input parameters. When employing the NGA models, users routinely face situations in which some of the required input parameters are unknown. In this paper, we present a framework for estimating the unknown source, path, and site parameters when implementing the NGA models in engineering practice, and we derive geometrically-based equations relating the three distance measures found in the NGA models. Our intent is for the content of this paper not only to make the NGA models more accessible, but also to help with the implementation of other present or future GMPEs.
Non-circular motion estimation of the grand-design spiral galaxy NGC 628
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombo, D.
2013-09-01
I present a harmonic decomposition analysis of the grand-design spiral galaxy NGC 628 using the H I data from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS), Walter et al., Astron. J. 136, 2563 (2008). The harmonic decomposition analysis allows the estimation of the peculiar motion magnitude of the galaxy not counted in the rotation of the disk. The rotation curve is obtained through a tilted ring analysis and reaches a maximum velocity not higher than 200 km s-1. The residual from the velocity field shows a morphology shift from a m = 1 to a m = 3 feature at R = 120", typical of two spiral arms perturbation of the potential. The non-circular motion have a magnitude of ~10 km s-1, in agreement with previous studies of similar Hubble type galaxies.
González-García, José S
2016-11-04
The effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion is evaluated through the Péclet number, assuming that the ribosome is self-propelled along the mRNA during protein synthesis by a swimming stroke consisting of a cycle of stochastically-generated ribosome configurations involving its two subunits. The ribosome velocity probability distribution function is obtained, giving an approximately normal distribution. Its mean and variance together with an estimate of the in vivo free diffusion coefficient of the ribosome and using only configuration changes of small size, give a Péclet number similar to motor proteins and microorganisms. These results suggest the feasibility of the stochastic microswimming hypothesis to explain ribosome motion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.
1987-01-01
Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.
Estimation of hurdle clearance parameters using a monocular human motion tracking method.
Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz
2016-09-01
This paper presents a method of monocular human motion tracking for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters. The analysis involved 10 image sequences of five hurdlers at various training levels. Recording of the sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. The parameters were estimated using the particle swarm optimization algorithm and they are based on analysis of the images recorded with a 100 Hz camera. The proposed method does not involve using any special clothes, markers, inertial sensors, etc. As the quality criteria, the mean absolute error and mean relative error were used. The level of computed errors justifies the use of this method to estimate hurdle clearance parameters.
Fallin, Daniele; Schork, Nicholas J.
2000-01-01
Haplotype analyses have become increasingly common in genetic studies of human disease because of their ability to identify unique chromosomal segments likely to harbor disease-predisposing genes. The study of haplotypes is also used to investigate many population processes, such as migration and immigration rates, linkage-disequilibrium strength, and the relatedness of populations. Unfortunately, many haplotype-analysis methods require phase information that can be difficult to obtain from samples of nonhaploid species. There are, however, strategies for estimating haplotype frequencies from unphased diploid genotype data collected on a sample of individuals that make use of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to overcome the missing phase information. The accuracy of such strategies, compared with other phase-determination methods, must be assessed before their use can be advocated. In this study, we consider and explore sources of error between EM-derived haplotype frequency estimates and their population parameters, noting that much of this error is due to sampling error, which is inherent in all studies, even when phase can be determined. In light of this, we focus on the additional error between haplotype frequencies within a sample data set and EM-derived haplotype frequency estimates incurred by the estimation procedure. We assess the accuracy of haplotype frequency estimation as a function of a number of factors, including sample size, number of loci studied, allele frequencies, and locus-specific allelic departures from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. We point out the relative impacts of sampling error and estimation error, calling attention to the pronounced accuracy of EM estimates once sampling error has been accounted for. We also suggest that many factors that may influence accuracy can be assessed empirically within a data set—a fact that can be used to create “diagnostics” that a user can turn to for assessing potential
Cardoso, Hugo F V
2007-10-02
Dental age assessments are widely used to estimate age of immature skeletal remains. Most methods have relied on fractional stages of tooth emergence and formation, particularly of the permanent dentition, for predicting the age of infants and very young children. In this study, the accuracy of regression equations of developing deciduous tooth length for age estimation (Liversidge et al.) is tested on a sample of 30 Portuguese subadult skeletons of known age at death. Overall the method shows high accuracy and the average difference between estimated and chronological age is between 0.20 and -0.14 years when using single teeth, and 0.06 years, when using all available teeth. However, there is a tendency for the deciduous molars to provide overestimates of chronological age. Results show that age estimates can be obtained within +/-0.10 years with a 95% confidence interval when several teeth are used. Overall between-tooth agreement in age estimates decreases with increasing age but there is less variability of estimates with more teeth contributing to overall mean age. One seemingly limitation of this method may be the fact that it was developed by combining the maxillary and mandibular teeth. The other is related to the accuracy with which radiographic tooth length can be used as a valid surrogate for actual tooth length. Nevertheless, the advantages of this metric method surpass the limitations of chronologies based on stages of dental development.
Assessing the Impact of Vertical Land Motion on Twentieth Century Global Mean Sea Level Estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamlington, B. D.; Thompson, P.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Ray, R. D.
2016-01-01
Near-global and continuous measurements from satellite altimetry have provided accurate estimates of global mean sea level in the past two decades. Extending these estimates further into the past is a challenge using the historical tide gauge records. Not only is sampling nonuniform in both space and time, but tide gauges are also affected by vertical land motion (VLM) that creates a relative sea level change not representative of ocean variability. To allow for comparisons to the satellite altimetry estimated global mean sea level (GMSL), typically the tide gauges are corrected using glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. This approach, however, does not correct other sources of VLM that remain in the tide gauge record. Here we compare Global Positioning System (GPS) VLM estimates at the tide gauge locations to VLM estimates from GIA models, and assess the influence of non-GIA-related VLM on GMSL estimates. We find that the tide gauges, on average, are experiencing positive VLM (i.e., uplift) after removing the known effect of GIA, resulting in an increase of 0.2460.08 mm yr21 in GMSL trend estimates from 1900 to present when using GPS-based corrections. While this result is likely dependent on the subset of tide gauges used and the actual corrections used, it does suggest that non-GIA VLM plays a significant role in twentieth century estimates of GMSL. Given the relatively short GPS records used to obtain these VLM estimates, we also estimate the uncertainty in the GMSL trend that results from limited knowledge of non-GIA-related VLM.
Assessing the impact of vertical land motion on twentieth century global mean sea level estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamlington, B. D.; Thompson, P.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Ray, R. D.
2016-07-01
Near-global and continuous measurements from satellite altimetry have provided accurate estimates of global mean sea level in the past two decades. Extending these estimates further into the past is a challenge using the historical tide gauge records. Not only is sampling nonuniform in both space and time, but tide gauges are also affected by vertical land motion (VLM) that creates a relative sea level change not representative of ocean variability. To allow for comparisons to the satellite altimetry estimated global mean sea level (GMSL), typically the tide gauges are corrected using glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. This approach, however, does not correct other sources of VLM that remain in the tide gauge record. Here we compare Global Positioning System (GPS) VLM estimates at the tide gauge locations to VLM estimates from GIA models, and assess the influence of non-GIA-related VLM on GMSL estimates. We find that the tide gauges, on average, are experiencing positive VLM (i.e., uplift) after removing the known effect of GIA, resulting in an increase of 0.24 ± 0.08 mm yr-1 in GMSL trend estimates from 1900 to present when using GPS-based corrections. While this result is likely dependent on the subset of tide gauges used and the actual corrections used, it does suggest that non-GIA VLM plays a significant role in twentieth century estimates of GMSL. Given the relatively short GPS records used to obtain these VLM estimates, we also estimate the uncertainty in the GMSL trend that results from limited knowledge of non-GIA-related VLM.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samejima, Fumiko
1994-01-01
Using the constant information model, constant amounts of test information, and a finite interval of ability, simulated data were produced for 8 ability levels and 20 numbers of test items. Analyses suggest that it is desirable to consider modifying test information functions when they measure accuracy in ability estimation. (SLD)
Behar, Vera; Adam, Dan; Lysyansky, Peter; Friedman, Zvi
2004-03-01
In cardiac elastography, the regional strain and strain rate imaging is based on displacement estimation of tissue sections within the heart muscle carried out with various block-matching techniques (cross-correlation, sum of absolute differences, sum of squared differences, etc.). The accuracy of these techniques depends on a combination of ultrasonic imaging parameters such as ultrasonic frequency of interrogation, signal-to-noise ratio, size of a kernel used in a block-matching algorithm, type of data and speckle decorrelation. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to enhance the accuracy of the displacement estimation via nonlinear filtering of B-mode images before block-matching operation. The combined effect of a filter algorithm and a kernel size on the accuracy of the displacement estimation is analyzed using a 36-frame sequence of grayscale B-mode images of a human heart acquired by an ultrasound system operating at 1.77 MHz. It is shown that the nonlinear filtering of images enables to obtain the desired accuracy (less than one pixel) of the displacement estimation with smaller kernels than without filtering. These results are obtained for two filters--an adaptive anisotropic diffusion filter and a nonlinear Gaussian filter chain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto
2014-11-01
Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Yonglan; Yang, Bangjie; Jiao, Xianfeng; Pei, Zhiyuan; Li, Xuan
2008-08-01
Remote Sensing technology has been used in agricultural statistics since early 1970s in developed countries and since late 1970s in China. It has greatly improved the efficiency with its accurate, timingly and credible information. But agricultural monitoring using remote sensing has not yet been assessed with credible data in China and its accuracy seems not consistent and reliable to many users. The paper reviews different methods and the corresponding assessments of agricultural monitoring using remote sensing in developed countries and China, then assesses the crop area estimating method using Landsat TM remotely sensed data as sampling area in Northeast China. The ground truth is ga-thered with global positioning system and 40 sampling areas are used to assess the classification accu-racy. The error matrix is constructed from which the accuracy is calculated. The producer accuracy, the user accuracy and total accuracy are 89.53%, 95.37% and 87.02% respectively and the correlation coefficient between the ground truth and classification results is 0.96. A new error index δ is introduced and the average δ of rice area estimation to the truth data is 0.084. δ measures how much the RS classification result is positive or negative apart from the truth data.
Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo
2014-01-01
Purpose Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories, and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and sub-millimeter accuracy. Method We examined the accuracy and precision of 2D and 3D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially-available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. Results Overall mean error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3 vs. 6 mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2D and 3D data. Conclusion Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve sub-millimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes. PMID:24686484
Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo
2014-04-01
PURPOSE Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and submillimeter accuracy. METHOD The authors examined the accuracy and precision of 2-D and 3-D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. RESULTS Overall root-mean-square error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3- vs. 6-mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2-D and 3-D data. CONCLUSION Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve submillimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes.
Event-Based 3D Motion Flow Estimation Using 4D Spatio Temporal Subspaces Properties.
Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Carneiro, João; Benosman, Ryad B
2016-01-01
State of the art scene flow estimation techniques are based on projections of the 3D motion on image using luminance-sampled at the frame rate of the cameras-as the principal source of information. We introduce in this paper a pure time based approach to estimate the flow from 3D point clouds primarily output by neuromorphic event-based stereo camera rigs, or by any existing 3D depth sensor even if it does not provide nor use luminance. This method formulates the scene flow problem by applying a local piecewise regularization of the scene flow. The formulation provides a unifying framework to estimate scene flow from synchronous and asynchronous 3D point clouds. It relies on the properties of 4D space time using a decomposition into its subspaces. This method naturally exploits the properties of the neuromorphic asynchronous event based vision sensors that allows continuous time 3D point clouds reconstruction. The approach can also handle the motion of deformable object. Experiments using different 3D sensors are presented.
Event-Based 3D Motion Flow Estimation Using 4D Spatio Temporal Subspaces Properties
Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Carneiro, João; Benosman, Ryad B.
