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Sample records for accuracy phonological awareness

  1. Phonological Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Linda K.; Catts, Hugh W.

    A study gathered data on the effectiveness of four phonological awareness measures in predicting reading outcome in first grade. The "Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence" (TONI) and the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test" (PPVT) were used to assess the cognitive abilities of 54 first-graders from a middle class elementary school in a…

  2. Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

  3. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  4. Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

  5. Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibi, Sana

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

  6. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  7. Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can…

  8. Phonological Awareness in Young Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Maggie; Genesee, Fred

    1995-01-01

    This study compared the performance of English-speaking children attending French schools (bilingual group) on phonological awareness tests with same age English-speaking children attending English schools. Results of the study are interpreted to reflect the role of second-language input in phonological awareness. (JL)

  9. Moving Beyond Phonological Awareness: The Role of Phonological Awareness Skills in Arabic Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-04-01

    In the current research we investigate the role of early phonological awareness skills on reading development in diglossic Arabic. Two-hundred and six Arabic speaking first graders, composed of 25 at-linguistic risk pupils (LR group) and 181 normally developing readers, representing the found heterogeneity in the classroom participated in this study. For this purpose, phonological training program was developed where we followed the pupils' development in both phonological awareness skills and reading development in second grade. As indicated by the study results, higher achievements in phonological awareness measures was noted among HG group in first grade. After Training, significant improvement in phonological awareness was noted among both groups, where LR group was able to close the gaps in phonological awareness skills with HG group. When examining the relationship between phonological awareness and reading performance, moderate positive correlation was found within HG group whereas strong positive relationship was encountered with the LR group. Despite the progress in phonological awareness skills and its strong relationship with reading, LR group showed lower reading performance when compared to HG group. The study results are discussed in relation to its scientific and didactic implications on Arabic reading acquisition.

  10. Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities.…

  11. Phonological Awareness in Multilingual Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Poon, Kenneth K. L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the impact of phonological awareness in English and Chinese of 57 multilingual pupils whose language backgrounds were English, Chinese (Mandarin/dialect), or Bahasa Indonesia, using a homophone decision task, an English lexicality spelling test, and a Hanyu Pinyin spelling test. (Author/JL)

  12. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  13. Phonological awareness in young second language learners.

    PubMed

    Bruck, M; Genesee, F

    1995-06-01

    English-speaking children (N = 91) who were attending French schools (bilingual group) were given a battery of phonological awareness tests in kindergarten and in grade I. At the time of kindergarten testing the mean age of the children was 5:9. Their performance was compared to age-matched English-speaking children (N = 72) attending English schools (monolingual group). The bilingual children showed heightened levels of phonological awareness skills in kindergarten in the area of onset-rime awareness. By grade I, the pattern of group differences was more complex. The monolingual and bilingual children performed similarly on onset-rime segmentation tasks. The monolingual children had higher phoneme awareness scores than their French-schooled peers; this result is interpreted to reflect the role of literacy instruction on phoneme awareness development. In comparison, the bilingual children had higher syllable segmentation scores than their monolingual peers. This result is interperted to reflect the role of second language input on phonological awareness.

  14. [Intervention in dyslexic disorders: phonological awareness training].

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, M C

    2003-02-01

    Taking into account the systems for the treatment of brain information when drawing up a work plan allows us to recreate processing routines that go from multisensory perception to motor, oral and cognitive production, which is the step prior to executive levels of thought, bottom-up and top-down processing systems. In recent years, the use of phonological methods to prevent or resolve reading disorders has become the fundamental mainstay in the treatment of dyslexia. The work is mainly based on phonological proficiency, which enables the patient to detect phonemes (input), to think about them (performance) and to use them to build words (output). Daily work with rhymes, the capacity to listen, the identification of phrases and words, and handling syllables and phonemes allows us to perform a preventive intervention that enhances the capacity to identify letters, phonological analysis and the reading of single words. We present the different therapeutic models that are most frequently employed. Fast For Word (FFW) training helps make progress in phonematic awareness and other linguistic skills, such as phonological awareness, semantics, syntax, grammar, working memory and event sequencing. With Deco-Fon, a programme for training phonological decoding, work is carried out on the auditory discrimination of pure tones, letters and consonant clusters, auditory processing speed, auditory and phonematic memory, and graphophonological processing, which is fundamental for speech, language and reading writing disorders. Hamlet is a programme based on categorisation activities for working on phonological conceptualisation. It attempts to encourage the analysis of the segments of words, syllables or phonemes, and the classification of a certain segment as belonging or not to a particular phonological or orthographical category. Therapeutic approaches in the early phases of reading are oriented towards two poles based on the basic mechanisms underlying the process of learning

  15. Nursery Rhyme Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Laurie J.

    2011-01-01

    Phonological awareness is an important precursor in learning to read. This awareness of phonemes fosters a child's ability to hear and blend sounds, encode and decode words, and to spell phonetically. This quantitative study assessed pre-K children's existing Euro-American nursery rhyme knowledge and phonological awareness literacy, provided…

  16. Effects of Phonological Awareness Training on Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge, Instructional Practice and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskolski, Jayne E.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a phonological awareness professional development program on teachers' phonological awareness knowledge, the impact phonological awareness knowledge had on the frequency and complexity of phonological awareness instruction, and the impact the instruction had on students' phonological awareness.…

  17. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  18. Teaching Phonological Awareness to All Children through Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihai, Alina; Friesen, Amber; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Lieber, Joan; Palmer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on one important early literacy skill--phonological awareness--and describe how to support its development for all children by intentionally embedding it in storybook reading. Supporting the development of young children's phonological awareness is an important part of helping a child learn to read. Preschool…

  19. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech. PMID:28287166

  20. Phonological awareness for american sign language.

    PubMed

    Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children.

  1. Promoting Phonological Awareness Skills of Egyptian Kindergarteners through Dialogic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…

  2. Reading speed and phonological awareness deficits among Arabic-speaking children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language.

  3. Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

  4. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors.

  5. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  6. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  7. Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

  8. Teaching Phonological Accuracy and Communicative Fluency at Thai Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likitrattanaporn, Wannakarn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the opinions of secondary level Thai teachers who teach English. Their perspectives were collected and compared concerning phonological accuracy practice, communicative fluency activities, authentic teaching techniques and determining appropriate ways to solve the problems of phonological teaching…

  9. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

  10. Not All Phonological Awareness Tests Are Created Equal: Considering the Practical Validity of Phonological Manipulation versus Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon extensive evidence, researchers have almost universally accepted that phonological awareness (also called phonological sensitivity) is strongly associated with the development of word-level reading skills, with rare voices that either deny or downplay its significance. Phonological awareness is a construct that includes the ability to…

  11. Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…

  12. Sounds Like Fun: Activities for Developing Phonological Awareness, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul

    2009-01-01

    Kids love jokes--and teachers and SLPs love fast and easy ways to improve students' phonological awareness. That's why every elementary and middle-school SLP and educator needs this playful, effective activity book, packed with jokes and riddles that increase students' awareness of the phonemes that make up words. The perfect way to avoid "drill…

  13. Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological…

  14. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness.

    PubMed

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K; Schmitt, Braden A; Bradfield, Tracy A; Rodriguez, Michael C; McConnell, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success. Presented here are two studies that describe the development and revision of four measures of phonological awareness skills: Individual Growth and Development Indicators Sound Blending, Syllable Sameness, Rhyming, and Alliteration 2.0. The authors discuss the measure development process, revision, and utility within an early childhood Response to Intervention framework.

  15. Learning Novel Phonological Representations in Developmental Dyslexia: Associations with Basic Auditory Processing of Rise Time and Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological…

  16. The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological awareness.…

  17. Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Reexamining the Evidence for Relations within and across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Tao, Sha; Garnaat, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of phonological awareness across languages. Research is uncovering cross-language effects of phonological awareness upon English reading, even from nonalphabetic languages. However, little of this research has focused on examining the extent to which multiple measures of phonological awareness indicate a…

  18. The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10 min on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  19. Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yi-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Phonological awareness and morphological awareness have been shown to affect Chinese children's reading development. Previous studies conducted in Hong Kong, which required children to read two-character words only or a mixture of single-character and two-character words in a Chinese reading test, exclusively found that morphological awareness was…

  20. Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolduc, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

  1. Predicting Third Grade Reading Success from Kindergarten Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although phonological awareness (PA) is an essential preliteracy skill with well-established predictive validity for elementary school reading success, previous research indicates that PA intervention does not demonstrate long term effects on reading. The theory of automaticity was the underlying foundation used to understand the importance of…

  2. Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brown, Tracey; Sirimanna, Tony; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

    2005-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to investigate possible benefits of cochlear implant (CI) use on the development of phonological awareness in deaf children. Nineteen CI users were tested on 2 occasions. Two groups of deaf children using hearing aids were tested once: 11 profoundly deaf and 10 severely deaf children. A battery of…

  3. Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

  4. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Schmitt, Braden A.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success.…

  5. Relationships between Preschoolers' Oral Language and Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Milburn, Trelani; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between complex oral language and phonological awareness in the preschool years. Specifically, the authors investigate the relationship between concurrent measures of oral narrative structure (based on measures of both story retell and generation), and measures of blending and elision in a sample of 89 children…

  6. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  7. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Phoebe; Woodyatt, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Substantial research has detailed the reading deficits experienced by children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although phonological awareness (PA) is vital in reading development, little is known about PA in the DMD population. This pilot study describes the PA abilities of a group of five young children with DMD, comparing the results…

  8. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  9. Phonological Awareness Tasks as Predictors of Decoding Ability: Beyond Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchner, Orna; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Performance by 38 elementary reading-disabled and above-average readers was compared on a series of 6 measures of phonological awareness, including tests of ability to segment, blend, and manipulate phonemes. Results suggest that tasks requiring blending and manipulation of phonemes, in addition to segmentation, may predict decoding ability best.…

  10. The Development and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisero, Cheryl A.; Royer, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Whether phonological awareness skills develop in a specific pattern and whether they transfer to another language were studied in 2 experiments with 126 English- and Spanish- speaking kindergartners and 1st graders. Results indicated that cross-language transfer can be detected in skills that are still developing. (SLD)

  11. The Effect of a Phonological Awareness Intervention Program on Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Metaphonological Abilities of Preschool Children At-Risk for Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a phonological awareness intervention program on phonological memory, phonological sensitivity, and metaphonological abilities of preschool children at-risk for reading disabilities. The participants in this study were 40 preschool children selected from three preschools located within three…

  12. Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

  13. Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

  14. The Effects of Phonemic Awareness Drills on Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Performance in a Later Learned Alphabetic Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Rhea A.; Farrier, Merle J.; Paulson, Lucy Hart; Chu, Xianhua

    This study examined the effectiveness of phonemic awareness drills on phonological awareness and word reading performance in English of Mainland Chinese students in primary school. Employing a nonequivalent control group design, the research questions explored: (1) whether phonemic awareness drills promoted phonological awareness with the English…

  15. Phonological awareness and mathematical difficulty: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

    2010-03-01

    The present longitudinal study sought to investigate the impact of poor phonology on children's mathematical status. From a screening sample of 256 five-year-olds, 82 children were identified as either typically achieving (TA; N = 31), having comorbid poor phonology and mathematical difficulties (PDMD; N = 31), or having only poor phonology (phonological difficulty, PD; N = 20). Children were assessed on eight components of informal and formal mathematics achievement at ages 5-7 years. PD children were found to have significant impairments in some, mainly formal, components of mathematics by age 7 compared to TA children. Analysis also revealed that, by age 7, approximately half of the PD children met the criteria for PDMD, while the remainder exhibited less severe deficits in some components of formal mathematics. Children's mathematical performance at age 5, however, did not predict which PD children were more likely to become PDMD at age 7, nor did they differ in terms of phonological awareness at age 5. However, those PD children who later became PDMD had lower scores on verbal and non-verbal tests of general ability.

  16. Performance of School Age Reading Disabled Students on the Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…

  17. A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

  18. Unpacking Phonological Awareness: Comparing Treatment Outcomes for Low-Skilled Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    A study explored the construct of phonological awareness by examining the effects of different instructional treatments on the development of generalized phonological skills, reading, and spelling. The effect of phonological instruction with kindergarten children who might be expected to have more than average difficulty learning to read in first…

  19. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

  20. Effectiveness of an Integrated Phonological Awareness Approach for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Change in speech, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, word decoding, and spelling skills were examined. A controlled multiple single-subject design was employed. Twelve children aged 4-7 years with…

  1. Phonological Awareness: Explicit Instruction for Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation,…

  2. Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. Challenges in Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillon, Gail T.

    2007-01-01

    This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…

  3. Exploring Assessment Demands and Task Supports in Early Childhood Phonological Awareness Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina M.; Steiner, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    Phonological awareness is assessed in various ways in both research studies and early childhood classrooms. The measures used to assess phonological awareness are related closely, although they differ in the linguistic unit used (e.g., word, syllable, onset-rime, or phoneme), the position of the linguistic unit (e.g., initial, medial, final), the…

  4. The Development of Phonological Awareness by Braille Users: A Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…

  5. The Nature of Phonological Awareness throughout the Elementary Grades: An Item Response Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vloedgraven, Judith; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the nature of Dutch children's phonological awareness was examined throughout the elementary school grades. Phonological awareness was assessed using five different sets of items that measured rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, and phoneme deletion. A sample of 1405 children from…

  6. Screening of Phonological Awareness in the Early Elementary Grades: An IRT Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vloedgraven, Judith M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory…

  7. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

  8. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  9. Development and Evaluation of Game-Like Phonological Awareness Software for Kindergarteners: "JerenAli"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Günizi; Terziyan, Treysi

    2016-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to develop a game-like software application for phonological awareness training and to evaluate its role in improving phonological awareness skills at the kindergarten level, with the intention to eventually help reading acquisition in Turkish. The participants of the study came from two kindergarten classrooms in…

  10. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Are Associated with Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callu, D.; Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Jacquier-Roux, M.; Dellatolas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples…

  11. Temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M I R; Casali, R L; Boscariol, M; Lunardi, L L; Guerreiro, M M; Colella-Santos, M F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample.

  12. Phonological Awareness and Bilingual Preschoolers: Should We Teach It and, If So, How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent research on teaching phonological awareness skills to preschoolers as well as the benefits of different types of bilingual education. A more in-depth analysis of research on cross-language transfer of phonological awareness/metalinguistic skills follows. The major recommendation resulting from this review is…

  13. The Relationship between Prosodic Perception, Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary in Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…

  14. The role of phonological awareness in treatments of dyslexic primary school children.

    PubMed

    Pape-Neumann, Julia; Ermingen-Marbach, Muna van; Grande, Marion; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether phonological awareness training is an effective intervention to significantly improve reading in German dyslexic third and fourth graders with a phonological awareness deficit, and whether these children can equally benefit from a phonology-based reading training or a visually-based reading training. German speaking dyslexic elementary school children (n=30; M=9.8 years) were matched by forming triplets based on IQ, reading quotient and phonological awareness and then randomly assigned to one out of three interventions (n=10): a phonological awareness training, a phonology-based reading training (phonics instruction), and a visually-based reading training (repeated reading of sight words). A total of 20 training sessions (30 minutes each) were distributed over four weeks. Typical readers (n=10; M=9.5 years) were assigned to the control group. Phonological awareness training directly improves reading comprehension in German dyslexic children with a phonological awareness deficit. However, these children can equally benefit from a visually-based reading training. In contrast, the phonology-based reading training has a direct selective effect on decoding but not on reading comprehension. Despite divergent short-term patterns, long-term improvement of reading comprehension and decoding is similar across all training groups, irrespective of the training method. Phonological awareness may but does not need to be part of reading remediation in dyslexic children with a phonological deficit when learning to read a consistent orthography. Rather, a visually-based reading strategy might compensate for the phonological deficit in dyslexic children after the initial stage of reading acquisition.

  15. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

  16. On the Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Chinese Literacy Skills: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years.…

  17. Brain Basis of Phonological Awareness for Spoken Language in Children and Its Disruption in Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7–13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5–6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783

  18. The Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Training Intervention on Pre-Reading Skills of Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate the individual speech sounds that make up connected speech. Little information is reported on the acquisition of phonological awareness in special populations. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training intervention on pre-reading skills of…

  19. The Effects of Training in Music and Phonological Skills on Phonological Awareness in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children of Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Patscheke, Hanne; Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrant families often have great difficulties with language and disadvantages in schooling. Phonological problems appear especially common. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether music training has a positive effect on the phonological awareness in these children. The effects of a music program were compared with an established phonological skills program and with a sports control group. Preschoolers of immigrants (19 boys, 20 girls) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. All groups were trained three times a week for 20 min each, over a period of 14 weeks. Phonological awareness was tested prior to the beginning of the training and after the training phase. At the pre-test, no differences between the groups were found regarding phonological awareness and control variables (age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, language background, music experience). At the post-test, the music group and the phonological skills group showed a significant increase in phonological awareness of large phonological units. The effect size of the music training was larger compared to the phonological skills program. In contrast, the sports control group showed no significant increase in phonological awareness. The current results indicate that a music program could be used as an additional opportunity to promote phonological skills in children of immigrant families.

  20. The Effects of Training in Music and Phonological Skills on Phonological Awareness in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children of Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Patscheke, Hanne; Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrant families often have great difficulties with language and disadvantages in schooling. Phonological problems appear especially common. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether music training has a positive effect on the phonological awareness in these children. The effects of a music program were compared with an established phonological skills program and with a sports control group. Preschoolers of immigrants (19 boys, 20 girls) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. All groups were trained three times a week for 20 min each, over a period of 14 weeks. Phonological awareness was tested prior to the beginning of the training and after the training phase. At the pre-test, no differences between the groups were found regarding phonological awareness and control variables (age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, language background, music experience). At the post-test, the music group and the phonological skills group showed a significant increase in phonological awareness of large phonological units. The effect size of the music training was larger compared to the phonological skills program. In contrast, the sports control group showed no significant increase in phonological awareness. The current results indicate that a music program could be used as an additional opportunity to promote phonological skills in children of immigrant families. PMID:27818643

  1. Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language.

  2. Mimicking Accented Speech as L2 Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Joan C.; Rochdi, Youssef; Kivistö-de Souza, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Spanish-speaking learners' awareness of a non-distinctive phonetic difference between Spanish and English through a delayed mimicry paradigm. We assessed learners' speech production accuracy through voice onset time (VOT) duration measures in word-initial pre-vocalic /p t k/ in Spanish and English words, and in Spanish…

  3. Phonological Awareness and Emerging Reading Skills of Two- to Five-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    This study, conducted in Finnish private and Montessori child care centres, aimed at investigating the development of the phonological awareness (PA) of two- to five-year-old preschool children within a six-month period in relation to emerging letter knowledge and reading skills. The children (N = 72) performed five phonological tasks and a…

  4. Computer Administered Instruction in Phonological Awareness: Evaluation of the DaisyQuest Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kelli C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    DaisyQuest is a computer program that teaches and provides practice in synthetic and analytic phonological skills. Researchers found young children trained on DaisyQuest had significantly greater phonological awareness gains than children without training. Children trained on a more developed version significantly outperformed a matched group on…

  5. Phonological Awareness and Reading Speed Deficits in Reading Disabled Greek-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinidou, Maria; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that phonological awareness skills secure decoding ability and that phonological deficits underlie failure to acquire adequate word recognition. Slow word-reading rate may be an additional defining characteristic of reading disability. The present study aimed to investigate whether: (1) reading disabled (RD) Greek-speaking…

  6. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  7. Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit theory of…

  8. Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related to neural connectivity patterns underlying phonological awareness in children.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Kirsten, Holger; Kraft, Indra; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Neef, Nicole; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Emmrich, Frank; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia.