2017-01-01
State of the art scene flow estimation techniques are based on projections of the 3D motion on image using luminance—sampled at the frame rate of the cameras—as the principal source of information. We introduce in this paper a pure time based approach to estimate the flow from 3D point clouds primarily output by neuromorphic event-based stereo camera rigs, or by any existing 3D depth sensor even if it does not provide nor use luminance. This method formulates the scene flow problem by applying a local piecewise regularization of the scene flow. The formulation provides a unifying framework to estimate scene flow from synchronous and asynchronous 3D point clouds. It relies on the properties of 4D space time using a decomposition into its subspaces. This method naturally exploits the properties of the neuromorphic asynchronous event based vision sensors that allows continuous time 3D point clouds reconstruction. The approach can also handle the motion of deformable object. Experiments using different 3D sensors are presented. PMID:28220057
Modeling Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Adaptive System for Practicing Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nižnan, Juraj
2015-01-01
Estimation is useful in situations where an exact answer is not as important as a quick answer that is good enough. A web-based adaptive system for practicing estimates is currently being developed. We propose a simple model for estimating student's latent skill of estimation. This model combines a continuous measure of correctness and response…
Motion estimation and imaging of complex scenes with synthetic aperture radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borcea, Liliana; Callaghan, Thomas; Papanicolaou, George
2013-05-01
We study synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and motion estimation of complex scenes consisting of stationary and moving targets. We use the classic SAR setup with a single antenna emitting signals and receiving the echoes from the scene. The known motion estimation methods for SAR work only in simple cases, with one or a few targets in the same motion. We propose to extend the applicability of these methods to complex scenes, by complementing them with a data pre-processing step intended to separate the echoes from the stationary targets and the moving ones. We present two approaches. The first is an iteration designed to subtract the echoes from the stationary targets one by one. This approach first estimates the location of each stationary target from a preliminary image, and then uses the location to define a filter that removes the corresponding target’s echo from the data. The second approach is based on the robust principal component analysis (PCA) method. The key observation is that with appropriate pre-processing and windowing, the discrete samples of the stationary target echoes form a low-rank matrix, whereas the samples of a few moving target echoes form a high-rank sparse matrix. The robust PCA method is designed to separate the low rank from the sparse part, and thus can be used for the SAR data separation. We present a brief analysis of the two methods and explain how they can be combined to improve the data separation for extended and complex imaging scenes. We also assess the performance of the methods with extensive numerical simulations.
Kalantari, F; Wang, J; Li, T; Jin, M
2015-06-15
Purpose: In conventional 4D-PET, images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues with these approaches are: 1) Reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of all projections statistics; and 2) Image registration between noisy images can Result in poor alignment. In this study we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) method for cone beam CT for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. Methods: Modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM- TV) is used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial. Motion model update is done to obtain an optimal set of DVFs between the pmc-PET and other phases by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET and measured projections of other phases. Using updated DVFs, OSEM- TV image reconstruction is repeated and new DVFs are estimated based on updated images. 4D XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution and a 10mm diameter tumor was used to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: Image quality of 4D-PET is greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections are used to reconstruct a 3D-PET, motion blurring artifacts are present, leading to a more than 5 times overestimation of the tumor size and 54% tumor to lung contrast ratio underestimation. This error reduced to 37% and 20% for post reconstruction registration methods and SMEIR respectively. Conclusion: SMEIR method can be used for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. The statistics is greatly improved since all projection data are combined together to update the image. The performance of the SMEIR algorithm for 4D-PET is sensitive to smoothness control parameters in the DVF estimation step.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel
2011-07-01
The H.264 video coding standard achieves high performance compression and image quality at the expense of increased encoding complexity. Consequently, several fast mode decision and motion estimation techniques have been developed to reduce the computational cost. These approaches successfully reduce the computational time by reducing the image quality and/or increasing the bitrate. In this paper we propose a novel fast mode decision and motion estimation technique. The algorithm utilizes preprocessing frequency domain motion estimation in order to accurately predict the best mode and the search range. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the motion estimation time by up to 97%, while maintaining similar rate distortion performance when compared to the Joint Model software.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu; Reed, Sean; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Cosgrove, Brian; Kitzmiller, David; Seo, Dong-Jun; Cifelli, Robert
2016-10-01
The multisensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (MQPEs) created by the US National Weather Service (NWS) are subject to a non-stationary bias. This paper quantifies the impacts of climatological adjustment of MQPEs alone, as well as the compound impacts of adjustment and model calibration, on the accuracy of simulated flood peak magnitude and that in detecting flood events. Our investigation is based on 19 watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region of US, which are grouped into small (<500 km2) and large (>500 km2) watersheds. NWS archival MQPEs over 1997-2013 for this region are adjusted to match concurrent gauge-based monthly precipitation accumulations. Then raw and adjusted MQPEs serve as inputs to the NWS distributed hydrologic model-threshold frequency framework (DHM-TF). Two experiments via DHM-TF are performed. The first one examines the impacts of adjustment alone through uncalibrated model simulations, whereas the second one focuses on the compound effects of adjustment and calibration on the detection of flood events. Uncalibrated model simulations show broad underestimation of flood peaks for small watersheds and overestimation those for large watersheds. Prior to calibration, adjustment alone tends to reduce the magnitude of simulated flood peaks for small and large basins alike, with 95% of all watersheds experienced decline over 2004-2013. A consequence is that a majority of small watersheds experience no improvement, or deterioration in bias (0% of basins experiencing improvement). By contrast, most (73%) of larger ones exhibit improved bias. Outcomes of the detection experiment show that the role of adjustment is not diminished by calibration for small watersheds, with only 25% of which exhibiting reduced bias after adjustment with calibrated parameters. Furthermore, it is shown that calibration is relatively effective in reducing false alarms (e.g., false alarm rate is down from 0.28 to 0.19 after calibration for small watersheds with calibrated
High-resolution estimates of Southwest Indian Ridge plate motions, 20 Ma to present
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMets, C.; Merkouriev, S.; Sauter, D.
2015-12-01
We present the first estimates of Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) plate motions at high temporal resolution during the Quaternary and Neogene based on nearly 5000 crossings of 21 magnetic reversals out to C6no (19.72 Ma) and the digitized traces of 17 fracture zones and transform faults. Our reconstructions of this slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge reveal several unexpected results with notable implications for regional and global plate reconstructions since 20 Ma. Extrapolations of seafloor opening distances to zero-age seafloor based on reconstructions of reversals C1n (0.78 Ma) through C3n.4 (5.2 Ma) reveal evidence for surprisingly large outward displacement of 5 ± 1 km west of 32°E, where motion between the Nubia and Antarctic plates occurs, but 2 ± 1 km east of 32°E, more typical of most mid-ocean ridges. Newly estimated SWIR seafloor spreading rates are up to 15 per cent slower everywhere along the ridge than previous estimates. Reconstructions of the numerous observations for times back to 11 Ma confirm the existence of the hypothesized Lwandle plate at high confidence level and indicate that the Lwandle plate's western and eastern boundaries respectively intersect the ridge near the Andrew Bain transform fault complex at 32°E and between ˜45°E and 52°E, in accord with previous results. The Nubia-Antarctic, Lwandle-Antarctic and Somalia-Antarctic rotation sequences that best fit many magnetic reversal, fracture zone and transform fault crossings define previously unknown changes in the Neogene motions of all three plate pairs, consisting of ˜20 per cent slowdowns in their spreading rates at 7.2^{+0.9 }_{ -1.4} Ma if we enforce a simultaneous change in motion everywhere along the SWIR and gradual 3°-7° anticlockwise rotations of the relative slip directions. We apply trans-dimensional Bayesian analysis to our noisy, best-fitting rotation sequences in order to estimate less-noisy rotation sequences suitable for use in future global plate reconstructions
Gyroscope-reduced inertial navigation system for flight vehicle motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xin; Xiao, Lu
2017-01-01
In this paper, a novel configuration of strategically distributed accelerometer sensors with the aid of one gyro to infer a flight vehicle's angular motion is presented. The MEMS accelerometer and gyro sensors are integrated to form a gyroscope-reduced inertial measurement unit (GR-IMU). The motivation for gyro aided accelerometers array is to have direct measurements of angular rates, which is an improvement to the traditional gyroscope-free inertial system that employs only direct measurements of specific force. Some technical issues regarding error calibration in accelerometers and gyro in GR-IMU are put forward. The GR-IMU based inertial navigation system can be used to find a complete attitude solution for flight vehicle motion estimation. Results of numerical simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed configuration. The gyroscope-reduced inertial navigation system based on distributed accelerometer sensors can be developed into a cost effective solution for a fast reaction, MEMS based motion capture system. Future work will include the aid from external navigation references (e.g. GPS) to improve long time mission performance.
Time-to-Collision estimation from motion based on primate visual processing.
Galbraith, John M; Kenyon, Garrett T; Ziolkowski, Richard W
2005-08-01
A population coded algorithm, built on established models of motion processing in the primate visual system, computes the time-to-collision of a mobile robot to real-world environmental objects from video imagery. A set of four transformations starts with motion energy, a spatiotemporal frequency based computation of motion features. The following processing stages extract image velocity features similar to, but distinct from, optic flow; "translation" features, which account for velocity errors including those resulting from the aperture problem; and finally, estimate the time-to-collision. Biologically motivated population coding distinguishes this approach from previous methods based on optic flow. A comparison of the population coded approach with the popular optic flow algorithm of Lucas and Kanade against three types of approaching objects shows that the proposed method produces more robust time-to-collision information from a real world input stimulus in the presence of the aperture problem and other noise sources. The improved performance comes with increased computational cost, which would ideally be mitigated by special purpose hardware architectures.
A MAP approach for joint motion estimation, segmentation, and super resolution.
Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Huang, Bo; Li, Pingxiang
2007-02-01
Super resolution image reconstruction allows the recovery of a high-resolution (HR) image from several low-resolution images that are noisy, blurred, and down sampled. In this paper, we present a joint formulation for a complex super-resolution problem in which the scenes contain multiple independently moving objects. This formulation is built upon the maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, which judiciously combines motion estimation, segmentation, and super resolution together. A cyclic coordinate descent optimization procedure is used to solve the MAP formulation, in which the motion fields, segmentation fields, and HR images are found in an alternate manner given the two others, respectively. Specifically, the gradient-based methods are employed to solve the HR image and motion fields, and an iterated conditional mode optimization method to obtain the segmentation fields. The proposed algorithm has been tested using a synthetic image sequence, the "Mobile and Calendar" sequence, and the original "Motorcycle and Car" sequence. The experiment results and error analyses verify the efficacy of this algorithm.
Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Minetti, Alberto E.
2017-01-01
The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body. In these experiments a single subject walked, ran, (uni- and bi-laterally) skipped, and race-walked at a wide range of speeds on a treadmill with force sensors underneath. In all conditions a simultaneous motion capture (8 cameras, 36 markers) took place. 3D BCoM trajectories computed according to five marker set models of ID have been compared to the one obtained by FD on the same (about 2,700) strides. Such a comparison aims to check the validity of the investigated models to capture the “true” dynamics of gaits in terms of distance between paths, mechanical external work and energy recovery. Results allow to conclude that: (1) among gaits, race walking is the most critical in being described by ID, (2) among the investigated segmental models, those capturing the motion of four limbs and trunk more closely reproduce the subtle temporal and spatial changes of BCoM trajectory within the strides of most gaits, (3) FD-ID discrepancy in external work is speed dependent within a gait in the most unsuccessful models, and (4) the internal work is not affected by the difference in BCoM estimates. PMID:28337148
Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Minetti, Alberto E
2017-01-01
The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body. In these experiments a single subject walked, ran, (uni- and bi-laterally) skipped, and race-walked at a wide range of speeds on a treadmill with force sensors underneath. In all conditions a simultaneous motion capture (8 cameras, 36 markers) took place. 3D BCoM trajectories computed according to five marker set models of ID have been compared to the one obtained by FD on the same (about 2,700) strides. Such a comparison aims to check the validity of the investigated models to capture the "true" dynamics of gaits in terms of distance between paths, mechanical external work and energy recovery. Results allow to conclude that: (1) among gaits, race walking is the most critical in being described by ID, (2) among the investigated segmental models, those capturing the motion of four limbs and trunk more closely reproduce the subtle temporal and spatial changes of BCoM trajectory within the strides of most gaits, (3) FD-ID discrepancy in external work is speed dependent within a gait in the most unsuccessful models, and (4) the internal work is not affected by the difference in BCoM estimates.
Multi-Hazard Analysis for the Estimation of Ground Motion Induced by Landslides and Tectonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, Rubén; Koudogbo, Fifame; Ardizzone, Francesca; Mondini, Alessandro; Bignami, Christian
2016-04-01
Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors allow obtaining all-day all-weather terrain complex reflectivity images which can be processed by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) for the monitoring of displacement episodes with extremely high accuracy. In the work presented, different PSI strategies to measure ground surface displacements for multi-scale multi-hazard mapping are proposed in the context of landslides and tectonic applications. This work is developed in the framework of ESA General Studies Programme (GSP). The present project, called Multi Scale and Multi Hazard Mapping Space based Solutions (MEMpHIS), investigates new Earth Observation (EO) methods and new Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions to improve the understanding and management of disasters, with special focus on Disaster Risk Reduction rather than Rapid Mapping. In this paper, the results of the investigation on the key processing steps for measuring large-scale ground surface displacements (like the ones originated by plate tectonics or active faults) as well as local displacements at high resolution (like the ones related with active slopes) will be presented. The core of the proposed approaches is based on the Stable Point Network (SPN) algorithm, which is the advanced PSI processing chain developed by ALTAMIRA INFORMATION. Regarding tectonic applications, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. In this context, a low-resolution approach based in the integration of differential phase increments of velocity and topographic error (obtained through the fitting of a linear model adjustment function to data) will be evaluated. Data from the default mode of Sentinel-1, the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode, will be considered for this application. Regarding landslides
Geometric estimation of intestinal contraction for motion tracking of video capsule endoscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mi, Liang; Bao, Guanqun; Pahlavan, Kaveh
2014-03-01
Wireless video capsule endoscope (VCE) provides a noninvasive method to examine the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially small intestine, where other endoscopic instruments can barely reach. VCE is able to continuously provide clear pictures in short fixed intervals, and as such researchers have attempted to use image processing methods to track the video capsule in order to locate the abnormalities inside the GI tract. To correctly estimate the speed of the motion of the endoscope capsule, the radius of the intestinal track must be known a priori. Physiological factors such as intestinal contraction, however, dynamically change the radius of the small intestine, which could bring large errors in speed estimation. In this paper, we are aiming to estimate the radius of the contracted intestinal track. First a geometric model is presented for estimating the radius of small intestine based on the black hole on endoscopic images. To validate our proposed model, a 3-dimentional virtual testbed that emulates the intestinal contraction is then introduced in details. After measuring the size of the black holes on the test images, we used our model to esimate the radius of the contracted intestinal track. Comparision between analytical results and the emulation model parameters has verified that our proposed method could preciously estimate the radius of the contracted small intestine based on endoscopic images.
A MAP estimator based on geometric Brownian motion for sample distances of laser triangulation data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, Markus; Otesteanu, Marius
2016-11-01
The proposed algorithm is designed to enhance the line-detection stability in laser-stripe sensors. Despite their many features and capabilities, these sensors become unstable when measuring in dark or strongly-reflective environments. Ambiguous points within a camera image can appear on dark surfaces and be confused with noise when the laser-reflection intensity approaches noise level. Similar problems arise when strong reflections within the sensor image have intensities comparable to that of the laser. In these circumstances, it is difficult to determine the most probable point for the laser line. Hence, the proposed algorithm introduces a maximum a posteriori estimator, based on geometric Brownian motion, to provide a range estimate for the expected location of the reflected laser line.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Assessment of disease is fundamental to the discipline of plant pathology, and estimates of severity are often made visually. However, it is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable. In this study estimates of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat from non-treated ...
Scaling Up the Accuracy of Bayesian Network Classifiers by M-Estimate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Liangxiao; Wang, Dianhong; Cai, Zhihua
In learning Bayesian network classifiers, estimating probabilities from a given set of training examples is crucial. In many cases, we can estimate probabilities by the fraction of times the events is observed to occur over the total number of opportunities. However, when the training examples are not enough, this probability estimation method inevitably suffers from the zero-frequency problem. To avoid this practical problem, Laplace estimate is usually used to estimate probabilities. Just as we all know, m-estimate is another probability estimation method. Thus, a natural question is whether a Bayesian network classifier with m-estimate can perform even better. Responding to this question, we single out a special m-estimate method and empirically investigate its effect on various Bayesian network classifiers, such as Naive Bayes (NB), Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), Averaged One-Dependence Estimators (AODE), and Hidden Naive Bayes (HNB). Our experiments show that the classifiers with our m-estimate perform better than the ones with Laplace estimate.
Xiang, H; Hirsch, A; Willins, J; Kachnic, J; Qureshi, M; Katz, M; Nicholas, B; Keohan, S; De Armas, R; Lu, H; Efstathiou, J; Zietman, A
2014-06-01
Purpose: To measure intrafractional prostate motion by time-based stereotactic x-ray imaging and investigate the impact on the accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery. Methods: Prostate tracking log files with 1,892 x-ray image registrations from 18 SBRT fractions for 6 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Patient setup and beam delivery sessions were reviewed to identify extended periods of large prostate motion that caused delays in setup or interruptions in beam delivery. The 6D prostate motions were compared to the clinically used PTV margin of 3–5 mm (3 mm posterior, 5 mm all other directions), a hypothetical PTV margin of 2–3 mm (2 mm posterior, 3 mm all other directions), and the rotation correction limits (roll ±2°, pitch ±5° and yaw ±3°) of CyberKnife to quantify beam delivery accuracy. Results: Significant incidents of treatment start delay and beam delivery interruption were observed, mostly related to large pitch rotations of ≥±5°. Optimal setup time of 5–15 minutes was recorded in 61% of the fractions, and optimal beam delivery time of 30–40 minutes in 67% of the fractions. At a default imaging interval of 15 seconds, the percentage of prostate motion beyond PTV margin of 3–5 mm varied among patients, with a mean at 12.8% (range 0.0%–31.1%); and the percentage beyond PTV margin of 2–3 mm was at a mean of 36.0% (range 3.3%–83.1%). These timely detected offsets were all corrected real-time by the robotic manipulator or by operator intervention at the time of treatment interruptions. Conclusion: The durations of patient setup and beam delivery were directly affected by the occurrence of large prostate motion. Frequent imaging of down to 15 second interval is necessary for certain patients. Techniques for reducing prostate motion, such as using endorectal balloon, can be considered to assure consistently higher accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sibois, Aurore E.; Desai, Shailen D.; Bertiger, Willy; Haines, Bruce J.
2017-02-01
We present results from the generation of 10-year-long continuous time series of the Earth's polar motion at 15-min temporal resolution using Global Positioning System ground data. From our results, we infer an overall noise level in our high-rate polar motion time series of 60 μas (RMS). However, a spectral decomposition of our estimates indicates a noise floor of 4 μas at periods shorter than 2 days, which enables recovery of diurnal and semidiurnal tidally induced polar motion. We deliberately place no constraints on retrograde diurnal polar motion despite its inherent ambiguity with long-period nutation. With this approach, we are able to resolve damped manifestations of the effects of the diurnal ocean tides on retrograde polar motion. As such, our approach is at least capable of discriminating between a historical background nutation model that excludes the effects of the diurnal ocean tides and modern models that include those effects. To assess the quality of our polar motion solution outside of the retrograde diurnal frequency band, we focus on its capability to recover tidally driven and non-tidal variations manifesting at the ultra-rapid (intra-daily) and rapid (characterized by periods ranging from 2 to 20 days) periods. We find that our best estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal tidally induced polar motion result from an approach that adopts, at the observation level, a reasonable background model of these effects. We also demonstrate that our high-rate polar motion estimates yield similar results to daily-resolved polar motion estimates, and therefore do not compromise the ability to resolve polar motion at periods of 2-20 days.
Innovative fast technique for overlay accuracy estimation using archer self calibration (ASC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Pai, Yuan Chi; Amit, Eran; Yap, Lipkong; Itzkovich, Tal; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel
2014-04-01
As overlay margins shrink for advanced process nodes, a key overlay metrology challenge is finding the measurement conditions which optimize the yield for every device and layer. Ideally, this setup should be found in-line during the lithography measurements step. Moreover, the overlay measurement must have excellent correlation to the device electrical behavior. This requirement makes the measurement conditions selection even more challenging since it requires information about the response of both the metrology target and device to different process variations. In this work a comprehensive solution for overlay metrology accuracy, used by UMC, is described. This solution ranks the different measurement setups by their accuracy, using Qmerit, as reported by the Archer 500. This ranking was verified to match device overlay using electrical tests. Moreover, the use of Archer Self Calibration (ASC) allows further improvement of overlay measurement accuracy.
Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Belliveau, John W; Hämäläinen, Matti S
2006-05-15
Cerebral currents responsible for the extra-cranially recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) data can be estimated by applying a suitable source model. A popular choice is the distributed minimum-norm estimate (MNE) which minimizes the l2-norm of the estimated current. Under the l2-norm constraint, the current estimate is related to the measurements by a linear inverse operator. However, the MNE has a bias towards superficial sources, which can be reduced by applying depth weighting. We studied the effect of depth weighting in MNE using a shift metric. We assessed the localization performance of the depth-weighted MNE as well as depth-weighted noise-normalized MNE solutions under different cortical orientation constraints, source space densities, and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in multiple subjects. We found that MNE with depth weighting parameter between 0.6 and 0.8 showed improved localization accuracy, reducing the mean displacement error from 12 mm to 7 mm. The noise-normalized MNE was insensitive to depth weighting. A similar investigation of EEG data indicated that depth weighting parameter between 2.0 and 5.0 resulted in an improved localization accuracy. The application of depth weighting to auditory and somatosensory experimental data illustrated the beneficial effect of depth weighting on the accuracy of spatiotemporal mapping of neuronal sources.
Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Rhee, DongJoo; Cai, Jing
2016-01-01
Purpose: The authors have recently developed a cine-mode T2*/T1-weighted 4D-MRI technique and a sequential-mode T2-weighted 4D-MRI technique for imaging respiratory motion. This study aims at investigating which 4D-MRI image acquisition mode, cine or sequential, provides more accurate measurement of organ motion during respiration. Methods: A 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom with a hypothesized tumor was used to simulate the image acquisition and the 4D-MRI reconstruction. The respiratory motion was controlled by the given breathing signal profiles. The tumor was manipulated to move continuously with the surrounding tissue. The motion trajectories were measured from both sequential- and cine-mode 4D-MRI images. The measured trajectories were compared with the average trajectory calculated from the input profiles, which was used as references. The error in 4D-MRI tumor motion trajectory (E) was determined. In addition, the corresponding respiratory motion amplitudes of all the selected 2D images for 4D reconstruction were recorded. Each of the amplitude was compared with the amplitude of its associated bin on the average breathing curve. The mean differences from the average breathing curve across all slice positions (D) were calculated. A total of 500 simulated respiratory profiles with a wide range of irregularity (Ir) were used to investigate the relationship between D and Ir. Furthermore, statistical analysis of E and D using XCAT controlled by 20 cancer patients’ breathing profiles was conducted. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was conducted to compare two modes. Results: D increased faster for cine-mode (D = 1.17 × Ir + 0.23) than sequential-mode (D = 0.47 × Ir + 0.23) as irregularity increased. For the XCAT study using 20 cancer patients’ breathing profiles, the median E values were significantly different: 0.12 and 0.10 cm for cine- and sequential-modes, respectively, with a p-value of 0.02. The median D values were significantly
Barwick, S A; Tier, B; Swan, A A; Henzell, A L
2013-10-01
Procedures are described for estimating selection index accuracies for individual animals and expected genetic change from selection for the general case where indexes of EBVs predict an aggregate breeding objective of traits that may or may not have been measured. Index accuracies for the breeding objective are shown to take an important general form, being able to be expressed as the product of the accuracy of the index function of true breeding values and the accuracy with which that function predicts the breeding objective. When the accuracies of the individual EBVs of the index are known, prediction error variances (PEVs) and covariances (PECs) for the EBVs within animal are able to be well approximated, and index accuracies and expected genetic change from selection estimated with high accuracy. The procedures are suited to routine use in estimating index accuracies in genetic evaluation, and for providing important information, without additional modelling, on the directions in which a population will move under selection.
Estimating the Accuracy of Neurocognitive Effort Measures in the Absence of a "Gold Standard"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mossman, Douglas; Wygant, Dustin B.; Gervais, Roger O.
2012-01-01
Psychologists frequently use symptom validity tests (SVTs) to help determine whether evaluees' test performance or reported symptoms accurately represent their true functioning and capability. Most studies evaluating the accuracy of SVTs have used either known-group comparisons or simulation designs, but these approaches have well-known…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Shiyan
In this thesis, we develop an efficient collapse prediction model, the PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) model, for buildings subjected to different types of ground motions. For the structural system, the PFA model covers modern steel and reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame buildings (potentially reinforced concrete shear wall buildings). For ground motions, the PFA model covers ramp-pulse-like ground motions, long-period ground motions, and short-period ground motions. To predict whether a building will collapse in response to a given ground motion, we first extract long-period components from the ground motion using a Butterworth low-pass filter with suggested order and cutoff frequency. The order depends on the type of ground motion, and the cutoff frequency depends on the building's natural frequency and ductility. We then compare the filtered acceleration time history with the capacity of the building. The capacity of the building is a constant for 2-dimentional buildings and a limit domain for 3-dimentional buildings. If the filtered acceleration exceeds the building's capacity, the building is predicted to collapse. Otherwise, it is expected to survive the ground motion. The parameters used in PFA model, which include fundamental period, global ductility and lateral capacity, can be obtained either from numerical analysis or interpolation based on the reference building system proposed in this thesis. The PFA collapse prediction model greatly reduces computational complexity while archiving good accuracy. It is verified by FEM simulations of 13 frame building models and 150 ground motion records. Based on the developed collapse prediction model, we propose to use PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) as a new ground motion intensity measure for collapse prediction. We compare PFA with traditional intensity measures PGA, PGV, PGD, and Sa in collapse prediction and find that PFA has the best performance among all the intensity measures. We also provide a
Fukuda, Ikuo; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Nakamura, Haruki
2014-05-21
In the preceding paper [I. Fukuda, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174107 (2013)], the zero-multipole (ZM) summation method was proposed for efficiently evaluating the electrostatic Coulombic interactions of a classical point charge system. The summation takes a simple pairwise form, but prevents the electrically non-neutral multipole states that may artificially be generated by a simple cutoff truncation, which often causes large energetic noises and significant artifacts. The purpose of this paper is to judge the ability of the ZM method by investigating the accuracy, parameter dependencies, and stability in applications to liquid systems. To conduct this, first, the energy-functional error was divided into three terms and each term was analyzed by a theoretical error-bound estimation. This estimation gave us a clear basis of the discussions on the numerical investigations. It also gave a new viewpoint between the excess energy error and the damping effect by the damping parameter. Second, with the aid of these analyses, the ZM method was evaluated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two fundamental liquid systems, a molten sodium-chlorine ion system and a pure water molecule system. In the ion system, the energy accuracy, compared with the Ewald summation, was better for a larger value of multipole moment l currently induced until l ≲ 3 on average. This accuracy improvement with increasing l is due to the enhancement of the excess-energy accuracy. However, this improvement is wholly effective in the total accuracy if the theoretical moment l is smaller than or equal to a system intrinsic moment L. The simulation results thus indicate L ∼ 3 in this system, and we observed less accuracy in l = 4. We demonstrated the origins of parameter dependencies appearing in the crossing behavior and the oscillations of the energy error curves. With raising the moment l we observed, smaller values of the damping parameter provided more accurate results and smoother
Cool, Simon; Pieters, Jan G.; Mertens, Koen C.; Mora, Sergio; Cointault, Frédéric; Dubois, Julien; van de Gucht, Tim; Vangeyte, Jürgen
2015-01-01
Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m2 with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications. PMID:26569261
Cool, Simon; Pieters, Jan G; Mertens, Koen C; Mora, Sergio; Cointault, Frédéric; Dubois, Julien; van de Gucht, Tim; Vangeyte, Jürgen
2015-11-12
Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m² with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications.