  9. Symbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Is as Important to Arithmetic as Phonological Awareness Is to Reading

    PubMed Central

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ansari, Daniel; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we tested, using a 1-year longitudinal design, whether symbolic numerical magnitude processing or children’s numerical representation of Arabic digits, is as important to arithmetic as phonological awareness is to reading. Children completed measures of symbolic comparison, phonological awareness, arithmetic, reading at the start of third grade and the latter two were retested at the start of fourth grade. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations indicated that symbolic comparison was a powerful domain-specific predictor of arithmetic and that phonological awareness was a unique predictor of reading. Crucially, the strength of these independent associations was not significantly different. This indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is as important to arithmetic development as phonological awareness is to reading and suggests that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a good candidate for screening children at risk for developing mathematical difficulties. PMID:26942935

  10. Phonological awareness intervention and attention efficiency in children at risk: evidence of effectiveness on visual attention.

    PubMed

    Porta, María Elsa; Carrada, Mariana Andrea; Ison, Mirta Susana

    2016-05-31

    Using a pretest and posttest comparison group design, this 20 weeks study investigated the effects of a phonological awareness training program (PATP) on attention efficiency (AE) in 57 children (age = 5 to 6 years) at risk. The experimental group received the PATP (EG; n=30). We obtained pretest and posttest measures of phonological awareness and AE. The ANOVA showed significant interaction effects of the PATP and time on phonological awareness and AE. For both groups, posttest AE score means were higher than pretest score means. Pretest measures showed that the AE score mean for the EG was lower than that for the Control Group (CG; n=31); whereas posttest data showed no between group differences. Contrast analysis showed that the EG gained a greater level of phonological awareness ability and AE over CG. Our results indicate that children's attention efficiency not only improved as they developed, but also increased by means of a PATP.

  11. Phonological awareness: explicit instruction for young deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness.

  12. The effects of spelling consistency on phonological awareness: a comparison of English and German.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha; Ziegler, Johannes C; Richardson, Ulla

    2005-12-01

    Within alphabetic languages, spelling-to-sound consistency can differ dramatically. For example, English and German are very similar in their phonological and orthographic structure but not in their consistency. In English the letter a is pronounced differently in the words bank, ball, and park, whereas in German the letter a always has the same pronunciation (e.g., Ball, Park, Bank). It is often argued that reading acquisition has a reciprocal effect on phonological awareness. As reading is acquired, therefore, spoken language representation may be affected differently for English and German children. Prior to literacy acquisition, however, phonological representation in English and German children should be similar due to the similar phonological structure of the two languages. We explored this hypothesis by comparing phonological awareness at the rime and phoneme levels in prereaders and beginning readers in English and German. Similar developmental effects were indeed observed in prereaders, but differential effects had emerged within the first year of reading instruction.

  13. Phonological awareness abilities of a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before and after speech therapy.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Suzana Aparecida; Fukuda, Marisa Tomoe Hebihara; Granzotti, Raphaela Barroso Guedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phonological awareness abilities of a child with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) before and after speech-language therapy. The participant was a 6-year-old girl, first-grade Elementary School student, with AIDS acquired by vertical transmission. The child's phonological awareness abilities were evaluated using the Instrument of Sequential Evaluation of Phonological Awareness (CONFIAS). After this first evaluation, a closed therapeutic program (15 sessions) for phonological awareness was developed, consisting of activities for syllabic and phonemic levels. The CONFIAS was reapplied in the last session in order to investigate therapy effectiveness. In the pre-therapy assessment, the child scored 18 points in syllable tasks and 1 point in phoneme tasks, with a total score of 19 points. In the post-therapy assessment, the child scored 26 points in syllable tasks and 11 points in phoneme tasks, with a total score of 37 points. This study allowed us to characterize the performance of a child with AIDS in tasks of phonological awareness and the effectiveness of the therapeutic program. The score obtained before therapy was much lower than expected for the child's age, and presented significant improvement after speech-language therapy. Thus, professionals working with this population must be aware of therapeutic programs that approach phonological processing abilities in addition to other aspects.

  14. Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Esther J; Flynn, Mark C

    2003-08-01

    Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5.6-8.10 years) participated in this investigation. Due to the paucity of standardised phonological awareness measures for children with special needs, in particular children with Down syndrome, a variety of tasks were adapted from the literature. The assessment battery examined the skills of phonological awareness, literacy, speech production, expressive language, hearing acuity, speech perception, and auditory-visual memory. The results suggest that children with Down syndrome are at risks for reading acquisition difficulties due to reduced phonological awareness skills. These deficits are in addition to delays caused by reduced cognitive skills. Only one of the participants was able to demonstrate rhyme awareness, which may have been due to task effects. Written word recognition ability was correlated with tests of phonemic awareness, and error analysis of the spelling and non-word reading tasks suggested grapheme-phoneme connections deficits. Further research is needed to determine the best methods of assessment and intervention for phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome.

  15. Auditory Middle Latency Response and Phonological Awareness in Students with Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Behavioral tests of auditory processing have been applied in schools and highlight the association between phonological awareness abilities and auditory processing, confirming that low performance on phonological awareness tests may be due to low performance on auditory processing tests. Objective To characterize the auditory middle latency response and the phonological awareness tests and to investigate correlations between responses in a group of children with learning disorders. Methods The study included 25 students with learning disabilities. Phonological awareness and auditory middle latency response were tested with electrodes placed on the left and right hemispheres. The correlation between the measurements was performed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results There is some correlation between the tests, especially between the Pa component and syllabic awareness, where moderate negative correlation is observed. Conclusion In this study, when phonological awareness subtests were performed, specifically phonemic awareness, the students showed a low score for the age group, although for the objective examination, prolonged Pa latency in the contralateral via was observed. Negative weak to moderate correlation for Pa wave latency was observed, as was positive weak correlation for Na-Pa amplitude. PMID:26491479

  16. Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…

  17. Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Nagy, William; Carlisle, Joanne

    2010-04-01

    Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one-derivation-continues to show substantial growth after fourth grade. Implications of the findings for the role of three kinds of linguistic awareness-phonological, orthographic, and morphological-in learning to read and spell words are discussed. A case is made that phonological awareness, while necessary, is not sufficient for learning to read English-all three kinds of linguistic awareness that are growing during the primary grades need to be coordinated and applied to literacy learning. This finding and a review of the research on linguistic awareness support the conclusion that the recommendations of the National Reading Panel need to be amended so that the research evidence supporting the importance of both orthographic and morphological awareness, and not only phonological awareness, is acknowledged. Moreover, evidence-based strategies for teaching each of these kinds of linguistic awareness and their interrelationships need to be disseminated to educational practitioners.

  18. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  19. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills In the Adult Basic Education Population

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  20. Bilingualism and Phonological Awareness: The Case of Bilingual (French-Occitan) Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Angelique; Martinot, Clara

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of linguistic awareness in children exposed to the early learning of a second language in Grades 3-5 of primary school, i.e. between the ages of 8 and 10. The aim was to determine whether this bilingual experience enhanced the development of phonological awareness in beginning readers in a bilingual…

  1. Implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Bowles, Ryan P

    2011-04-01

    The implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention were observed for mothers and their 4-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI). Mother-child dyads (n = 13) read books four times per week over 12 weeks; each book contained nine embedded phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Four hundred and ninety-eight book reading sessions were coded for three variables of interest: maternal support of concept development, quantity of maternal instructional support, and accuracy of children's responses to the PA tasks. Using growth curve modelling, results indicate that maternal support of concept development decreased over the course of the 12-week program, and the quantity of maternal supports changed considerably reflecting intra-individual differences among mothers. Both support of concept development and quantity of support decreased over the course of a given week. In addition, children's responses to the phonological awareness tasks significantly increased over the 12-week intervention. Overall, mothers did not provide support that consistently supported children's learning over time, and the increases in children's correct responses, although significant, were less than anticipated given the length of the intervention. These findings indicate that mothers may need additional supports when implementing emergent literacy programs with their children.

  2. Relationship of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness in Early Reading Development: Implications for the Double-Deficit Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 1,123 children investigated the relationship between naming speed and phonological awareness skills and the implications for the classification of children at risk of reading disability. Results found a positive correlation between naming speed and phonological awareness and indicate this relationship will affect any comparison…

  3. Relationship between the Phonological Awareness Skills and Writing Skills of the First Year Students at Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ozge

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the first year students at primary school. In the study, the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the students were measured at the beginning of the term. Students' writing skills were measured in the middle of…

  4. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  5. The Role of Music Perception in Predicting Phonological Awareness in Five- and Six-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathroum, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music perception in predicting phonological awareness in five- and six-year-old children. This study was based on the hypothesis that music perception and phonological awareness appear to have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms. Previous research investigating the relationship between these…

  6. Does a Dynamic Test of Phonological Awareness Predict Early Reading Difficulties? A Longitudinal Study From Kindergarten Through Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Gellert, Anna S; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-10-14

    A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness and letter knowledge to 160 children in the fall of kindergarten. Reading outcomes were studied at three test points: at the end of kindergarten, in the first half of Grade 1, and at the end of Grade 1. The results indicated that the dynamic test of phonological awareness contributed significantly to the prediction of children's reading development in kindergarten and the first half of Grade 1 after control for static phonological awareness and letter knowledge. However, the unique prediction value of the dynamic test of phonological awareness did not extend to the end of Grade 1.

  7. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  8. Is There a Causal Link from a Phonological Awareness Deficit to Reading Failure in Children at Familial Risk for Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomert, Leo; Willems, Gonny

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge that reading and phonological awareness are mainly reciprocally related has hardly influenced the status of a phonological awareness deficit as the main cause of a reading deficit in dyslexia. Because direct proofs for this theory are still lacking we investigated children at familial risk for dyslexia in kindergarten and first…

  9. Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

  10. Training Early Literacy Related Skills: To Which Degree Does a Musical Training Contribute to Phonological Awareness Development?

    PubMed Central

    Kempert, Sebastian; Götz, Regina; Blatter, Kristine; Tibken, Catharina; Artelt, Cordula; Schneider, Wolfgang; Stanat, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed phonological awareness skills are a core prerequisite for early literacy development. Although effective phonological awareness training programs exist, children at risk often do not reach similar levels of phonological awareness after the intervention as children with normally developed skills. Based on theoretical considerations and first promising results the present study explores effects of an early musical training in combination with a conventional phonological training in children with weak phonological awareness skills. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of 2 years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables. The sample included N = 424 German-speaking children aged 4–5 years at the beginning of the study. We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness. Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed. PMID:27899906

  11. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children With Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    PubMed

    Lemons, Christopher J; King, Seth A; Davidson, Kimberly A; Puranik, Cynthia S; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome would increase children's learning of phonological awareness, letter sounds, and words. Five children with Down syndrome, ages 6 to 8 years, participated in a multiple baseline across participants single case design experiment in which response to an adapted phonological awareness intervention was compared with response to the nonadapted program. Results indicate a functional relation between the adapted program and phonological awareness. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are provided.

  12. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  13. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873 PMID:26407242

  14. The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

  15. Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

  16. PA-EFL: A Phonological Awareness Program For Indigenous EFL Students with Hearing Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonovitz, L.; Yonovitz, A.; Palmer, Juan C.

    2000-01-01

    Australia's indigenous populations have endemic levels of otitis media with conductive hearing loss. PA-EFL is a phonological awareness program designed for indigenous Australians who are at high risk for hearing disabilities and who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Hearing support services were provided; remarkable literacy gains…

  17. Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

  18. Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Multilevel Construct Validation among Spanish-Speaking Kindergarteners in Transitional Bilingual Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Ortiz, Alba; Carlo, Maria; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The construct validity of English and Spanish phonological awareness (PA) tasks was examined with a sample of 812 kindergarten children from 71 transitional bilingual education program classrooms located in 3 different types of geographic regions in California and Texas. Tasks of PA, including blending nonwords, segmenting words, and phoneme…

  19. Using Instructional Technology to Improve Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Williams, Mira Cole; Ely, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers' understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called Content…

  20. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered…

  1. A Construct Validation Study of Phonological Awareness for Children Entering Prekindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…

  2. Development of a Test Battery for Assessing Phonological Awareness in German-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Blanca; Fricke, Silke; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Fox-Boyer, Annette V.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The development of phonological awareness (PA), the ability to reflect on the sound structure of words independent of their meaning, has been extensively explored in English-speaking children. However, this is not the case for other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive PA test battery for German-speaking preschool…

  3. Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

  4. Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

  5. Phonological Awareness and Types of Sound Errors in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…

  6. Promoting Phonological Awareness in Pre-Primary Education: Possibilities of the "Awakening to Languages" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Mónica; Andrade, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at evaluating and understanding the effects of an awakening to languages (AtL) programme, carried out with a group of 21 Portuguese children aged three to six, in the development of phonological awareness (PA). Using mixed-methods research, data was gathered from video recordings of seven AtL sessions and PA tests for an…

  7. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  8. Effects of Targeted Reading Instruction on Phonological Awareness and Phonic Decoding in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…

  9. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The…

  10. Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

    2010-01-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

  11. Working Memory and Phonological Awareness as Predictors of Progress towards Early Learning Goals at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Adams, Anne-Marie; Willis, Catherine; Eaglen, Rachel; Lamont, Emily

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether working memory skills of children are related to teacher ratings of their progress towards learning goals at the time of school entry, at 4 or 5 years of age. A sample of 194 children was tested on measures of working memory, phonological awareness, and non-verbal ability, in addition to the school-based baseline…

  12. Spanish Phonological Awareness: Dimensionality and Sequence of Development during the Preschool and Kindergarten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Duran, Lillian K.; Gillam, Sandra Laing; Liang, Lan; Aghara, Rachel; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Mike A.; Landry, Susan H.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the dimensionality and continuum of Spanish phonological awareness (PA) skills in 3- to 6-year-old children. A 3 x 4 factorial design crossed word structure of test items (word, syllable, phoneme) with task (blending multiple-choice, blending free-response, elision multiple-choice, elision free-response) to assess 12 PA…

  13. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  14. Relationships between Vocabulary Size, Working Memory, and Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…

  15. A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…

  16. Relationships between Reading Ability in Third Grade and Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships that exist between reading ability in 3rd grade and phonological awareness in kindergarten. A second purpose was to identify specific prereading skills that best predict later reading success. This study used a quantitative research design to answer the research questions posed. The…

  17. Cross-Language Correlates in Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed: Evidence from Deep and Shallow Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye Kyeong; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) skills in relation to reading acquisition were examined using two languages, one with a deep orthography (English) and the other with a shallow orthography (Korean). Participants were 50 Korean American children who spoke English as a dominant language (DL) and were learning to read…

  18. A Content Analysis of Phonological Awareness and Phonics in Commonly Used Head Start Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Gerde, Hope K.; Wright, Tanya S.; Samples-Steele, Chelsea R.

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used early childhood curricula were examined to consider the degree to which they support research-based instruction for phonological awareness (PA) and phonics. A content analysis was completed for two types of curricula widely used in Head Start: overarching general curricula and lesson-based curricula, which usually provide more…

  19. Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

  20. An Examination of the Relations between Oral Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina M.; Schickedanz, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a post hoc analysis conducted as part of a larger study in which 61 typically developing, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds were assessed in phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional), and grammatical skill at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months later. The larger study's purpose was to shed light…

  1. Phonological Awareness in Hebrew (L1) and English (L2) in Normal and Disabled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russak, Susie; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined cross-linguistic relationships between phonological awareness in L1 (Hebrew) and L2 (English) among normal (N = 30) and reading disabled (N = 30) Hebrew native speaking college students. Further, it tested the effect of two factors: the lexical status of the stimulus word (real word vs. pseudoword) and the linguistic…

  2. The Phonological Awareness Scale of Early Childhood Period (PASECP) Development and Psychometric Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…

  3. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  4. Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

  5. Development of Phonological Awareness in down Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis and Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) is the knowledge and understanding of the sound structure of language and is believed to be an important skill for the development of reading. This study explored PA skills in children with Down syndrome and matched typically developing (TD) controls using a dual approach: a meta-analysis of the existing international…

  6. Effects of a Tier 3 Phonological Awareness Intervention on Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention. Children…

  7. The Development of Phonological Awareness with Specific Language-Impaired and Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated kindergarten, preschool, and first-grade children who were typical or specific language impaired (SLI) to determine whether there were developmental differences in their phonological awareness abilities (i.e., syllable, onset/rime, phonemes). Results revealed a significant difference between children who were typical and…

  8. Phonological Awareness and Oral Reading Skill in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Iacono, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-two children (ages 6-10) with Down syndrome were tested for receptive language, cognitive function, oral reading, and phonological awareness. Re-assessment 9 months later found better oral reading was associated with superior phoneme segmentation skills. Also, early segmentation ability appeared to predict later nonword reading, but not the…

  9. The Role of Phonological Awareness Development in Young Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Ching-ning; Kao, Li-hua; Wei, Li

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a psycholinguistic study of the development of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese children acquiring their first language and learning a foreign language at the same time. The language situation of these children in relation to PA is of particular interest because Chinese and English have not only different…

  10. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

  11. Writing Development: A Neglected Variable in the Consideration of Phonological Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Sofia A.; Ferreiro, Emilia

    1999-01-01

    A study of Spanish-speaking kindergartners demonstrates that phonological awareness develops across levels and is related to writing development. Children's ability to benefit from phonics depends on their writing level. Encouraging writing in kindergarten and first grade can stimulate analysis of spoken words and smaller units. (SK)

  12. Classroom Phonological Awareness Instruction and Literacy Outcomes in the First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…

  13. Enhancing the Phonological Awareness and Language Skills of Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: An Interdisciplinary Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Beth; Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara; Thomas, Sian

    2007-01-01

    The research reported investigated the efficacy of intervention, developed by a speech-language therapist and implemented by a teacher, for the language and phonological awareness (PA) abilities of pre-school, socially disadvantaged children. One study established that children from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds had poorer skills on both…

  14. Phonological Awareness and Listening Comprehension among Chinese English-Immersion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…

  15. Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

  16. Emerging phonological awareness differentiates children with and without familial risk for dyslexia after controlling for general language skills.

    PubMed

    Puolakanaho, Anne; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2004-12-01

    Emerging phonological awareness was compared in two groups of 3.5-year-old children belonging to the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD): children with familial risk of dyslexia (at-risk group n = 98) and children without such risk (control group n = 91). Four computer animated tasks were used: Word-level and Syllable-level Segment Identification, Synthesis, and Continuation of Phonological Units. The control group children manifested higher mastery than children in the at-risk group in phonological awareness, and the proportion of children with a low phonological awareness mean score was 2.5 times higher in the at-risk group than in the control group. In both groups, phonological awareness at 3.5 years was predicted by early language skills assessed between 14 and 26 months of age, and it was also associated with concurrent language. The difference between the at-risk and control group at 3.5-year in phonological awareness remained significant, even when the effect of other language skills such as productive and receptive vocabulary, and mastery of inflections, measured both at earlier ages and concurrently were controlled for. Our findings indicate that familial risk for dyslexia is reliably reflected in emerging phonological awareness already at this early age and it can be assessed independently of other language skills.

  17. Private speech use in arithmetical calculation: contributory role of phonological awareness in children with and without mathematical difficulties.