Estimating periodic organ motions based on inverse kinematics using tetrahedron mesh registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Nahyup; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.
2013-03-01
Minimally/Non-invasive surgery has become increasingly widespread because of its therapeutic benefits such as less pain, less scarring, and shorter hospital stay. However, it is very difficult to eliminate the target cancer cells selectively without damaging nearby normal tissues and vessels since the tumors inside organs cannot be visually tracked in realtime with the existing imaging devices while organs are deformed by respiration and surgical instruments. Note that realtime 2D US imaging is widely used for monitoring the minimally invasive surgery such as Radiofrequency ablation; however, it is difficult to detect target tumors except high-echogenic regions because of its noisy and limited field of view. To handle these difficulties, we present a novel framework for estimating organ motion and deformed shape during respiration from the available features of 2D US images, by means of inverse kinematics utilizing 3D CT volumes at the inhale and exhale phases. First, we generate surface meshes of the target organ and tumor as well as centerlines of vessels at the two extreme phases considering surface correspondence. Then, the corresponding tetrahedron meshes are generated by coupling the internal components for volumetric modeling. Finally, a deformed organ mesh at an arbitrary phase is generated from the 2D US feature points for estimating the organ deformation and tumor position. To show effectiveness of the proposed method, the CT scans from real patient has been tested for estimating the motion and deformation of the liver. The experimental result shows that the average errors are less than 3mm in terms of tumor position as well as the whole surface shape.
Park, Wooram; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Yu; Moses, Matthew; Chirikjian, Gregory S
2008-04-11
A nonholonomic system subjected to external noise from the environment, or internal noise in its own actuators, will evolve in a stochastic manner described by an ensemble of trajectories. This ensemble of trajectories is equivalent to the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation that typically evolves on a Lie group. If the most likely state of such a system is to be estimated, and plans for subsequent motions from the current state are to be made so as to move the system to a desired state with high probability, then modeling how the probability density of the system evolves is critical. Methods for solving Fokker-Planck equations that evolve on Lie groups then become important. Such equations can be solved using the operational properties of group Fourier transforms in which irreducible unitary representation (IUR) matrices play a critical role. Therefore, we develop a simple approach for the numerical approximation of all the IUR matrices for two of the groups of most interest in robotics: the rotation group in three-dimensional space, SO(3), and the Euclidean motion group of the plane, SE(2). This approach uses the exponential mapping from the Lie algebras of these groups, and takes advantage of the sparse nature of the Lie algebra representation matrices. Other techniques for density estimation on groups are also explored. The computed densities are applied in the context of probabilistic path planning for kinematic cart in the plane and flexible needle steering in three-dimensional space. In these examples the injection of artificial noise into the computational models (rather than noise in the actual physical systems) serves as a tool to search the configuration spaces and plan paths. Finally, we illustrate how density estimation problems arise in the characterization of physical noise in orientational sensors such as gyroscopes.
Park, Wooram; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Yu; Moses, Matthew; Chirikjian, Gregory S.
2010-01-01
SUMMARY A nonholonomic system subjected to external noise from the environment, or internal noise in its own actuators, will evolve in a stochastic manner described by an ensemble of trajectories. This ensemble of trajectories is equivalent to the solution of a Fokker–Planck equation that typically evolves on a Lie group. If the most likely state of such a system is to be estimated, and plans for subsequent motions from the current state are to be made so as to move the system to a desired state with high probability, then modeling how the probability density of the system evolves is critical. Methods for solving Fokker-Planck equations that evolve on Lie groups then become important. Such equations can be solved using the operational properties of group Fourier transforms in which irreducible unitary representation (IUR) matrices play a critical role. Therefore, we develop a simple approach for the numerical approximation of all the IUR matrices for two of the groups of most interest in robotics: the rotation group in three-dimensional space, SO(3), and the Euclidean motion group of the plane, SE(2). This approach uses the exponential mapping from the Lie algebras of these groups, and takes advantage of the sparse nature of the Lie algebra representation matrices. Other techniques for density estimation on groups are also explored. The computed densities are applied in the context of probabilistic path planning for kinematic cart in the plane and flexible needle steering in three-dimensional space. In these examples the injection of artificial noise into the computational models (rather than noise in the actual physical systems) serves as a tool to search the configuration spaces and plan paths. Finally, we illustrate how density estimation problems arise in the characterization of physical noise in orientational sensors such as gyroscopes. PMID:20454468
Vázquez, Carlos; Mitiche, Amar; Laganière, Robert
2006-05-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate a variational method for joint segmentation and parametric estimation of image motion by basis function representation of motion and level set evolution. The functional contains three terms. One term is of classic regularization to bias the solution toward a segmentation with smooth boundaries. A second term biases the solution toward a segmentation with boundaries which coincide with motion discontinuities, following a description of motion discontinuities by a function of the image spatio-temporal variations. The third term refers to region information and measures conformity of the parametric representation of the motion of each region of segmentation to the image spatio-temporal variations. The components of motion in each region of segmentation are represented as functions in a space generated by a set of basis functions. The coefficients of the motion components considered combinations of the basis functions are the parameters of representation. The necessary conditions for a minimum of the functional, which are derived taking into consideration the dependence of the motion parameters on segmentation, lead to an algorithm which condenses to concurrent curve evolution, implemented via level sets, and estimation of the parameters by least squares within each region of segmentation. The algorithm and its implementation are verified on synthetic and real images using a basis of cosine transforms.
Estimated accuracy of ground-based liquid water measurements during FIRE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snider, Jack B.
1990-01-01
Since on goal of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) project is to improve our understanding of the relationships between cloud microphysics and cloud reflectivity, it is important that the accuracy of remote liquid measurements by microwave radiometry be thoroughly understood. The question is particularly relevant since the uncertainty in the absolute value of the radiometric liquid measurement is greatest at low liquid water contents (less than 0.1 mm). However it should be stressed that although uncertainty exists in the absolute value of liquid, it is well known that the observed radiometric signal is proportional to the amount of liquid in the antenna beam. As a result, changes in amounts of liquid are known to greater accuracy than the absolute value, which may contain a bias. Here, an assessment of the liquid measurement accuracy attained at San Nicolas Island (SNI) is presented. The vapor and liquid water data shown were computed from the radiometric brightness temperatures using statistical retrieval algorithms. The retrieval coefficients were derived from the 69 soundings made by Colorado State University during the SNI observations. Sources of error in the vapor and liquid measurements include cross-talk in the retrieval algorithms (not a factor at low liquid contents), uncertainties in the brightness temperature measurement, and uncertainties in the vapor and liquid attenuation coefficients. The relative importance of these errors is discussed. For the retrieval of path-integrated liquid water, the greatest uncertainty is caused by the temperature dependence of the absorption at microwave frequencies. As a result, the accuracy of statistical retrieval of liquid depends to large measure upon how representative the a priori radiosonde data are of the conditions prevailing during the measurements. The microwave radiometer measurements at SNI were supplemented by an infrared (IR) radiometer modified for measurement of cloud-base temperature. Thus
Lee, Soyoung; Yan, Guanghua; Lu, Bo; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan G; Sanjiv, Samat S
2015-11-08
Four-dimensional, cone-beam CT (4D CBCT) substantially reduces respiration-induced motion blurring artifacts in three-dimension (3D) CBCT. However, the image quality of 4D CBCT is significantly degraded which may affect its accuracy in localizing a mobile tumor for high-precision, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of scanning parameters hereinafter collectively referred to as scanning sequence) and breathing patterns on the image quality and the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for a commercial 4D CBCT system, in preparation for its clinical implementation. We simulated a series of periodic and aperiodic sinusoidal breathing patterns with a respiratory motion phantom. The aperiodic pattern was created by varying the period or amplitude of individual sinusoidal breathing cycles. 4D CBCT scans of the phantom were acquired with a manufacturer-supplied scanning sequence (4D-S-slow) and two in-house modified scanning sequences (4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast). While 4D-S-slow used small field of view (FOV), partial rotation (200°), and no imaging filter, 4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast used medium FOV, full rotation, and the F1 filter. The scanning speed was doubled in 4D-M-fast (100°/min gantry rotation). The image quality of the 4D CBCT scans was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and motion blurring ratio (MBR). The trajectory of the moving target was reconstructed by registering each phase of the 4D CBCT with a reference CT. The root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) analysis was used to quantify its accuracy. Significant decrease in CNR and SNR from 3D CBCT to 4D CBCT was observed. The 4D-S-slow and 4D-M-fast scans had comparable image quality, while the 4D-M-slow scans had better performance due to doubled projections. Both CNR and SNR decreased slightly as the breathing period increased, while no dependence on the amplitude was observed. The difference of both CNR and SNR
A low-power VLSI implementation for fast full-search variable block size motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Peng; Tang, Hua
2013-09-01
Variable block size motion estimation (VBSME) is becoming the new coding technique in H.264/AVC. This article presents a low-power VLSI implementation for VBSME, which employs a fast full-search block-matching algorithm to reduce power consumption, while preserving the optimal motion vectors (MVs). The fast full-search algorithm is based on the comparison of the current minimum sum of absolute difference (SAD) to a conservative lower bound so that unnecessary SAD calculations can be eliminated. We first experimentally determine the specific conservative lower bound of SAD and then implement the fast full-search algorithm in FPGA and 0.18 µm CMOS technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a fast full-search block-matching algorithm is explored to reduce power consumption in the context of VBSME and implemented in hardware. Experiment results show that the proposed design can save power consumption by 45% compared to conventional VBSME designs that give optimal MV based on the full-search algorithms.
Spatiotemporal non-rigid image registration for 3D ultrasound cardiac motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeckx, D.; Ector, J.; Maes, F.; D'hooge, J.; Vandermeulen, D.; Voigt, J.-U.; Heidbüchel, H.; Suetens, P.
2007-03-01
We present a new method to evaluate 4D (3D + time) cardiac ultrasound data sets by nonrigid spatio-temporal image registration. First, a frame-to-frame registration is performed that yields a dense deformation field. The deformation field is used to calculate local spatiotemporal properties of the myocardium, such as the velocity, strain and strain rate. The field is also used to propagate particular points and surfaces, representing e.g. the endo-cardial surface over the different frames. As such, the 4D path of these point is obtained, which can be used to calculate the velocity by which the wall moves and the evolution of the local surface area over time. The wall velocity is not angle-dependent as in classical Doppler imaging, since the 4D data allows calculating the true 3D motion. Similarly, all 3D myocardium strain components can be estimated. Combined they result in local surface area or volume changes which van be color-coded as a measure of local contractability. A diagnostic method that strongly benefits from this technique is cardiac motion and deformation analysis, which is an important aid to quantify the mechanical properties of the myocardium.
Adaptive search range adjustment scheme for fast motion estimation in AVC/H.264
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sunyoung; Choi, Kiho; Jang, Euee S.
2011-06-01
AVC/H.264 supports the use of multiple reference frames (e.g., 5 frames in AVC/H.264) for motion estimation (ME), which demands a huge computational complexity in ME. We propose an adaptive search range adjustment scheme to reduce the computational complexity of ME by reducing the search range of each reference frame--from the (t-1)'th frame to the (t-5)'th frame--for each macroblock. Based on the statistical analysis that the 16×16 mode type is dominantly selected rather than the other block partition mode types, the proposed method reduces the search range of the remaining ME process in the given reference frame according to the motion vector (MV) position of the 16×16 block ME. In the case of the (t-1)'th frame, the MV position of the 8×8 block ME--in addition to that of 16×16 block ME--is also used for the search range reduction to sub-block partition mode types of the 8×8 block. The experimental results show that the proposed method reduces about 50% and 65% of the total encoding time over CIF/SIF and full HD test sequences, respectively, without any noticeable visual degradation, compared to the full search method of the AVC/H.264 encoder.
Insect-Inspired Self-Motion Estimation with Dense Flow Fields--An Adaptive Matched Filter Approach.
Strübbe, Simon; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Egelhaaf, Martin
2015-01-01
The control of self-motion is a basic, but complex task for both technical and biological systems. Various algorithms have been proposed that allow the estimation of self-motion from the optic flow on the eyes. We show that two apparently very different approaches to solve this task, one technically and one biologically inspired, can be transformed into each other under certain conditions. One estimator of self-motion is based on a matched filter approach; it has been developed to describe the function of motion sensitive cells in the fly brain. The other estimator, the Koenderink and van Doorn (KvD) algorithm, was derived analytically with a technical background. If the distances to the objects in the environment can be assumed to be known, the two estimators are linear and equivalent, but are expressed in different mathematical forms. However, for most situations it is unrealistic to assume that the distances are known. Therefore, the depth structure of the environment needs to be determined in parallel to the self-motion parameters and leads to a non-linear problem. It is shown that the standard least mean square approach that is used by the KvD algorithm leads to a biased estimator. We derive a modification of this algorithm in order to remove the bias and demonstrate its improved performance by means of numerical simulations. For self-motion estimation it is beneficial to have a spherical visual field, similar to many flying insects. We show that in this case the representation of the depth structure of the environment derived from the optic flow can be simplified. Based on this result, we develop an adaptive matched filter approach for systems with a nearly spherical visual field. Then only eight parameters about the environment have to be memorized and updated during self-motion.
Insect-Inspired Self-Motion Estimation with Dense Flow Fields—An Adaptive Matched Filter Approach
Strübbe, Simon; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Egelhaaf, Martin
2015-01-01
The control of self-motion is a basic, but complex task for both technical and biological systems. Various algorithms have been proposed that allow the estimation of self-motion from the optic flow on the eyes. We show that two apparently very different approaches to solve this task, one technically and one biologically inspired, can be transformed into each other under certain conditions. One estimator of self-motion is based on a matched filter approach; it has been developed to describe the function of motion sensitive cells in the fly brain. The other estimator, the Koenderink and van Doorn (KvD) algorithm, was derived analytically with a technical background. If the distances to the objects in the environment can be assumed to be known, the two estimators are linear and equivalent, but are expressed in different mathematical forms. However, for most situations it is unrealistic to assume that the distances are known. Therefore, the depth structure of the environment needs to be determined in parallel to the self-motion parameters and leads to a non-linear problem. It is shown that the standard least mean square approach that is used by the KvD algorithm leads to a biased estimator. We derive a modification of this algorithm in order to remove the bias and demonstrate its improved performance by means of numerical simulations. For self-motion estimation it is beneficial to have a spherical visual field, similar to many flying insects. We show that in this case the representation of the depth structure of the environment derived from the optic flow can be simplified. Based on this result, we develop an adaptive matched filter approach for systems with a nearly spherical visual field. Then only eight parameters about the environment have to be memorized and updated during self-motion. PMID:26308839
Accuracy study of time delay estimation techniques in laser pulse ranger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jinliang; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang
2013-12-01
Time-of-flight measurement by using laser pulses is an alternative method in laser range finding and laser scanning, the echo pulses originating from backscattering of the emitted laser pulse on targets is detected by optical receiver. The distance of target can be obtained by measuring the round-trip time. Time-of-arrival estimation may be based on schemes such as constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) in analog electronics. In contrast, as sampled signals are available, time delay estimation may be based on schemes like direct cross-correlation function (CCF) and average square difference function (ASDF) in digital electronics. By the way, constant-fraction discriminator can also be used in digital electronics. All this three methods are analyzed and compared with each other. It is shown that estimators based on CCF and ASDF are more precise than conventional CFD based estimator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnault, A.; Dandois, J.; Monnier, J.-C.; Delva, J.; Foucaut, J.-M.
2016-12-01
The reconstruction of the flow behind a backward-facing step at a Reynolds number of 60,000 using linear stochastic estimation (LSE) and modified LSE (with or without multi-time-delay) is investigated. In particular, the turbulent spatial integral length scales estimated for several sensor configurations are studied. The estimation of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes is also performed in order to show the limitations of the SE for complex flows, for which taking into account only a few POD modes may not be enough to represent the flow dynamics. The importance of the sensor locations on the estimation is also emphasized, and the opportunity to use a sensor location optimization algorithm is investigated.
Khorate, Manisha M; Dinkar, A D; Ahmed, Junaid
2014-01-01
Changes related to chronological age are seen in both hard and soft tissue. A number of methods for age estimation have been proposed which can be classified in four categories, namely, clinical, radiological, histological and chemical analysis. In forensic odontology, age estimation based on tooth development is universally accepted method. The panoramic radiographs of 500 healthy Goan, Indian children (250 boys and 250 girls) aged between 4 and 22.1 years were selected. Modified Demirjian's method (1973/2004), Acharya AB formula (2011), Dr Ajit D. Dinkar (1984) regression equation, Foti and coworkers (2003) formula (clinical and radiological) were applied for estimation of age. The result of our study has shown that Dr Ajit D. Dinkar method is more accurate followed by Acharya Indian-specific formula. Furthermore, in this study by applying all these methods to one regional population, we have attempted to present dental age estimation methodology best suited for the Goan Indian population.
Power-scalable video encoder for mobile devices based on collocated motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Joel; Bourge, Arnaud
2004-01-01
In this paper, a method for designing low-power video schemes is presented. Algorithms that imply a very low dissipation are required for new applications where the energy source is limited, e.g. mobile phones including a camera and video features. Whereas it can be observed that video standards are mainly designed around coding efficiency, we propose to take into account power consumption characteristics directly when designing the algorithm. More precisely, we give some guidelines for the design of low-power video codecs in the scope of modern hardware architectures and we introduce the notion of power scalability. We present an original encoder based on so-called 'Collocated Motion Estimation' designed using the proposed methodology. Experimental results show that we remain close to the coding efficiency of the reference H.264 baseline encoder while the power consumption is largely reduced in our solution. Moreoever this encoder is scalable in memory transfer and computational complexity.
Distance estimation and collision prediction for on-line robotic motion planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.
1991-01-01
An efficient method for computing the minimum distance and predicting collisions between moving objects is presented. This problem has been incorporated in the framework of an in-line motion planning algorithm to satisfy collision avoidance between a robot and moving objects modeled as convex polyhedra. In the beginning the deterministic problem, where the information about the objects is assumed to be certain is examined. If instead of the Euclidean norm, L(sub 1) or L(sub infinity) norms are used to represent distance, the problem becomes a linear programming problem. The stochastic problem is formulated, where the uncertainty is induced by sensing and the unknown dynamics of the moving obstacles. Two problems are considered: (1) filtering of the minimum distance between the robot and the moving object, at the present time; and (2) prediction of the minimum distance in the future, in order to predict possible collisions with the moving obstacles and estimate the collision time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaolin; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng; Xia, Min
2011-05-01
One of the important issues in macroseismology and engineering seismology is how to get as much intensity and/or strong motion data as possible. We collected and studied several cases in the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan earthquake, exploring the possibility of estimating intensities and/or strong ground motion parameters using civilian monitoring videos which were deployed originally for security purposes. We used 53 video recordings in different places to determine the intensity distribution of the earthquake, which is shown to be consistent with the intensity distribution mapped by field investigation, and even better than that given by the Community Internet Intensity Map. In some of the videos, the seismic wave propagation is clearly visible, and can be measured with the reference of some artificial objects such as cars and/or trucks. By measuring the propagating wave, strong motion parameters can be roughly but quantitatively estimated. As a demonstration of this `propagating-wave method', we used a series of civilian videos recorded in different parts of Sichuan and Shaanxi and estimated the local PGAs. The estimate is compared with the measurement reported by strong motion instruments. The result shows that civilian monitoring video provide a practical way of collecting and estimating intensity and/or strong motion parameters, having the advantage of being dynamic, and being able to be played back for further analysis, reflecting a new trend for macroseismology in our digital era.
Accuracy of maximum likelihood estimates of a two-state model in single-molecule FRET
Gopich, Irina V.
2015-01-21
Photon sequences from single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments can be analyzed using a maximum likelihood method. Parameters of the underlying kinetic model (FRET efficiencies of the states and transition rates between conformational states) are obtained by maximizing the appropriate likelihood function. In addition, the errors (uncertainties) of the extracted parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the likelihood function at the maximum. We study the standard deviations of the parameters of a two-state model obtained from photon sequences with recorded colors and arrival times. The standard deviations can be obtained analytically in a special case when the FRET efficiencies of the states are 0 and 1 and in the limiting cases of fast and slow conformational dynamics. These results are compared with the results of numerical simulations. The accuracy and, therefore, the ability to predict model parameters depend on how fast the transition rates are compared to the photon count rate. In the limit of slow transitions, the key parameters that determine the accuracy are the number of transitions between the states and the number of independent photon sequences. In the fast transition limit, the accuracy is determined by the small fraction of photons that are correlated with their neighbors. The relative standard deviation of the relaxation rate has a “chevron” shape as a function of the transition rate in the log-log scale. The location of the minimum of this function dramatically depends on how well the FRET efficiencies of the states are separated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirschi, Andreas; Lage, Damian
2008-01-01
A frequent applied method in career assessment to elicit clients' self-concepts is asking them to predict their interest assessment results. Accuracy in estimating one's interest type is commonly taken as a sign of more self-awareness and career choice readiness. The study evaluated the empirical relation of accuracy of self-estimation to career…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Error in rater estimates of plant disease severity occur, and standard area diagrams (SADs) help improve accuracy and reliability. The effects of diagram number in a SAD set on accuracy and reliability is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare estimates of pecan scab severity made witho...
Accuracy analysis of a new method to estimate chromatic wavefront error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirbu, Dan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Belikov, Ruslan
2016-07-01
An internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront correction for direct imaging of exoplanets is currently being considered for many mission concepts: a dedicated instrument undergoing development on the upcoming WFIRST mission, and prime instruments on the large-scale HabEx and LUVOIR mission studies, as well as smaller-scale missions such as ACESAT. To enable direct imaging of exoplanets with an internal coronagraph both diffraction and scattered light from the stellar point spread function must be directly suppressed using the coronagraph instrument or corrected in post-processing. Both of these tasks require estimation of the chromatically-dependent complex electric field in the focal plane either using the main science camera or the integral field spectrograph (IFS) camera. To date, the most common method to estimate the chromaticity of the complex electric field is using a heterodyne term generated by DM probes and requiring sequence of narrowband filters to increase coherence. We extend this concept to enable estimation using direct broadband images using a well-calibrated broadband response matrix of the DM probes. Our broadband focal plane estimation method can be used with a single broadband filter providing an alternative to more complicated methods that require several monochromatic channels or a dedicated integral field spectrograph. This capability can also enable low- cost, low-complexity coronagraph missions. We demonstrate the broadband estimation method using fully 30% bandwidth broadband input light with an optical simulator featuring a PIAA coronagraph.