    PubMed

    Ostad, Snorre A

    2013-01-01

    The majority of recent studies conclude that children's private speech development (private speech internalization) is related to and important for mathematical development and disabilities. It is far from clear, however, whether private speech internalization itself plays any causal role in the development of mathematical competence. The main concerns of the present study were whether phonological awareness skills relate to private speech internalization, and whether the answer to this question changes with children's age and mathematical achievement levels. Comparisons were made between 67 children diagnosed with math difficulties and 67 children without math difficulties from Grade 2 to Grade 7 in primary schools. Two separate laboratory investigations were performed to explore children's developmental levels of private speech and phonological awareness, respectively. Analysis was based on private speech differences, phonological awareness differences, and differences in occurrence of private-speech/phonological-awareness category combinations. Children without math difficulties showed a grade-determined shift from less to more internalized private speech and from lower to higher levels of phonological awareness. In contrast, the development of children with math difficulties seemed almost to stop at the inaudible private speech/low level of phonological awareness combinations. Silence/high phonological level was the primary alternative for typical math achievers. Results are discussed in terms of directions for future research.

  18. Importance of Speech Production for Phonological Awareness and Word Decoding: The Case of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…

  19. Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

  20. Do Bilingual Children Possess Better Phonological Awareness? Investigation of Korean Monolingual and Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether there are bilingual advantages in terms of phonological awareness (PA) for children acquiring two phonologically and orthographically different alphabetic languages and investigated the emergent literacy factors that explain variances in their PA, in comparison to monolingual children. The study participants comprised…

  1. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers.

  2. Follow-up study investigating the benefits of phonological awareness intervention for children with spoken language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Gail T

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of phonological awareness intervention for children at risk for reading disorder has received increasing attention in the literature. This paper reports the follow-up data for participants in the Gillon (2000a) intervention study. The performance of twenty, 5-7-year-old New Zealand children with spoken language impairment, who received phonological awareness intervention, was compared with the progress made by 20 children from a control group and 20 children with typical language development approximately 11 months post-intervention. The children with spoken language impairment all had expressive phonological difficulties and demonstrated delay in early reading development. Treatment effects on strengthening phoneme-grapheme connections in spelling development were also investigated. The results suggested that structured phonological awareness intervention led to sustained growth in phoneme awareness and word-recognition performance. At the follow-up assessment, the majority of the children who received intervention were reading at, or above, the level expected for their age on a measure of word recognition. The phonological awareness intervention also significantly strengthened phoneme-grapheme connections in spelling as evidenced by improved non-word spelling ability. In contrast, the control group of children with spoken language impairment who did not receive phonological awareness intervention showed remarkably little improvement in phoneme awareness over time and the majority remained poor readers. The results highlight the important role speech-language therapists can play in enhancing the early reading and spelling development of children with spoken language impairment.

  3. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  4. Phonological Awareness Intervention: Comparison of Fast Forword, Earobics, and Lips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorni, Judith L.; Worthington, Colleen K.; Jamison, Patricia J.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have found that training in phonemic awareness (PA), a fundamental element for reading acquisition, is effective in varying degrees, depending on characteristics of the audience. In this study, the authors explored the relative effectiveness of 3 programs--Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS. The authors randomly assigned 60 students with…

  5. The phonological awareness abilities of children with cerebral palsy who do not speak.

    PubMed

    Card, Ruth; Dodd, Barbara

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the importance of the connection between being able to speak and the emergence of phonological awareness abilities, the performance of children with cerebral palsy (five speakers and six non-speakers) was assessed at syllable, onset-rime, and phoneme levels. The children were matched with control groups of children for non-verbal intelligence. No group differences were found for the identification of syllables, reading non-words, or judging spoken rhyme. The children with cerebral palsy who could speak, however, performed better than the children with cerebral palsy who could not speak and the control group of children without disabilities, judging written words for rhyme. The children with cerebral palsy who could not speak performed poorly in comparison to those who could speak (but not the control group of children) when segmenting syllables and on the phoneme manipulation task. The findings suggest that non-speaking children with cerebral palsy have phonological awareness performance that varies according to the mental processing demands of the task. The ability to speak facilitates performance when phonological awareness tasks (written rhyme judgment, syllable segmentation, and phoneme manipulation) require the use of an articulatory loop.

  6. Phonological awareness and short-term memory in hearing and deaf individuals of different communication backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Koo, Daniel; Crain, Kelly; LaSasso, Carol; Eden, Guinevere F

    2008-12-01

    Previous work in deaf populations on phonological coding and working memory, two skills thought to play an important role in the acquisition of written language skills, have focused primarily on signers or did not clearly identify the subjects' native language and communication mode. In the present study, we examined the effect of sensory experience, early language experience, and communication mode on the phonological awareness skills and serial recall of linguistic items in deaf and hearing individuals of different communicative and linguistic backgrounds: hearing nonsigning controls, hearing users of ASL, deaf users of ASL, deaf oral users of English, and deaf users of cued speech. Since many current measures of phonological awareness skills are inappropriate for deaf populations on account of the verbal demands in the stimuli or response, we devised a nonverbal phonological measure that addresses this limitation. The Phoneme Detection Test revealed that deaf cuers and oral users, but not deaf signers, performed as well as their hearing peers when detecting phonemes not transparent in the orthography. The second focus of the study examined short-term memory skills and found that in response to the traditional digit span as well as an experimental visual version, digit-span performance was similar across the three deaf groups, yet deaf subjects' retrieval was lower than that of hearing subjects. Our results support the claim (Bavelier et al., 2006) that lexical items processed in the visual-spatial modality are not as well retained as information processed in the auditory channel. Together these findings show that the relationship between working memory, phonological coding, and reading may not be as tightly interwoven in deaf students as would have been predicted from work conducted in hearing students.

  7. Assessment of Arabic phonological awareness and its relation to word reading ability.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Ali, Rawhia; Abd El-Hamid, Haidy

    2016-12-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) is one of the most important components in the development of normal reading ability. It refers to the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structure of words independently of their meaning. The current study aimed to assess Arabic PA skills and the relation to word reading abilities in Egyptian Arabic-speaking children. The designed assessment was applied to 80 typically developing children, divided into two subgroups ranging in age from 5 years 6 months to 8 years 6 months. The design of assessment involved six PA tasks covering three levels: rhyme awareness, syllabic awareness, and phonemic awareness, as well as the assessment of reading abilities that include real word and nonsense word reading tasks. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation), Student's t tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were used to analyze the data. The reliability of the test was proven using the test-retest procedure. Validity of the test was estimated through internal consistency validity. The results revealed that the Arabic PA assessment test (APAAT) proved to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing Arabic reading skills. Findings from the study provided important insights into the developmental patterns of Arabic PA. In addition, the findings revealed a strong relationship between phonological awareness skills and the proficiency in word reading abilities in Arabic school-aged children.

  8. Phonological awareness and decoding in deaf/hard-of-hearing students who use visual phonics.

    PubMed

    Narr, Rachel F

    2008-01-01

    Visual phonics, a system of 45 hand and symbol cues that represent the phonemes of spoken English, has been used as a tool in literacy instruction with deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) students for over 20 years. Despite years of anecdotal support, there is relatively little published evidence of its impact on reading achievement. This study was designed to examine the relationship between performance on a phonological awareness task, performance on a decoding task, reading ability, and length of time in literacy instruction with visual phonics for 10 DHH kindergarten through Grade 3 students receiving academic instruction with sign-supported English and American Sign Language. Findings indicate that these students were able to use phonological information to make rhyme judgments and to decode; however, no relationship between performance on reading ability and length of time in literacy instruction with visual phonics was found.

  9. Phonological Accuracy and Intelligibility in Connected Speech of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Martin, Gary E.; Berni, Mary C.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Sideris, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the phonological accuracy and speech intelligibility of boys with fragile X syndrome with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD), fragile X syndrome only (FXS-O), Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method: Participants were 32 boys with FXS-O (3-14 years), 31 with FXS-ASD (5-15 years), 34 with DS (4-16 years),…

  10. The development of phonological representations in Mandarin-speaking children: Evidence from a longitudinal study of phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Li-Li; Wells, Bill; Stackhouse, Joy; Szczerbinski, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Two competing approaches to the analysis of the phonological structure of Mandarin syllables have been put forward. The first and more traditional approach is that a syllable can be segmented into initial consonant, medial glide, nucleus plus coda and tone. The second approach does not distinguish the non-compulsory medial glide as an independent element. To compare and evaluate these two different approaches, the development of phoneme-level awareness was investigated in 67 Mandarin-speaking children in Year 1 of school (mean age: 6;9) and Year 5 (mean age: 10;1). Results showed that at school entry some children were sensitive to glides and to a lesser extent to codas; their number increased by Year 5. This suggests that spoken language experience is enough for some children to acquire the representation of glides and codas; this is consistent with the traditional model of the Mandarin syllable, with both glides and codas as independent elements. However, the children's task performance was generally rather poor, even in Year 5, suggesting that development of phonemic sensitivity in Mandarin speaking children is not substantially improved by increased literacy experience.

  11. Is there a causal link from a phonological awareness deficit to reading failure in children at familial risk for dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Blomert, Leo; Willems, Gonny

    2010-11-01

    The knowledge that reading and phonological awareness are mainly reciprocally related has hardly influenced the status of a phonological awareness deficit as the main cause of a reading deficit in dyslexia. Because direct proofs for this theory are still lacking we investigated children at familial risk for dyslexia in kindergarten and first grade. The familial risk was genuine; 40% developed reading deficits in first grade. However, we did not find any relationship between a phonological awareness or other phonological processing deficits in kindergarten and reading deficits in first grade. Finally, we did not find evidence for the claim that a phonological awareness deficit assumedly causes a reading deficit via 'unstable' or otherwise corrupted letter-speech sound associations. Although earlier research indicated letter knowledge as another significant determinant of later reading deficits, we found no support for this claim. Letter knowledge learning and learning to associate and integrate letters and speech sound are different processes and only problems in the latter process seem directly linked to the development of a reading deficit. The nature of this deficit and the impact it might have on multisensory processing in the whole reading network presents a major challenge to future reading and dyslexia research.

  12. Development of Phonological Awareness in English-Mandarin Bilinguals: A Comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…

  13. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60 months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills.

  14. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

  15. Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

  16. Importance of speech production for phonological awareness and word decoding: the case of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech Perception, Speech Production and Nonverbal Reasoning were considered reading precursors. Children with cerebral palsy lag behind on all reading precursors at the beginning of the second year of kindergarten. For the children without disabilities, early reading skills in Grade 1 were best predicted by Phonological Awareness and Phonological STM while Speech Production was the most important predictor of early reading success for the children with cerebral palsy, followed by Phonological Awareness and Speech Perception. Furthermore, for children with cerebral palsy, Speech Production appears to dominate reading development, as Speech Production measured at the beginning of the second year of kindergarten was strongly predictive of all other reading precursors measured at the end of the second year of kindergarten. The results of this study reveal that children with cerebral palsy with additional speech impairments are at risk for limited literacy development. Clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological…

  18. Children's Expressive Language Skills and Their Impact on the Relation between First-and Second-Language Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…

  19. Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

  20. The Importance of Phonological Awareness for the Development of Early English Reading Skills among Bilingual Singaporean Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…

  1. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  2. Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

  3. Teaching Phonological Awareness and Metacognitive Strategies to Children with Reading Difficulties: A Comparison of Two Instructional Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Judith; Jacobs, Barrie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an applied training study investigating the differential effect of two instructional methods on the reading performance of British primary school children with reading difficulties. Explains that children ages 7 to 10 (n=65) were separated into two groups: (1) based on different types of phonological awareness instruction, and (2) a…

  4. Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

  5. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  6. The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

  7. The Use of a Dynamic Screening of Phonological Awareness to Predict Risk for Reading Disabilities in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Catts, Hugh W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness and predictive validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness in two samples of kindergarten children. In one sample (n = 90), the predictive validity of the dynamic assessment was compared to a static version of the same screening measure. In the second sample (n = 96), the dynamic screening measure…

  8. Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

  9. Articulation Rate, Naming Speed, Verbal Short-Term Memory, and Phonological Awareness: Longitudinal Predictors of Early Reading Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.; McQuarrie, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how measures of articulation rate, verbal short-term memory (STM), naming speed, and phonological awareness tasks administered in kindergarten and again in Grade 1 jointly and uniquely predict word reading and passage comprehension variance in Grades 1, 2, and 3. Results from regression and commonality analyses indicated that…

  10. Morphological Awareness and Children's Writing: Accuracy, Error, and Invention.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's morphological awareness and their ability to produce accurate morphological derivations in writing. Fifth-grade U.S. students (n = 175) completed two writing tasks that invited or required morphological manipulation of words. We examined both accuracy and error, specifically errors in spelling and errors of the sort we termed morphological inventions, which entailed inappropriate, novel pairings of stems and suffixes. Regressions were used to determine the relationship between morphological awareness, morphological accuracy, and spelling accuracy, as well as between morphological awareness and morphological inventions. Linear regressions revealed that morphological awareness uniquely predicted children's generation of accurate morphological derivations, regardless of whether or not accurate spelling was required. A logistic regression indicated that morphological awareness was also uniquely predictive of morphological invention, with higher morphological awareness increasing the probability of morphological invention. These findings suggest that morphological knowledge may not only assist children with spelling during writing, but may also assist with word production via generative experimentation with morphological rules during sentence generation. Implications are discussed for the development of children's morphological knowledge and relationships with writing.

  11. Teachers' perceptions of promoting sign language phonological awareness in an ASL/English bilingual program.

    PubMed

    Crume, Peter K

    2013-10-01

    The National Reading Panel emphasizes that spoken language phonological awareness (PA) developed at home and school can lead to improvements in reading performance in young children. However, research indicates that many deaf children are good readers even though they have limited spoken language PA. Is it possible that some deaf students benefit from teachers who promote sign language PA instead? The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine teachers' beliefs and instructional practices related to sign language PA. A thematic analysis is conducted on 10 participant interviews at an ASL/English bilingual school for the deaf to understand their views and instructional practices. The findings reveal that the participants had strong beliefs in developing students' structural knowledge of signs and used a variety of instructional strategies to build students' knowledge of sign structures in order to promote their language and literacy skills.

  12. Development of phonological awareness in Down syndrome: A meta-analysis and empirical study.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B

    2016-02-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) is the knowledge and understanding of the sound structure of language and is believed to be an important skill for the development of reading. This study explored PA skills in children with Down syndrome and matched typically developing (TD) controls using a dual approach: a meta-analysis of the existing international literature and a longitudinal empirical study. The results from both the meta-analysis and the empirical study showed that the children with Down syndrome initially had weaker PA skills compared to the controls; in particular, the awareness of rhyme was delayed. The longitudinal empirical data indicated that, as a result of formal education, the children with Down syndrome exhibited greater improvement on all PA measures compared with the controls who had not yet entered school. The results reach significance for rhyme awareness. With respect to dimensionality, the performance of the children with Down syndrome loaded on 1 factor, whereas the performance of the younger TD controls was multidimensional. In sum, these findings underline the need for studies that compare interventions designed especially to stimulate development of PA in this group of children and to provide insight into the underlying causes of the developmental profile of children with Down syndrome.

  13. Dialect Variation and Phonological Knowledge: Phonological Representations and Metalinguistic Awareness among Beginning Readers who Speak Nonmainstream American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    Children's spoken nonmainstream American English (NMAE) dialect use and their knowledge about phonological representations of word pronunciations were assessed in a sample of 105 children in kindergarten through second grade. Children were given expressive and receptive tasks with dialect-sensitive stimuli. Students who produced many NMAE…

  14. Phonological Process and Accuracy Measures in Typically Developing Punjabi Speaking Children between 3-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…

  15. Morphological awareness as a function of semantics, phonology, and orthography and as a predictor of reading comprehension in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Dronjic, Vedran; Chen, X I; Li, Yixun; Cheng, Yahua; Wu, Xinchun

    2016-11-16

    This study investigates the contributions of semantic, phonological, and orthographic factors to morphological awareness of 413 Chinese-speaking students in Grades 2, 4, and 6, and its relationship with reading comprehension. Participants were orally presented with pairs of bimorphemic compounds and asked to judge whether the first morphemes of the words shared a meaning. Morpheme identity (same or different), whole-word semantic relatedness (high or low), orthography (same or different), and phonology (same or different) were manipulated. By Grade 6, children were able to focus on meaning similarities across morphemes while ignoring the distraction of form, but they remained influenced by whole-word semantic relatedness. Children's ability to overcome the distraction of phonology consistently improved with age, but did not reach ceiling, whereas the parallel ability for orthography reached ceiling at Grade 6. Morphological judgment performance was a significant unique predictor of reading comprehension when character naming and vocabulary knowledge were accounted for.

  16. The Effectiveness of Explicit Individualized Phonemic Awareness Instruction by a Speech-Language Pathologist to Preschool Children with Phonological Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nullman, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy…

  17. Large grain instruction and phonological awareness skill influence rime sensitivity, processing speed, and early decoding skill in adult L2 learners

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Christine; Booth, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Linguistic knowledge, cognitive ability, and instruction influence how adults acquire a second orthography yet it remains unclear how different forms of instruction influence grain size sensitivity and subsequent decoding skill and speed. Thirty-seven monolingual, literate English-speaking adults were trained on a novel artificial orthography given initial instruction that directed attention to either large or small grain size units (i.e., words or letters). We examined how initial instruction influenced processing speed (i.e., reaction time (RT)) and sensitivity to different orthographic grain sizes (i.e., rimes and letters). Directing attention to large grain size units during initial instruction resulted in higher accuracy for rimes, whereas directing attention to smaller grain size units resulted in slower RTs across all measures. Additionally, phonological awareness skill modulated early learning effects, compensating for the limitations of the initial instruction provided. Collectively, these findings suggest that when adults are learning to read a second orthography, consideration should be given to how initial instruction directs attention to different grain sizes and inherent phonological awareness ability. PMID:27829705

  18. Large grain instruction and phonological awareness skill influence rime sensitivity, processing speed, and early decoding skill in adult L2 learners.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christine; Booth, James R

    2015-09-01

    Linguistic knowledge, cognitive ability, and instruction influence how adults acquire a second orthography yet it remains unclear how different forms of instruction influence grain size sensitivity and subsequent decoding skill and speed. Thirty-seven monolingual, literate English-speaking adults were trained on a novel artificial orthography given initial instruction that directed attention to either large or small grain size units (i.e., words or letters). We examined how initial instruction influenced processing speed (i.e., reaction time (RT)) and sensitivity to different orthographic grain sizes (i.e., rimes and letters). Directing attention to large grain size units during initial instruction resulted in higher accuracy for rimes, whereas directing attention to smaller grain size units resulted in slower RTs across all measures. Additionally, phonological awareness skill modulated early learning effects, compensating for the limitations of the initial instruction provided. Collectively, these findings suggest that when adults are learning to read a second orthography, consideration should be given to how initial instruction directs attention to different grain sizes and inherent phonological awareness ability.

  19. Clinical Appraisal of Spelling Ability and Its Relationship to Phonemic Awareness (Blending, Segmenting, Elision, and Reversal), Phonological Memory, and Reading in Reading Disabled, ADHD, and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Judith M.; Hynd, George W.; Knight, Deborah F.; Hall, Josh; Hiemenz, Jennifer R.

    2000-01-01

    Tests 78 children (8- to 12-year-olds) on cognitive, linguistic, academic, phonemic awareness, and memory ability. Explores the relationship between phonemic awareness, phonological memory, reading and spelling. Finds that phonemic awareness tasks are significantly correlated with reading decoding and spelling measures with slightly higher…

  20. Language Structures Used by Kindergartners with Cochlear Implants: Relationship to Phonological Awareness, Lexical Knowledge and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Sansom, Emily; Low, Keri; Rice, Caitlin; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Listeners use their knowledge of how language is structured to aid speech recognition in everyday communication. When it comes to children with congenital hearing loss severe enough to warrant cochlear implants (CIs), the question arises of whether these children can acquire the language knowledge needed to aid speech recognition, in spite of only having spectrally degraded signals available to them. That question was addressed in the current study. Specifically there were three goals: (1) to compare the language structures used by children with CIs to those of children with normal hearing (NH); (2) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness and lexical knowledge; and (3) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by factors related to the hearing loss itself and subsequent treatment. Design Language samples were obtained and transcribed for 40 children who had just completed kindergarten: 19 with NH and 21 with CIs. Five measures were derived from Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT): (1) mean length of utterance in morphemes, (2) number of conjunctions, excluding and, (3) number of personal pronouns, (4) number of bound morphemes, and (5) number of different words. Measures were also collected on phonological awareness and lexical knowledge. Statistics examined group differences, as well as the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness, lexical knowledge, and factors related to hearing loss and its treatment for children with CIs. Results Mean scores of children with CIs were roughly one standard deviation below those of children with NH on all language measures, including lexical knowledge, matching outcomes of other studies. Mean scores of children with CIs were closer to two standard deviations below those of children with NH on two out of three measures of phonological awareness (specifically those related to phonemic

  1. Phonological awareness and language intervention in preschoolers from low socio-economic backgrounds: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Meghan; Arnott, Wendy; McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the literacy outcomes for children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds who had received specific whole-class phonological awareness (PA) and language intervention in preschool. The participants were 57 children who had been involved in the original intervention study. Their PA skills, letter-sound knowledge, real word and non-word spelling and reading comprehension were assessed in Grade 2. The results indicated that children who had received intervention in preschool performed similarly to the children who had not received intervention. The gains made in PA and language skills post intervention had failed to augment further literacy development. A post hoc examination of individual student profiles, however, revealed that a subgroup of children who had received intervention had maintained their enhanced performance and that the intervention cohort had similar scores on tests of PA ability to their age-matched peers in the population. It was concluded that whole-class, teacher-delivered, PA and language intervention, while effective in the short term, does not lead to a generalized improvement in literacy skills in Grade 2. Possible reasons for the failure of the program to produce medium term gains are discussed.

  2. Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Rachel I; del Giudice, Alex A; Lieberman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found statistically significant evidence for PCA skills and half did not. A subset of 25 studies also tested reading proficiency and showed a wide range of effect sizes. Overall PCA skills predicted 11% of the variance in reading proficiency in the deaf participants. Other possible modulating factors, such as task type and reading grade level, did not explain the remaining variance. In 7 studies where it was measured, language ability predicted 35% of the variance in reading proficiency. These meta-analytic results indicate that PCA skills are a low to moderate predictor of reading achievement in deaf individuals and that other factors, most notably language ability, have a greater influence on reading development, as has been found to be the case in the hearing population.

  3. Evaluation of a Motion-Based Platform for Practicing Phonological Awareness of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffredo, Michela; Bernabucci, Ivan; Lucarelli, Cristiana; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; Nera, Maria Matilde; Lopez, Luisa; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Grasselli, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new platform, called "En Plein", for the kinesthetic practice of phonological skills by preschool children and to examine its feasibility in combination with more traditional teaching methods. The rationale is that the manipulation of structural phonological units is important to train the…

  4. Relationships between Nonword Repetition Accuracy and Other Measures of Linguistic Development in Children with Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research has documented effects of phonotactic probability on young children's nonword repetition. This study extends this research in 2 ways. First, it compares nonword repetitions by 40 young children with phonological disorders with those by 40 same-age peers with typical phonological development on a nonword repetition task…

  5. Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

  6. Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Word Reading in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants: Does Age of Implantation Explain Individual Variability in Performance Outcomes and Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…

  7. Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20161557

  8. Development of phonological awareness in English-Mandarin bilinguals: a comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Stephanie H M; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2012-06-01

    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed.

  9. Exploring the Impact of Phonological Awareness, Visual-Spatial Working Memory, and Preschool Quantity--Number Competencies on Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School: Findings from a 3-year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at…

  10. Measuring Early Spanish Literacy: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…

  11. A Comparison of Phonemic and Phonological Awareness in Educators Working with Children Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2013-01-01

    The Researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both…

  12. Effects of English Cued Speech on Speech Perception, Phonological Awareness and Literacy: A Case Study of a 9-Year-Old Deaf Boy Using a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Rachel; Bladel, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that French Cued Speech (CS) can enhance lipreading and the development of phonological awareness and literacy in deaf children but, as yet, there is little evidence that these findings can be generalized to English CS. This study investigated the possible effects of English CS on the speech perception, phonological…

  13. Effects of Coaching on Educators' and Preschoolers' Use of References to Print and Phonological Awareness during a Small-Group Craft/Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated the effects of coaching as part of an emergent literacy professional development program to increase early childhood educators' use of verbal references to print and phonological awareness during interactions with children. Method: Thirty-one educators and 4 children from each of their classrooms (N = 121)…

  14. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) was investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230…

  15. Lexical Characteristics of Spanish and English Words and the Development of Phonological Awareness Skills in Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The lexical restructuring model (LRM) is a theory that attempts to explain the developmental origins of phonological awareness (PA). According to the LRM, various characteristics of words should be related to the extent to which words are segmentally represented in the lexicon. Segmental representations of words allow children to access the parts…

  16. Small-Group Phonological Awareness Training for Pre-Kindergarten Children with Hearing Loss Who Wear Cochlear Implants and/or Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Douglas, Michael; Ackal, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This case report details a year-long phonological awareness (PA) intervention for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss (CHL) who use listening and spoken language. All children wore cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Intervention occurred for 15 min/day, 4 days per week across the pre-kindergarten school year and was delivered by…

  17. The Effects of Phonological Awareness of Zulu-Speaking Children Learning to Spell in English: A Study of Cross-Language Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…

  18. The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

  19. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  20. Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European Portuguese orthography.

    PubMed

    Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

    2015-02-01

    This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N=24; aged 10-12 years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N=24; aged 10-12 years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N=24; aged 7-9 years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency.

  1. Specific reading difficulties in Chinese, English, or both: longitudinal markers of phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and RAN in Hong Kong Chinese children.

    PubMed

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Phil D; Wong, Terry; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    What are the longitudinal cognitive profiles of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific reading difficulties in Chinese only, in English only, or both? A total of 16 poor readers each of Chinese (PC) and English (PE) and 8 poor readers of both orthographies (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 16 children; all were drawn from a statistically representative sample of 154 Hong Kong Chinese children tested at ages 5 to 9 years. PE and PB children's mothers had lower education levels than did the other groups. With children's ages and mothers' education levels statistically controlled, the PE, PC, and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phonological awareness. The PB and PE groups also scored significantly lower than the others on English vocabulary across years, whereas the PC and PB groups were significantly poorer than the C and PE groups on morphological awareness across years. Finally, the PB group was significantly slower than the other groups on speed naming at every age tested, underscoring the potential importance of automaticity in reading across orthographies. Findings highlight the need to consider the issue of how to identify reading difficulties in a second language.

  2. Overall Accuracy of Children's Awareness of Peer Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Christine D.

    Recent research has noted the importance of being able to correctly interpret social situations in order to respond appropriately in social interactions. This study examined whether social perception--accurate awareness of peers' perceptions--is a global trait or a context-specific ability. Specifically, the study examined individual differences…

  3. The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and the Development of Orthographic Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Maureen; Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between phoneme segmentation ability and the development of orthographic representations. Finds that children who were most well equipped to perform phoneme segmentation tasks acquired the new reading vocabulary significantly faster than those who were less phonemically aware. Provides strong support for the thesis…

  4. Awareness-Raising in the TEFL Phonology Classroom: Student Voices and Sociocultural and Psychological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on two phases of a study of a group of advanced TEFL (teachers-of-English-as-a-foreign-language) students. To raise their awareness of the importance of discourse intonation while they were receiving teacher training, this study focuses on examining their sociocultural and psychological inclinations in the choice of phonological…

  5. Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

    2013-01-01

    Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

  6. Predicting reading outcomes in the classroom using a computer-based phonological awareness screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA).

    PubMed

    Carson, Karyn; Boustead, Therese; Gillon, Gail

    2014-12-01

    The screening and monitoring of phonological awareness (PA) in the classroom is of great importance to the early identification and prevention of reading disorder. This study investigated whether a time-efficient computer-based PA screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA) could accurately predict end-of-year reading outcomes for 5-year-old children in the first year of schooling. A longitudinal design was employed where the Com-PASMA was used to measure the PA ability of 95 5-year-old children at the start, middle, and end of the first year of school. Of this group, 21 children presented with spoken language impairment. Reading outcomes were formally measured after 1 year of schooling. School-entry measures of PA using the Com-PASMA (p < .001), in conjunction with language ability (p = .004), accounted for 68.9% of the variance in end-of-year word decoding ability. Sensitivity and specificity calculations demonstrated that the Com-PASMA was 92% accurate at school-entry, and 94% accurate by the middle of the school year in predicting reading outcomes at 6-years of age. Results suggest that a time-efficient computer-based method of screening and monitoring PA can support the early identification of reading difficulties in the first year of schooling.

  7. Quantifying the relative contributions of lexical and phonological factors to regular past tense accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Owen Van Horne, Amanda J.; Green Fager, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) frequently have difficulty producing the past tense. This study aimed to quantify the relative influence of telicity (i.e., the completedness of an event), verb frequency, and stem final phonemes on the production of past tense by school-age children with SLI and their typically-developing (TD) peers. Method Archival elicited production data from children with SLI between the ages of 6 and 9 and TD peers ages 4 to 8 were reanalyzed. Past tense accuracy was predicted using measures of telicity, verb frequency measures, and properties of the final consonant of the verb stem. Result All children were highly accurate when verbs were telic, the inflected form was frequently heard in the past tense, and the word ended in a sonorant/ non-alveolar consonant. All children were less accurate when verbs were atelic, rarely heard in the past tense, or ended in a word final obstruent or alveolar consonant. SLI status depressed overall accuracy rates, but did not influence how facilitative a given factor was. Conclusion Some factors that have been believed to be useful only when children are first discovering past tense, such as telicity, appear to be influential in later years as well. PMID:25879455

  8. An exploratory study of phonological awareness and working memory differences and literacy performance of people that use AAC.

    PubMed

    Gómez Taibo, María Luisa; Vieiro Iglesias, Pilar; González Raposo, María del Salvador; Sotillo Méndez, María

    2010-11-01

    Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed.

  9. Morphological Awareness and Children's Writing: Accuracy, Error, and Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's morphological awareness and their ability to produce accurate morphological derivations in writing. Fifth-grade US students (n = 175) completed two writing tasks that invited or required morphological manipulation of words. We examined both accuracy and error, specifically errors in…

  10. Exploring the impact of phonological awareness, visual-spatial working memory, and preschool quantity-number competencies on mathematics achievement in elementary school: findings from a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at 5 years of age, was mediated by early QNC, which predicted math achievement in third grade. Importantly, and confirming our isolated number words hypothesis, phonological awareness had no impact on higher numerical competencies (i.e., when number words needed to be linked with quantities [QNC Level II and above]) but predicted basic numerical competencies (i.e., when number words were isolated from quantities [QNC Level I]), explaining the moderate relationship between early literacy development and the development of mathematical competencies.

  11. A Latent Variable Investigation of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening-Kindergarten Assessment: Construct Identification and Multigroup Comparisons between Spanish-Speaking English-Language Learners (ELLs) and Non-ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Konold, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarten (PALS-K) instrument were investigated in a sample of 2844 first-time public school kindergarteners. PALS-K is a widely used English literacy screening assessment. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a theoretically defensible measurement structure that was…

  12. Phonological Spelling and Reading Deficits in Children with Spelling Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Friend, Angela; Olson, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    Spelling errors in the Wide Range Achievement Test were analyzed for 77 pairs of children, each of which included one older child with spelling disability (SD) and one spelling-level-matched younger child with normal spelling ability from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center database. Spelling error analysis consisted of a percent graphotactic-accuracy (GA) score based on syllable position and existence in English, and a phonological accuracy score (PA). The SD group scored significantly worse in the PA measure, and non-significantly better than controls on the GA measure. The group by measure interaction was significant. Spelling matched pairs had very similar scores for word recognition and orthographic coding, but the SD group exhibited significant deficits in reading measures of phonological decoding and in language measures of phonological awareness.

  13. A comparison of phonemic and phonological awareness in educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    The researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both respondent groups demonstrated gaps in PA knowledge and skills; however, SLPs performed significantly better, on average, than TODs. The educators expressed feelings of moderate confidence in their skills related to teaching children with hearing loss and assessing their PA. Correlations between educator demographics or levels of confidence and educator performance on PA measures did not yield significant findings. The results underscore the need for improved personnel preparation and PA continuing education for educators supporting literacy education of children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

  14. Investigating the relationship between interoceptive accuracy, interoceptive awareness, and emotional susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Giuseppe; Ambrosini, Ettore; Picconi, Laura; Mehling, Wolf E.; Committeri, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    Interoception, the sense of the physiological condition of the body, provides a basis for subjective feelings and emotions. Anterior insular cortex activity represents the state of the body and varies according to personality traits, such as emotional susceptibility (ES)—the tendency to experience feelings of discomfort and vulnerability when facing emotionally-laden stimuli. The accuracy of perceiving one's own bodily signals, or interoceptive accuracy (IAc), can be assessed with the heartbeat perception task (HPT), which is the experimental measure used by most of the existing research on interoception. However, IAc is only one facet of interoception. Interoceptive awareness (IAw) is the conscious perception of sensations from inside the body, such as heart beat, respiration, satiety, and the autonomic nervous system sensations related to emotions, which create the sense of the physiological condition of the body. We developed an Italian version of the recent self-report Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), tested its psychometric properties (reliability, dimensionality, and construct validity), and examined its relationship to ES, as assessed using the Emotional Susceptibility Scale, in a sample (n = 321) of healthy Italian psychology students (293 females, mean age: 20.5 years). In a subgroup of females (n = 135), we measured IAc with the HPT. We used a series of correlation/regression analyses to examine the complex interplay between the three constructs. We provide further evidence for a substantial independence of the IAc and IAw measures, confirming previous reports and current theoretical models that differentiate between IAc and IAw. Our analyses elucidate the complex relationship between distinct dimensions of IAw and ES, highlighting the need for continued efforts to shed more light on this topic. PMID:26379571

  15. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience.

  16. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible “interventions,” or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  17. Phonological Skills in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

  18. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion; Speech disorder - phonological ... of the muscles and bones that make speech sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

  19. Impaired stress awareness in Spanish children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-02-01

    The role of segmental phonology in developmental dyslexia (DD) is well established (e.g., deficit in phonological awareness), but the role of suprasegmental phonology (prosody) has been less widely investigated. Stress is one of the main prosodic features and refers to the relative prominence of syllables (strong/weak) within a word. The aim of the present study is to examine stress awareness in children with dyslexia and the possible mediation of phonemic awareness on suprasegmental phonological skills. Thirty-one Spanish children with DD and 31 chronological age-control children participated. Two stress awareness tasks were administrated, one with words and another with pseudowords. Results show that the children with dyslexia performed more poorly on both tasks than control children. The pattern of results in accuracy and reaction time suggest that, while children without difficulties use different strategies depending on the type of item, the children with dyslexia employ the same strategy to resolve the two tasks without any benefit of lexical knowledge about stress. Even so, this strategy did not work so efficiently as it did in the control group, which led the group with dyslexia to make a greater number of mistakes. It was also found that, when phonemic awareness was entered as a covariate, accuracy differences disappeared, but only in the word stress task. However, when lexical knowledge was not necessary (as in the pseudoword stress task) differences still remained statistically significant. Implications on the importance of suprasegmental processing in reading acquisition disabilities are discussed.

  20. Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Spanish-speaking Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M., McDonald, Renee; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah , Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was…

  1. Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Younger and Older Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; McDonald, Renee; Francis, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each…

  2. Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

  3. Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)

  4. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual impairment. This study examined the literacy profile of FXS and tested phonological awareness and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms as predictors of literacy. Methods Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental-age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Results Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Conclusion Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

  5. Examining the Effects of PASS Cognitive Processes on Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaochen; Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) processes to Chinese reading accuracy and fluency. One-hundred-forty Grade 3 to 5 Mandarin-speaking children were assessed on measures of PASS processes, phonological awareness, and orthographic knowledge. A year later they were…

  6. Phonological iconicity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

  7. Phonological Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA.

  8. Phonological processing in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.L.; Wilson, S.M.; Babiak, M.C.; Mandelli, M.L; Beeson, P.M.; Miller, Z.A.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological short-term memory impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs amongst PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  9. Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Acquisition in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Gonzalez, Maria del Rosario Ortiz

    2000-01-01

    Investigated metalinguistic awareness in learning to read Spanish, focusing on print awareness, phonological awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension. Studies of 136 preliterate Spanish children indicated a relationship between phonological awareness and reading and revealed the importance of syllabic awareness in developing other levels of…

  10. Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit II: Phonological Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Darma, Quynliaan; Darcy, Isabelle; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Language learners have to acquire the phonological grammar of their native language, and different levels of representations on which the grammar operates. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit, which is commonly assumed to stem from degraded phonological representations. The present study investigates one aspect of the…

  11. The Contribution of Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology to Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school children on phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and text reading prosody (suprasegmental phonology) in fourth-grade and fifth-grade, and reading comprehension in sixth-grade were examined. In addition, decoding efficiency as a general assessment of reading was examined. Structural path modeling firstly showed that the relation between decoding efficiency and both measures of phonology from fourth- to fifth grade was unidirectional. Secondly, the relation between decoding in fourth- and fifth-grade and reading comprehension in sixth-grade became indirect when segmental and suprasegmental phonology were added to the model. Both factors independently exerted influence on later reading comprehension. This leads to the conclusion that not only segmental, but also suprasegmental phonology, contributes substantially to children's reading development.

  12. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  13. Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

  14. The Contribution of Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school students on phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and text-reading…

  15. Failing to Succeed the First School: Exploring Phonological Factors and Letter Reading Ability in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The context of this paper is studies worldwide on influence of phonological factors in language development of children. Such studies reveal the significance of Phonological Awareness in development language skills: including, predictive value of phonological short-term memory for reading skills in Grade 1. This paper throws light on factors in…

  16. Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

  17. Visual versus Phonological Abilities in Spanish Dyslexic Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…

  18. Phonological skills in Puerto Rican and Mexican Spanish-speaking children with phonological disorders.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Brian A

    2007-02-01

    The effects of dialectal differences upon the speech production skills of children with phonological disorders are poorly understood. One might predict that the phonological profile of children using a radical dialect (e.g., Puerto Rican Spanish, which alters consonants in the syllable rhyme) will differ from that of children who use a conservative dialect (e.g., Mexican Spanish, which preserves such consonants). This study evaluated the impact of such dialectal differences by comparing the phonological skills of two groups of Spanish-speaking children with phonological disorders. Six participants used the Mexican dialect; the other six used the Puerto Rican dialect of North American Spanish. All children were matched on number of segmental errors and age, which ranged from 4;4 to 5;6 (M=4;10). A single-word assessment instrument was used to elicit data, and independent and relational analyses were completed for each child. Measures included phonetic inventory complexity, vowel accuracy, consonant accuracy, sound class accuracy, percentage-of-occurrence of phonological patterns, and frequency and types of substitutions. Significant between-group differences were not found for any measures. These findings do not support the hypothesis of significant phonological differences between phonologically disordered speakers of radical and conservative Spanish dialects.