Hu, Tingting; Zhang, Zhen
2016-01-01
Background. The traumatic epidural hematoma (tEDH) volume is often used to assist in tEDH treatment planning and outcome prediction. ABC/2 is a well-accepted volume estimation method that can be used for tEDH volume estimation. Previous studies have proposed different variations of ABC/2; however, it is unclear which variation will provide a higher accuracy. Given the promising clinical contribution of accurate tEDH volume estimations, we sought to assess the accuracy of several ABC/2 variations in tEDH volume estimation. Methods. The study group comprised 53 patients with tEDH who had undergone non-contrast head computed tomography scans. For each patient, the tEDH volume was automatically estimated by eight ABC/2 variations (four traditional and four newly derived) with an in-house program, and results were compared to those from manual planimetry. Linear regression, the closest value, percentage deviation, and Bland-Altman plot were adopted to comprehensively assess accuracy. Results. Among all ABC/2 variations assessed, the traditional variations y = 0.5 × A1B1C1 (or A2B2C1) and the newly derived variations y = 0.65 × A1B1C1 (or A2B2C1) achieved higher accuracy than the other variations. No significant differences were observed between the estimated volume values generated by these variations and those of planimetry (p > 0.05). Comparatively, the former performed better than the latter in general, with smaller mean percentage deviations (7.28 ± 5.90% and 6.42 ± 5.74% versus 19.12 ± 6.33% and 21.28 ± 6.80%, respectively) and more values closest to planimetry (18/53 and 18/53 versus 2/53 and 0/53, respectively). Besides, deviations of most cases in the former fell within the range of <10% (71.70% and 84.91%, respectively), whereas deviations of most cases in the latter were in the range of 10–20% and >20% (90.57% and 96.23, respectively). Discussion. In the current study, we adopted an automatic approach to assess the accuracy of several ABC/2 variations
Plantard, Pierre; Auvinet, Edouard; Le Pierres, Anne-Sophie; Multon, Franck
2015-01-01
Analyzing human poses with a Kinect is a promising method to evaluate potentials risks of musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. In ecological situations, complex 3D poses and constraints imposed by the environment make it difficult to obtain reliable kinematic information. Thus, being able to predict the potential accuracy of the measurement for such complex 3D poses and sensor placements is challenging in classical experimental setups. To tackle this problem, we propose a new evaluation method based on a virtual mannequin. In this study, we apply this method to the evaluation of joint positions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist), joint angles (shoulder and elbow), and the corresponding RULA (a popular ergonomics assessment grid) upper-limb score for a large set of poses and sensor placements. Thanks to this evaluation method, more than 500,000 configurations have been automatically tested, which would be almost impossible to evaluate with classical protocols. The results show that the kinematic information obtained by the Kinect software is generally accurate enough to fill in ergonomic assessment grids. However inaccuracy strongly increases for some specific poses and sensor positions. Using this evaluation method enabled us to report configurations that could lead to these high inaccuracies. As a supplementary material, we provide a software tool to help designers to evaluate the expected accuracy of this sensor for a set of upper-limb configurations. Results obtained with the virtual mannequin are in accordance with those obtained from a real subject for a limited set of poses and sensor placements. PMID:25599426
Bell, M.R.; Rumberger, J.A.; Lerman, L.O.; Behrenbeck, T.; Sheedy, P.F.; Ritman, E.L. )
1990-02-26
Measurement of myocardial perfusion with fast CT, using venous injections of contrast, underestimates high flow rates. Accounting for intramyocardial blood volume improves the accuracy of such measurements but the additional influence of different contrast injection sites is unknown. To examine this, eight closed chest anesthetized dogs (18-24 kg) underwent fast CT studies of regional myocardial perfusion which were compared to microspheres (M). Dilute iohexol (0.5 mL/kg) was injected over 2.5 seconds, via, in turn, the pulmonary artery (PA), proximal inferior vena cava (IVC) and femoral vein (FV) during CT scans performed at rest and after vasodilation with adenosine (M flow range: 52-399 mL/100 g/minute). Correlations made with M were not significantly different for PA vs IVC (n = 24), PA vs FV (n = 22) and IVC vs FV (n = 44). To determine the relative influence of injection site on accuracy of measurements above normal flow rates (> 150mL/100g/minute), CT flow (mL/100g/minute; mean {+-}SD) was compared to M. Thus, at normal flow, some CT overestimation of myocardial perfusion occurred with PA injections but FV or IVC injections provided for accurate measurements. At higher flow rates only PA and IVC injections enabled accurate CT measurements of perfusion. This may be related to differing transit kinetics of the input bolus of contrast.
GPS-based estimation of sub-daily and rapid polar motion at 15-minute temporal resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sibois, Aurore; Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce
2015-04-01
We present results from the homogeneous re-analysis of ten years of data from a global Global Positioning System (GPS) network specifically targeting the recovery of the Earth's pole coordinates at 15-minute temporal resolution. We deliberately treat prograde semidiurnal nutation as retrograde diurnal polar motion in our parameter estimation strategy in order to gain insight into potential deficiencies in the sets of precession and nutation models applied. Doing so, we are able to retrieve meaningful polar motion signal in the retrograde diurnal frequency band. This leads us to evaluate the coupling between models of precession-nutation and diurnal variations on polar motion from the ocean tides on total observed polar motion. To assess the quality of our polar motion solution outside of the retrograde diurnal frequency band, we focus on its capability to recover tidally driven and non-tidal variations manifesting at the ultra-rapid (intra-daily) and rapid (characterized by periods ranging from 2 to 20 days) periods. We first evaluate the fit of our polar motion estimates to the IERS 2010 recommended model. This tidal analysis reveals discrepancies manifesting at specific tidal periods and stresses difficulties in separating technique-specific errors and estimation strategy artifacts from model errors. We discuss some of these error sources. After accounting for the effects of diurnal and semi-diurnal ocean tides in our estimation procedure, we convert our series of pole coordinates into the excitation formalism and contrast the resulting series with independently obtained geodynamic excitation functions. We demonstrate that increasing the temporal resolution does not compromise the fidelity of our estimates to predicted rapid variations in polar motion caused by the oceanic and atmospheric circulations. Our results infer a noise level of about 4 μas from our decade-long time series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mundermann, Lars; Mundermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.
2005-01-01
Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mündermann, Lars; Mündermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.
2004-12-01
Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).
An Assessment of the Accuracy of Admittance and Coherence Estimates Using Synthetic Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosby, A.
2006-12-01
The estimation of the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T_e) using spectral relationships between gravity and topography has become a controversial topic in recent years. However, one area which has received relatively little attention is the bias in estimates of T_e and the internal loading fraction (F_2) which results from spectral leakage and noise when using the multi-tapered free-air admittance method. In this study, I use grids of synthetic data to assess the magnitude of that bias. I also assess the bias which occurs when T_e within other planets is estimated using the admittance between observed and topographic line-of-sight accelerations of orbiting satellites. I find that leakage can cause the estimated admittance and coherence to be significantly in error, but only if the box in which they are estimated is too small. The definition of `small' depends on the redness of the gravity spectrum. On the Earth, there is minimal error in the estimate of T_e if the admittance between surface gravity and topography is estimated within a box at least 3000-km-wide. When the true T_e is less than 20~km and the true coherence is high, the errors in the estimate of T_e are mostly less than 5~km for all box sizes greater than 1000~km. On the other hand, when the true T_e is greater than 20~km and the box size is 1000~km, the best-fit T_e is likely to be at least 5-10~km less than the true T_e. Even when the true coherence is high, it is not possible to use the free-air admittance to distinguish between real and spurious small fractions of internal loading when the boxes are smaller than 2000~km in size. Furthermore, the trade-off between T_e and F_2 means that even small amounts of leakage can shift the best-fit values of T_e and F_2 by an appreciable amount when the true F_2 is greater than zero. Geological noise in the gravity is caused by subsurface loads, the flexural surface expression of which has been erased by erosion and deposition. I find that
Ho, Simon Y W; Phillips, Matthew J; Drummond, Alexei J; Cooper, Alan
2005-05-01
In recent years, a number of phylogenetic methods have been developed for estimating molecular rates and divergence dates under models that relax the molecular clock constraint by allowing rate change throughout the tree. These methods are being used with increasing frequency, but there have been few studies into their accuracy. We tested the accuracy of several relaxed-clock methods (penalized likelihood and Bayesian inference using various models of rate change) using nucleotide sequences simulated on a nine-taxon tree. When the sequences evolved with a constant rate, the methods were able to infer rates accurately, but estimates were more precise when a molecular clock was assumed. When the sequences evolved under a model of auto-correlated rate change, rates were accurately estimated using penalized likelihood and by Bayesian inference using lognormal and exponential models of rate change, while other models did not perform as well. When the sequences evolved under a model of uncorrelated rate change, only Bayesian inference using an exponential rate model performed well. Collectively, the results provide a strong recommendation for using the exponential model of rate change if a conservative approach to divergence time estimation is required. A case study is presented in which we use a simulation-based approach to examine the hypothesis of elevated rates in the Cambrian period, and it is found that these high rate estimates might be an artifact of the rate estimation method. If this bias is present, then the ages of metazoan divergences would be systematically underestimated. The results of this study have implications for studies of molecular rates and divergence dates.
Bowen, L; Zyambo, M; Snell, D; Kinnear, J; Bould, M D
2017-04-01
Limited resources and access to healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with high rates of malnourished children, although many countries globally are demonstrating increasing childhood obesity. This study evaluated how well current age- or height-based formulae estimate the weight of children undergoing surgery in Zambia. All children under 14 years of age presenting for elective surgery at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, had both height and weight measured. Their actual weight was compared against estimated weight from various formulae. The Broselow tape outperformed all the age-based formulae, demonstrating the lowest median percentage error of -5.8%, with 46.0% of estimates falling within 10% of the actual measured weight (p < 0.001). Of the 1111 children who were eligible for World Health Organization growth standard appraisal, 88 (8%) met the weight criteria for severe acute malnutrition. Our results are consistent with other studies in finding that the Broselow tape is the best estimator of weight in a lower middle-income country, followed by the original Advanced Paediatric Life Support formula if the Broselow tape is unavailable.
Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling
Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...
dos Reis, Mario; Inoue, Jun; Hasegawa, Masami; Asher, Robert J; Donoghue, Philip C J; Yang, Ziheng
2012-09-07
The fossil record suggests a rapid radiation of placental mammals following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction 65 million years ago (Ma); nevertheless, molecular time estimates, while highly variable, are generally much older. Early molecular studies suffer from inadequate dating methods, reliance on the molecular clock, and simplistic and over-confident interpretations of the fossil record. More recent studies have used Bayesian dating methods that circumvent those issues, but the use of limited data has led to large estimation uncertainties, precluding a decisive conclusion on the timing of mammalian diversifications. Here we use a powerful Bayesian method to analyse 36 nuclear genomes and 274 mitochondrial genomes (20.6 million base pairs), combined with robust but flexible fossil calibrations. Our posterior time estimates suggest that marsupials diverged from eutherians 168-178 Ma, and crown Marsupialia diverged 64-84 Ma. Placentalia diverged 88-90 Ma, and present-day placental orders (except Primates and Xenarthra) originated in a ∼20 Myr window (45-65 Ma) after the K-Pg extinction. Therefore we reject a pre K-Pg model of placental ordinal diversification. We suggest other infamous instances of mismatch between molecular and palaeontological divergence time estimates will be resolved with this same approach.
INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF MAYFIELD ESTIMATES USING KNOWLEDGE OF NEST AGE
This presentation will focus on the error introduced in nest-survival modeling when nest-cycles are assumed to be of constant length. I will present the types of error that may occur, including biases resulting from incorrect estimates of expected values, as well as biases that o...
Investigating the Accuracy of Three Estimation Methods for Regression Discontinuity Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei
2013-01-01
Regression discontinuity design is an alternative to randomized experiments to make causal inference when random assignment is not possible. This article first presents the formal identification and estimation of regression discontinuity treatment effects in the framework of Rubin's causal model, followed by a thorough literature review of…
Accuracy and Precision Analysis of Chamber-Based Nitrous Oxide Gas Flux Estimates
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Chamber-based estimates of soil-to-atmosphere nitrous oxide (N2O) gas flux tend to underestimate actual emission rates due to inherently non-linear time series data. In theory, this limitation can be minimized by adjusting measurement conditions to reduce non-linearity and/or by using flux-calculati...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The use of automated methods to estimate canopy cover (CC) from digital photographs has increased in recent years given its potential to produce accurate, fast and inexpensive CC measurements. Wide acceptance has been delayed because of the limitations of these methods. This work introduces a novel ...
An assessment of the accuracy of admittance and coherence estimates using synthetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosby, A. G.
2007-10-01
Previous work has shown that estimates of the admittance between topography and free-air gravity anomalies are often biased by spectral leakage, even after the application of multiple prolate spheroidal wavefunction data-tapers. Despite this, a number of authors who have used the free-air admittance method to estimate the weighted-average effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te) and to identify topography supported by mantle convection have not tested their methods using synthetic data with a known relationship between topography and gravity. In this paper, I perform a range of such tests using both synthetic surface data and synthetic line-of-sight (LOS) accelerations of satellites orbiting around an extra-terrestrial planet. It is found that spectral leakage can cause the estimated admittance and coherence to be significantly in error-but only if the box in which they are estimated is too small. The definition of `small' depends on the redness of the gravity spectrum. There is minimal error in the whole-box weighted-average estimate of Te if the admittance between surface gravity and topography is estimated within a box at least 3000-km-wide. When the synthetic (uniform) Te is less than 20 km and the coherence is high, the errors in Te are mostly +/-5 km for all box sizes greater than 1000 km. On the other hand, when the true Te is greater than 20 km and the box size is 1000 km, the best-fitting Te is likely to be at least 5-10 km less than the true Te. However, even when the coherence is high, it is not possible to use elastic plate admittance models to distinguish between real and spurious small fractions of internal loading when the boxes are smaller than 2000 km in width. Noise in the gravity introduces error and uncertainty, but no additional bias, into the estimates of the admittance. It does, however, bias estimates of Te calculated using the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography. The admittance at wavelengths between 1000 and 4000 km
Accuracy of core mass estimates in simulated observations of dust emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinen, J.; Juvela, M.; Collins, D. C.; Lunttila, T.; Padoan, P.