  19. The phonological mind.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris

    2013-07-01

    Humans weave phonological patterns instinctively. We form phonological patterns at birth, we spontaneously generate them de novo, and we impose phonological design on both our linguistic communication and cultural technologies--reading and writing. Why are humans compelled to generate phonological patterns? Why are phonological patterns intimately grounded in their sensorimotor channels (speech or gesture) while remaining partly amodal and fully productive? And why does phonology shape natural communication and cultural inventions alike? Here, I suggest these properties emanate from the architecture of the phonological mind, an algebraic system of core knowledge. I evaluate this hypothesis in light of linguistic evidence, behavioral studies, and comparative animal research that gauges the design of the phonological mind and its productivity.

  20. The Effect of a Suggested Multisensory Phonics Program on Developing Kindergarten Pre-Service Teachers' EFL Reading Accuracy and Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohammed Mahmoud; Elghotmy, Heba Elsayed Abdelsalam

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of a suggested multisensory phonics program on developing kindergarten pre-service teachers' EFL reading accuracy and phonemic awareness. A total of 40 fourth year kindergarten pre-service teachers, Faculty of Education, participated in the study that involved one group experimental design. Pre-post tests…

  1. Magnocellular-dorsal pathway function is associated with orthographic but not phonological skill: fMRI evidence from skilled Chinese readers.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi; Deng, Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that magnocellular-dorsal (MD) pathway function is highly associated with reading ability, which is mostly indexed by phonological skill in alphabetic languages. However, it is less clear how MD pathway function influences phonological skill. As a logographic language, Chinese does not follow grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, and thus provides a tool for delineating the effects of orthographic and phonological processing on reading. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure MD pathway function in a coherent motion detection task for readers skilled in Chinese. A series of tests was used to assess participants' reading abilities, including orthographic and phonological processing skills. Results showed that several cortical regions of the MD pathway, including bilateral middle temporal visual motion areas (MT+) and the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), were activated during the coherent motion detection task. Moreover, the activation was positively correlated with rapid naming speed, and greater activation in the left MT+ was associated with superior fluency and reduced accuracy in reading, suggesting that this pathway is also involved in modulating the speed of visual processing during reading. The most important finding was that activation of the right PPC was associated with orthographic awareness, but MD pathway activation was not related to phonological awareness. The results suggest that the MD pathway is highly associated with orthographic processing, which in turn influences more general aspects of reading skill.

  2. Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

  3. Unexpectedly Poor Spelling and Phonological-Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Quinn, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological skills of university students who were unexpectedly poor spellers relative to their word reading accuracy. Compared with good spellers, unexpectedly poor spellers showed no deficits in phonological memory, selection of appropriate graphemes for phonemes in word misspellings and nonword spellings, and…

  4. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  5. Morphological Awareness in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-01-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to…

  6. On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elerick, Charles

    This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

  7. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  8. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  9. Metrical Phonology and SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

  10. The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills.

  11. What Makes Recognition without Awareness Appear to Be Elusive? Strategic Factors that Influence the Accuracy of Guesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors could conceivably promote the accuracy of guesses during a recognition test. Two that we identified in previous studies are forced-choice testing format and high perceptual similarity between the repeat target and novel foil. In restricted circumstances, the relative perceptual fluency of the target can be compared with that of the…

  12. Deficit in phonological processes: a characteristic of the neuropsychological profile of children with NF1.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Yves; Lauwers-Cancès, Valérie; Faure-Marie, Nathalie; Gentil, Catherine; Lelong, Sandrine; Schweitzer, Elisabeth; Rodriguez, Diana; Iannuzzi, Stéphanie; Kemlin, Isabelle; Dorison, Nathalie; Rivier, François; Carniero, Maryline; Preclaire, Elodie; Barbarot, Sébastien; Lion-François, Laurence; Castelnau, Pierre

    2017-04-10

    Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level. All participants underwent a neuropsychological evaluation to assess their general cognitive level, reading skills, phonological processes, visuoperceptual abilities, and attentional capacity. Phonological skills were assessed by means of two phonological awareness tasks and one short-term memory task. In the group of children with NF1, 41% had reading difficulties. Phonological processes were impaired in this group, compared with the children without NF1. Similar differences were found for a phoneme deletion task after adjustment for reading difficulties, IQ level, and visuoperceptual abilities. Phonological awareness, but not phonological short-term memory, was impaired in children with NF1, and not just those whose reading was impaired. Results suggest that children with NF1 have a phonological awareness deficit, whatever their reading level. Identification of reduced phonological skills may warrant the implementation of a specific rehabilitation program before early reading difficulties emerge.

  13. Physician involvement enhances coding accuracy to ensure national standards: an initiative to improve awareness among new junior trainees.

    PubMed

    Nallasivan, S; Gillott, T; Kamath, S; Blow, L; Goddard, V

    2011-06-01

    Record Keeping Standards is a development led by the Royal College of Physicians of London (RCP) Health Informatics Unit and funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Connecting for Health. A supplementary report produced by the RCP makes a number of recommendations based on a study held at an acute hospital trust. We audited the medical notes and coding to assess the accuracy, documentation by the junior doctors and also to correlate our findings with the RCP audit. Northern Lincolnshire & Goole Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has 114,000 'finished consultant episodes' per year. A total of 100 consecutive medical (50) and rheumatology (50) discharges from Diana Princess of Wales Hospital from August-October 2009 were reviewed. The results showed an improvement in coding accuracy (10% errors), comparable to the RCP audit but with 5% documentation errors. Physician involvement needs enhancing to improve the effectiveness and to ensure clinical safety.

  14. Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

  15. The Importance of Phonological Processing Skills for Older Low-Progress Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorzelski, Simmone; Wheldall, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The important role of phonological awareness in learning to read has become widely accepted. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of phonological processing skills when attempting to assist older low-progress readers to develop literacy skills. While researchers generally agree that the key variables in reading acquisition (letter…

  16. Pushing the Positive: Encouraging Phonological Transfer from L2 to L3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Nicole; Mehlhorn, Grit

    2010-01-01

    Compared to monolinguals, multilingual learners possess a larger repertoire of phonetic-phonological parameters, have a higher degree of language and meta-linguistic awareness, and have developed increased phonological knowledge. This, combined with the increased cognitive flexibility that accompanies experienced learners, supports their…

  17. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  18. The Contribution of Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school children on phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and text reading prosody (suprasegmental phonology) in fourth-grade and fifth-grade, and reading comprehension in sixth-grade were examined. In addition, decoding efficiency as a general assessment of reading was examined. Structural path modeling firstly showed that the relation between decoding efficiency and both measures of phonology from fourth- to fifth grade was unidirectional. Secondly, the relation between decoding in fourth- and fifth-grade and reading comprehension in sixth-grade became indirect when segmental and suprasegmental phonology were added to the model. Both factors independently exerted influence on later reading comprehension. This leads to the conclusion that not only segmental, but also suprasegmental phonology, contributes substantially to children's reading development. PMID:27551159

  19. A case study of developmental phonological dyslexia: Is the attentional deficit in the perception of rapid stimuli sequences amodal?

    PubMed

    Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Berger, Carole; Valdois, Sylviane

    2010-02-01

    The attentional blink (AB) refers to a decrease in accuracy that occurs when participants are required to detect the second of two rapidly sequential targets displayed randomly in a stream of distracters. Dyslexic individuals have been shown to exhibit a prolonged AB in the visual modality, interpreted as evidence of sluggish attentional shifting (SAS). However, the amodal SAS theory predicts that the disorder should further extend to the auditory modality, then resulting in a phonological disorder as typically found in developmental dyslexia. Otherwise, it has been demonstrated that a visual attention (VA) span deficit contributes to the poor reading outcome of dyslexic individuals, independently of their phonological skills. The present study assesses the amodality assumption of the SAS theory together with questioning its relation with the VA span deficit. For this purpose, visual and auditory ABs were explored in a well compensated young adult, LL, who exhibits a pure phonological dyslexia characterised by poor pseudo-word processing and poor phonological skills but preserved VA span. The investigation revealed two different kinds of deficits in LL. Her AB was prolonged and marginally deeper in the visual modality whereas a primarily deeper in amplitude and a subtle prolonged AB was found in the auditory modality. The atypical performance patterns of LL in both modalities suggest that her perceptual attention disorder is amodal as predicted by the SAS theory. This amodal disorder was here reported in a dyslexic participant with a phonological disorder, well in accordance with the hypothesis that sluggish auditory attention shifting contributes to difficulties in phoneme awareness and literacy acquisition. Furthermore, prolonged VA blink was observed in the absence of VA span disorder, thus suggesting that visual attentional shifting and VA span might be distinct mechanisms, contributing independently to reading acquisition and developmental dyslexia.

  20. Development of Phonological Constancy

    PubMed Central

    Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Gooding, Tiffany N.; Orlando, Corey B.; Quann, Chelsea A.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient word recognition depends on detecting critical phonetic differences among similar-sounding words, or sensitivity to phonological distinctiveness, an ability evident at 19 months of age but unreliable at 14 to 15 months of age. However, little is known about phonological constancy, the equally crucial ability to recognize a word's identity across natural phonetic variations, such as those in cross-dialect pronunciation differences. We show that 15- and 19-month-old children recognize familiar words spoken in their native dialect, but that only the older children recognize familiar words in a dissimilar nonnative dialect, providing evidence for emergence of phonological constancy by 19 months. These results are compatible with a perceptual-attunement account of developmental change in early word recognition, but not with statistical-learning or phonological accounts. Thus, the complementary skills of phonological constancy and distinctiveness both appear at around 19 months of age, together providing the child with a fundamental insight that permits rapid vocabulary growth and later reading acquisition. PMID:19368700

  1. The Structure of Phonological Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bridget D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

  2. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  3. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  4. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  5. Viewing a Phonological Deficit within a Multifactorial Model of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; McIlraith, Autumn; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran

    2017-01-01

    Participants were administered multiple measures of phonological awareness, oral language, and rapid automatized naming at the beginning of kindergarten and multiple measures of word reading at the end of second grade. A structural equation model was fit to the data and latent scores were used to identify children with a deficit in phonological…

  6. Phonological Consciousness Raising Tasks for the ESP Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterlacci, Peter

    A discussion of pronunciation instruction in English for business communication focuses on raising learners' awareness of how English is spoken by various language groups around the world. It is argued that phonological consciousness-raising is an effective approach for limiting breakdowns in communication. The approach assumes that developing…

  7. Sensitivity to Phonological Similarity Within and Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Boukrina, Olga V.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of phonological similarity on bilingual language processing was examined within and across languages in three experiments. Phonological similarity was manipulated within a language by varying neighborhood density, and across languages by varying extent of cross-linguistic overlap between native and non-native languages. In Experiment 1, speed and accuracy of bilinguals’ picture naming were susceptible to phonological neighborhood density in both the first and the second language. In Experiment 2, eye-movement patterns indicated that the time-course of language activation varied across phonological neighborhood densities and across native/non-native language status. In Experiment 3, speed and accuracy of bilingual performance in an auditory lexical decision task were influenced by degree of cross-linguistic phonological overlap. Together, the three experiments confirm that bilinguals are sensitive to phonological similarity within and across languages and suggest that this sensitivity is asymmetrical across native and non-native languages and varies along the timecourse of word processing. PMID:18041587

  8. Do Children with Phonological Delay Have Phonological Short-Term and Phonological Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…

  9. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  10. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604

  11. Atypical Neural Functions Underlying Phonological Processing and Silent Rehearsal in Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Spruill, John E.; Spencer, Rebecca; Smith, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Phonological processing was examined in school-age children who stutter (CWS) by assessing their performance and recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a visual rhyming task. CWS had lower accuracy on rhyming judgments, but the cognitive processes that mediate the comparisons of the phonological representations of words, as indexed by…

  12. Dynamics of Phonological Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafos, Adamantios I.; Benus, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental problem in spoken language is the duality between the continuous aspects of phonetic performance and the discrete aspects of phonological competence. We study 2 instances of this problem from the phenomenon of voicing neutralization and vowel harmony. In each case, we present a model where the experimentally observed continuous…

  13. Learning Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

    2009-01-01

    This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

  14. Phonological Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by…

  15. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  16. Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

    This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the…

  17. Phonological and Articulation Treatment Approaches in Portuguese Children with Speech and Language Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…

  18. Prosodic awareness skills and literacy acquisition in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Defior, Sylvia; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Cano-Marín, María José

    2012-08-01

    There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and spelling. In written language tests, errors were classified as phonological (grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules) or stress-related (placement of the stress mark). Regression analyses showed that, once memory and phonological awareness were controlled, stress awareness partially explained reading and spelling performance as well as error type; however, differences were found between reading and spelling errors. These results show a relationship between prosodic skills--namely stress sensitivity--and the acquisition of reading and spelling skills that seems to be independent of phonological awareness skills.

  19. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  20. Toward a resolution of inconsistencies in the phonological deficit theory of reading disorders: phonological reading difficulties are more severe in high-IQ poor readers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rhona S; Morrison, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether high- and low-IQ poor readers differed in patterns of reading performance. Ten-year-old poor readers with IQ scores of 110 and higher showed difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, failing to show an advantage in reading high-frequency regular versus irregular words and showing impaired nonword reading accuracy for their reading age. However, poor readers with IQ scores of 90 and below showed a more phonological approach to reading, with better reading of regular than irregular words of both high and low frequency, and with nonword reading skills slower than, but as accurate as, those of reading-age controls. We concluded that the high-IQ poor readers experienced difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, whereas the low-IQ poor readers had much less marked phonological problems, supporting Stanovich's phonological-core variable-difference model.

  1. Effects of instruction on the decoding skills of children with phonological-processing problems.

    PubMed

    Felton, R H

    1993-11-01

    This article reviews research carried out by the Bowman Gray Learning Disabilities Project concerning the role of instruction in the acquisition of word-identification (decoding) skills in children at risk for reading disabilities. A group of 81 kindergarten children were identified as at risk for reading disabilities based on teacher assessment and weak or deficient phonological-processing skills. These children were classified as to type of phonological-processing problem (i.e., phonological awareness or retrieval of phonological information) and were randomly assigned to either a Code or Context instructional method for first and second grades. Children who received Code instruction scored higher than children receiving context instruction on a variety of reading and spelling measures at the end of first and second grades. The elements of the Code instructional program considered critical to the success of a beginning reading instruction program for children with phonological processing problems are discussed.

  2. Phonological whole-word measures in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English). Phonological whole-word measures (pMLU and Proximity) and consonant accuracy (PCC) were calculated on elicited single words. Differences were found on each measure between bilinguals and monolinguals in English, but in Spanish, only the PCC displayed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Bilinguals displayed language separation on the pMLU and the PCC but not the Proximity, indicating structural phonological differences between the Spanish and English of bilinguals but commensurate target approximations. This suggests that maintaining a consistent level of phonological proximity to the target is an important factor in phonological acquisition. The measures and their relationships are also discussed.

  3. Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997

  4. Lexical and Phonological Effects in Early Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Anna V.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of word frequency, phonological neighborhood density (PND), age of acquisition (AoA), and phonotactic probability on production variability and accuracy of known words by toddlers with no history of speech, hearing, or language disorders. Method: Fifteen toddlers between 2;0 (years;months) and 2;5…

  5. Phonological Development in Hearing Learners of a Sign Language: The Influence of Phonological Parameters, Sign Complexity, and Iconicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study implemented a sign-repetition task at two points in time to hearing adult learners of British Sign Language and explored how each phonological parameter, sign complexity, and iconicity affected sign production over an 11-week (22-hour) instructional period. The results show that training improves articulation accuracy and that…

  6. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  7. Phonological Priming and Irregular Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the processing of irregular past-tense forms is affected by phonological factors that are inherent in the relationship of the past-tense forms to other words in the lexicon (rhyming families of irregulars) or to their base forms (vowel dominance effects). This paper addresses more ephemeral phonological effects. In a…

  8. The Dynamics of Phonological Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roon, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…

  9. Understanding semantic and phonological processing deficits in adults with aphasia: Effects of category and typicality

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Erin L.; Lo, Melody

    2015-01-01

    Background Semantic and phonological processing deficits are often present in aphasia. The degree of interdependence between the deficits has been widely studied with variable findings. Semantic variables such as category and typicality have been found to influence semantic processing in healthy individuals and persons with aphasia but their influence on phonological processing is unknown. Aims This study examined the nature of semantic and phonological access in aphasia by comparing adults with aphasia to healthy control participants. Semantic and phonological tasks were used to assess the difference in processing requirements between and within each group as well as examine the effects of category and typicality on different stages of semantic and phonological processing. Methods & Procedures Thirty-two persons with aphasia and ten neurologically healthy adults were administered nine tasks: Category Superordinate, Category Coordinate, Semantic Feature, Rhyme Judgment (No-Name), Syllable Judgment (No-Name), Phoneme Verification (No-Name), Rhyme Judgment (Name-Provided), Syllable Judgment (Name-Provided), and Phoneme Verification (Name-Provided). Accuracy and reaction time data were collected for each of these tasks and between-group and within-group differences were analyzed via MANOVA/MANCOVA and hierarchical clustering analyses. Outcomes & Results Persons with aphasia performed with significantly lower accuracy than controls on phonological tasks but performed comparably on semantic tasks. Participants with aphasia were significantly slower than controls on all semantic and phonological tasks. Clustering of the nine tasks by accuracy revealed different processing requirements in the participants with aphasia compared to the control group while clustering by reaction time revealed similar trends in both groups in that phonological (no-name) items required the most processing time. Significant effects of category and typicality were noted in the semantic tasks but

  10. Metaphonological Awareness in Multilinguals: A Case of L3 Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on an unexplored area of metalinguistic awareness in the acquisition of third language (L3) phonology, hereafter referred to as metaphonological awareness. It addresses the role of attention and noticing in input processing. The contribution constitutes a part of a larger scale project on metaphonological awareness in various…

  11. White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of

  12. Metalinguistic awareness and reading acquisition in the Spanish language.

    PubMed

    Jiménez González, J E; Ortiz González, M R

    2000-05-01

    This research was designed to establish the importance of phonological awareness and print awareness in learning to read Spanish. A sample of 136 preliterate Spanish children (70 boys and 66 girls) whose ages ranged from 5.1 to 6.6 years (average age 5.6 years) participated in the study. The results, using path analysis, from this longitudinal study support the existence of a relationship between phonological awareness and reading. Moreover, the findings of this study reveal the importance of syllabic awareness, at least in Spanish, in the development of other levels of phonological awareness and in its early relation with reading. The results also confirm the existence of a relationship between print awareness and reading comprehension.

  13. Metalinguistic awareness and reading performance: a cross language comparison.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Raphiq; Eviatar, Zohar; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2007-07-01

    The study examined two questions: (1) do the greater phonological awareness skills of billinguals affect reading performance; (2) to what extent do the orthographic characteristics of a language influence reading performance and how does this interact with the effects of phonological awareness. We estimated phonological metalinguistic abilities and reading measures in three groups of first graders: monolingual Hebrew speakers, bilingual Russian-Hebrew speakers, and Arabic-speaking children. We found that language experience affects phonological awareness, as both Russian-Hebrew bilinguals and the Arabic speakers achieved higher scores on metalinguistic tests than Hebrew speakers. Orthography affected reading measures and their correlation with phonological abilitites. Children reading Hebrew showed better text reading ability and significant correlations between phonological awareness and reading scores. Children reading Arabic showed a slight advantage in single word and nonword reading over the two Hebrew reading groups, and very weak relationships between phonological abilities and reading performance. We conclude that native Arabic speakers have more difficulty in processing Arabic orthography than Hebrew monolinguals and bilinguals have in processing Hebrew orthography, and suggest that this is due to the additional visual complexity of Arabic orthography.

  14. Age of Bilingual Exposure Is Related to the Contribution of Phonological and Semantic Knowledge to Successful Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2017-02-07

    Bilingual children's reading as a function of age of first bilingual language exposure (AoE) was examined. Bilingual (varied AoE) and monolingual children (N = 421) were compared in their English language and reading abilities (6-10 years) using phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, and reading tasks. Structural equation modeling was applied to determine how bilingual AoE predicts reading outcomes. Early exposed bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on phonological awareness and word reading. Phonology and semantic (vocabulary) knowledge differentially predicted reading depending on the bilingual experience and AoE. Understanding how bilingual experiences impact phonological awareness and semantic knowledge, and in turn, impact reading outcomes is relevant for our understanding of what language and reading skills are best to focus on, and when, to promote optimal reading success.

  15. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities.

  16. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Yoncheva; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason; McCandliss, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective atten tion to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by ma nipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data- driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater re cruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings support the key role of selective attention to phonology in the development of literacy and motivate future research on the neural bases of the interaction between phonological

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of the Use of ASL Phonological Instruction to Develop ASL and English Literacy in an ASL/English Bilingual Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crume, Peter Kirk

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study seeks to understand how teachers who work in an ASL/English bilingual educational program for preschool children conceptualize and utilize phonological instruction of American Sign Language (ASL). While instruction that promotes phonological awareness of spoken English is thought to provide educational benefits to young…

  18. Phonetics, Phonology, and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdy, Adam

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent trends in phonetics and phonology and their influence on second language instruction, specifically grammar and lexicography. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (99 references) (MDM)

  19. Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability

    PubMed Central

    Gierut, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects. PMID:17329671

  20. Learner-generated drawing for phonological and orthographic dyslexic readers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included word recognition task, orthographic task, phonological awareness task, and scenery texts and questions. Comparisons of the four groups of students showed differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control groups in pre- and posttest performance of scenery texts. Differences also existed in relevant questions and the effect of the learner-generated drawing method. The pretest performance showed problems in the dyslexic samples in reading the scenery texts and answering relevant questions. The posttest performance revealed certain differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control group. Finally, all dyslexic groups obtained a great effect from using the learner-generated drawing, particularly orthographic dyslexia. These results suggest that the learner-generated drawing was also useful for dyslexic students, with the potential for use in the classroom for teaching text reading to dyslexic students.

  1. Phonological processing and emergent literacy in younger and older preschool children.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jason L; Williams, Jeffrey M; McDonald, Renee; Francis, David J

    2007-12-01

    Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each PPA as separate from general cognitive ability and separate from each other. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) with mean structure demonstrated that older preschoolers have better developed latent PPA than younger preschoolers but that the structure of PPA is equivalent. RAN was found uniquely associated with letter knowledge and text discrimination in younger preschoolers, and PA was found uniquely associated with word reading skills in older preschoolers. Finally, general cognitive ability was only indirectly associated with emergent literacy via PPA. These results highlight the importance of PPA in the early literacy development of English-speaking preschool children.

  2. Phonological error analysis, development and empirical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, D P

    1992-08-01

    A method of error analysis, designed to examine phonological and nonphonological reading and spelling processes, was developed from preliminary studies and theoretical background, including a linguistic model and the relationships between articulatory features of phonemes. The usefulness of this method as an assessment tool for phonological ability was tested on a group of normal subjects. The results from the error analysis helped clarify similarities and differences in phonological performance among the subjects and helped delineate differences between phonological performance in spelling (oral and written) and reading within the group of subjects. These results support the usefulness of this method of error analysis in assessing phonological ability. Also, these results support the position that phonological approximation of responses is an important diagnostic feature and merely cataloging errors as phonologically accurate or inaccurate is inadequate for assessing phonological ability.

  3. Phonological acquisition in preschoolers learning a second language via immersion: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Raquel T

    2004-01-01

    Phonological development in first and second languages (L1 and L2 respectively) has not been extensively studied in young children who are acquiring a second language via immersion. This lack of information is unfortunate, as the number of children who are acquiring a second language in this context is growing and such children make up a part of the clinical caseload of many speech-language pathologists. To address the need for information regarding phonological development of children acquiring a second language in immersion, the present investigation sought to provide longitudinal data on the development of both L1 and L2 phonologies. Five preschoolers who were acquiring English as a L2 and who spoke different L1s participated in the study. A picture identification task was used to assess productive phonological skills in L1 and English. Analyses included a description of the children's phonetic inventories, accuracy rates, and non-target response patterns. Both within child (across languages) and between child comparisons were made to discern possible patterns of use and to identify factors that may impact phonological skill in the L1 and L2. Results of the investigation suggest that children who are learning a L2 utilize their knowledge of the L1 to aid them in acquiring the phonological system of the L2. At the same time, they appear to maintain, at least as measured via perceptual analysis of their speech, distinct phonological systems.

  4. On the Functional Diversity of Phonological Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, R. W. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shows that a phonological description that recognizes the functional variety of phonological rules is more illuminating than one in which data are handled merely as the output of a set of completely undifferentiated processes. Emphasizes the value of distinguishing motivated and unmotivated processes in phonology. (Author/RM)

  5. Bias in Phonological Learning: Evidence from Saltation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how people learn the phonological patterns of their language is a major challenge facing the field of phonology. In this dissertation, I approach the issue of phonological learning by focusing on "saltatory" alternations, which occur when two alternating sounds "leap over" an intermediate, invariant sound (e.g.,…

  6. On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Max W.

    1985-01-01

    Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

  7. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Schaadt, Gesa; Illner, Franziska K; van der Meer, Elke; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-02-01

    Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS) that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  8. The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Comprehension among Typical and Learning Disabled Native Arabic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills,…

  9. Prosodic Awareness Skills and Literacy Acquisition in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defior, Sylvia; Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Cano-Marin, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and…

  10. Integrated Morphological Awareness Intervention as a Tool for Improving Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Cecilia; Gillon, Gail T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of an intervention program aimed to improve reading and spelling ability through instruction in morphological awareness together with other forms of linguistic awareness, including knowledge of phonology, orthography, syntax, and semantics. Method: Sixteen children aged between 8;07 (years;months) and…

  11. Processing Phonological Information in a Semi-Syllabic Script: Developmental Data from Telugu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasanta, Duggirala

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were undertaken to examine second and fifth grade Telugu-speaking children's awareness of phonological and orthographic properties of familiar Telugu words. Experiment 1 focused on the strategies the children used in completing word fragments. Experiment 2 examined the children's ability to judge and generate rhyming words, and…

  12. Amplitude Envelope Perception, Phonology and Prosodic Sensitivity in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Gerson, Danielle; Astruc, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Here we explore relations between auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, prosodic sensitivity, and phonological awareness in a sample of 56 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We examine whether rise time sensitivity is linked to prosodic sensitivity, and whether prosodic sensitivity is linked to…

  13. Phonological Processing Skills as Predictors of Literacy amongst Arabic Speaking Bahraini Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al Mannai, Haya; Everatt, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the reading and spelling skills of grades 1-3 Arabic-speaking children in Bahrain. Children were tested on their literacy skills (single word reading and spelling), their ability to decode letter strings (non-word reading) and measures of phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing and non-verbal…

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Phonologically Based Reading Intervention for Struggling Readers with Varying Language Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates Reading Intervention--a 10-week supplementary reading programme emphasising the link between phonological awareness and reading--when delivered in a realistic educational setting. Twenty-nine 6-year-olds with reading difficulties participated in Reading Intervention and their progress and attainments were compared with those…

  15. Very Early Phonological and Language Skills: Estimating Individual Risk of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    Background: Analyses from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia project show that the key childhood predictors (phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, expressive vocabulary, pseudoword repetition, and letter naming) of dyslexia differentiate the group with reading disability (n = 46) and the group without reading problems…

  16. The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

  17. Mapping phonological information from auditory to written modality during foreign vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2008-12-01

    Learning to read in a foreign language often entails recognizing the printed form of words learned by sound. In the current study, the ability to map novel phonological information from the auditory modality onto the written modality was examined at different levels of overlap between the native language and an artificially constructed foreign language. In this study, monolingual English-speaking adults learned novel foreign words in the auditory modality. Recognition testing was first conducted in the auditory modality and then in the written modality. Participants who learned foreign words that matched English phonology showed similar accuracy rates when tested in either modality. Participants who learned foreign words that mismatched English phonology showed decreased recognition accuracy when tested in the written modality. Results indicate that cross-linguistic matching in phonology facilitated mapping of phonological information to the written modality. In addition, at different levels of cross-linguistic overlap, specific cognitive skills were found to correlate with the ability to map phonological information across modalities. This finding suggests that the cognitive skills required for acquisition of a foreign language may vary depending upon degree of cross-linguistic similarity.

  18. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  19. Some Aspects of Meitei Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbi, Anvita; Mishra, Awadhesh K.

    A phonemic analysis of the Meitei language of Manipur, India, is presented. The vowel and consonant system is analyzed by the classical phonemic method, but with morpheme structure rules formulated according to the principles of generative phonology in order to generalize the pattern of various sounds and specify the allophonic distribution of…

  20. The Phonology of Betsimisaraka Malagasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This document constitutes the first phonological grammar Betsimisaraka Malagasy, a form of the Malagasy (Austronesian) language spoken in the island nation of Madagascar. Betsimisaraka specifically is the name of an ethnic group with approximately a million members living on the East Coast of the island, as well as the various dialects they speak.…

  1. The Implications of Wichita Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, David S.

    1975-01-01

    The phonological system and morphophonemic rules of the Wichita language are examined. Observations are made regarding union and deletion, delayed release to distinguish /c/ from /t/, palatalization of /t/, and a new feature hierarchy. Also discussed is the psychology of speaking a language in which one speech event frequently has many underlying…

  2. GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

    TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

  3. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  4. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Law, Jeremy M; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

  5. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences. PMID:25071512

  6. Reading Comprehension Mediates the Relationship between Syntactic Awareness and Writing Composition in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to explore the relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition in 129 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children were from a ten-year longitudinal project. At each year, a number of measures were administered. The 129 children's data of nonverbal reasoning at age 4, phonological awareness, morphological awareness,…

  7. Predictive influence of phonological processing, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling performance.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Monique; Cohen, Henri

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the predictive influence of phonological awareness, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling. The retrospective study correlated spelling performance in a group of 199 French-speaking children at the end of grade 2 with earlier capacities for phonemic manipulation, morphological/syntactic correction, and naming speed, assessed at the end of grade 1. The results are consistent with an integrative model that challenges the unitary phonological disorder hypothesis and confirmed that in French, as in other languages, naming speed is an independent predictor of reading performance.

  8. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography.

  9. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  10. Anesthesia Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Anesthesia Awareness Very rarely – in only one or two out ... become aware or conscious. The condition – called anesthesia awareness – means the patient can recall the surroundings or ...

  11. A patient with phonologic alexia can learn to read "much" from "mud pies"

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2008-01-01

    People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al (2002) reported a successful treatment for phonologic alexia that paired problematic functors and verbs with easily read relays that were homophonous nouns (e.g. "be" paired with "bee"). The current study evaluates the efficacy of pairing problematic grammatical words with relays that share initial phonemes, but vary in the relationship of their final phonemes. Results showed that reading of target grammatical words improved to criterion level (90% accuracy over two consecutive probes) in all experimental conditions with shared phonology, but remained far below criterion level in control conditions. There was a significant correlation between degree of phonologic relatedness and error rate. Maintenance of the treatment effect was poor as assessed by traditional measurement, however a dramatic savings during relearning was demonstrated during a subsequent treatment phase. The finding that reading can be re-organized by pairing target words not only with homophones, but with other phonologically related relays, suggests that this approach could be applied to a wide corpus of words and, therefore, potentially be of great use clinically. We suggest, within a connectionist account, that the treatment effect results from relays priming the initial phonologic units of the targets. PMID:18513760

  12. Clinical Phonology: The Explanation and Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers problems in the conceptualization of children's speech sound disorders and terminology changes related to use of "articulation" and "phonology." He suggests that clinical phonology must use scientific methods to explain phonological disorders. (CL)

  13. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  14. Aberrant N400 responses to phonological overlap during rhyme judgements in children at risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-11-06

    It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity.

  15. Developing Phonological Awareness in Blended-Learning Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Aria, Carmela; McLoughlin, Laura Incalcaterra

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on Second Language Acquisition through blended learning and explores the application of new educational technologies in the development of distance education. In particular, the paper focuses on ways to enhance oral, aural, and intercultural skills through learners' engagement, develop authentic social interaction and…

  16. Phonological Awareness and Reading: A Chicken and Egg Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torneus, Margit

    1984-01-01

    The causal relationship between metaphonological skills (sound blending and segmentation) and reading/spelling was investigated in two studies of first graders. One tested causal models using data from a longitudinal study of 46 dyslexics and 44 control children. The other studied the effects of metaphonological training versus general language…

  17. Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

    2010-01-01

    The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

  18. Links between Early Rhythm Skills, Musical Training, and Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moritz, Catherine; Yampolsky, Sasha; Papadelis, Georgios; Thomson, Jennifer; Wolf, Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    A small number of studies show that music training is associated with improvements in reading or in its component skills. A central question underlying this present research is whether musical activity can enhance the acquisition of reading skill, potentially before formal reading instruction begins. We explored two dimensions of this question: an…

  19. Optimality theory in phonological acquisition.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J A; Gierut, J A

    1999-12-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction to the contemporary linguistic framework known as optimality theory (OT). The basic assumptions of this constraint-based theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. Concepts unique to the theory, including "emergence of the unmarked," are also described. OT is then examined more specifically within the context of phonological acquisition. The theory is applied in descriptions of children's common error patterns, observed inter- and intrachild variation, and productive change over time. The particular error patterns of fronting, stopping, final-consonant deletion, and cluster simplification are considered from an OT perspective. The discussion concludes with potential clinical applications and extensions of the theory to the diagnosis and treatment of children with functional phonological disorders.

  20. Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

  1. Criteria for phonological process analysis.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, L V; Elbert, M

    1981-05-01

    Investigators have proposed that children with functional articulation disorders should be relabelled phonologically disordered. To support this proposal, evidence has been presented in the literature demonstrating that children's error patterns reflect the operation of phonological processes. No quantitative or qualitative criteria have been offered to differentiate these processes from surface error patterns. The purpose of the present descriptive study was to determine if differences would be found when two kinds of process analyses were employed: a nonquantitative criteria analysis as conducted in the studies reported in the literature, and a quantitative criteria analysis. Speech samples were obtained from 13 children with functional articulation problems. Their errors were submitted to the two analysis procedures. Results indicated that the number of identified processes were reduced when minimum quantitative criteria were used from the number identified when no quantitative criteria were imposed. The decrease occurred in individual children's patterns as well as across the patterns of the 13 children. It is suggested that there is a need to establish reasonable quantitative and qualitative criteria for phonological process identification.

  2. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills.

  3. Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children's English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer. We administered multiple measures of Cantonese tone sensitivity, English stress sensitivity, segmental phonological awareness in Cantonese and English, nonverbal ability, and English word reading to 123 Cantonese-English bilingual children ages 7 and 8 years. Structural equation modeling revealed a longitudinal prediction of Cantonese tone sensitivity to English word reading between 8 and 9 years of age. This relation was realized through two parallel routes. In one, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English stress sensitivity, and English stress sensitivity, in turn, significantly predicted English word reading, as postulated by the prosodic hypothesis. In the second, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English word reading through the transfer of segmental phonological awareness between Cantonese and English, as predicted by segmental phonological transfer. These results support a unified model of phonological transfer, emphasizing the role of tone in English word reading for Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  4. Phonological Skills and Ability to Perceive Auditorily the Structure of a Word at the Level of a Single Phoneme at Ages 2-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    The present study is the first part of a longitudinal research project investigating whether children become more aware of phonemes or rhyming when they learn letters or letter sounds or even begin to read, and if so how. For the present paper, the phonological awareness of young children aged 2-6 years was analyzed, particularly their auditory…

  5. Exploring a Phonological Process Approach to Adult Pronunciation Training

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Lana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The production of speech sound classes in adult language learners is affected by (a) interference between the native language and the target language and (b) speaker variables such as time speaking English. In this article, we demonstrate how phonological process analysis, an approach typically used in child speech, can be used to characterize adult target language phonological learning. Method Sentences produced by 2 adult Japanese English language learners were transcribed and coded for phoneme accuracy and analyzed according to the percent occurrence of phonological processes. The results were interpreted relative to a contrastive analysis between Japanese and English phonetic inventories and developmental norms for monolingual English children. Results In this pilot study, common consonant processes included vocalization, final consonant devoicing, and cluster reduction. These are processes commonly observed in the speech of children who are typically developing. Conclusions The process analysis can inform clinical approaches to pronunciation training in adult English language learners. For example, the cycles approach (Hodson & Paden, 1981) may provide more clinical efficacy than an articulatory approach in which phonemes are targeted individually. In addition, a process analysis can enable clinicians to examine the principles of within-class and across-class generalization in adult pronunciation instruction. PMID:27151825

  6. Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

  7. Perception of Nonnative-accented Sentences by 5- to 8-Year-olds and Adults: The Role of Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Bent, Tessa; Atagi, Eriko

    2017-03-01

    To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements. Further, phonological memory was more closely tied to perception of native talkers whereas phonological awareness was more closely related to perception of nonnative talkers. These results suggest that the ability to recognize words produced in unfamiliar accents continues to develop beyond the early school-age years. Additionally, the linguistic skills most related to word recognition in adverse listening conditions may differ depending on the source of the challenge (i.e., noise, talker, or a combination).