2011-06-01
Aims: We study the reliability of the mass estimates obtained for molecular cloud cores using sub-millimetre and infrared dust emission. Methods: We use magnetohydrodynamic simulations and radiative transfer to produce synthetic observations with spatial resolution and noise levels typical of Herschel surveys. We estimate dust colour temperatures using different pairs of intensities, calculate column densities with opacity at one wavelength, and compare the estimated masses with the true values. We compare these results to the case when all five Herschel wavelengths are available. We investigate the effects of spatial variations of dust properties and the influence of embedded heating sources. Results: Wrong assumptions of dust opacity and its spectral index β can cause significant systematic errors in mass estimates. These are mainly multiplicative and leave the slope of the mass spectrum intact, unless cores with very high optical depth are included. Temperature variations bias the colour temperature estimates and, in quiescent cores with optical depths higher than for normal stable cores, masses can be underestimated by up to one order of magnitude. When heated by internal radiation sources, the dust in the core centre becomes visible and the observations recover the true mass spectra. Conclusions: The shape, although not the position, of the mass spectrum is reliable against observational errors and biases introduced in the analysis. This changes only if the cores have optical depths much higher than expected for basic hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. Observations underestimate the value of β whenever there are temperature variations along the line of sight. A bias can also be observed when the true β varies with wavelength. Internal heating sources produce an inverse correlation between colour temperature and β that may be difficult to separate from any intrinsic β(T) relation of the dust grains. This suggests caution when interpreting the observed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz
2010-09-01
This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Lu, Benzhuo; Wong, Chung F
2005-12-05
The entropic cost due to the loss of translational and rotational (T-R) degree of freedom upon binding has been well recognized for several decades. Tightly bound ligands have higher entropic costs than loosely bound ligands. Quantifying the ligand's residual T-R motions after binding, however, is not an easy task. We describe an approach that uses a reduced Hessian matrix to estimate the contributions due to translational and rotational degrees of freedom to entropy change upon molecular binding. The calculations use a harmonic model for the bound state but only include the T-R degrees of freedom. This approximation significantly speeds up entropy calculations because only 6 x 6 matrices need to be treated, which makes it easier to be used in computer-aided drug design for studying many ligands. The methodological connection with other methods is discussed as well. We tested this approximation by applying it to study the binding of ATP, peptide inhibitor (PKI), and several bound water molecules to protein kinase A (PKA). These ligands span a wide range in size. The model gave reasonable estimates of the residual T-R entropy of bound ligands or water molecules. The residual T-R entropy demonstrated a wide range of values, e.g., 4 to 16 cal/K.mol for the bound water molecules of PKA.
Pose and Motion Estimation Using Dual Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filtering
Goddard, J.S.; Abidi, M.A.
1998-06-01
A solution to the remote three-dimensional (3-D) measurement problem is presented for a dynamic system given a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) intensity images of a moving object. The 3-D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimate providing the six-degree-of-freedom motion and position values as well as structure. The stochastic model uses the iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) as a nonlinear estimator and a screw representation of the 3-D transformation based on dual quaternions. Dual quaternions, whose elements are dual numbers, provide a means to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. Linear object features, represented as dual vectors, are transformed using the dual quaternion transformation and are then projected to linear features in the image plane. The method has been implemented and tested with both simulated and actual experimental data. Simulation results are provided, along with comparisons to a point-based IEKF method using rotation and translation, to show the relative advantages of this method. Experimental results from testing using a camera mounted on the end effector of a robot arm are also given.
Complex lung motion estimation via adaptive bilateral filtering of the deformation field.
Papiez, Bartlomiej W; Heinrich, Mattias Paul; Risser, Laurent; Schnabel, Julia A
2013-01-01
Estimation of physiologically plausible deformations is critical for several medical applications. For example, lung cancer diagnosis and treatment requires accurate image registration which preserves sliding motion in the pleural cavity, and the rigidity of chest bones. This paper addresses these challenges by introducing a novel approach for regularisation of non-linear transformations derived from a bilateral filter. For this purpose, the classic Gaussian kernel is replaced by a new kernel that smoothes the estimated deformation field with respect to the spatial position, intensity and deformation dissimilarity. The proposed regularisation is a spatially adaptive filter that is able to preserve discontinuity between the lungs and the pleura and reduces any rigid structures deformations in volumes. Moreover, the presented framework is fully automatic and no prior knowledge of the underlying anatomy is required. The performance of our novel regularisation technique is demonstrated on phantom data for a proof of concept as well as 3D inhale and exhale pairs of clinical CT lung volumes. The results of the quantitative evaluation exhibit a significant improvement when compared to the corresponding state-of-the-art method using classic Gaussian smoothing.
Earthquake slip vectors and estimates of present-day plate motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demets, Charles
1993-01-01
Two alternative models for present-day global plate motions are derived from subsets of the NUVEL-1 data in order to investigate the degree to which earthquake slip vectors affect the NUVEL-1 model and to provide estimates of present-day plate velocities that are independent of earthquake slip vectors. The data set used to derive the first model excludes subduction zone slip vectors. The primary purpose of this model is to demonstrate that the 240 subduction zone slip vectors in the NUVEL-1 data set do not greatly affect the plate velocities predicted by NUVEL-1. A data set that excludes all of the 724 earthquake slip vectors used to derive NUVEL-1 is used to derive the second model. This model is suitable as a reference model for kinematic studies that require plate velocity estimates unaffected by earthquake slip vectors. The slip-dependent slip vector bias along transform faults is investigated using the second model, and evidence is sought for biases in slip directions along spreading centers.
SU-E-J-01: 3D Fluoroscopic Image Estimation From Patient-Specific 4DCBCT-Based Motion Models
Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Lewis, J; Mishra, P
2014-06-01
Purpose: 3D motion modeling derived from 4DCT images, taken days or weeks before treatment, cannot reliably represent patient anatomy on the day of treatment. We develop a method to generate motion models based on 4DCBCT acquired at the time of treatment, and apply the model to estimate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Methods: Motion models are derived through deformable registration between each 4DCBCT phase, and principal component analysis (PCA) on the resulting displacement vector fields. 3D fluoroscopic images are estimated based on cone-beam projections simulating kV treatment imaging. PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively through comparison of these cone-beam projections and projections estimated based on the motion model. Digital phantoms reproducing ten patient motion trajectories, and a physical phantom with regular and irregular motion derived from measured patient trajectories, are used to evaluate the method in terms of tumor localization, and the global voxel intensity difference compared to ground truth. Results: Experiments included: 1) assuming no anatomic or positioning changes between 4DCT and treatment time; and 2) simulating positioning and tumor baseline shifts at the time of treatment compared to 4DCT acquisition. 4DCBCT were reconstructed from the anatomy as seen at treatment time. In case 1) the tumor localization error and the intensity differences in ten patient were smaller using 4DCT-based motion model, possible due to superior image quality. In case 2) the tumor localization error and intensity differences were 2.85 and 0.15 respectively, using 4DCT-based motion models, and 1.17 and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based models. 4DCBCT performed better due to its ability to reproduce daily anatomical changes. Conclusion: The study showed an advantage of 4DCBCT-based motion models in the context of 3D fluoroscopic images estimation. Positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties were mitigated by the 4DCBCT
Christin, Sylvain; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Berteaux, Dominique
2015-01-01
Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove “bad” locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada), with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2), while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements), the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location error needs
Christin, Sylvain; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Berteaux, Dominique
2015-01-01
Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove "bad" locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada), with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2), while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements), the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location error needs
Ali, M M; Royse, A G; Connelly, K; Royse, C F
2012-02-01
The objective of this study was to identify whether pulmonary capillary wedge pressure can be estimated in anaesthetised patients receiving mechanical ventilation, using transoesophageal echocardiography. A retrospective validation study investigated a 10-patient cohort with variable haemodynamic conditions, and a 102-patient series in which a single measurement was made during stable haemodynamic conditions. Concurrent echocardiographic Doppler and pulmonary artery catheter wedge pressure measurements were performed. In the 10-patient cohort, the systolic fraction of Doppler measurements in the pulmonary vein (r = -0.32, p = 0.035) and the E/A ratio (r = 0.56, p = 0.0009) were correlated with the wedge pressure. In all cases, the limits of agreement exceeded 10 mmHg, and sensitivity or specificity for detecting wedge pressure ≥ 15 mmHg was poor. This study demonstrates proof of concept that using transoesophageal echocardiography for estimating the pulmonary artery wedge pressure may not be sufficiently accurate for clinical use.
Brand, Andrew; Bradley, M T; Best, Lisa A; Stoica, George
2011-01-01
The reporting of exaggerated effect size estimates may occur either through researchers accepting statistically significant results when power is inadequate and/or from repeated measures approaches aggregating, averaging multiple items, or multiple trials. Monte-Carlo simulations with input of a small, medium, or large effect size were conducted on multiple items or trials that were either averaged or aggregated to create a single dependent measure. Alpha was set at the .05 level, and the trials were assessed over item or trial correlations ranging from 0 to 1. Simulations showed a large increase in observed effect size averages and the power to accept these estimates as statistically significant increased over numbers of trials or items. Overestimation effects were mitigated as correlations between trials increased but still remained substantial in some cases. The implications of these findings for meta-analyses and different research scenarios are discussed.
Estimation of affine motion from projection data using a mass conservation model.
Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Amini, Amir A
2011-01-01
An approximate model for the effect of respiration is that the cross section of the thoracic area under interrogation experience time-varying magnification and displacement along two perpendicular axes - we propose to model this motion as parametric affine motion. A theoretical framework for determination of parameters of affine motion modeling the global respiratory motion based on the sinogram data in the projection domain is described. It is assumed that the spatial image considered is a density image where conservation of mass holds.
Heyward, V H; Cook, K L; Hicks, V L; Jenkins, K A; Quatrochi, J A; Wilson, W L
1992-03-01
Three methods of body composition assessment were used to estimate percent body fat (%BF) in nonobese (n = 77) and obese (n = 71) women, 20-72 yrs of age. Skinfolds (SKF), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) methods were compared to criterion-derived %BF from hydrostatic weighing (%BFHW). Nonobese subjects had < 30% BFHW and obese subjects had > or = 30% BFHW. The Jackson, Pollock, and Ward SKF equation and the manufacturer's equations for BIA (Valhalla) and NIR (Futrex-5000) were used. For nonobese women there were no significant differences between mean %BFHW and %BFSKF, %BFBIA, and %BFNIR. The rs and SEEs were 0.65 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.61 and 3.6% BF for BIA, and 0.58 and 3.7% BF for NIR for nonobese subjects. For obese women, mean %BFHW was significantly underestimated by the SKF, BIA, and NIR methods. The rs and SEEs for the obese group were 0.59 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.56 and 3.5% BF for BIA, and 0.36 and 3.9% BF for NIR. The total errors of the equations ranged from 5.6 to 8.0% BF in the obese group. It is concluded that all three field methods accurately estimate %BF for nonobese women; however, none of the methods is suitable for estimating %BF for obese women.
Berkels, Benjamin; Rumpf, Martin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim
2013-09-15
Purpose: The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge.Methods: The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner.Results: In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ±0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data—down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially.Conclusions: In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using
Estimation of site effects using strong motion data of BYTNet array in Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özmen, Ö. T.; Yamanaka, H.; Zaineh, H. E.; Alkan, M. A.
2017-01-01
Simultaneous estimation of effects of source, propagation path, and local site amplification was carried out using observed strong motion records in a frequency range from 0.8 to 20 Hz for the purpose of empirical evaluation of the local site effects in different geological conditions in the northwestern part of Turkey. The analyzed data are S-wave portions of 162 accelerograms from 39 shallow events observed at 14 sites of BYTNet array. A spectral separation method was applied to the observed S-wave spectra. The solutions for source spectra, inelasticity factor of propagation path for S-waves ( Q s-value), and factor of site amplification at each site were obtained in a least squares sense. In the analysis, we assumed that the factor of the site amplification at a reference site is the same as that of theoretical amplification of S-waves to the soil model whose bottom layer has an S-wave velocity around 2.15 km/s. The estimated Q s-value of the propagation path is modeled as Q s( f) = 87.4f0.78. The estimated site amplifications are characterized into three groups. The sites in the first group belong to rock site with no dominant peaks at a frequency range of 2 to 10 Hz. The second group of hard soil sites is characterized with moderately dominant peaks at a frequency of 5 Hz. The last group for soft soil sites has common peaks at a frequency of 4 Hz with larger amplitudes than those in the hard soil group. We, then, compare the amplifications with average S-wave velocity in top 30 m of the shallow S-wave profiles and proposed linear empirical formula between them at each frequency. We, furthermore, inverted the observed amplification factors into S-wave velocity and Q s-value profiles of the deep soil over the basement.