  8. A Comparison of Phonological Skill of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing…

  9. Chile Language Aphasia and Phonological Universals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…

  10. Phonology and Language: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arezzo, Emilia La Pergola

    1978-01-01

    This article first gives the definition of "phonology" most widely accepted today, and then illustrates briefly the role that phonology has had in the works of European and American linguists, such as De Saussure, Trubetckoj, Sapir, Bloomfield, H. Sweet, D. Jones, O. Jesperson, K. Pike, Trager and Smith, and N. Chomsky. (CFM)

  11. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  12. Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Michael Parrish

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

  13. Phonologically Driven Variability: The Case of Determiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider…

  14. Pedigree Analysis of Children with Phonology Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined 87 pedigrees of individuals with histories of preschool phonology disorders. Significantly more family members with dyslexia and learning disabilities, but not stuttering or hearing impairment, were found in pedigrees of individuals with phonology disorders than in pedigrees of nondisabled individuals. (Author/JDD)

  15. The Phonological Influence on Phonetic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruehwald, Josef

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad question about how phonology and phonetics are interrelated, specifically how phonetic language changes, which gradually alter the phonetics of speech sounds, affect the phonological system of the language, and vice versa. Some questions I address are: (i) What aspects of speakers' knowledge of their language…

  16. Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Park, Hyeongsaeng; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform…

  17. Natural Phonology Interference in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Geoffrey S.

    The natural phonology theory, related to European structuralism, makes two fundamental assumptions: (1) phonemes are mental images of the sounds of language, and (2) phonological processes represent subconscious mental substitutions of one sound or class of sounds for another that are the natural response to the relative difficulties of sound…

  18. Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g.…

  19. Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

  20. The "No Crossing Constraint" in Autosegmental Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John; Local, John

    A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After…

  1. How Phonological Reductions Sometimes Help the Listener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…

  2. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  3. Phonological Advance Planning in Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Our study addresses the scope of phonological advance planning during sentence production using a novel experimental procedure. The production of German sentences in various syntactic formats (SVO, SOV, and VSO) was cued by presenting pictures of the agents of previously memorized agent-action-patient scenes. To tap the phonological activation of…

  4. Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol

    2008-07-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling skills. In the visual modality, an analogous problem might interfere with literacy development by affecting orthographic skills. In this prospective longitudinal study, we tested dynamic auditory and visual processing, speech-in-noise perception, phonological ability and orthographic ability in 62 five-year-old preschool children. Predictive relations towards first grade reading and spelling measures were explored and the validity of the global magnocellular model was evaluated using causal path analysis. In particular, we demonstrated that dynamic auditory processing was related to speech perception, which itself was related to phonological awareness. Similarly, dynamic visual processing was related to orthographic ability. Subsequently, phonological awareness, orthographic ability and verbal short-term memory were unique predictors of reading and spelling development.

  5. Phonological development in young bilinguals: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children.

  6. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways. PMID:26284006

  7. Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…

  8. Assessing the Phonological Skills of Bilingual Children from Preschool through Kindergarten: Developmental Progression and Cross-Language Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…

  9. Density Pervades: An Analysis of Phonological Neighborhood Density Effects in Aphasic Speakers with Different Types of Naming Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of phonological neighborhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighborhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well controlled stimuli, Experiment 1 confirmed the influence of PND on accuracy and phonological error rates in two aphasic speakers with phonological processing deficits. In Experiments 2 and 3, we extended the investigation to an aphasic speaker who is prone to semantic errors, indicating a semantic deficit and/or a deficit in the mapping from semantics to words. This individual had higher accuracy, and fewer semantic errors, in naming targets from high versus low density neighborhoods. It is argued that the results provide strong support for interactive approaches to lexical access, where reverberatory feedback between word- and phoneme-level lexical representations not only facilitates phonological level processes but also privileges the selection of a target word over its semantic competitors. PMID:21718214

  10. Bilingualism and Morphological Awareness: A Study with Children from General Education and Spanish-English Dual Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Ramirez, Gloria; de Marin, Sharon; Kim, Tae-Jin; Unal-Gezer, Melike

    2017-01-01

    Existing research on the impact of bilingualism on metalinguistic development has concentrated on the development of phonological awareness. The present study extended the scope of existing research by focusing on morphological awareness, an aspect of metalinguistic awareness that becomes increasingly important beyond the initial phase of literacy…

  11. Promoting Morphological Awareness in Children with Language Needs: Do the Common Core State Standards Pave the Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith; Zaretsky, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has acknowledged the importance of morphological awareness, beyond phonological awareness, to literacy achievement in both reading and writing for children, adolescents, and adults. Morphological awareness is the ability to recognize, reflect on, and manipulate the sublexical structure of words--the roots, prefixes, and suffixes.…

  12. A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

  13. A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kathleen Currie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

  14. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  15. Accuracy of teacher assessments of second-language students at risk for reading disability.

    PubMed

    Limbos, M M; Geva, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of teacher assessments in screening for reading disabilities among students of English as a second language (ESL) and as a first language (L1). Academic and oral language tests were administered to 369 children (249 ESL, 120 L1) at the beginning of Grade 1 and at the end of Grade 2. Concurrently, 51 teachers nominated children at risk for reading failure and completed rating scales assessing academic and oral language skills. Scholastic records were reviewed for notation of concern or referral. The criterion measure was a standardized reading score based on phonological awareness, rapid naming, and word recognition. Results indicated that teacher rating scales and nominations had low sensitivity in identifying ESL and L1 students at risk for reading disability at the 1-year mark. Relative to other forms of screening, teacher-expressed concern had lower sensitivity. Finally, oral language proficiency contributed to misclassifications in the ESL group.

  16. The Contribution of Numerical Magnitude Comparison and Phonological Processing to Individual Differences in Fourth Graders’ Multiplication Fact Ability

    PubMed Central

    Schleepen, Tamara M. J.; Van Mier, Hanneke I.; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Although numerical magnitude processing has been related to individual differences in arithmetic, its role in children’s multiplication performance remains largely unknown. On the other hand, studies have indicated that phonological awareness is an important correlate of individual differences in children’s multiplication performance, but the involvement of phonological memory, another important phonological processing skill, has not been studied in much detail. Furthermore, knowledge about the relative contribution of above mentioned processes to the specific arithmetic operation of multiplication in children is lacking. The present study therefore investigated for the first time the unique contributions of numerical magnitude comparison and phonological processing in explaining individual differences in 63 fourth graders’ multiplication fact ability (mean age = 9.6 years, SD = .67). The results showed that children’s multiplication fact competency correlated significantly with symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison as well as with phonological short-term memory. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for intellectual ability and general reaction time, both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison and phonological short-term memory accounted for unique variance in multiplication fact performance. The ability to compare symbolic magnitudes was found to contribute the most, indicating that the access to numerical magnitudes by means of Arabic digits is a key factor in explaining individual differences in children’s multiplication fact ability. PMID:27359328

  17. Is there an alternative cerebral network associated with enhanced phonological processing in deaf speech-users? An exceptional case.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Mario; Demont, Elisabeth; Gounot, Daniel; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle

    2009-10-01

    Most people born deaf and exposed to oral language show scant evidence of sensitivity to the phonology of speech when processing written language. In this respect they differ from hearing people. However, occasionally, a prelingually deaf person can achieve good processing of written language in terms of phonological sensitivity and awareness, and in this respect appears exceptional. We report the pattern of event-related fMRI activation in such a deaf reader while performing a rhyme-judgment on written words with similar spelling endings that do not provide rhyme clues. The left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis and the left inferior parietal lobe showed greater activation for this task than for a letter-string identity matching task. This participant was special in this regard, showing significantly greater activation in these regions than a group of hearing participants with a similar level of phonological and reading skill. In addition, SR showed activation in the left mid-fusiform gyrus; a region which did not show task-specific activation in the other respondents. The pattern of activation in this exceptional deaf reader was also unique compared with three deaf readers who showed limited phonological processing. We discuss the possibility that this pattern of activation may be critical in relation to phonological decoding of the written word in good deaf readers whose phonological reading skills are indistinguishable from those of hearing readers.

  18. From phonetics to phonology: the emergence of first words in Italian.

    PubMed

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Majorano, Marinella; Vihman, Marilyn M

    2009-03-01

    This study assesses the extent of phonetic continuity between babble and words in four Italian children followed longitudinally from 0.9 or 0.10 to 2.0--two with relatively rapid and two with slower lexical growth. Prelinguistic phonetic characteristics, including both (a) consistent use of specific consonants and (b) age of onset and extent of consonant variegation in babble, are found to predict rate of lexical advance and to relate to the form of the early words. In addition, each child's lexical profile is analyzed to test the hypothesis of non-linearity in phonological development. All of the children show the expected pattern of phonological advance: Relatively accurate first word production is followed by lexical expansion, characterized by a decrease in accuracy and an increase of similarity between word forms. We interpret such a profile as reflecting the emergence of word templates, a first step in phonological organization.

  19. The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis: Measuring Regressive L3 Influence to Test L1 and L2 Phonological Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis (PPH, Cabrelli Amaro & Rothman, 2010) attempts to reconcile evidence suggesting some L2 learners, however rare, attain native-like L2 phonological systems with the observation that most do not. Considering existing L2 phonology research, it is not clear that phonological differences between early and…

  20. Long-term phonological learning begins at the level of word form.

    PubMed

    Nora, Anni; Hultén, Annika; Karvonen, Leena; Kim, Jeong-Young; Lehtonen, Minna; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Service, Elisabet; Salmelin, Riitta

    2012-11-01

    Incidental learning of phonological structures through repeated exposure is an important component of native and foreign-language vocabulary acquisition that is not well understood at the neurophysiological level. It is also not settled when this type of learning occurs at the level of word forms as opposed to phoneme sequences. Here, participants listened to and repeated back foreign phonological forms (Korean words) and new native-language word forms (Finnish pseudowords) on two days. Recognition performance was improved, repetition latency became shorter and repetition accuracy increased when phonological forms were encountered multiple times. Cortical magnetoencephalography responses occurred bilaterally but the experimental effects only in the left hemisphere. Superior temporal activity at 300-600 ms, probably reflecting acoustic-phonetic processing, lasted longer for foreign phonology than for native phonology. Formation of longer-term auditory-motor representations was evidenced by a decrease of a spatiotemporally separate left temporal response and correlated increase of left frontal activity at 600-1200 ms on both days. The results point to item-level learning of novel whole-word representations.

  1. Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

  2. Stress Domain Effects in French Phonology and Phonological Development*

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Yvan; dos Santos, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss two distinct data sets. The first relates to the so-called allophonic process of closed-syllable laxing in Québec French, which targets final (stressed) vowels even though these vowels are arguably syllabified in open syllables in lexical representations. The second is found in the forms produced by a first language learner of European French, who displays an asymmetry in her production of CVC versus CVCV target (adult) forms. The former display full preservation (with concomitant manner harmony) of both consonants. The latter undergoes deletion of the initial syllable if the consonants are not manner-harmonic in the input. We argue that both patterns can be explained through a phonological process of prosodic strengthening targeting the head of the prosodic domain which, in the contexts described above, yields the incorporation of final consonants into the coda of the stressed syllable. PMID:27227170

  3. Effects of Metalinguistic Awareness on Reading Comprehension and the Mediator Role of Reading Fluency from Grades 2 to 4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530

  4. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  5. Morphological Awareness Intervention in School-Age Children with Language and Literacy Deficits: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.; Green, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the clinical application of morphological awareness intervention to facilitate phonological, vocabulary, reading, and spelling success in children with language and literacy deficits. First, the research-based benefits of morphological awareness instruction are reviewed and current theoretical and research-based…

  6. Common and Script-Specific Awareness in Relation to Word Recognition in English and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko; Scrimgeour, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of the script, in the process of learning to read words, readers develop awareness of the structural and functional properties of words with increased exposure to the script. However, as sub-word units that are critical for phonological or morphological processing or both are not uniform, the types of the awareness may vary from script…

  7. Morphological Awareness and Early and Advanced Word Recognition and Spelling in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith E.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of three aspects of morphological awareness to word recognition and spelling skills of Dutch speaking children. Tasks of inflectional and derivational morphology and lexical compounding, as well as measures of phonological awareness, vocabulary and mathematics were administered to 104 first graders (mean age 6…

  8. Is the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia related to impaired phonological representations and to universal phonological grammar?

    PubMed

    Maïonchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Écalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-05-01

    To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to sonority-related markedness constraints. We tested 10 French dyslexic children compared with 20 typically developing chronological age-matched and reading level-matched controls. All were tested with two aurally administered syllable counting tasks that manipulated well-formedness of unattested consonant clusters, as determined by universal phonological sonority-related markedness constraints (onset clusters in Experiment 1; intervocalic clusters in Experiment 2). Surprisingly, dyslexic children's response patterns were similar to those in both control groups; as universal phonological sonority-related markedness increased, dyslexic children increasingly perceptually confused and phonologically repaired clusters with an illusory epenthetic vowel (e.g., /ʁəbal/). Although dyslexic children were systematically slower, like both control groups, they were influenced by universal sonority-related markedness constraints and hierarchically ranked constraints specific to French over evident acoustic-phonetic contrasts or sonority-unrelated cues. Our results are counterintuitive but innovative and compete to question an impaired universal phonological grammar because dyslexic children were found to have normal universal phonological constraints and were skilled to restore phonotactically legal syllable structures with a language-specific illusory epenthetic vowel (i.e., /ə/-like vowel). We discuss them regarding active phonological decoding and recoding processes within the framework of the optimality theory.

  9. Analyzing clinical phonological data using Phon

    PubMed Central

    McAllister Byun, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how Phon, a software program for the transcription and analysis of phonological data, can be applied to facilitate clinical phonological analyses. We begin with a summary of the types of analyses that are frequently used in the assessment and management of speech sound disorders. We then discuss challenges inherent to the transcription and analysis of clinical phonological data. For each challenge, we discuss solutions currently available within Phon, and offer an outlook on future methodological and technical developments in the area of clinical phonology. This paper includes a step-by-step introduction to Phon suitable for readers who lack previous experience with the software. We conclude with a discussion of data sharing and its vital role in advancing research and intervention practices in the area of speech development and disorders. PMID:27111269

  10. Reduplication as a Strategy of Phonological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Jane; Ingram, David

    1982-01-01

    Research with 24 infants revealed that reduplication is a general pattern during the earliest stages of phonological development, used most frequently by children who follow a multisyllabic rather than monosyllabic course of development. (Author)

  11. Phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Deanna C; Jared, Debra; Haigh, Corinne A

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming. English-French and French-English bilinguals named interlingual heterophonic homographs (i.e., words that share orthography but not meaning or pronunciation across languages), heterophonic cognates (i.e., words that share both orthography and meaning across languages, but not pronunciations), interlingual homophones (i.e., words that share pronunciation, but not orthography or meaning across languages), and single-language matched control words in both English and French naming tasks. Cross-language phonological activation was strongest in bilinguals' second language. The results provided evidence for feedforward activation of phonological representations in the nontarget language, as well as feedback activation of these phonological representations from semantic representations. Results are interpreted within the more recent Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA+) framework.

  12. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

  13. The nature of the phonological processing in French dyslexic children: evidence for the phonological syllable and linguistic features' role in silent reading and speech discrimination.

    PubMed

    Maïonchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that varied as a function of voicing, mode or place of articulation, or syllable structure. Results suggest that DY children underperform controls with a 'speed-accuracy' deficit. However, DY children exhibit some similar processing than those highlighted in controls. As in CA and RL controls, DY children have difficulties in processing two sounds that only differ in voicing, and preferentially process obstruent rather than fricative sounds, and more efficiently process CV than CCV syllables. In Experiment 2, we used a modified version of the Colé, Magnan, and Grainger's (Applied Psycholinguistics 20:507-532, 1999) paradigm. Results show that DY children underperform CA controls but outperform RL controls. However, as in CA and RL controls, data reveal that DY children are able to use phonological procedures influenced by initial syllable frequency. Thus, DY children process syllabically high-frequency syllables but phonemically process low-frequency syllables. They also exhibit lexical and syllable frequency effects. Consequently, results provide evidence that DY children performances can be accounted for by laborious phonological syllable-based procedures and also degraded phonological representations.

  14. The role of native-language phonology in the auditory word identification and visual word recognition of Russian-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V

    2009-03-01

    Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic categorization of words containing four phonological vowel contrasts (/i/-/u/,/I/-/A/,/i/-/I/,/epsilon/-/ae/). Experiment 2 assessed auditory identification accuracy of words containing these four contrasts. Both bilingual groups demonstrated reduced accuracy in auditory identification of two English vowel contrasts absent in their native phonology (/i/-/I/,epsilon/-/ae/). For late- bilinguals, auditory identification difficulty was accompanied by poor visual word recognition for one difficult contrast (/i/-/I/). Bilinguals' visual word recognition moderately correlated with their auditory identification of difficult contrasts. These results indicate that native language phonology can play a role in visual processing of second language words. However, this effect may be considerably constrained by orthographic systems of specific languages.

  15. [Anesthesia awareness].

    PubMed

    Luengo J, Víctor; Zapata P, Carola; Delfino, Alejandro; Calderón, Jorge; González Tugas, Matías

    2010-03-01

    Anesthesia awareness, or "unintended intra-operative awareness" occurs during general anesthesia, on the operating table, when a patient has not had enough general anesthetic or analgesic to prevent consciousness or waking up during surgery. According to international studies its global incidence ranges from 0.1 to 0.2%. Its impact on people can be as severe as other traumatic experiences such as natural disasters, violent fights or sexual abuse. The prevalence of symptoms compatible with post traumatic stress disorder can be as high as 50%, after experiencing the awareness phenomenon. This paper reviews the main issues of the awareness phenomenon.

  16. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations.

  17. Effects of Phonological Complexity on Error Production and Pseudoword Training in Acquired Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Ellyn Anne

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…

  18. Phonological Patterns in Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the speech of 54 young Spanish-speaking (Puerto Rican dialect) children with phonological disorders. It described the mean percentage-of-occurrence and standard deviation of phonological processes and the number and type of nontargeted process errors. Specific patterns characterizing the speech of these children were…

  19. Phonological Skills in Puerto Rican and Mexican Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dialectal differences upon the speech production skills of children with phonological disorders are poorly understood. One might predict that the phonological profile of children using a radical dialect (e.g., Puerto Rican Spanish, which alters consonants in the syllable rhyme) will differ from that of children who use a…

  20. What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

  1. Phonological simplifications, apraxia of speech and the interaction between phonological and phonetic processing.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Claudia; Bureca, Ivana; Guariglia, Cecilia; Romani, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Research on aphasia has struggled to identify apraxia of speech (AoS) as an independent deficit affecting a processing level separate from phonological assembly and motor implementation. This is because AoS is characterized by both phonological and phonetic errors and, therefore, can be interpreted as a combination of deficits at the phonological and the motoric level rather than as an independent impairment. We apply novel psycholinguistic analyses to the perceptually phonological errors made by 24 Italian aphasic patients. We show that only patients with relative high rate (>10%) of phonetic errors make sound errors which simplify the phonology of the target. Moreover, simplifications are strongly associated with other variables indicative of articulatory difficulties - such as a predominance of errors on consonants rather than vowels - but not with other measures - such as rate of words reproduced correctly or rates of lexical errors. These results indicate that sound errors cannot arise at a single phonological level because they are different in different patients. Instead, different patterns: (1) provide evidence for separate impairments and the existence of a level of articulatory planning/programming intermediate between phonological selection and motor implementation; (2) validate AoS as an independent impairment at this level, characterized by phonetic errors and phonological simplifications; (3) support the claim that linguistic principles of complexity have an articulatory basis since they only apply in patients with associated articulatory difficulties.

  2. Influence of Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Non-Verbal Ability on Reading Comprehension in Malayalam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…

  3. Developmental dyslexia: exploring how much phonological and visual attention span disorders are linked to simultaneous auditory processing deficits.