Accuracy of Different Equations in Estimating GFR in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients
de Souza, Vandréa; Cochat, Pierre; Rabilloud, Muriel; Selistre, Luciano; Wagner, Mario; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Dolomanova, Olga; Ranchin, Bruno; Iwaz, Jean
2015-01-01
Background and objective The knowledge of renal function is crucial for the management of pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In this population, the most commonly used plasma creatinine (PCr)–based or cystatin C (CystC)–based GFR-predicting formulas may underperform (e.g., corticosteroids and trimethoprim may affect PCr concentration, whereas prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors may affect CystC concentration). This study evaluated the performance of six formulas in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The study used PCr-based formulas (bedside Schwartz, Schwartz-Lyon), CystC-based formulas (Hoek, Filler), and combined PCr-CystC–based formulas (CKD in Children [CKiD] 2012 and Zappitelli). The performance of these formulas was compared using inulin clearance as reference and assessed according to CKD stages in a historical cohort that included 73 pediatric kidney transplant recipients (199 measurements). The ability of the formulas to identify GFRs<60, <75, and <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was assessed. Results At measured GFR (mGFR) ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (nine patients; 23 measurements), the Zappitelli formula had the highest 30% accuracy (P30) (95% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 87% to 100%]) and the bedside Schwartz had the highest 10% accuracy (P10) (56% [95% CI, 32% to 72%]). At mGFR≥60 and <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (22 patients; 91 measurements), all formulas had P30 values >80%. However, only the CKiD 2012 formula had a P10 value >50%. At mGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (42 patients; 85 measurements), the CKiD 2012 and Schwartz–Lyon formulas had the highest P10 (45% [95% CI, 34% to 55%] and 43% [95% CI, 33% to 54%]) and P30 (90% [95% CI, 84% to 97%] and 91% [95% CI, 86% to 98%]). All studied equations except Hoek and Filler had areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves significantly >90% in discriminating patients with renal dysfunction at various CKD stages (GFR<60, <75, and <90 ml
Accuracy of influenza vaccination rate estimates in United States nursing home residents.
Grosholz, J M; Blake, S; Daugherty, J D; Ayers, E; Omer, S B; Polivka-West, L; Howard, D H
2015-09-01
The US Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) requires nursing homes and long-term-care facilities to document residents' vaccination status on the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI). Vaccinating residents can prevent costly hospital admissions and deaths. CMS and public health officials use RAI data to measure vaccination rates in long-term-care residents and assess the quality of care in nursing homes. We assessed the accuracy of RAI data against medical records in 39 nursing homes in Florida, Georgia, and Wisconsin. We randomly sampled residents in each home during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons. We collected data on receipt of influenza vaccination from charts and RAI data. Our final sample included 840 medical charts with matched RAI records. The agreement rate was 0·86. Using the chart as a gold standard, the sensitivity of the RAI with respect to influenza vaccination was 85% and the specificity was 77%. Agreement rates varied within facilities from 55% to 100%. Monitoring vaccination rates in the population is important for gauging the impact of programmes and policies to promote adherence to vaccination recommendations. Use of data from RAIs is a reasonable approach for gauging influenza vaccination rates in nursing-home residents.
McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael
2015-01-01
Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swensson, Richard G.; Maitz, Glenn S.; King, Jill L.; Gur, David
1999-05-01
We tested new analytic procedures for combining an observer's image-ratings of lesion-likelihood with localization reports that are incomplete (unavailable on images rated as 'normal') and/or imprecise (possibly scored as 'correct' by chance), and for fitting a constrained ROC formulation to the rating data alone. Eight radiologist readers in a previous study had rated the likelihood of nodular lesions on each of 250 chest-film cases (39 with subtle nodules, 36 with 'typical' nodules and 175 normal cases) that were presented in two display modes (original films or on video workstation). Ratings in the four positive categories (2 to 5) were accompanied by reports that grossly localized the suspected nodules into one of 7 film- regions (upper, middle or lower portions of left or right lung field, or retrocardiac), but there was no localization for the cases rated as 'normal' (category 1). In each of 29 sets of data, we estimated the area below the ROC curve (Az) and its standard error using three different fits: (1) the usual ROC formulation, (2) the constrained ROC formulation and (3) the new procedure that included incomplete and imprecise localization data (I&I). Estimates of Az from the usual and constrained ROC fits were quite similar unless the standard ROC exhibited an upward 'hook,' but standard errors of Az were always the same or smaller for the constrained ROC fit. The I&I fit that included localization data often estimated Az to be either larger or smaller than the usual or constrained ROC fits that considered only the rating data, but its Az had substantially smaller standard errors in 28 of the 29 sets of observer data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasler, A. F.; Shenk, W. E.; Skillman, W. C.
1977-01-01
An experiment is in progress to verify geostationary-satellite-derived cloud-motion wind estimates by in-situ aircraft wind-velocity measurements. One or more low-level aircraft equipped with Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) were used to define the vertical extent and horizontal motion of a cloud and to measure the ambient wind field. A high-level aircraft, also equipped with an INS, took photographs to describe the horizontal extent of the cloud field and to measure cloud motion. To date the experiment has been conducted over tropical oceans and in the western Gulf of Mexico. A total of 60 h have been spent tracking some 40 tropical cumulus and five cirrus clouds. Results for tropical cumulus clouds indicate excellent agreement between the cloud motion and the wind at cloud base. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the cloud-base wind is less than 1.3 m/s for 67% of the cases with track lengths of 1 h or longer. Similarly, the vector differences between the cloud motion and the wind at sub-cloud (150 m), mid-cloud, and cloud-top levels are 1.5, 3.6 and 7.0 m/s, respectively. The cirrus cloud motions agreed best with the mean wind in the cloud layer with a vector difference of about 1.6 m/s.
Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg
2016-01-01
Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, FMFC; Landry, G.; Cambraia Lopes, P.; Dedes, G.; Smeets, J.; Schaart, D. R.; Parodi, K.; Verhaegen, F.
2014-08-01
In-vivo imaging is a strategy to monitor the range of protons inside the patient during radiation treatment. A possible method of in-vivo imaging is detection of secondary ‘prompt’ gamma (PG) photons outside the body, which are produced by inelastic proton-nuclear interactions inside the patient. In this paper, important parameters influencing the relationship between the PG profile and percentage depth dose (PDD) in a uniform cylindrical phantom are explored. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the new Geant4 based code TOPAS for mono-energetic proton pencil beams (range: 100-250 MeV) and an idealized PG detector. PG depth profiles are evaluated using the inflection point on a sigmoid fit in the fall-off region of the profile. A strong correlation between the inflection point and the proton range determined from the PDD is found for all conditions. Variations between 1.5 mm and 2.7 mm in the distance between the proton range and the inflection point are found when either the mass density, phantom diameter, or detector acceptance angle is changed. A change in cut-off energy of the detector could induce a range difference of maximum 4 mm. Applying time-of-flight discrimination during detection, changing the primary energy of the beam or changing the elemental composition of the tissue affects the accuracy of the range prediction by less than 1 mm. The results indicate that the PG signal is rather robust to many parameter variations, but millimetre accurate range monitoring requires all medium and detector properties to be carefully taken into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Arason, Þórður; Bjornsson, Halldór
2013-04-01
Eruption of subglacial volcanoes may lead to catastrophic floods and therefore early determination of the exact eruption site may be critical to civil protection evacuation plans. Poor visibility due to weather or darkness often inhibit positive identification of exact eruption location for many hours. However, because of the proximity and abundance of water in powerful subglacial volcanic eruptions, they are probably always accompanied by early lightning activity in the volcanic column. Lightning location systems, designed for weather thunderstorm monitoring, based on remote detection of electromagnetic waves from lightning, can provide valuable real-time information on location of eruption site. Important aspect of such remote detection is its independence of weather, apart from thunderstorms close to the volcano. Individual lightning strikes can be 5-10 km in length and are sometimes tilted and to the side of the volcanic column. This adds to the lightning location uncertainty, which is often a few km. Furthermore, the volcanic column may be swayed by the local wind to one side. Therefore, location of a single lightning can be misleading but by calculating average location of many lightning strikes and applying wind correction a more accurate eruption site location can be obtained. In an effort to assess the expected accuracy, the average lightning locations during the past five volcanic eruptions in Iceland (1998-2011) were compared to the exact site of the eruption vent. Simultaneous weather thunderstorms might have complicated this analysis, but there were no signs of ordinary thunderstorms in Iceland during these eruptions. To identify a suitable wind correction, the vector wind at the 500 hPa pressure level (5-6 km altitude) was compared to mean lightning locations during the eruptions. The essential elements of a system, which predicts the eruption site during the first hour(s) of an eruption, will be described.
Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Niita, Koji; Sihver, Lembit
2008-08-07
Estimation of cosmic-ray spectra in the atmosphere has been an essential issue in the evaluation of the aircrew doses. We therefore developed an analytical model that can predict the terrestrial neutron, proton, He nucleus, muon, electron, positron and photon spectra at altitudes below 20 km, based on the Monte Carlo simulation results of cosmic-ray propagation in the atmosphere performed by the PHITS code. The model was designated PARMA. In order to examine the accuracy of PARMA in terms of the neutron dose estimation, we measured the neutron dose rates at the altitudes between 20 to 10400 m, using our developed dose monitor DARWIN mounted on an aircraft. Excellent agreement was observed between the measured dose rates and the corresponding data calculated by PARMA coupled with the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, indicating the applicability of the model to be utilized in the route-dose calculation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, Elizabeth C.
1989-01-01
Motion estimation is a field of great interest because of its many applications in areas such as robotics and image coding. The optic flow method is one such scheme which, although fairly accurate, is prone to error in the presence of noise. This thesis describes the use of the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF) in reducing errors in displacement estimation due to degradation of the sequence. The implementation of filtering and motion estimation algorithms on the SUN workstation is also discussed. Results from preliminary testing were used to determine the degrees of freedom available for the ROMKF in the SUN software. The tests indicated that increasing the state to the left leads to slight improvement over the minimum state case. Therefore, the software uses the minimum model, with the option of adding states to the left only. The ROMKF was then used in conjunction with a hierarchical pel recursive motion estimation algorithm. Applying the ROMKF to the degraded displacements themselves generally yielded slight improvements in cases with noise degradation and noise plus blur. Filtering the images of the degraded sequence prior to motion estimation was less effective in these cases. Both methods performed badly in the case of blur alone, resulting in increased displacement errors. This is thought to be due in part to filter artifacts. Some improvements were obtained by varying the filter parameters when filtering the displacements directly. This result suggests that further study in varying filter parameters may lead to better results. The results of this thesis indicate that the ROMKF can play a part in reducing motion estimation errors from degraded sequences. However, more work needs to be done before the use of the ROMKF can be a practical solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary
2006-01-01
This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhary, Alok Nidhi; Leung, Mun K.; Huang, Thomas S.; Patel, Janak H.
1989-01-01
Several techniques to perform static and dynamic load balancing techniques for vision systems are presented. These techniques are novel in the sense that they capture the computational requirements of a task by examining the data when it is produced. Furthermore, they can be applied to many vision systems because many algorithms in different systems are either the same, or have similar computational characteristics. These techniques are evaluated by applying them on a parallel implementation of the algorithms in a motion estimation system on a hypercube multiprocessor system. The motion estimation system consists of the following steps: (1) extraction of features; (2) stereo match of images in one time instant; (3) time match of images from different time instants; (4) stereo match to compute final unambiguous points; and (5) computation of motion parameters. It is shown that the performance gains when these data decomposition and load balancing techniques are used are significant and the overhead of using these techniques is minimal.
Gardner, Rick M; Brown, Dana L; Boice, Russell
2012-09-01
This study investigated Amazon.com's website Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a research tool for measuring body size estimation and dissatisfaction. 160 U.S. participants completed the BIAS-BD figural drawing scale and demographic questions posted on the MTurk website. The BIAS-BD consists of 17 drawings of various male and female body sizes based on anthropometric data corresponding to a range of 60% below to 140% above the average U.S. adult. Respondents selected a drawing that best reflected their current size and ideal size. Results revealed that respondents overestimated their body size by 6% and desired an ideal size 9.2% smaller than their perceived size. Findings are compared with three previous studies using the BIAS-BD scale. A general correspondence in findings between the four studies was found. We conclude that the MTurk can serve as a viable method for collecting data on the perceptual and attitudinal aspects of body image quickly and inexpensively.
Kelley, Ken; Rausch, Joseph R
2011-12-01
Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine individual change over time, with group status often being an important variable in explaining some individual differences in change. Although sample size planning for longitudinal studies has focused on statistical power, recent calls for effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals underscore the importance of obtaining sufficiently accurate estimates of group differences in change. We derived expressions that allow researchers to plan sample size to achieve the desired confidence interval width for group differences in change for orthogonal polynomial change parameters. The approaches developed provide the expected confidence interval width to be sufficiently narrow, with an extension that allows some specified degree of assurance (e.g., 99%) that the confidence interval will be sufficiently narrow. We make computer routines freely available, so that the methods developed can be used by researchers immediately.