    PubMed

    Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-07-01

    The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were assessed in the dyslexic children. We presented the dyslexic children with a phonological short-term memory task and a phonemic awareness task to quantify their phonological skills. Visual attention spans correlated positively with individual scores obtained on the dichotic listening task while phonological skills did not correlate with either dichotic scores or visual attention span measures. Moreover, all the dyslexic children with a dichotic listening deficit showed a simultaneous visual processing deficit, and a substantial number of dyslexic children exhibited phonological processing deficits whether or not they exhibited low dichotic listening scores. These findings suggest that processing simultaneous auditory stimuli may be impaired in dyslexic children regardless of phonological processing difficulties and be linked to similar problems in the visual modality.

  4. Building Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

  5. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when ovulation happens. Couples use a calendar, a thermometer to measure body temperature, the thickness of cervical ... fertility awareness — such as ovulation detection kits and thermometers, for example — are available in drugstores. But they ...

  6. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... time the couple using only fertility awareness for birth control who does not want to get pregnant should ... period. In general, how well each type of birth control method works depends on a lot of things. ...

  7. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  8. Anatomical Properties of the Arcuate Fasciculus Predict Phonological and Reading Skills in Children

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, neurologists have hypothesized that the arcuate fasciculus carries signals that are essential for language function; however, the relevance of the pathway for particular behaviors is highly controversial. The primary objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between individual variation in the microstructural properties of arcuate fibers and behavioral measures of language and reading skills. A second objective was to use novel fiber-tracking methods to reassess estimates of arcuate lateralization. In a sample of 55 children, we found that measurements of diffusivity in the left arcuate correlate with phonological awareness skills and arcuate volume lateralization correlates with phonological memory and reading skills. Contrary to previous investigations that report the absence of the right arcuate in some subjects, we demonstrate that new techniques can identify the pathway in every individual. Our results provide empirical support for the role of the arcuate fasciculus in the development of reading skills. PMID:21568636

  9. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  10. The Psychological Reality of Different Types of Phonological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Wilbur A.

    This paper discusses the interpretation of data on two types of phonological change: change in language over time in the culture, and change in the development of the individual speaker; and examines the position that these two sorts of change interact in a certain way in relation to phonological structure. If one conceives of phonology as a…

  11. Focusing on Phonology To Teach Morphological Form in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Deborah; Herschensohn, Julia; Gess, Randall

    2003-01-01

    Argues for the importance of phonological form in the second language (L2) classroom, proposing that a thorough grounding in L2 phonological patterns is essential for language learners. Suggests the importance of phonological information for the auditory detection of morphological form in French. (Author/VWL)

  12. Lexical and Post-Lexical Phonological Representations in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick, Matthew; Rapp, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Theories of spoken word production generally assume a distinction between at least two types of phonological processes and representations: lexical phonological processes that recover relatively arbitrary aspects of word forms from long-term memory and post-lexical phonological processes that specify the predictable aspects of phonological…

  13. Generative Phonology in the Clinic. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, Jeffrey L.

    A discussion of the use of generative phonology in the speech clinic, especially with children, begins with an outline of some constructs of generative phonology. First, some notes on phonetic notation and definitions of terms used in nongenerative phonology that have special meanings in this field are presented. Then a discussion of distinctive…

  14. Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

  15. Underlying manifestations of developmental phonological disorders in French-speaking pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Brosseau-Lapré, Françoise; Rvachew, Susan

    2016-11-17

    This study examined the psycholinguistic profiles of Quebec French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD). The purpose was to determine whether the endophenotypes that have been identified in English-speaking children with DPD are similarly associated with speech impairment in French-speaking children. Seventy-two children with DPD and ten children with normally developing speech, aged four to six years, received a comprehensive assessment battery that included measures at the phenotype level (i.e. measures of overt speech production skills) and endophenotype level (i.e. measures of potential underlying core deficits such as phonological processing or oral motor impairments). The majority of the children with DPD presented with a psycholinguistic profile indicative of difficulties with phonological processing. Phonological processing skills also explained unique variance in speech production accuracy, indicating that French-speaking children with DPD, who produce different surface speech errors than English-speaking children with DPD, are nonetheless very similar with regards to their underlying psycholinguistic profile.

  16. Magnetic brain response mirrors extraction of phonological features from spoken vowels.

    PubMed

    Obleser, Jonas; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    This study further elucidates determinants of vowel perception in the human auditory cortex. The vowel inventory of a given language can be classified on the basis of phonological features which are closely linked to acoustic properties. A cortical representation of speech sounds based on these phonological features might explain the surprisingly inverse correlation between immense variance in the acoustic signal and high accuracy of speech recognition. We investigated timing and mapping of the N100m elicited by 42 tokens of seven natural German vowels varying along the phonological features tongue height (corresponding to the frequency of the first formant) and place of articulation (corresponding to the frequency of the second and third formants). Auditory evoked fields were recorded using a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer while subjects performed target vowel detection tasks. Source location differences appeared to be driven by place of articulation: Vowels with mutually exclusive place of articulation features, namely, coronal and dorsal elicited separate centers of activation along the posterior-anterior axis. Additionally, the time course of activation as reflected in the N100m peak latency distinguished between vowel categories especially when the spatial distinctiveness of cortical activation was low. In sum, results suggest that both N100m latency and source location as well as their interaction reflect properties of speech stimuli that correspond to abstract phonological features.

  17. Atypical neural functions underlying phonological processing and silent rehearsal in children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Spruill, John E; Spencer, Rebecca; Smith, Anne

    2008-03-01

    Phonological processing was examined in school-age children who stutter (CWS) by assessing their performance and recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a visual rhyming task. CWS had lower accuracy on rhyming judgments, but the cognitive processes that mediate the comparisons of the phonological representations of words, as indexed by the rhyming effect (RE) ERP, were similar for the stuttering and normally fluent groups. Thus the lower behavioral accuracy of rhyming judgments by the CWS could not be attributed to that particular stage of processing. Instead, the neural functions for processes preceding the RE, indexed by the N400 and CNV elicited by the primes and the N400 elicited by the targets, suggest atypical processing that may have resulted in less efficient, less accurate rhyming judgment for the CWS. Based on the present results, it seems likely that the neural processes related to phonological rehearsal and target word anticipation, as indexed by the CNV, are distinctive for CWS at this age. Further, it is likely that the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres differ in CWS in the stage of processing when linguistic integration occurs, as indexed by the N400. Taken together, these results suggest that CWS may be less able to form and retain a stable neural representation of the prime onset and rime as they anticipate the target presentation, which may lead to lower rhyming judgment accuracy.

  18. Visual and phonological codes in repetition blindness.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, D; Potter, M C

    1992-02-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the inability to detect or recall a repeated word in rapid serial visual presentation. The role of visual versus phonological (name) similarity in RB was examined. RB was found for single letters, whether printed in the same or different cases, and for single digits, whether represented verbally (nine), as arabic numerals (9), or in a mixture of the 2 formats. Hence, visual similarity is not necessary to produce RB. RB was obtained between homophonic pairs (won/one), showing that phonological similarity is sufficient to produce RB, although visual identity also contributes to RB. It is proposed that RB results when the codes used for initial registration of the targets in short-term memory are similar. This initial code may be predominantly visual or predominantly phonological.

  19. Infants’ Learning of Phonological Status

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11 months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004

  20. Dissociated developmental trajectories for semantic and phonological false memories.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robyn E; Weekes, Brendan S

    2006-07-01

    False recognition following presentation of semantically related and phonologically related word lists was evaluated in 8-, 11-, and 13-year-olds. Children heard lists of words that were either semantic (e.g., bed, rest, wake ...) or phonological associates (e.g., pole, bowl, hole ...) of a critical unpresented word (e.g., sleep, roll), respectively. A semantic false memory was defined as false recognition of a semantically related but unpresented word. A phonological false memory was defined as false recognition of a phonologically related but unpresented word. False memories in the two tasks showed opposite developmental trends, increasing with age for semantic relatedness and decreasing with age for phonological relatedness.

  1. Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: insights from connectionist models.

    PubMed

    Harm, M W; Seidenberg, M S

    1999-07-01

    The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using connectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and nonphonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor network yielded improved learning and generalization. Phonological and surface forms of developmental dyslexia, which are usually attributed to impairments in distinct lexical and nonlexical processing "routes," were derived from different types of damage to the network. The results provide a computationally explicit account of many aspects of reading acquisition using connectionist principles.

  2. A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links between phonology and orthography, as well as train a means to maximize use of residual orthographic and phonological knowledge for spelling. Method Two women with persistent impairments of written language and phonological processing following damage to left perisylvian cortical regions participated in this study. Both exhibited characteristic features of phonological alexia and agraphia in that reading and spelling performance for real words was better preserved than nonwords (lexicality effect). A 2-stage treatment protocol was administered to strengthen sublexical skills (phonological treatment) and to train interactive use of lexical and sublexical information to maximize spelling performance (interactive treatment). Results Both participants improved phonological processing abilities and reading/spelling via the sublexical route. They also improved spelling of real words and were able to detect and correct most residual errors using an electronic spelling aid. Conclusions: Behavioral treatment served to strengthen phonological skills supporting reading and spelling, and provided a functional compensatory strategy to overcome residual weaknesses. PMID:20360466

  3. Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

  4. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantgan, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a description of aspects of the phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax of Bangime. Bangime is a language isolate spoken in the Dogon language speaking area of Central Eastern Mali. Although the Bangande, the speakers of Bangime, self-identify with the Dogon, their language bears practically no resemblance to the…

  5. Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…

  6. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…

  7. Again and Again: Reduplication in Child Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The role of a strategy of reduplication in phonological acquisition and behavior was examined in terms of: (1) the relationship between adoption of this strategy and failure to produce nonreduplicated multisyllabic forms and final consonants, and (2) the role of reduplication in production constraints. (Author/AM)

  8. Statistical Knowledge and Learning in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Ewan Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the theory of the phonetic component of grammar in a formal probabilistic inference framework: (1) it has been recognized since the beginning of generative phonology that some language-specific phonetic implementation is actually context-dependent, and thus it can be said that there are gradient "phonetic…

  9. Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A…

  10. Phonological Changes in Hong Kong and Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Examines phonological changes illustrating the changing nature of Hong Kong Cantonese (HKC). The article describes the historical development of syllable-initial consonants, such as nasals, affricates and coronal fricatives, and also the syllable-final stops and nasals in HKC. (24 references) (Author/CK)

  11. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

  12. Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Yunju

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

  13. Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

  14. Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological…

  15. Acoustic Evidence for Phonologically Mismatched Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…

  16. The Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology of Fataluku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heston, Tyler M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes the segmental and prosodic phonology of Fataluku (IPA [fataluku], ISO 639-3 ddg), a highly underdocumented Papuan language in East Timor (island Southeast Asia). Fataluku is classified as a member of the Timor-Alor-Pantar language (TAP) family, which currently includes approximately 25 members spread across Timor and…

  17. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  18. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  19. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

  20. A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumitani, Yukihiro

    In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…

  1. Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne; McQueen, James M.; Butterfield, Sally

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments, facilitation of lexical decision responses to visual target…

  2. A Structural Account of Phonological Paraphasias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…

  3. Wildfire Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Glenda

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)

  4. Encephalitis awareness.

    PubMed

    Easton, Ava

    2017-03-01

    Last week we marked the 4th World Encephalitis Day, a global campaign with two primary aims. The first is to acknowledge the experiences of survivors of this devastating neurological condition and their family members, while the second is to raise much-needed awareness among the public.

  5. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Rojas, Donald C

    2011-03-15

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in the left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task.

  6. What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation?

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were: 1) word recognition; 2) discrimination of spectral glides; and 3) phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for non-speech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251

  7. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with or without Reading Disabilities and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Barry J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Employing a large sample of children from Dutch regular elementary schools, this study assessed the contributing and discriminating values of reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to two types of phonological processing skills, phonemic awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN). A second objective was…

  8. Speech Perception, Metalinguistic Awareness, Reading, and Vocabulary in Chinese-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Him; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Wong, Simpson Wai Lap; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Penney, Trevor Bruce; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the intercorrelations among speech perception, metalinguistic (i.e., phonological and morphological) awareness, word reading, and vocabulary in a 1st language (L1) and a 2nd language (L2). Results from 3 age groups of Chinese-English bilingual children showed that speech perception was more predictive of reading and…

  9. African American English Dialect and Performance on Nonword Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…

  10. Minding Morphology: How Morphological Awareness Relates to Reading for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria S.; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    This study explored subprocesses of reading for 157 fifth grade Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) by examining whether morphological awareness made a unique contribution to reading comprehension beyond a strong covariate-phonological decoding. The role of word reading and reading vocabulary as mediators of this relationship was…

  11. Efficacy of a Supplemental Phonemic Awareness Curriculum to Instruct Preschoolers with Delays in Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Howard; Olszewski, Arnold; Haring, Christa; Greenwood, Charles R.; McCune, Luke; Carta, Judith; Atwater, Jane; Guerrero, Gabriela; Schneider, Naomi; McCarthy, Tanya; Kelley, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Children who do not develop early literacy skills, especially phonological awareness (PA) and alphabet knowledge, prior to kindergarten are at risk for reading difficulties. We investigated a supplemental curriculum with children demonstrating delays in these skills. Method: A cluster randomized design with 104 preschool-age children in…

  12. Prosodic and Phonemic Awareness in Children's Reading of Long and Short Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2016-01-01

    Phonemic and prosodic awareness are both phonological processes that operate at different levels: the former at the level of the individual sound segment and the latter at the suprasegmental level across syllables. Both have been shown to be related to word reading in young readers. In this study we examine how these processes are differentially…

  13. Different subjective awareness measures demonstrate the influence of visual identification on perceptual awareness ratings.

    PubMed

    Wierzchoń, Michał; Paulewicz, Borysław; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Timmermans, Bert; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-07-01

    We compare four subjective awareness measures in the context of a visual identification task and investigate quantitative differences in terms of scale use and correlation with task performance. We also analyse the effect of identification task decisions on subsequent subjective reports. Results show that awareness ratings strongly predict accuracy for all scale types, although the type of awareness measure may influence the reported level of perceptual awareness. Surprisingly, the overall relationship between awareness ratings and performance was weaker when participants rated their awareness before providing identification responses. Furthermore, the Perceptual Awareness Scale was most exhaustive only when used after the identification task, whereas confidence ratings were most exhaustive when used before the identification task. We conclude that the type of subjective measure applied may influence the reports on visual awareness. We also propose that identification task decisions may affect subsequent awareness ratings.

  14. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity-the hallmark of linguistic competence-is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)-a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  15. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  16. An Evaluation of the Written Texts of Children with SLI: The Contributions of Oral Language, Reading and Phonological Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Clare J.; Dockrell, Julie; Lindsay, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed a fine grained analysis of writing by children with a specific language impairment (SLI) and examined the contribution of oral language, phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal ability, and word reading to three writing constructs (productivity, complexity and accuracy). Forty-six children with SLI were compared…

  17. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  18. Differences in phonologic and prosodic abilities in children with phonological language impairment and phonological-grammatical language impairment assessed with non-word repetition.

    PubMed

    From, Åsa; Sundström, Simon; Samuelsson, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Prosody can be described as the rhythmic, dynamic, and melodic aspects of language. Swedish has a relatively complex prosodic system compared to, for example, English. A large percentage of Swedish children with language impairment show prosodic problems to some extent. In the present study, non-word repetition was used to assess the phonological and prosodic abilities in children with phonological language impairment and children with phonological-grammatical language impairment. In the study, 10 children with phonological language impairment and 14 children with phonological-grammatical language impairment from 4;3 to 6;2 years of age participated. All children heard the same recorded non-words and words. The group with phonological language impairment received higher scores in all variables, compared to the group with phonological-grammatical language impairment. The results showed significant differences between the groups regarding production of vowels correct in words and production of phonemes correct in non-words as well as production of unstressed syllables in non-words and production of correct stress in non-words. Percent correctly produced vowels in words, but not in non-words, correlated significantly with grammatical ability.

  19. Phonological or Orthographic Training for Children with Phonological or Orthographic Decoding Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special…

  20. Natural Phonology or Natural Memory? The Interaction between Phonological Processes and Recall Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Jean; Chiat, Schulamuth

    1981-01-01

    Presents study in which attempts by children to learn a number of new words revealed that their recall errors were similar to phonological deformations found in speech of young children in early stages of language development. Suggests role of memory needs to be taken into consideration. (Author/BK)

  1. Otitis Media and Disordered Phonologies: Some Concerns and Cautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Elaine Pagel

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews problems faced by researchers in the association between otitis media with effusion and phonological impairment and then summarizes currently established findings concerning otitis media and its effects on phonological acquisition. Professionals are cautioned to neither ignore nor exaggerate the possible influence of otitis…

  2. On Rejecting Emotional Lures Created by Phonological Neighborhood Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…

  3. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, P.; Soriano, M. F.; Paredes, N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and…

  4. Phonological Typicality Does Not Influence Fixation Durations in Normal Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Rayner, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive…

  5. The Interpretation and Representation of Neutralisation in Generative Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staun, Jorgen.

    Phonological neutralization from a generative viewpoint is examined, and the process of solving the problems of representing the products of neutralization is described. First, in generative phonological terms, the product must be morphologically irresoluble in order to be considered a true neutralization. This distinguishes neutralization from…

  6. Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Michael Ian

    2009-01-01

    Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

  7. The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

  8. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  9. Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words and…

  10. The Psychological Relevance of Phonological Generalizations in Spanish: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddington, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents a psycholinguistic experiment focusing on whether common phonological alterations play a role in native speakers' perceptions of whether two words share a morpheme. Results indicate they are a significant factor in speakers' perceptions of morphemic relatedness. These findings show that phonological generalizations are psychologically…

  11. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  12. Phonological Specificity of Vowels and Consonants in Early Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Infants become selectively sensitive to phonological distinctions relevant to their native language at an early age. One might expect that infants bring some of this phonological knowledge to bear in encoding the words they subsequently acquire. In line with this expectation, studies have found that 14-month-olds are sensitive to mispronunciations…

  13. Phonological Space in the Speech of the Hearing Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    First and second formant frequencies of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were measured to determine the phonological space in the speech of 30 Kannada-speaking hearing-impaired individuals in India. Compared to controls, subjects' phonological space was found to be reduced, primarily due to the lowering of the second formant of the vowel /i/.…

  14. Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

  15. Disfluency patterns and phonological skills near stuttering onset.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are relationships between phonological skills and the initial characteristics of stuttering. That is, close to the onset of stuttering, there are differences in specific stuttering patterns between children who exhibit minimal and moderate phonological deviations in terms of frequency of stuttering and length of stuttering events? Twenty-nine preschool children near the onset of stuttering, ranging in age from 29 to 49 months, with a mean of 39.17 months, were divided into two groups based on the level of phonological ability: minimal phonological deviations and moderate phonological deviations. The children's level of stuttering-like disfluencies was examined. Results revealed no statistically significant differences in the stuttering characteristics of the two groups near onset, calling into the question the nature of the stuttering-phonology link.

  16. Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

  17. Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

    2008-01-01

    In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

  18. Arabic and English Consonants: A Phonetic and Phonological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariq, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to investigate the actual pronunciation of the consonants of Arabic and English with the help of phonetic and phonological tools like manner of the articulation, point of articulation, and their distribution at different positions in Arabic and English words. A phonetic and phonological analysis of the consonants of Arabic…

  19. A Study of English Second Language Phonology. CUNYForum, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vago, Robert M.; Altenberg, Evelyn

    This study identified two types of interference between Hungarian and English: phonetic and phonological interference. Four native speakers of Hungarian who are second language speakers of English read a passage containing a wide variety of sounds in different phonological environments. A set of rules mapping American English onto…

  20. Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological…